笢弊恅趙衙蹦ㄗ荎恅ㄘ
Survey of Classic Chinese
Culture
(English Version)
The Table of Contents
? CHAPTER 1 Ancient History & Brilliant
Civilization
? I,Ancient History
? II,Trace of Civilized Evolution
? III,Paragons of Ancient Economy &
Culture
? CHAPTER 2 Centered on Man,and
Stressed on Deeds
? I,Initial Wisdom Sparked by Pro-Qin
Philosophers
? II,Characteristics of Chinese hilosophy
? III,Quintessence of Chinese
Philosophical Ideology
? CHAPTER 3 Miraculous,Mysterious &
Sacred
? I,Traditional Religions Influential in
China
? II,Heaven----A Mystical Concept in
Chinese Religions
? CHAPTER 4 Ideograph & Pictograph Rich in
Senses
? I,Square Chinese Characters
? II,Chinese Language
? CHAPTER 5 A Mighty Surge in Chinese
Literature
? I.Book of Poetry
? II.The Prose in the Pre-Qin Period
? III.Poetry of the South & 求Fu′ in the Han
Dynasty
? IV.Radiant Poetry in the Tang Dynasty
? V.Sentimental Lyrics in the Song Dynasty
? VI.Novels in the Ming & Qing Dynasties
? CHAPTER 6 Oriental Features & Styles
Acclaimed Worldwide
? I.Chinese Painting in Unequaled Artistry
? II.Calligraphy Art Elegant in Exterior &
Intelligent in Interior
? CHAPTER 7 Breathtaking Dramas on Stage
? I.From Fermentation to Maturity
? II.Bewitching Presentation---求Lost in Spirit′ and
求Come out of the Extinct and Go into the Live′
? III.Dreams in a Garden---A Modern Annotation
of Ancient Dream Theatres
? CHAPTER 8 Music,Singing and Dancing
? I.Chinese String Instruments in Profile
? II.Songs and Dance at Imperial Courts
? III.Popular Music among Townspeople
? CHAPTER 9 Magnificent Architectural Treasure
? I.Sequence of Ancient Chinese Architecture
? II.Graceful Garden Architecture
? III.Elite of Ancient Chinese Architects---Lu
Ban
? CHAPTER 10 Miraculous Medicine Benefiting
Human Beings
? I.Evolving Course of Chinese Medicine
? II.Medical Theories in Ancient China
? III.Chinese Doctors of Lasting Fame
? CHAPTER 11 求External Exercise for
Bones and Muscles,
? I.Internal Discipline for Vital Energy and
Breath′
? II.Marrow in Chinese Martial Arts
? III.Cultural Gist of Chinese Martial Arts
? IV.Breathing Exercises of Chinese
Martial Arts
? CHAPTER 12 Exquisite Chinese Cuisine
? I,Four Major School of Chinese
Cuisine
? II,Tea Culture
? III,Wine Culture
? CHAPTER 13 Pragmatic Chinese
Inventions
? I,Features of Ancient Chinese Science
& Technology
? II,Crystallization of Wisdom
? III,Four Great Inventions
? CHAPTER 14 Splendid Culture & Magnificent
Landscape
? I.Cultural Heritage
? II.Natural Heritage
? III.Cultural & Natural Heritage
? CHAPTER 15 Meticulous Craftsmanship
? I.Jade Handicraft
? II.Bronze Casting
? III.Chinaware
? IV.Stone and Brick Carvings
? V.Weaving and Embroidery
? VI.Plaiting Craft
CHAPTER 1 Ancient History & Brilliant
Civilization
〞〞A Synopsis of 5,000-Year Chinese History
I,Ancient History
? This country falls within the incipient civilizations
in the world bearing an approximately 4000-year
recorded history,wherein were unearthed the
ape-man fossils 求Yuanmou Man′ in Yuanmou
County of Yunnan Province that can trace back
to the preceding 1.7 million years and that has
been designated as the earliest primitive human
species so far,She is China.
?, Peking Man′,who dwelled at Zhoukoudian in
the vicinity of modern Beijing of China,could
have walked erect,chiseled and wielded simple
? implements,must have been aware of stocking
live cinders and human characteristics must
have been bestowed upon them.
? Preceded by the endless primeval period,Xia
arose around 2,100 B.C.〞the pioneering
dynasty over Chinese history,Behind Xia
proceeded Shang (about 1,600 B.C.〞1,100
B.C.),the Western Zhou (about 1,100 B.C.〞770
B.C.),the Spring-Autumn Period and the
Warring States Period (770 B.C.〞221 B.C.),
China had evolved into an independent phase of
social transition.
? China comes among the earliest countries that
were engaged in economic development,As
early as five or six millennia ago the primitive
people living along the reaches of the Yellow
River Valley undertook husbandry as a primary
subsistence means and bred livestock,During
the Shang Dynasty 3,500 B.C,the technology of
smelting bronze had been invented and iron
objects applied extensively while the white
pottery and colored glazed porcelain could be
found at the households,and the advanced silk
reeling and weaving prospered,bringing forth
the initiative jacquard weaving technique in the
world.
? In the course of the Warring States Period (475 B.C.〞
221 B.C.),it was Li Bing and his sons who took joint
charge of constructing the world-famous Dujiangyan
Dam,a water control project (in modern Chengdu),
which had equitably settled the relationship between
irrigation,flood diversion and sand drainage and has
persistently been in effect nowadays,a resplendent
achievement concerning water conservancy technology
in ancient times,The ideological and academic creation
campaign during the Spring-Autumn Period and the
Warring States Period was surging on when a huge flock
of masters on behalf of the distinct schools wrote books
and found doctrines respectively asserting their views on
the political and social phenomenon,There emerged the
phase 求A Hundred Schools Contending′ with the advent
of Confucius,Master Lao,Master Mo and Master Sun,
? In 221 B.C,Yin Zheng,a highly-gifted ambitious king of
Qin Kingdom ended the turmoil and chaos between
dukes or kings during the Warring States Period and
consequently established the first united,power-
centralized,multi-nationality and feudal autocratic
monarchy〞Qin,and he claimed himself as 求Shih Huang-
ti′ or 求First Emperor′,The first emperor exhibited his
feats in unifying pictographs,measurement systems and
currencies,founding the state system,constructing the
illustrious Great Wall and building up for himself grand-
scale palaces,mausoleums and sojourn residences,
Nowadays,the architectural structures on the ground
have been demolished early in the past battles and fire
disasters; however,the articles earthed deeply
underground have long been preserved,Simply take an
instance from a segment of the archaeological discovery,
those chivalrous-looking terra cotta warriors buried in the
proximity of the mausoleum of the first emperor have
been well reputed as the Eighth World Wonder,the
grandeur of which attracts tourists from at home and
abroad with unceasing praises.
? Toward the decline of the Qin Dynasty,Liu Bang and
Xiang Yu,the two generals born of civilian and noble
background respectively,overthrew jointly the reign of
Qin and then contended for hegemony,A couple of
years later,Liu Bang triumphed over Xiang Yu,and
therefore founded the mighty Han Dynasty,during which
agriculture,craftswork and commerce were immensely
developed,Liu Che,King Wu of Han (140B.C--87A.D.)
reigned through the most powerful and prosperous
period,He mobilized expeditionary forces to defeat and
drive out Huns and commissioned Zhang Qian as his
envoy to visit the West Territory in consequence that the
route which started from Chang*an ( Xi*an in modern
Shaanxi Province ) via Xinjiang and the mid-Asia to the
eastern coast of the Mediterranean was opened to traffic,
which was welcomed as the Silk Route and by which
Chinese gorgeous fine silk products were incessantly
transported westward
? In 33 B.C,Wang Zhaojun,a maid of honor in the imperial
court,was assigned to go beyond the Great Wall and
marry Chanyu (King) of Huns with a view to
strengthening the bilateral concord between the Han
Dynasty and Huns,leaving touQing stories in terms of
the Han-Hun marriage.
? The Han Dynasty survived for 426 years,By 220 A.D,
China evolved into the Three Kingdoms in tripartite
balance of Wei Kingdom,Shu Kingdom and Wu
Kingdom (220-265),There emerged three most
prominent wizards Cao Cao,Zhu Geliang and Sun Quan,
Cao Cao was the founder of Wei Kingdom and brought it
on into supremacy over other two by extensively
soliciting talents,promoting capable and diligent
ministers,stationing troops in frontiers,
? Zhu Geliang served as the prime minister of Shu
Kingdom and has long been esteemed as the symbol of
ancient Chinese wisdom with such a noble moral
character inspiring Chinese descendents over the past
hundreds of years that 求 one should be dedicated
faithfully to his or her cause till death.′ Sun Quan was
known as the originator of Wu Kingdom,Initially he allied
with Liu Bei,Duke of Shu Kingdom,defeating Cao Cao
at Red Cliff; later in turn he conquered Liu Bei in the
battle at Niling,He appointed officials responsible for
farming and stationed troops to exploit wasteland,thus
spurring the development of the middle and lower
reaches in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River valley,Their
stories were adapted into a classic novel The Romance
of Three Kingdoms,
? After the Three Kingdoms proceeded consecutively the
Jin Dynasty (the Western Jin and the Eastern Jin,265-
420),the Southern-Northern Dynasties (420-589) and
the Sui Dynasty (581-618),By 618 A.D,the Tang
Dynasty was set up by a general named Yi Yuan (618-
907).Li Shiming (the second son of Li Yuan),Emperor
Tai of Tang (626-649),was acclaimed as one of the
foremost distinguished emperors in Chinese history,his
reign called 求Peaceful Order in Zhenguan Period′,during
which he promulgated a series of polices for social
recuperation and national consolidation,pushing it on to
the pinnacle of the prosperity of Chinese feudal stage,
This brilliant dynasty saw further advancement in as
many fields as farming,handicrafts,commerce,
textile,dyeing ceramics and chinaware,metallurgy and
shipbuilding while a crisscross network of highways and
waterways emerged throughout the empire,and
extensive social and cultural relations were established
with many countries such as Japan,Korea,India,Persia
and Arabia.
? Following the Tang Dynasty stepped up the
Period of the Five Dynasties and the Ten
Kingdoms (907-960),In 960 A.D,Zhao Qiangyin,
a senior general of the Later Zhou Dynasty,
launched a rebellion and ascended the throne of
the Song Dynasty (960-1279) in his yellow
imperial gown.
? In 1206,Genghis Khan founded the Mongol
Empire upon his unification of scattered Mongol
tribes,Kublai,a grandson of Genghis Khan
swept southward across the Central China in
1271 being in accession to the Yuan Dynasty
(1271-1368) with Dadu (Beijing) assigned as the
capital,
? During the course of Song and Yuan,industry,
commerce and foreign trade were colossally
advanced,therefore a magnitude of foreign
merchants and tourists arrived in China in
streams,Marco Polo,a Venice merchant,ever
traveled extensively in China,in whose travel
notes he portrayed the thriving industry and
commerce as well as the fortunes existing in
China in vivid details,Paper making,printing,
compass and gunpowder fall within the 求Four
Great Inventions′ of ancient Chinese science
and technology,Till Song and Yuan,further new
progress was achieved,thus extending huge
contributions to the global civilization.
? In 1368 the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) was
instituted by Zhu Yuanzhang,the Highest
Emperor of Ming,Upon being crowned,Zhu Li,
the fourth son of the Highest Emperor,
embarked upon a large-scale project of the city
walls and moats,palaces and temples in Beijng,
and later on officially transferred the capital
northward to Beijing,The Ming Dynasty
witnessed a definite improvement in agriculture
and handicrafts,and even a rudiment of
capitalism toward its concluding stage;
meanwhile frequent friendly contacts with the
countries in Asia and Africa were fulfilled.
? Over the later period of Ming sprang out a new
military force 〞 Manchu Nationality between the
Baishan Mountain and the Heishui River,Led by
Nu*erhachi,their chieftain,those Manchu
tribesmen on horsebacks struggled for three
generations within and beyond the Great Wall,
finally capturing the throne of the Qing Dynasty
(1644-1911) in 1644,Of all Qing emperors were
rated the most renowned two,Emperor Kang XI
(1661-1722) and Emperor Qian Long (1735-
1796),whose reign was recognized as 求Heyday
in Kang-Qian Period′.
? The Opium War occurring in 1840 marked a
turning point inChinese history,Toward the
dawn of 19th century Britain dumped its opium in
mammoth quantities into China,having resulted
in an unfavorable flow of silver to Britain as well
as inflation and financial austerity within China.
? In 1839,Lin Zexu as a special envoy of the
imperial court was commissioned to be stationed
in Canton or Guangzhou,held responsible for
prohibition of the opium products,For protection
of its opium dumping,Britain waged an invasion
war on China in 1840,At the outset the Chinese
patriots,led by Lin and some generals,launched
a gallant resistance against the invaders,Owing
to the concessions offered by the corrupted and
incompetent Qing imperial court,the Nanjing
Treaty,an unfair document that surrendered
China*s sovereignty under humiliating terms,
was signed in the end,From the date onwards,
China gradually sank into a semi-feudal and
semi-colonial mess.
? At the end of the Opium War such imperialist powers as
Britain,the United States,France,Russia,Japan and so
on coerced unceasingly the Qing court to sign varied
unfair treaties,furthermore seizing 求concessions 求 and
planning 求spheres of influence′ in China,a tide of carving
up Qing Empire in surge,In order to resist the feudal
oppression and alien invasion,Chinese people spared
no efforts to fight against the enemies unyieldingly with
a host of heros and heroines outstanding,In 1851,Hong
Xiuquan took a lead of the Revolt of Tai Ping Tian Guo
(Heavenly Empire),the largest peasant revolutionary
campaign in the modern history of China,In 1911,Xinhai
Revolution 〞 a bourgeois democratic one led by Sun
Zhongshan (Sun Yat-sen) --- overthrew the rule of the
Qing Dynasty terminating the over-two-millenium-old
feudal monarchy,the temporary government of Republic
of China being constituted,However,the triumphant fruit
was usurped by Yuan Shikai,a military lord in the north,
on account of the yieldingness of Chinese bourgeoisie
while the populace was still lingering in an abyss of
extreme suffering.
? Influenced by the October Revolution in Russia,the May
4th Movement,an anti-imperialism and anti-feudalism
drive triggered by the patriotic students,broke out in
1919,the proletariats as a social class ascending the
political stage,This campaign was recognized a
milestone of the modern Chinese history from the old
democratic revolution to the new one,bringing about the
wide-spread Marxism-Leninism upon coordination with
the revolutionary practice in China and arranging
ideologically and organizationally for the advent of the
Communist Party of China.
? In 1921,Mao Zedong,Dong Bichao,Chen Tanqiu,He
Shuheng,Wang Jingmei,Deng Enming,Li Da etc.,on
behalf of the communist groups clustered in different
cities,held the first national assembly in Shanghai,The
Communist Party of China (CPC) came into being.
? In 1924,a positive cooperation occurred
between Sun Yat-sen,the pioneer of Chinese
democratic revolution and the founder of China
National Party,and the Communist Party of
China in purpose of jointly mobilizing the
industrial workers and peasants for the punitive
war against the warlords in the north,Shortly
after the demise of Sun,the right-wing bloc as
represented by Jiang Jieshi conducted a
reactionary rebellion and recklessly massacred
the communists and other revolutionaries,
aborting the vigorous Grand Revolution,The
tyrannous government of the Nationalist Party
(Kuomingtang or KMT) was based in Nanjing,
Henceforth,the Communist Party of China set
out in leading the Chinese people to struggle
against the reactionary rule of KMT during the
ten-year-long Land Revolutionary War.
? In July 1937 Japan lighted a full-scale
invasion war to China,The KMT armies
waged an array of operations successively
at the front battlefields,a crushing blow to
the invaders,The Eight Route Army and
the New Fourth Army under the leadership
of CPC opened up the rear-battlefields
and launched a series of strenuous
resistance against a large proportion of
Japanese armies as well as an
overwhelming majority of puppet forces on
most arduous conditions,exerting a
decisive role in attaining the final triumph
? In June 1946 Kuomingtang launched an
all-round assault into the Liberated Area
under CPC,triggering an unparalleled-
scale civil war,In purpose of the full
liberation of the Chinese people,CPC
armies and populace in the Liberated Area
participated in the Liberation War
nationwide,It was through three gigantic
battles (the Battle in Liaoning-Shenyang,
the Battle in the Huai River Valley and the
Battle in Tianjin and Beijing) that the KMT
establishment was finally overturned and a
historic victory concerning the new
democratic revolution was achieved.
II,Trace of Civilized Evolution
? The history of China can be chronicled approximately
as follows:
? Pre-Qin Period (21st century B.C.〞221 B.C.)
? Qin-Han Period (221B.C.〞220 A.D.)
? Three Kingdoms-Jin (Western & Eastern)-South &
North Dynasties Period (220-589)
? Sui-Tang-Five Dynasties Period (581〞960)
? Song-Liao-Western Xia-Jurchen Period (947-1279)
? Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)
? Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
? Qing Dynasty (1636-1911)
? Republic of China (1912-1949)
? People*s Republic of China (starting from October
1,1949
? The Pre-Qin Period is referred to as the duration
of history ranging from the primitive community
to the Warring States Period,The pre-history
period evolved from polygamy system to
tribalism,On entry upon class society,the
Chinese history wound through the Xia Dynasty,
the Shang Dynasty,the Western Zhou Dynasty,
the Spring-Autumn Period and the Warring-
States Period,The Pre-Qin weighed since it
stood out as a cornerstone from the primitive
stage to the civilized society.
? During the course of 1,800 plus years of the Pre-Qin
Period the ancestors of Chinese nation brought into
existence a brilliant civilization,of which the Tortoise
Shell Script (Shang Script) and the ritual bronze vessels
moulded in Xia and Shang outshone the rest as a
historic sign of human civilization,Confucius,the
foremost ideologist of that day,coupled with other
scholars,initiated a primary prosperity regarding cultural
and academic affairs in China,The Master Sun*s Tactics
and Strategy written by Master Sun,a distinguished
military scientist living in the Spring-Autumn Period,has
hitherto been appraised prodigiously in military strategy
and economy,That day was challenged by an eminent
poet genius Qu Yuan and Gan Shi Star Canon,the latter
being acknowledged the earliest star chart in the world,It
was within this historic phase that China grew from
dispersion to unification,
? In 221 B.C,having terminated the long-standing wars
among dukes or princes,Shih Huang-ti or First Emperor,
fulfilled his noteworthy feat by unifying China and
established the first centralized,unified and multi-
nationality state in the history of China 〞Qin (221 B.C.-
206 B.C.)
? Over the duration of the Qin-Han period the
concentration system under feudalist despotism together
with such serial measures as county-instituted system
came into existence and accordingly was perfected as a
paragon for the descending emperors,Thanks to
massive progress in the existing economy ascended the
Peaceful Order in the Reign of Emperor Wen and
Emperor Jing of Han when liberal arts and natural
sciences were surging on vigorously,The Records of the
Historian by Si Maqian,the Eight-Dragon Seismograph
by Zhang Heng,the Nine-Chapter Book of Arithmetic
and the Yellow Emperor*s Book of Physicians and so on
so forth exerted a crucial influence on the upcoming
ages,
? Cai Lun,a junior officer,updated the method of paper
making,which was honored as one of the Great Four
Inventions in the ancient China,Also in this stage
Buddhism was ushered into China,and meanwhile
Taoism sprouted on the native land,
? Toward the close of the Eastern Han Dynasty broke out
of the Yellow Towel Revolt,The spiteful landlords,when
suppressing the uprising soldiers,consolidated
themselves and gradually constituted separatist warlords
regimes,Wei Kingdom,Shu Kingdom and Wu Kingdom
arose in tripartite balance; and before long sixteen
kingdoms in the Eastern Jin Dynasty were plunged into
conflicts and tumults successively,The South Dynasties
had been in rivalry with the North Dynasties for over two
hundred years.
? In the period of time the economy in the South stretched its wings,
Consecutively the minorities wandering as nomads in the north and
the west migrated to the interior,a significant event for a merger of
various peoples,Both economical and cultural exchanges were
extended southward to Linyi (central Vietnam) and Funan
( Cambodia ),eastward to Korea Peninsula and Japan,and
westward to the kingdoms in the mid-Asia and Daqin ( Rome
Empire ).
? With regard to the field of philosophy or religion metaphysics
prevailed while Buddhism,under the wing of the secular rulers,
struggled with Taoism spreading rampantly,In the light of
literature this phase witnessed Jian*an-Period Seven
Wits,Tao Yuanming as a Utopian poet,Liu Xie noted for
Carving a Dragon at the Core of Literature,Wang Xizhi
the calligraphist and Gu Kaizhi the painter and their
peers,and the grotto engraving as represented by Dun
Huang Grottos,all of which attained ever-lasting fame,
? In science and technology Zu Chongzhi was the first
mathematician in the world to calculate accurately the
ratio of circumference into seven digits behind decimal
point,leading the world roughly one thousand years
ahead; on the other hand the Peasants Know-How of Qi
Kingdom written by Jia Sixie is recognized a masterpiece
in the history of global agriculture.
? In 581,Yang Jian,a relative of the Northern Zhou court,
ascended the throne of the Sui Dynasty,shortly
abolishing Chen Kingdom in 589,the South and the
North reunited in the end,In 618 with an assistance from
Li Shiming the son,Li Yuan obtained the crown of the
High Emperor of Tang Dynasty ( 618-907),During Sui
and Tang,there had been remarkable achievements
regarding institutions,laws and codes,out of which the
establishment of three courts and six departments,the
service examination system,and the double tax law
maintained a far-reaching significance,
? The moderate open-door policy was implemented so as
to have facilitated a frequent exchange in economy and
culture with foreign countries,Literature took a pride in
the poetry of Tang,Chen Zi*ang at the prime,Li Bai and
Du Fu at the culmination,Bai Juyi and Yuan Shen in the
middle,and Li Shangyin and Du Mu at the decline are
the prominent representatives springing from a titanic
circle of poets,The Classic Movement advocated by Han
Yu and Liu Zongyuan,the calligraphy by Yan Zhenqing,
the paintings by Nian Liben,Wu Daozi,Li Sixun and
Wang Wei,the music and dance such as the Dance in
Colorful Feathered Gown as well as grotto carvings in
large quantities altogether retained immortal values,
Printing and gunpowder,as the technological feats listed
into the Great Four Inventions of China,were unveiled at
the times
? In 960 Zhao Qiangyin,the later Emperor Tai of the Song
Dynasty launched a rebellion at Chengqiao substituting
Song (960-1279) for the Later Zhou,the disperse phase
surviving during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
thus eliminated,In the meantime Liao Dynasty (947-
1125) of the Qidan on the north and the Western Xia
Dynasty(1038-1227) of the Dangxiang on the northwest
emerged along with Song in check balance as the Three
Kingdoms did a millennium before,In 1115 the Jurchen
Dynasty (1115-1234) of the Nuzhen on the north
crushed Liao,and marched into Kaifeng,the capital of
Song pillaging away Emperor Hui and Emperor Qin,a
token of annihilation of the North Song,Charged with the
shame,Zhao Gou,the High Emperor of the South Song
was enthroned in Yingtianfu,the southern capital
(modern Shangqiu in Henan Province),shortly later
retreated to Lin*an (modern Hangzhou) lingering there in
the long run to the south of the Yangtze River Valley.
? The Song Dynasty was preeminent in natural sciences,
Compass,printing and gunpowder had been in effect
then,particularly the movable type printing of which was
invented four hundred years earlier than the European
counterparts,The first astronomical clock in the worldㄜ a
water每run observatory made by Su Song and the Notes
at the Dream Stream by Shen Kuo deserved a high
honor in the history of science and technology.
? The Way Doctrine gained momentum in the
philosophical field while Taoism,Buddhism and other
alien religions were equally prevailing,A host of literary
masters arose with Ou Yangxiu as their representative,
Song Lyrics reached the peak of the contemporary
literature,a long list of the originators being highlighted,
Yan Shu,Liu Yong,Su Shi,Zhou Bangyan,Li Qingzhao,
Xin Qiji,and so forth,During the Song-Jin period,
Huaben (script for story-telling) and operas were highly
appreciated,
? The current painting featured a natural
landscape focused on hills or mountains,
rivers,flowers and birds,A Broad View of
Riversides on the Memorial Day,a
masterpiece typical of traditional Chinese
painting portraying hundreds of Song
civilians and their daily life by Zhang
Zeduan,was highly of historical
significance,
? In 1206 upon the constitution of Mongol Empire to the
north of the Mongol Desert,Genghis Khan waged a
pillaging war on the neighboring kingdoms,Having
abolished Xixia Kingdom (1227) and Jin Kingdom (1234),
he led the Mongol cavalry troops on three successive
expeditions westwards,and captured Bobolier ( in
modern Poland),Mazhar ( in modern Hungary),Bagdad
and Damasq,sweeping across Eurasia,In 1260 Kublai
Khan,Emperor Shi of the Yuan Dynasty acceded to the
crown and claimed Kaiping (in Inner Mongol) as the
Upper capital,and Yanjing (modern Beijing) as the
Middle Capital,He paid a high tribute to the traditional
Chinese sovereignty and commenced a reformation of
the Mongol institutions,In 1271 he conferred his Mongol
Empire a title the Great Yuan,and then in 1279
demolished the Southern Song,In 1368 a new army
belonging to the Ming Dynasty operated on an assault at
the Middle Capital,and Emperor Hui of Yuan was forced
to withdraw from the central China,retreating northward
to the Mongol Desert,The Yuan Dynasty collapsed.
? During the reign of Yuan China became full-
fledged as the most powerful country assuming
an enormous influence over Asia,Europe and
Africa,The three out of the Great Four
Inventions were diffused into Europe through the
Muslim Empire,In turn some knowledge
involved in astronomy,medicine and arithmetic
was ushered into China,and Islamic Religion
was gaining importance.
? In artistic respect Yuan Opera was appraised
definitely with such outstanding writers as Guan
Hanqing,Wang Shifu,Baipu and Ma Zhiyuan
and with such prestigious works as The Injustice
Done to Tou Ngo and The Western Chamber,
? In order to consolidate the central government of the
newly instituted Ming Empire,Zhu Yuanzhang,Emperor
Tai of the Ming Dynasty,abrogated the prime minister
and tightened his arbitrary grip on administrative and
military affairs,Compared with the preceding dynasty
Yuan an improvement was made in agricultural
production; the silk reeling and weaving and ceramics
attained momentum and in the same case were iron ore
mining,copper casting,papermaking and shipbuilding
etc,A broader exchange with overseas countries in trade
and culture occurred in a massive manner,Zhen He,a
well-famed navigator,headed his titanic expeditionary
fleet traveling southward and westward across the South
China Sea and the India Ocean,leaving footprints on
more than 30 countries or kingdoms clustered in Asia
and Africa,However toward the latter stage of Ming
Dynasty,Chinese coast was frequently harassed by the
pirates from Japan,Spain,Portugal and Netherlands.
? There appeared predominant achievements in varied
lines,Novels were typically highlighted in the Water
Margin,Romance of the Three Kingdoms,The
Pilgrimage to the West,Romance of the Three Ladies;
The Peony Pavilion in operas; Xu Xiake*s Travel Notes
in geography; Pharmacopeia of Medicine Herbs in
medicine; A Complete Collection of Agriculture in
agriculture; Heavenly Wonders in industry; Yongle
Encyclopedia in historic literature,All these have been
enrolled into the national treasure,Unfortunately the
stereotyped Eight-Part Essay came to be rampantly
circulated in the civil service examination,conspicuously
binding individuals* intelligence,In 1616 Nu*erhachi,
Emperor Tai of the Qing Dynasty,constituted the Later
Jin Kingdom after a lengthy warfare,In 1636 Huang Taiji
(the son of Nu*erhachi) changed the title of the kingdom
to Qing,In 1644 the Qing forces fought their way through
the Mount-Sea Pass on the Great Wall and crushed the
Ming Dynasty,The Qing Dynasty persisted in China for
268 years during the reign of the successive ten
emperors,Shun Zhi,Kang Xi,Yong Zheng,Qian Long,
Jia Qin,Dao Guang,Xian Feng,Tong Zhi,Guang Xu
and Xuan Tong.
? At the incipient phase of Qing China was marshaled into
an orbit of social stability and economic progress,the
zenith of power and prosperity obtained during the reign
of Emperor Kang Xi,Emperor Yong Zheng and Emperor
Qian Long (abridged as the Kang-Yong-Qian Period),
Starting from the rule of Emperor Jia Qing and Emperor
Dao Guang the Chinese monarchy was deteriorating and
the social commotion was setting in,the natural fortunes
at a low ebb,From 1830*s the Western colonists
embarked upon shipping a huge quantity of opium into
China,In 1839 the Qing government authorized Lin Zexu
as the special imperial commissioner to be in charge of
the opium prohibition,But the British colonists,in the
purpose of usurping their benefits out of the opium trade,
triggered the Opium War in 1840 and coerced the
imperial court into the prejudiced Nanjing Treaty,China
sliding on the way to a semi-colony.
? The ceding of territory and indemnities incurred
from the failure in the Opium War became a
heavy burden on the Chinese people,In the long
run burst out Tai Ping Tian Guo Campaign
(Heavenly Dynasty) in 1851 as a peasant revolt,
a crushing blow on the Empire,In 1864 the
imperial court,with the aid of foreign invaders,
aborted the full-scale peasant revolution.
? Some ministers,including Zen Guofan,Zuo
Zongtang and Yixin,spurred the Industrial-
Oriented Drive,the political aim of which was to
develop a new military industry for suppressing
the resistance arising from the populace,and
which,instead,pushed forward the
modernization drive in China objectively,
? With the diffusion and influence of the western
culture was born a swarm of bourgeois
reformists among the intelligentsia,who evolved
into the elite headed by Kang Youwei and Liang
Qichao for the sake of the Western-Oriented
Campaign which occurred in the year of Wuxu
(1898),Unfortunately Cixi Empress Dowager
demolished the Campaign,and then the anti-
imperialist patriotic Boxers Moverment,In 1911
erupted Xinhai Revolution under the leadership
of Dr,Sun Yat-sen,The Qing Dynasty was
overthrown in the end,
? A host of philosophers and scholars could be found in
the course of Qing who were represented by Huang
Zongxi,Gu Yanwu,Wang Fuzhi,Weiyuan,Gong Zizhen,
Kang Youwei,Yan Fu,Tan Sitong,Liang Qichao,Zhang
Binlin and Cai Yuanpei and so on,Along with them
coincided such known-to-family novels as the Strange
Stories from a Chinese Studio,Unofficial History of the
Scholars,and A Dream of the Red Mansion as well as
such ever-lasting operas as The Palace of Eternal Youth,
The Peony Pavilion and The Peach Blossom Fan,The
prose,poetry and painting were also highly extolled.
? In the Industrial-Oriented Drive in the late 19th century,
those books regarding natural sciences and technology
went to press,as stimulated the advent of modern
Chinese scientists,among whom were the
mathematicians (Li Shanlan,and Hua Hengfang),the
chemists Xu Tao and the engineer Zhan Tianyou.
? Qing was the last feudal dynasty in China,its
predominant contribution lying in the unification
of the whole country,the consolidation and
strengthening of the solidarity within the multi-
minority state and the final settlement of China*s
domain,Xinhei Revolution shattered the feudal
monarchy that had survived over two thousand
years though the fundamental issues incurred in
the society remained intact.
? The segment of history ranging from the decline
of the Qing Dynasty to the establishment of
People*s Republic of China is generally
designated the Republic of China,a day of
turbulence and uproar in the history of China.
? With the triumph of Xinhai Revolution in 1911,Sun Yet-
sen constitutued the Republic of China,the power of
which,however,was soon usurped by Yuan Shikai and
other warlords in the north,Later on,the North
Establishment (1912-1928) assumed the arbitrary ruling
domestically,and resorted to the imperialist powers
overseas,the warlords keeping in conflict with each
other,the people being stricken in poverty and upheaval.
? The year 1921 acclaimed the advent of the Communist
Party of China in Shanghai,Having organized its own
military forces,CPC led theChinese people fighting their
way through the Land Revolution War (1927-1937),the
Anti-Japanese War (1937-1945) and the Liberation War
(1945-1949),decisively defeating the Japanese invaders,
overturning the Jiang Jieshi-headed KMT rule,and
sweeping across the whole territory except Taiwan
Province and a few islands,
? In this historic phase occurred a drastic phenomenon in
culture,New Youth,the title of the magazine sponsored
by Chen Duxiu originally in 1915 ignited the May 4th
Movement,otherwise named the Promethius-
Resurrection Campaign or the New Cultural Drive,
surging upon the traditional feudal culture,As the slogan
Democracy and Science penetrated into the heart
ofChinese people,the Vernacular,or Modern
SpokenChinese gained a popular diffusion; accordingly
remarkable accomplishments were secured respecting
education,science and publication,notably social
sciences,literature and arts.
? On October1st,1949 the People*s Republic of China
was established,signaling a new era of socialist
revolution and socialist construction.
III,Paragons of Ancient Economy and Culture
? In the history of China the Qi-Lu Commerce and
Culture Zone and the Wu Culture Zone were
rated as the paragons in terms of vigorous
economical and cultural development,As early
as in the Pre-Qin Period and the Qin-Han Period,
the commercial economy in the circle of Qi
Kingdom and Lu Kingdom took the lead ahead
of all the peers,as was related to the
geographical surroundings,population and
measures promulgated in commercial
management therein,
? Although the land had been cultivated early,the
husbandry proved awkward due to the rolling area and
sandy soil,which,in turn,facilitated mulberry planting,
linen textile,fishery and brine evaporating in the sea to
make salt,So naturally appeared the saying as quoted
for Qi Kingdom that 求 The vast fertile land was utilized for
planting mulberry trees and linen or flax weaving,and
the civilians were gifted in learning and lived on textiles,
fishery and salt exploitation′,and another saying as
quoted for Lu Kingdom that 求 The mulberry planting,
silkworm breeding and linen textile flourished.′ As Si
Maqian,a highly-reputed historian in the West Han
Dynasty registered,some planting-specialized
households had then come into existence who managed
over 1,000 mu (1 mu is equivalent to 1/15 hectare) of
mulberry or linen fields,In addition,the Qi-lu Circle took
advantage of a hub of communications,where
businessmen and travelers enjoyed convenient journeys,
providing prerequisite conditions for the thriving
commercial operation,
? At the outset of Qi Kingdom the situation of 求 inadequate
population in the wild land incurring a shortage of grains′
had to be met by enlarging the business scope,the
economic plants aforesaid being recognized favorably
profitable.
? Compared with Qi,Lu Kingdom occupied a comparably
small territory,Till the Western Han Dynasty,Lu had
been bewildered with 求 a tiny patch of land loaded with a
large swarm of populace 求 in the alluvial plain formed by
the Zhu River and the Si River on account of the
population accretion,Therefore the primitive commercial
activities were immensely conducted to earn the living
means in exception that the husbandry was spurred
progressively,It is no wonder that,as depicted by Si
Maqian in the Trade Section of the Records of the
Historian,the subjects of Zou Kingdom and Lu Kingdom
maintained a custom of 求being more interested in trading
and earning money than their counterparts of Zhou
Kingdom′,
? The advancement and prosperity of the commercial
economy occurring within Qi and Lu gave rise to a great
diversity of goods,an extensive circulation of currencies,
a flourishing urban commerce and a large circle of
traders,This zone abounds in natural resources such as
fish,lacquer,cloth,silks etc.,nourishing the
marketplaces,During the Warring States Period the local
markets were paralleled by,due to the trade
transportation between the kingdoms,求the running
horses and barking dogs from the North′,求the feathered
clothing and furs from the South′ and 求 the leather and
flags made of musk ox tails from the West′,The
commodities exchange brought forth the emergence of
currency,In the Spring-Autumn Period the knife-shaped
currency originated in Qi Kingdom had already secured
an 求international recognition′,circulating through such
kingdoms as Qi,Yan,Zhao,Linzi had developed into a
super-scale commercial center with a population of
70,000 households,inclusive of over 6,000 households
of rich distributors and retailers,
? In the reign of the Regent Wang Mang toward the end of
the Western Han Dynasty Linzi was honored as the
Eastern Market,competing with the remaining colossal
cities,i.e,Chang*an,Luoyang,Handan,Wan and
Chengdu.
? As the commercial economy was growing the merchants
in Qi and Lu became differentiated,scores of whom took
on peddling at a small cost and all the more another
crowd of whom never failed to be recorded as magnates
in historic literature.
? The laissez-faire commercial policies advocated there,
what is more,pushed forward the commercial-oriented
economy to a great extent,The spectacular scene of
70,000 merchants in Linzi 求toiling on business′ and
求assembling at marketplaces′ owed much to the above
policies,Within Qin Kingdom on the west was highly
extolled the commerce-checked policy sponsored by
ShangYang,which demanded a full-fledged
development of agriculture when the commercial
operation was duly performed at the hands of the
government,and which strengthened Qin in an all-round
way,driving it on the way to 求claiming the national
fortunes firstly,then annexing the remaining six states
and finally ascending the throne.′
? The progressive economy during the Pre-Qin Period and
the Qin-Han Period furnished a possibility in the
formulation of economic views,There came in a
succession quite a few economic schools as manifested
respectively by the Confucian scholars who would rather
favor social values than commercial interests,by some
others holding that abundance in grains and arms would
comprise a powerful state,that taxes and charges
should be reduced,and that grafting and corruption
should be prohibited and thrifty be commended,as well
as by the Book of Master Guan,a 100,000 character-
long unprecedented monumental work.,All mentioned
above contributed enormously to the framework of the
ancientChinese economics,exerting a profound
influence upon theChinese economics as well as the
economic growth in the ancient China,
? Now let us peep into the Wu Culture Zone centered at
the Yangtze Delta in the south of modern Jiangsu
Province,Dating back to the Neolithic Age five or six
millennia age the primitives in Wu Kingdom created a
glorious culture that gained predominance in China,
Starting from the Spring -Autumn Period,Wu rose
abruptly in the southeast on a basis of immeasurable
fortunes,consequently breaking through the gate of Chu
Kingdom,subjugating Yue Kingdom,deterring Qi
Kingdom and Jin Kingdom,acting as the chief among all
the kingdoms for a certain length of time,After the Six
Dynasties Period the North was plunged into unrest and
upheaval,whereas in the comparably peaceful South
down moved the national economic center,Ever since
the Tang-Song period the Wu Zone had become the
financial mainstay or the economic pivot,such that was
further reinforced in the Ming-Qing period,even
exercising an affect over the modern and contemporary
day.
? Rice planting had been an age-old occupation in Wu,
Until the Spring-Autumn Period had it amounted to a
new height,being a primary sector in the social life,The
planting area was widening while the output was
rocketing,For instance,in a vessel unearthed in Biedun
No.1 Tomb in modern Jintan County of Jiangsu Province
was found the grains along with other foods,It is inferred
that as much as five or six hundred jin of grains (1 jin
equals 0.5 kg) was buried underground with the dead,It
is much more astounding that over 100 bronze utensils
used in rituals,music,weapons and horse-driven
chariots were unearthed in another tomb belonging to a
nobleman at Wangjiashan Hill in Zhejiang Province;
there were kept thirteen big porcelain jars,each 50
centimeters tall with veins and full of grains,Suppose
that each jar contained 100 jin,then all the foods buried
in the tomb totaled over 1,000 jin,as indicating the
advanced farming and an rich reserve of grains.
? The livestock,husbandry and fishery proceeded
in a grander scope,As per the Biography of Wu
Area from the Records of the Out-Lying Areas in
the History of Yue Kingdom and some other
historic literatures,a great many of feeding lots
had been built up for raising chickens,ducks,
oxen,pigs,sheep and so firth as the immense
livestock production base in Wu Kingdom,
Situated in a region of crisscross rivers and
lakes,Wu shared an exclusive stock of fishing
resources,and consequently the fishery had
prospered,Some 求fishing towns′ and man-made
fish emerged,Wu Kingdom lived up to the well-
deserved reputation of 求The Paradise of Fish
and Rice′,
? The canal excavated within the Wu domain proved to be
the pioneering undertaking of the kind through the
history of China,To expand northward into the central
China a town was constructed at Han (modern
Yangzhou) in 486 B.C.,and accordingly a canal dug up
between the Yangtze River and the Huaihe River,called
Han Ditch flowing from Yangzhou via Sheyang Lake in
the northeast to Weikou (modern Huan*an) on the
Huaihe River,In 482 B.C,Wu resumed the excavation
project leading the Huanhe River northward to the Yishui
River and the Jishui River in Lu Kingdom and Song
Kingdom,thus the Yangtze water system and the Ruihe
water system became linked up,having left a brilliant
page in the history of water conservancy engineering
and navigation.
?
? Toward the end of the Spring-Autumn
Period Wu firstly invented and mastered
the technique of iron metallurgy,In the
Wu-Yue Spring-Autumn Annals could be
seen 求General Gan undertook mining of
iron ore in the five mountains before
casting swords and solid shields.′
? Shipbuilding was highly developed since Wu Kingdom in
a region of crisscross rivers and lakes required boats or
ships as a communication means,From the remains of
the Neolithic Age near the Tai Lake have been
discovered oars of wooden boats that imply the Wu
primitives living in the Neolithic Age had been competent
in making canoes,Till the Spring-Autumn Period the
shipbuilders had been capable of building boats and
ships in various styles,such as the big-wing ship,the
middle-wing ship,the small-wing boat,the bridge-shape
ship,the pavilion-shape ship,the dagger-shape boat etc,
And with an appropriate deployment of ships in regard to
purposes was founded a well-disciplined powerful fleet,
As shown in the Records of the Historian,in 485 B.C,the
Wu fleet ever 求waged an assail on Qi Kingdom by sea′,It
was made certain that the Wu ships could have not only
cruised in the rivers but voyaged at sea,The
earliestChinese navy made debut in Wu Kingdom.
? Later during the sovereignty of Sun Quan in the Three-
Kingdom Period the vast stretch of maiden land had
acquired a rudimentary exploitation,bringing about a
drastic change in the local social and economic life,The
cultivated areas,especially those in the proximity of the
Tai Lake,had become the fertile zone in the eastern Wu,
as described 求the countless patches of fields could
provide double crops′,The rice could be harvested twice
a year,the output having come up with three hu per mu
(one hu is equal to 225 kg),Mulberry planting and
silkworm breeding had substantially been adopted as a
household sideline.
? Ceramics was an important token of the handcrafts in
the Wu Kingdom under the rule of Emperor Sun Quan
(220-265),the baking of the blue glazed ceramics being
a key contribution thereof,Judged pursuant to the kilns,
tools and already-made ceramic products unearthed
recently,the baking technique had been specialized in
both quality and scope taking a lead in China,Between
1975 and 1976 was excavated out a batch of blue
glazed ceramic objects in the shapes of tea pot,jar,bowl
and water pot with picturesque patterns and fine quality,
a lavish embodiment of the Wu ceramics.
? The monarchy under Emperor Sun Quan had kept in
frequent contact with the offshore countries,enhancing
China*s prestige overseas,Prior to the Sui-Tang
Dynasties 求Wu Kingdom′ had become a nickname for
China in Japanese vernacular.
? In the course of the Eastern Jin Dynasty and the
Southern Dynasties also was prospering the handicraft
industry,as displayed in metallurgy,ceramics,
shipbuilding,papermaking and textile,The smelting
technique culminated in the improvement of steel
smelting and the application of 求quenching method′ in
regard to steel heating process,It was during the
Southern Dynasties that Tao Hongjing,a civilian smith
from Molin in Danyang County,invented the so-called
mixed-steel technique,which was meant by mixing pig
iron with wrought iron,then forging it into a fine quality
stee from which many farming tools could be
manufactured effectively.
? The ceramics represented by the blue glazed
ceramics in Wu outshone the other handicrafts
throughout the Six-Dynasties Period,Dingshu
Town in Yixing County was claimed to be the
original place of the blue glazed ceramics,of
which the roughcast,the glaze color,the vein
patterns and the baking technique had obtained
a remarkable upgrading,Out of the tombs
belonging to the Wu Kingdom under Emperor
Sun Quan were dug up the articles of the blue
glazed ceramics,one of which was a delicately-
shaped statuette of the ceramic god,others of
which unearthed in Suzhou,were shaped in
men,women and birds,particularly a ceramic
stove of which was,dug up in Zhengjiang,
glazed blue-green with a lid shaped in
overlapped hills,all proving to be knick-knacks.
? In Daye 6,the Sui Dynasty (610) preceded by the
completion of the Grand Canal in the North,the widening
works regarding the former waterways in the South was
commenced with 100,000 laborers conscripted at the
spot,The new canal 400-kilometer long and over 10-
zhang (1 zhang is equivalent to 3.3 meters) wide
updated the waterway and highway system,spurred the
local production and social prosperity,strengthened the
economic and cultural exchange southward and
northward serving as a tie to unite the North and the
South,Henceforth the abundance of grains and
materials was unceasingly conveyed along the canals up
to the North from the lower reaches of the Yangtze River
Valley or the South,notably from the Wu Zone,A saying
was quoted as 求The convenient transportation means
has benefited the Heaven,′ which in turn pushed ahead
the local economy.
? Until the Tang Dynasty the land
exploitation rush did not fade owing to the
worsening seizure and enclosure of the
farmland by country bullies and the
growing population in the South,The
economic development coursed in width
and depth,the extensive farming
transformed into the intensive cultivation
that was typically revealed in the improved
tools,
? The vital improvement was proclaimed in tillage
implements,As recorded by Lu Guimeng,a Wu scholar
in the Book of Farming Implements,the Jiangdong
Plough or the arched-shaft plough,comprised eleven
parts,the external wall coated with metal and the other
segments made of wood,The ploughshare,a vulnerable
part,was certainly made of wrought iron,Also Lu
Guimeng afforded a detailed description of its structure
as well as the instruction that the device could plough
fields to such a certain depth that grass roots would be
pruned and the metallic arrow hereof could be adjusted
flexibly to suffice shallow or deep plowing,The plowing
efficiency effected from the substitution of the innovated
arched-shaft plough for the old-fashioned straight-shaft
plough had definitely rocketed with more convenience
? Consequently there appeared a whole set of implements
covering spade,shovels and sickles etc,for smashing
earth,leveling fields,excavating soil as well as pruning,
weeding and harvesting,The innovated means and
intensive farming led to a considerable increase of grains,
such lines as 求 From Wu are shipped Corn and Silk Cloth′
and 求 Fine rice comes far from Eastern Wu′ exhibiting
the local prosperous agriculture in profile.
? 求On harvesting in Suzhou and Changzhou,Heaven can
enjoy grains in abundance.′ In the Song-Yuan Dynasties
the economy in Wu evolved into a new phase,Much had
been achieved of water conservancy in the surroundings
of the Tai Lake,The goal 求to dredge the lake and open
up fields′ was intended to scramble for fields with the
watery territory,
? Two effective measures were employed,the first of which was to
drain the lake to the bottom where crops could be planted,the
second of which demanded the building-up of embankments in the
lake,the drainage of the enclosed water ensuring stable yields
irrespective of drought or flood,During the reign of Emperor Qing Li
of the Song Dynasty,some imperial officials,including Fan
Zhongyan,Han Qi and Fu Bi,submitted a report to His Majesty,求 In
the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley there have long
existed embankment-enclosed fields,each block being a vast
expanse of decades of square kilometers,The fields are situated
there like a big city where flow canals and rivers with sluice gates
built up between sections,which,in drought,can be irrigated from
the water and which,in flood,can be protected by the closed gates,
a guarantee for the local flourishing farming.′ It is made certain that
the soil at the lake bottom was fairly fertile and consequently the
output of those enclosed fields abounded,leading to its heightened
economic status as an incentive to the farming therein,
? Those days gave rise to the tea production with a greater
variety of highly appreciated brand names and a wider
area of tea fields,In the preceding Tang Dynasty the tea
grown in Sichuan Province was generally extolled and
later in the Song Dynasty was replaced by the newly-
born brands processed from the lower reaches of the
Yangtze River Valley when Yangxian Tea of Changzhou,
a brand with top quality,was devoted as tribute to the
imperial court in the late Qing Dynasty,Some poets
composed the following verses recorded in the Local
Produce of Changzhou Prefecture Annals,求When
emperors taste Yangxian Tea alone,hundreds of flowers
dare not blossom early′,Another brand of tea picked
from Dongting Hill of Wu Country near Suzhou used to
be equally dedicated as a tribute to the imperial court.
? Early in the Song Dynasty the area in the vicinity of the
Tai Lake retained a prestige in sugarcanes,as a verse
depicted 求Central Wu abounds in sugarcanes.′ There
had grown many genera of sugarcanes,the superior or
the inferior dependent upon sugar content.
? The tangerine planted there had been renowned to the
royal family as early as in the Tang Dynasty,and
gradually gained popularity in the Song Dynasty,Fan
Chengda offered an account of the case in Suzhou in the
Records of Wu Zone,求Everywhere could be found
orchards′ appraising it an orchard center,The top quality
tangerine originated from Wenzhou,Suzhou and
Taizhou,For instance,the seedlings to be planted at
Dongting Hill 求were conveyed in boats from Suzhou
proper,Huzhou and Taizhou; those purchased from
Huzhou were reckoned superior.′ Immersed in the local
favorable conditions the seedlings grew into maturity
with 求thin peeling and magic taste′ enjoying a far-
stretched reputation.
? In 1271 Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty in
Dadu (the Great Capital,modern Beijing) taking on the
operation of unifying the whole country,On calming
down the Wu Zone,Emperor Shi of Yuan attached prime
importance to the resumption and development of the
social life,enacting decrees to sponsor agricultural
production,求The state is instituted on the basis of the
people,who live on shelter and food,which can be
obtained essentially from farming and mulberry planting.′
Henceforward the economy in Wu experienced a fleet
recovery displaying a renewed phenomenon,
Substantial planting of mulberry and silk cotton drove the
local silk reeling and cotton weaving industries on a
professional way when Huangdao Granny as a highly-
skillful expert in textile advocated cotton spinning in her
hometown by bringing a thorough innovation to the
traditional spinning wheel that was transformed into the
most advanced of the kind in the world.
? During the Ming-Qing Dynasties sprang up
in certain trades of handicraft sector the
capitalist production relationship as the
commercial economy was growing,which,
though checked anywhere by the feudalist
rein,marched arduously and awkwardly
toward the dawn of the modern society,
sounding the death knell for the medieval
times,
CHAPTER 2 Centered on Man and Stressed on Deeds
---A Glimpse of the Traditional Chinese Philosophies
?, The fundamental goal shall be established for Heaven
and Earth; the subsistence shall be granted to the living
public; the learning advocated by the past sages shall be
inherited; and the social fortunes and peaceful order
shall be elongated for upcoming generations.′
? ----Zhang Zai (from the Song
Dynasty)
? The Chinese nation is a general term comprising many a
nationality,which had molded a comparatively complete
system of philosophy of their own toward the decline of
the Spring- Autumn Period leaving an impressive
footprint over the history of the Chinese culture,the
Eastern Asian culture and even the global culture,
? The traditional philosophies in question roughly
progressed through the various phases below,
? 1) The Pre-Qin Period when the inchoate occurrence of
ancient philosophical views was being staged,the
primeval religions were being unceasingly disrupted and
a flock of schools was successively looming up,the
Hundred Schools period〞the brand new scientific
concepts took root in the minds of the philosophers to
the effect that they could be wielded to recognize the
universe while the rapidly growing natural sciences
dissented slowly with philosophy,forming an
independent discipline,2) The Wei-Jin Period that was
characterized by a newly-born ideology Metaphysics that,
incorporated from Confucianism and Taoism and based
on certain classics such as the Book of Changes,the
Book of Master Lao and the Book of Master Zhuang,laid
down its priority upon a group of propositions
?, Existence vs Nonexistence,′求Essentials vs
Nonessentials′,求Words vs Ideas,′ 求Fundamentals vs
Practices′ and 求Logic vs Nature.′ The argumentation and
disputes involving these views enriched the Chinese
philosophy,motivated the scholastic atmosphere and
heightened the reflective aptitude sharpening the
Chinese thinking,
? 3) The Sui-Tang period when Buddhism gained
momentum that attached due consideration to the
relationship between the subjective and the objective,
particularly the scrutiny of spiritual phenomenon related
to the retrospection of human reasoning and the
perception of the universe and human beings,
maintaining that man and nature were omnipresent in a
high degree of wisdom,
? 4) The Way doctrine in the Song-Ming period that was
recognized a neo-Confucianism derivative of Taoism and
Buddhism,It had furthered the Confucianism system
thinking highly of natural sciences,emphasizing such
propositions as Grand Terminus,Yin vs Yang (the
positive and the negative),Mind vs Disposition with such
a thinking pattern as 求Heaven-Man-Learning,′
concentrating a due concern on the nature of human
beings,The Way doctrine was amalgamated from many
sects that contended and debated mutually,proceeding
to the upgraded realm,
? 5) The Ming-Qing period when the philosophy was on
the way to the 求self-examination,′ paying tribute to the
current social affairs or pragmatism and creation of
philosophical views,The scholars living in this period
were profoundly erudite and well versed in philosophy.
I,The Incipient Wisdom Sparked by the Pre-Qin
Philosophers
? The Spring-Autumn Period and the Warring States
Period were challenged by the radical emancipation,the
giant leap and the adventurous exploration in Chinese
cognition with scores of philosophers sparked with the
incipient spiritual wisdom,Confronted with the day when
the rites and ceremonies collapsed,unrest and upheaval
set in and dukes or princes struggled against one
another in pursuit of supremacy,certain scholars
became profoundly distressed with the happenings
putting forward their viewpoints to redeem the world from
disorder,Some traveled across the different kingdoms
devoting the political plans to the warlords; some
concealed themselves in an academic circle collecting
disciples and diffusing their teachings; and some
retreated in seclusion writing books or expounding
doctrines,
? There sprang up a succession of philosophical schools,
Confucianism,Taoism,Mo Doctrine,Legalists,Yin-yang
Doctrine contending for their own systematic viewpoints
in philosophy and politics,laying down a sound
ideological basis for Chinese philosophy,
? The talents of those ancient sages were brilliantly
mirrored in the philosophical views in the Pre-Qin Period
that comprised respectively of the noble realm 求Heaven
and Man Combined into One′,the moral concept holding
harmony as highly exalted,the broad bosom of 求The
Benevolent Love Man′,the humble behavior code
求 Restraining Myself and Restoring Rites′,the viewpoint
of the ever-changing world and the Mean preferring the
flexible policy to two extreme ends,all shining with
sagacity and being an invaluable spiritual treasure to the
present day,
? In the light of the relationship between Heaven and Man
there existed three opinions,求Heaven and Man
Combined into One′,求Heaven and Man Separated Apart′
and 求 Man Joined in Heaven and Earth′,The first
weighed on the natural laws and the human nature,and
the harmonious union between Heaven,Earth and man,
which was exclusively interpreted by Mencius and
Master Zhuang etc,Menfucius proposed 求 Exercising the
mind to know human nature and Heaven′ advocating
that human nature and natural laws were integrated,
and that human mind was the perceived subject; if man
could exercise the mind,he or she was capable of
comprehending their own nature,accordingly aware of
Heaven since man was endowed with the nature by
Heaven,In this case,Heaven was proclaimed as both
the supreme dictator and the decisive imperative law,
? Master Zhuang also appreciated Heaven and Man
Combined into One,holding it as the supreme realm that
求 Heaven lives together with Me,and Nature and Me are
alloyed into One′ (On Nature from the Book of Master
Zhuang),The second opinion 求Heaven and Man
Separated Apart′ emphasized the distinction between
Nature and Human Deeds reflecting that the positive
human behavior should be directed to change Earth,
Master Xun remaining the representative,He defied the
fact that Heaven was bestowed upon such
consciousness as man,which could exercise power over
the auspicious,the ominous,the disastrous and the
fortunate in human life,instead arguing that Heaven
existed in the appearance of materials or nature,He
wrote,求Heaven is in progress; Earth is rich in resources;
and man is in undertakings.′
? The third one 求Man Joined in Heaven and Earth′
pointed out that man could participate in the
transformation of nature on condition that the
natural law was both differentiated from and
united with the human nature,The Doctrine of
the Mean submitted a systematic articulation of
the view aforesaid,求Able to give its full
development to the nature of other men,he can
give their full development to the nature of
animals and things,Able to give their full
development to the nature of creatures and
things,he can assist the transformation and
nourishing powers of Heaven and Earth,Able to
assist the transformation and nourishing powers
of Heaven and Earth,he may with Heaven and
Earth form a ternion.
? In respect of morality the philosophy in the Pre-Qin
Period there emerged a consequential presentation of
such ideas as 求The Benevolent Love Man′,求Harmony as
Highly Prized′,求Five Ethics′ and 求Ten Aspects of
Righteousness.′ 求 Benevolence′ arising from 求 The
Benevolent Love Man′ was acclaimed to be the supreme
moral code constituted by Confucius,the nucleus resting
on 求 Love Man′,that is to say,showing due concern and
reverence to others,In a broader sense 求Benevolence′
was laden with reverence,generosity,trust,sensitivity,
virtuousness,intelligence,gallantry,loyalty,forbearance
and filial piety,The elementary principle and approach to
practice Benevolence was to abide by 求 the moral of
loyalty and forbearance′,i.e.,求 Now the man of perfect
virtue,wishing to be established himself,seeks also to
establish others; wishing to be enlarged himself,he
seeks also to enlarge others.′
? (Yong Ye from the Analects) as well as 求What you do not
want done to yourself,do not do to others.′ (Wei Ling
Gong,ibid) Master Mo proposed 求Love Each Other′,
advocating a general love as you do for yourself in case
of combining 求 Love Each Other′ with 求Benefit Each
Other′ before the goal of 求 Love Each Other′ would be
realized,The 求Harmony′ out of 求Harmony as Highly
Prized′ made reference to the harmonious unification
among a medley of things,Confucian scholars and
disciples held that 求The superior man is affable,but not
adulatory; the mean is adulatory,but not affable′ (Zi Lu,
ibid),regarding 求Harmony′ as a code to handle
interpersonal relationship,Master You said,求In practicing
the rules of propriety,Harmony is to be prized.′(Xue Er,
ibid) obviously reaffirming Harmony as the core of values
to bear all social institutions,
? Mencius argued,求Opportunities of time vouch
saved by Heaven are not equal to advantages of
situation afforded by the Earth,and advantages
of situation afforded by the Earth are not equal
to the union arising from the accord of Men.′
(Gong Sun Chou Part II,from The Book of
Mencuis) He laid down stress on 求the union
arising from the accord of Men′ served to be the
ultimate factor of success,The view 求Harmony′
was intended to treat positively the differences,
discrepancies and contradictions occurring in
the natural things and human communities,
assisting the individual in playing an active role
and attaining the social harmony and progress
on such basis as a whole,which has long been
cherished as the nucleus of Chinese values.
?, Five Ethics′,in line with Mencius,was referred to as
the five elementary ethical relations 求father vs son,the
superior vs the inferior,husband vs wife,elder brother vs
younger brother,and between friends′ The ten
characters therein should be required for anyone to
perform the essential ethical code,otherwise nominated
or dubbed as 求Ten Aspects of Righteousness′,One of
Chinese classics entitled Li Yun in the Book of Rites
delivered an articulate assertion hereof,求Father should
be affectionate and son filial; elder brother should be
kind and the younger loving; husband should be
righteous and wife obedient; the senior should be
generous and the junior catering; the superior should be
benevolent and the inferior loyal.′ The Aspects of
Righteousness′ laid emphasis upon the mutual
connection between the rights and the obligations
relating to the ten characters,as being on the contrary to
the case proceeding ever from the Han Dynasty onwards
that one character should absolutely be subject to the
other.
? With regard to the thinking style the philosophy
thereof embodied the dialectical thinking
susceptible of the all-round style,the changing
style,the reverse style and the mean style,
? The Integral Concept functioned as the major
concern to Confucianism,Taoism,Logicians and
the Yin-Yang School who maintained that the
universe was an integral body,and so was the
same case of Man and natural phenomena,
Therefore people were required to make sense
of the integral prior to being acquainted with the
partial.
? All the philosophical schools in question held
that in the universe was available nothing
unvarying and that the nature and the human
society were plunged in the cycle of changes,
Upon standing by a river,Confucius ever sighed,
求It passes on just like this,not ceasing day or
nightㄐ§ ; Master Lao remarked his book,求Since
Heaven and Earth can not endure long,how can
Man survive persistently?′
? By means of the Reverse view,they also
offered a paraphrase of the sources and rules of
changing things,which deemed anything as an
antithesis with two ends interrelated with each
other,
? The maxims 求Fortune lies within mishap; mishap lies
within fortune,′ and 求 when things are damaged,it may
do good to them ; when things are benefited,it may do
harm to them.′ provided exemplars to demonstrate the
unity of opposites as a fundament law in the universe,
The Chinese military canon The Arts of War by Master
Sun was charged with plenty of cases in accordance
with the Reverse view,where an elaborate discussion
was conducted concerning a series of antitheses such
as peace vs commotion,gallantry vs cowardice,strength
vs weakness,the numerous vs the scant,stationing vs
mobility that could be altered in a reverse way under
certain circumstances,The well-quoted phrase 求Being
aware of enemy and you,you can triumph consecutively′
is another proof hereto.
? Confucius commended the Mean as the perfect virtue,
saying 求Perfect is the virtue which is according to the
Constant Mean,Rare for a long time has been its
practice among the people.′ (Yong Ye from The
Analects); meanwhile he acclaimed the Mean as a
thinking style expecting the people to 求practice the Mean
at times′ and 求practice the Mean in specific cases.′
II,Characteristics of Chinese Philosophy
? Chinese philosophy has stood out as one instance of the
philosophical genre that has been surging in an
independent course with its own characteristics in the
sea of world philosophy,In the first place Chinese
philosophy was inaugurated during the Pre-Qin Period
and has been in remote antiquity that fell within the few
that had attained a high degree compared with the rivals
occurring in other civilizations in the same historic stage.
? Nourished from the long-run leading sciences and
technology across the global sphere as well as the
comparative stability of the feudal monarchy,Chinese
philosophy had been molded into the long-established
high-state order of the feudal society based upon the
philosophical tradition handed down from the Shang-
Zhou Dynasties,Consequently it doesn*t sound queer
that Chinese philosophy had outgrown its alien peers
scattered elsewhere on the globe,In the second place
Chinese philosophy was chiefly fused with the Study of
Classics other than theology,Though derived from the
traditional concept Destined by Heaven,it had affixed
prior concern to this this-world,not to that-world
concentrating on moral discipline in stead of religious
sermon,
? There appeared some materialistic-inclined ideologists
who thought highly of themselves as 求philosophical
orthodox′ and waged an assault at the religious theology,
In another aspect Chinese philosophy was engaged in
close connection with ethics,of which ontology and
epistemology penetrated into the study of morality
featuring a pronounced ethical color,In the Pre-Qin
Period Confucianism,Taoism,Moism and Legalism
confirmed without exception the Heavenly Way as the
theoretical foundation of their respective ethics,From the
Qin-Han Dynasties on Confucianism had been esteemed
the orthodox among the varied philosophical schools,for
whose Three Disciplines and Five Constants both the
view Heaven Interacted with Man held by Dong
Zhongshu and another proposition 求Confucian Rites
Born From Nature′ by Wang Bi executed a
demonstration in their own ontological standpoints,
? Such merger of ontology,epistemology and the study of
morality seemed even more striking in the Way Doctrine
prevailing in the Song-Ming Dynasties,Zhang Zai
regarded Gas as the origin of the universe,
propagandizing the benevolent spirit under the slogan of
求People are my compatriots,so are things.′ Double Chen
(Chen Hao and Chen Yi) and Zhu Xi acknowledged
Heavenly Way as the ontology,affirming it the supreme
principle of human conduct.
? Regarding the thinking style Chinese philosophy was
inclined to the integral,the inherent and the inheritable,It
was rich in the plain thinking tradition of dialectics,of
which a bench of the philosophers exercised varied
terms,for instance,求The Reverse of the Way is Motion′
by Master Lao,求Yin interacted with Yang makes the Way′
in the Book of Changes,求One Thing Separated into Two
Bodies,′ or 求One Divided into Two and Two Blended into
One′ by the scholars pertaining to the Way Doctrine,
? In their minds the evolving course of the
universe was transformed into a series of
generation and change whereas such couples of
the concepts as Heaven vs Earth,Man vs
Nature,Motion vs Stillness,Form vs Spirit were
defined into antitheses that are both
differentiated from and integrated with each
other.
? Chinese philosophy maintains a scope of
specific concepts of its own,Way,Vigor,
Principle,Spirit,Emptiness,Trustworthiness,
Knowledge,Fundamental,Practice,Grand
Terminus (Supreme Ultimate),and Yin-yang (the
Negative vs the Positive),all incorporating the
wit of Chinese philosophers.
III,Quintessence of Chinese Philosophical Ideology
? Considering the quintessence of the Chinese
philosophical ideology there was available an
overwhelming viewpoint that proclaimed 求Central′ as the
nucleus concept of Chinese philosophy,Distinguished as
Confucianism,Buddhism and Taoism were in
expounding it due to their various ambitions and ideals,
they invariably identified the supreme realm perceived by
the individual 求Mind′ as the cardinal indicator,which
appeared as the 求Sole Knowledge′ generated from 求Mind′
in accord with the natural things.
? The proposition hereof declared that the archeological
findings in etymology made no secret of a complicated
source of the word 求Central′,
? The Explanation and Study of the Principle of
Composition & Characters,a philological masterpiece
written by Xu Shen in Han Dynasty interpreted 求Central′,
求Central (笢 ) refers to Inside,From 求諳§ and 求1′,it is
combined.′ The 求Inside′ in this case is in contrast to
求Outside′,Relevantly there came another momentous
connotation,求Location in Center′,The conception Center
in location is further more advanced than the conception
Central relating to Inside and Outside in epistemology,
The birth and evolution of the conception Center dates
back to an intriguing phenomenon that Yellow,one of the
earth colors in the topography of China had been linked
to the location Center and the Polestar established as
the universal center in astronomy.,Yellow is claimed to
be the basic skin color of Chinese nation,equally the
earth color of Cathay where the Central Plains lies at the
geographical center,
? Conspicuously Yellow appeared sacred and mysterious
in the ancient times,and the Doctrine of Yin-Yang and
Five Elements,which adopted it as the color of the
center,was the prototype of the ideological system
thereof,wherein the ultimate conception of Center was
concealed within the representation of Yellow,
? Anywhere in Chinese philosophical classics could be
beheld the diction and connotation of 求Central′,The
nuclei concepts involved in the Doctrine of the Mean
were,the Golden Mean,the Harmonious Mean,the
Constant Mean and the Adherent Mean,which were
sponsored by the Pre-Qin Confucianism headed by
Confucius not only as a view relating to the universe,
methodology and a moral state,but as an embodiment
of Confucian ethics and aesthetic ideas.
?, The Golden Mean′ was derived from Yong Ye of The
Confucian Analects,求Perfect is the virtue which is
according to the Constant Mean,Rare for a long time
has been its practice among the people.′ Out of 笢蚢
(the Mean) in Chinese,求笢§ refers to Central or
Unbiased; 求蚢§ refers to constant,ordinary and
applicable,Confucius himself abode by the Mean as a
求Perfect Virtue′ by his deeds and statements,求The
Master was mild,and yet dignified; majestic and yet not
fierce.′ (Shu Er of The Confucian Analects) was
applicable in coping with interpersonal relations; 求The
philosopher Ji Wen thinks before he conducts; on
hearing it the Master said,求Do it again,that is good.′ in
handling human affairs; and 求In practicing the rules of
propriety,harmony is to be prized′ (Xue Er of The
Confucian Analects) in governing the states,
? The core and essentials incarnated in Confucius*
Constant Mean lie in that you shall not go beyond the
Mean and not fail to reach the Mean,which serves as
the bench mark installed in the Doctrine of the Mean for
inheritance and development of Confucianism,
? The first chapter in the Doctrine of Mean presents a
distinct definition of 求笢§ (Central),求While there are no
stirrings of pleasure,anger,sorrow,or joy,the mind may
be said to be in the state of 求mean.′ Related to 求笢§ was
another nuclei concept Harmony hereto,求This 求mean′ is
the great root where grow all the human actions in the
world,and the 求harmony′ is the universal path which
they all should pursue,Let the states of Mean and
Harmony coexist in perfection,and happy order will
prevail throughout Heaven and Earth,and all things will
be nourished and flourish.′
? This definition conferred upon the Golden Mean
with a new connotation 求Harmonious Mean′ had
been upgraded as the determining code of
Heaven and Earth and all things,and as the
eventual aim of moral cultivation,The gist
conceived therein lies in 求Constant Mean′ and
求Adherent Mean.′
? The second chapter in the Doctrine of the
Mean quoted Confucius as saying 求The superior
man embodies the course of the Mean; the
vulgar man acts contrary to the course of the
Mean,The superior man follows the course of
the Mean because he is a superior man,and so
practice the Mean in times,The vulgar man acts
contrary to the course of the Mean simply
because he is a vulgar man,having no caution.′
? Under such circumstances 求Constant Mean求,contrary to
求Having no caution′,distinctly arrests a trace of 求having
caution′,implying that one can conduct something,and
yet can not conduct something else,as being the pivot
that was reflected in the purpose of the Mean that you
shall not go beyond the Mean and not fail to reach the
Mean in daily behaviors.
? The proposition of such four concepts as Golden Mean,
Harmonious Mean,Constant Mean and Adherent Mean
in emerging out of the Doctrine of the Mean had placed
the concept 求Middle′ on the nuclei position in
Confucianism,This 求Middle′ not only referred to certain
individual subjective state,or the intrinsic sentiment
awaiting to burst,but also the norm and code embodied
in the individual extrinsic speeches and deeds in the
social life,The two aspects were to be incorporated into
one,the 求Middle′ within human mind functioned as a
prerequisite for the 求Middle′ in human behavior or vice
versa.
? The Book of Changes was deemed another crucial origin
relating to the 求Middle′,wherein the term 求Middle′ made
an exhibition as frequently as 119 times ( exclusive of
the Zhong Fu or Inmost Sincerity as the name of the
linear signs),the majority of them being included in the
Commentaries,The essential concepts in connection
with the 求Middle′ in the Commentaries exhibited an
elongated inventory,求Mean Justice,′ 求Mean
Resoluteness,′ 求Mean Conduct′,求Mean Thrifty′,求Mean
Gains′,求Mean Way′,求Mean Auspiciousness′,求Mean
Softness′ and 求Inmost Sincerity′ as the name of the
linear signs,The 求Central′ embedded in the linear sign
system was originally coupled with a specific reference
to the 求Central Position′ and 求Central Text′,
? Instead in Taoism that shared a common cultural source
with Confucianism,the 求Middle′ in question did not weigh
as a nuclei concept,differentiated from the 求Golden
Mean′ and 求Harmonious Mean′ held therein,The 求Middle′
in Taoism incarnated roughly four connotations,the
beginning was concerned with the rules of things,the
求Middle′ meaning 求Correct′ or the correct way applicable
in handling affairs; the next was involved in the change
of things,the 求Central′ hinting 求Limit′ wherein human
behaviors shall be checked and constrained; the third
related to space,the 求Middle′ indicating 求Nothingness′
which,in pursuance to Taoism,was supposed to be
observed in daily life and to bear life and opportunities;
the concluding touched upon time and space,the
求Middle′ being converted into 求Opportunity′; specifically
求Take opportunities in proper time′ and 求Have no
alternative but to take the decisive extreme act.′
? In the Book of Master Lao can be disclosed the relevant
articulate remarks,求The Way of Heaven,damages the
surplus and supplement the scant.′(Chapter 77,ibid),
求Being aware of satisfaction,you will not meet insult;
being aware of stopping,you will not meet danger.′
(Chapter 44) and 求The Way,applied in the Mean,will not
limited in use.′ (Chapter 4,ibid),The 求Middle′ advocated
by Master Lao maintained the implication the 求Middle
Emptiness′,a concept of Nothingness,an embodiment
of the Way,Adherence to 求Middle′ was justifiably
equivalent to adherence to 求Way′,Accordingly,
求Deprived of private sentiment and desire and deterring
to the Mean Harmony,you will step into the entrance to
the Way′,It proves true that the essential gist of Taoism
was ingrained in 求adherence to the Mean to achieve
Harmony′.
? In Buddhist studies the core relating to 求Middle′ was the
so-called the 求Mean Way′ or Madhyamapractipad that,
though repeatedly utilized by Confucianism as a
synonym to the 求Mean Conduct′ contending for a mean
and fair behavior,retained a specific implication in the
Buddhist canons of Chinese version,In the history of
Buddhism there existed a miscellany of distinct
comprehension governing the 求Mean Way′,Hinayana
Doctrine or the Little Vehicle usually strove for virtues in
compliance with 求Eight Fair Ways′ or recognized 求Twelve
Causes′ as the 求Mean Way′,The School of Mahayana
Doctrine or the Greater Vehicle adapted 求Eight Non-
Mean Ways′ to 求the Mean Way′; instead the Yogacara
Sect of Mahayana Doctrine regarded Non-Emptiness
and Non-Being as the 求Mean Way′,Regardless of the
varied interpretations hereto,求the Mean Way′ was
universally reaffirmed as the supreme truth in Buddhism,
paralleling with Dharma,Buddha and so forth,Of these
doctrines the 求Mean Way′ held by the Mean-Held School
claimed to be the prototype,
? The view of the 求Mean Way′ was treated as the
nuclei structure in Prajna Doctrine of Buddhism,
The Prajna,a Sanscrit term,conveyed the
conception of the Non-Distinction,the Emptiness,
the Mean Way,the Two-Truths and the
negative-state thinking approach and so on,The
theoretic nucleus of the Mean-Held School was
established on the basis of 求The Mean Way′ or
Madhyamapractipad as a peculiar thinking style,
Viewed with the School,everything in the world
depended on certain circumstances,no
substance of which failed to be in the changing
course,Long Shu designated this type of being
as 求Emptiness′,further arguing that this
求 Emptiness′ could not mistaken for
求Nonexistence′; on the contrary it was as sort of
being so vague as not to be portrayed,the
foremost arrangement and origin of everything,
? While employing the view to things,people could
not be constrained to both sides of 求Existence′
and 求Nonexistence′; in turn they arrive at the
Mean Way consisting of 求Non-existence,Non-
nonexistence,Non-Nonexistence,and Non-Non-
nonexistence,′ that is,a supreme existence
indistinguishable in language and unvoiced in
concept,A penetrating exposition of this
ideology was presented in On
Madhyamapractipad (On the Mean),a
representative work of the Mean-Held School;
求Dharma was generated from all principal and
subsidiary causes; I hold Emptiness as my
doctrine,It sounds only a pseudonym referring
to the Mean Way.′ (A Glimpse on Four
Essences)
? In conclusion,even though the 求Mean′ was reckoned
meaningful in ontology by Confucianism,a prime
importance was fastened to its application or 求Adherent
Mean′,which was incarnated in 求Practicing Goodwill′ in
the secular world; the 求Mean′ assumed by Taoism
sounded more pragmatic in methodology contemplating
that the awareness of the 求Way′(the philosophical
essence) would give access to the realm of transcending
the worldly society and becoming deities,And the 求Mean
Way′ permeated into Buddhism seemed to be even
more comprehensive and elaborate wherein linger both
the essence and methodology,and the philosophical gist
of the Mean was structured in the Mean Way of The
Prajna Doctrine,There is a certainty that the 求Mean′
imbued in Chinese philosophy,consisting of such core
concepts as 求Golden Mean′,求Harmonious Mean′,
求Constant Mean′,求Adherent Mean′ and 求Mean Way′,
was implanted in the three systems of Confucianism,
Taoism and Buddhism,as renders the 求Mean′
remarkably different in implications,
CHAPTER 3 Miraculous,Mysterious & Sacred
〞The Patriarchal Traditional Religions
?, All land under Heaven never fails to belong to
Emperor; all ministers on Land never fail to be
His subjects′,which was the conception of the
imperial power in Chinese traditional culture,
Consequently everything,of course,inclusive of
all religious institutions,had been obliged to be
subjugated and to be in service to the royal
sovereignty,Any religion or ideological system
must have been authorized by the secular
monarchs,as being virtually the norm of prime
importance,for the more an ideological system
had been confirmed,appraised,supported and
endorsed by the authorities,the more easily it
would sound a religion,
? As regards humans,whether communities or individuals,
religion seems permanently a ghost that can never be
dismissed anyway as well as an intimate partner that is
greeted in awe by the masses being afraid of its
departure,Confucianism,in China,had been superior to
Buddhism and Taoism with other minor ones as
supplements,Each school of secular moral teaching
complexes conceived both a religion and a branch of
philosophy,Take an example of Confucianism,when
considered a religion,it was a traditional patriarchal
religion with the Lord of Heaven worshipped; when
accepted a branch of learning,it was Confucian
philosophy,Usually traditional patriarchal religions were
packed with a large stock of religious creeds but no
learning while Confucian philosophy appeared scholastic,
but without religious flavor,Buddhism was classified
internally into Buddhist religion and Buddhist studies;
Taoism consisted of Taoist religion and Taoist
philosophers,
? Given a philosophical diagnosis to the
traditional philosophies,Confucianism
stood as the philosophy of patriarchal
religion; Taoism served to be the aim to
individualism pursued by the perceiver of
patriarchal religious power; and Buddhism
unveiled a taciturn world of the daily life
being shared by the populace under the
rule of patriarchal political and religious
complex,Confucianism,Buddhism and
Taoism were none other than the packing
of patriarchal religions.
? Traditional Religions Influential in China
? Whether the ancient China was a religious country or a
secular community has remained a puzzle in the long run,
but it seems certain that exclusively a scant cluster of
people agreed to the view 求Confucianism is a religion.′
However,Mr,Ren Jiyu,the director of China National
Library,contended that 求Confucianism shall be rated as a
specific traditional religion of Chinese nation,Any
traditional religions that ever existed in China,any
nationalities that eve survived on this ancient land#,and
all the dynasties adored Confucianism as the national
religion,and esteemed Confucius as the master of the
religion,#Confucianism,taking advantage of the merger
of the political influence and the religious doctrine,had
grown into the national religion,in which the religious
power and imperial sovereignty were amalgamated and
could never be dissected.′
? Over the history of China Confucianism made
appearance as a traditional religion system incorporated
with divinities,sacrificial rites and Confucian learning
求Lord′ was worshipped as the supreme god and it had
been a prevalent conviction that those individuals would
be sublimated to be deities after death who 求tamed
people by virtues and founded states by wit and energy,′
and 求resisted natural catastrophe and defended states
by defeating invaders′,For instance,Liu Zongyuan,a
renowned statesman and writer in the Tang Dynasty,
was conferred upon a title of deity after his demise,The
cardinal principle deferred to in Confucianism was 求Man-
Deity-Way′ that required individuals* appropriate
behavior and sacrificial ceremonies and rites to deities
be dissolved,
? Confucianism advocated the governing of civilians and
Mencius in the Warring States Period proposed 求Masters
should be required to administer states.′ Later in the Han
Dynasty prevailed the atmosphere 求Confucianism should
solely be adored′ with Confucius as the master laying
down the foundation for the formation of Confucianism
as a religion,
? Confucius had traveled through the kingdoms and
disseminated his teachings to a huge circle of disciples
so as to furnish a theoretical basis for the political-
religious patriarchal religion,His attitude toward 求Rites′
betrayed in profile his piety to a patriarchal religion,求Yan
Yuan asked about perfect virtue,The Master said,求To
subdue oneself and return to propriety is perfect virtue,If
a man can for one day subdue himself and return to
propriety,all under Heaven will ascribe perfect virtue to
him,Is the practice of perfect virtue from a man himself,
or is it from othersˋ§§,
? In other phrase,as long as all people
could subdue or restrain their own desires
and behave in conformity with the social
conduct code specified in the Rites of the
Zhou Dynasty,all the world would
progress into perfect harmony,The term
求Rites′ in etymology sounded highly
religious; for this matter Confucius
converted 求Rites′ to 求Propriety′ that
seemed to cover a wider range of
connotations,including such
superstructures as social institutions,
political establishments and social order.
?, Perfect Virtue′ was the most controversial and
the most typical concept in Confucianism,
Exclusively in a short anthology of The
Confucian Analects appeared 求Perfect Virtue′ for
66 times wherein 求Noble-minded people would
not stain Perfect Virtue to survive life,and would
rather die to retain Perfect Virtue′,求The firm,the
enduring,the simple,and the modest,are near
to Virtue.′ (Zi Lu of The Confucian Analects),
求Fine words and insinuating appearance are
seldom associated with true virtue.′ (Xu Eer of
The Confucian Analects),and 求It is the truly
virtuous man,who can love,or who can hate
others′ (Li Ren of The Confucian Analects),all of
which projected Confucius* outlook on 求Perfect
Virtue.′
?, Human characters are similar′ raised
incipiently by Confucius was the ontological
basis of the identity involved in the human
behavior code,matched with a methodological
criterion 求Aptitude can be obtained from
examples nearby′,affirming the basic orientation
in the exposition of human characters by
Confucianism,Mencius accomplished the
preliminary undertaking in respect with the
exposition aforesaid by differentiating the sages
from the magnitude,The Confucian proposition
regarding human nature fabricated the identity
by which all humans should be compatible with
one another,the harmonious union out of which
was condemned to serve political aims,
whereupon surely bringing forth a divergence
principle,
? No matter what divergence occurred between emperors
ad subjects,and no matter what discrepancies crept up
between the sacred and the mortal,they were in parallel
the inherent embodiment of the harmony thereof,This is
the logical structure of the widely-acknowledged religious
ideologies,Confucianism succeeded in creating the
religion that was not entitled by any religious terms,as
being a great invention in China and the unique of the
genre throughout the world.
? The two divergent orientations in Confucianism,after
Confucius,were inherited by Mencius and Master Xun,
Dong Zhongshu,an official philosopher in the Han
Dynasty,used to conceive an idea of transforming
Confucianism into a sheer religion outright,but his great
ambition failed as a result of the conflict arising between
the traditional patriarchal religion and itself.
? Taoism took a native root in China,an incarnation of the
national spirit of Chinese people as its counterpart
aforesaid,Lu Xun proclaimed that求if someone is eager to
apprehend Chinese history and culture at a profound
level,he or she must resort to Taoism,and accordingly
must place priority on its source and development,′
? Upon the basis of the ancient Chinese religious beliefs,it
emerged featuring the ideology and conviction of the
Han nationality,Originated out of the witchcraft and
sacrificial ceremonies to deities in the Shang (Yin)
Dynasty and the necromancers who prayed in search of
elixir from the Warring States period to the Qin-Han
Dynasties,it assimilated in the proceeding course the
nourishment from the Yin-Yang & Five-Element Doctrine,
Taoism and Confucianism,incorporating the worship for
ghosts and deities,the alchemy and the ancient
philosophical propositions into a whole in order that it
sounded theoretic as a theology of Taoism in possession
of complex content,
? During the reign of Emperor Shun of the Eastern
Han Dynasty Taoism was instituted by Zhang
Ling,a celebrity from Feng County in Pei
Kingdom who was respectfully referred to as
Zhang Daoling,which valued 求Dao′ (Way) as the
paramount belief,otherwise nominated
求Metaphysical Religion′ or 求Celestial Dao′,
Taoism respected Master Lao as the founder,
venerably called the Greatest Superior Man,
There were no uncertainties in the minds of its
disciples that 求Dao′ worked as the source of
things and changes in the universe,which were
reversely derived from 求Dao′.
? Taoism held it the purpose that anyone could be
raised celestial or immortal and would become
conscious of Dao provided that the longing for the
celestial and the belief in Dao (Way) were
combined,believing that by psycho cultivation
man could live as free and unfettered as the
celestial deities with life and Dao blended into
eternity,thus molding a consummate belief
system,A Double-Life View sprouted therein that
求My life is cherished by the Celestial Dao′ and
求My life belongs to Me,not to Heaven and Earth′,
The knack of psycho-cultivation was veiled in the
Double Cultivation,i.e.,the cultivation of one*s
character,and the exercising of one*s life.
? Taoism revered the Yellow Emperor,a legendary
originator of Chinese nation,as the master of great
learning and integrity,having inherited and adhered to the
national tradition of offering sacrifices to deities and
devoting veneration to ancestors,and having pushed it
onto a conventional and religious way,The deities
worshipped in Taoism ranged from the Lord in Heaven to
the gods and goddesses on Earth,and from the ancestors
of Cathay to the sages and devoted disciples over the
history,
? Toward the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty sprang up the
organized religion of Taoism tracing from the two religious
schools,the Celestial Witchcraft and Huang-Lao Doctrine
(in the name of the Yellow Emperor Huang-ti and Master
Lao),which gained circulation among the populace,
Having derived the official support in the Wei-Jin Period,it
elbowed its way into the upper class,
? From the Sui-Tang Dynasties to the Northern
Song Dynasty,the religion was in the ascending
phase,its status highly raised,when the large
scale abbeys and temples loomed up everywhere
in the country,a herd of scholars relating to
Taoism came up in succession and a mammoth
library of the scriptures concerned were compiled
and stored,Later from the Southern Song
Dynasty to the mid-Ming period it rolled on with an
aid of the sovereigns; however occurred the
discrepancies among the various sects that were
historically ingrained in the military confrontation
between the Jin Dynasty and the Yuan Dynasty
as well as the resulting national conflicts,
? Embittered in the interior and on the border,the imperial
court had no more strength to continue the financial
assistance to it,After the entry of Manchu cavalry into the
Great Wall the new ruling bloc developed no interest in
Taoism,which,on account of the loss of political support,
was compelled to be transferred from the literati to the
populace,and then gradually withdrew into a secret
religious gang,
? Ever since the Eastern Han Dynasty down to the present
day there has been accumulated an enormous ocean of
the scriptures in that issue,The Reserves of Taoism,an
aggregate anthology of its canons,was rivaled by a wide
range of literatures regarding commandments,scientific
apparatus,magic figures,psycho-cultivation,physical
exercise,medicine,pharmacy,alchemy and the principal
works of some scholars,acting as one of the Chinese
cultural treasure.
? Despise a variety of factions in the organization,
求Dao′(Way) had unexceptionably been prized as the
nucleus in belief from which were inferred their own
creeds,Above all 求Dao′ was confirmed as the supreme
conviction,which was the gist of Nonexistence,the source
of the universe and the eternal being that transcends time
and space,remaining unique in dignity,Secondly 求Dao′
appeared as the incarnation of Master Lao,and could be
transformed into a mob of Heavenly deities,Earthly gods
and human apparitions,Thirdly 求Dao′ could be obtained
through psycho-cultivation,Having practiced the various
creeds,the followers were capable of integrating deities
with Dao,as being termed the Acquisition of Taoism,
Fourthly those who had acquired the knack could be
benefited from such rewards as oracular wonders,
longevity and becoming celestial,
? Of the three major religions in China,Taoism
arose latest and was maintained in contact with
Confucianism and Buddhism upon its founding,
During the Han-Wei Period and the Western-
Eastern Jin Dynasties when Confucianism was
lingering at the status of arbitrary power,
Buddhism,though unstable on footing,unveiled a
powerful vitality in a 求religion-learning′ manner,
The late-arriving Taoism,to eliminate its inborn
primitive elements,began to learn form
Confucianism,notably Buddhism,for both its
institutions and cognitive proficiency were still in a
na?ve phase,Without the high quality exemplar of
Buddhism it could not be imagined that Taoism
had proceeded to such an extent,
? The pursuit for 求being celestial′ by Chinese
ancients,which was an idealized entity bestowed
upon with longevity and some oracular wonders
they had been yearning for,exercised an
immense impact on Taoism,The core of the
religion was concealed in the fact that anyone
could be sublimated as the celestial deities by
means of retainable efforts,Prior to its arrival
Chinese ancients had been engaged in a number
of attempts in 求being the celestial′,The Canon of
Mountains and Seas registered a legend
concerning 求elixir′ and 求immortal man′,As per
The Records of the Historian,King Wei of Qin
Kingdom and King Zhao of Yan Kingdom as early
as the Warring States Period ever accredited
ships at sea in search of elixir and celestial men,
? This pursuit of Chinese ancients mirrored,in essence,
such a psyche that human beings had been longing for a
free and unfettered life (principally longevity and
competence).The various behaviors effected from the
psyche not only conveyed the ideal of being celestial to
the date of the arrive of Taoism,but ever had boosted the
finalization of the idea of 求Being Celestial.′
? Chinese ancients developed a peculiar approach for
pursuing longevity,that is,their endeavor to discover elixir,
The Celestial Witchcraft in the Warring States Period
prospered in the search of so called panacea,functioning
as a model for the early Taoist disciples,It was classified
into three schools,the Breath-Exercising School headed
by Peng Zu and Wang Qiao circulating in the southern Wu
Kingdom and Yue Kingdom,the Asceticist School led by
Rong Chenggong in the Central Shaanxi and the Clothing-
Food School as represented by An Qisheng in Yan
Kingdom and Qi.Kingdom
? The attempt to pursue longevity byChinese ancients was
held responsible for an immediate incentive to the
concretization of the belief 求Longeviity and Being Celestial′
in Taoism as those earlier practices were fulfilled indeed
with a view to yearning for transcending the finite worldly
life,and the conviction mentioned above sorely
exaggerated such a behavior vesting it with an intense
religious每mystical flavor.
? Of the three influential religions in China only Buddhism
was a shipped product,Buddhism,a sect of Hinduism,is
considered 求the religion of Heavenly gods′ within the
academic circle,Buddhism devoted reverence to the god,
or Sakyamuni with 求Roundabout′ as the theoretical
foundation,Buddha was meant by awakening to Truth,
specifically,the psycho-cultivation that reached the level
of breaking away from Roundabout,
? The cardinal norm of Buddhism was,求All beings
are in fantastic illusion,and all things are in
constant change′,It was profoundly implanted in
China owing to some elements of its own that
shared much common,or even similarities with
the Chinese thinking style,
? In the first century was ushered into China
Hinayana Buddhism or the Lesser Vehicle of
Buddhism that was firmly convinced that man
could be saved from sin,not dependent upon
deities or other external forces,but upon his own
endeavor,Hence forwards the monk appeared as
the ideal image of the followers who had a bald
head in yellow gowns wandering about in hope of
being rescued from sin,He did not need family,
even property,Having acquired what he had been
pursuing spiritually he could become Buddha.
? Mahayana Buddhism or the Greater Vehicle hereof took
root in China in the Wei-Jin-Southern & Northern
Dynasties wherein the special social circumstances
aroused a diversity of psyches among the social strata,
having exploited a fertile soil for absorbing Buddhism,
? The fact that Buddhism set its footing on China was to a
great extent ascribed to the Huang-Lao Doctrine and the
Celestial Witchcraft that had won over a substantial
commendation from the sovereigns during the Western &
Eastern Han Dynasties,The time saw some famed early-
arriving alien monks as Fu Tucheng and Tan Wuchen who
were specialized simultaneously in witchcraft,The
accession to the witchcraft practice remained as a key
transitional phase from the Lesser Vehicle to the Greater
Vehicle,whereupon proceeding to polytheism,
? At the outset exclusively did Buddhism acquire recognition
within the royal family and the noble landlords,In the large
cites were found a scant number of Buddhist abbeys built
up specially for the monks and merchants coming from the
Western Territory whileChinese individuals were granted
no permission to convert to Buddhism as monks or nuns,
In the Three-Kingdom Period the study of Prajna was on
the way to an independent academic discipline when Wei
Kingdom and Wu Kingdom culminated in the lecturing and
learning of Prajna,Sole concern was attached to the
translation and introduction of Buddhist commandments
and precepts in Wei as the sacrificial ceremonies for
deities held among the folk were prohibited in the pretext
of 求licentious sacrifice′ and the large-scale religious
campaign was put under the severe restraint,
? In contrast Wu Kingdom headed by Sun
Quan performed a magnanimous and
favorable policy boosting a gigantic
diffusion of Buddhism in the lower reaches
of the Yangtze River Valley,which made
rival claims as an equal with the northern
counterpart centered in Luoyang (in modern
Hanan Province),The positive attitude to
Buddhism taken by the royal family of Wu
Kingdom set a keynote for the alien religion
that would be imbibed by those emperors in
the forthcoming Six-Dynasties.
? In 290 A.D 求Riots of Eight Princes′ broke out
between royal kinsmen and the northern
minorities squeezed their way down to the Central
Plains,the north of China being bogged into
commotion and disruption,Meanwhile,however,
Buddhism gained momentum in such giant
kingdoms as the Post-Zhao,the Pro-Qin,the
Post-Qin and the Northern Liang,In the Post-
Zhao the study of the traditional Classics was
encouraged; the literati of Han nationality were
promoted and Han culture practiced among all
the nationalities while Fu Tucheng was prized the
celestial monk and Buddhism was geared to be
on vogue in the purpose of uniting all the peoples
with the common deity,The Pro-Qin Kingdom
求summoned up thousands of monks and nuns to
learn and practice the scriptures of Buddhism′,
? The Post-Qin Kingdom trained 5,000
Sramanas or monks inaugurating the most
thriving day of culture among the Sixteen
Kingdoms,The Northern Liang Kingdom
opened up the communication with the
kingdoms lying through the Western
Territory,chiseled a huge amount of
Buddhist statues vigorously and invited Tan
Wuchen for translating Buddhist canons,
shooting the religion far and wide,even to
Chang*an (modern Xi*an) and Jianye
(modern Nanjing),
? In the lower-reaches of the Yangtze River Valley the
Eastern-Jin Dynasty succeeded the Western-Jin,The
study of Prajna pertaining to Buddhism that had gained
recognition earlier in the Wei-Wu-Western Jin period
nowadays commenced to press into the scholar-
officialdom with an increasing number of renowned monks
and literati interested in argumentation of Buddhist codes,
None of the emperors in the Eastern Jin Dynasty failed to
believe in Buddhism and make friends with Sramanas,
offering them so favorable treatments as to attend the
imperial palace and intervene with the national affairs,The
scholar-officials were no more lagging behind than the
others in paraphrasing Buddhist scriptures,sponsoring the
construction of Buddhist temples and financing hundred of
Sramanas except succoring their poverty-stricken
relatives and friends,The Eastern Jin Dynasty featured
the mass building of the imposing abbeys by the royal
families and aristocrats It proved to be certain that history
had gave birth to an unprecedented stratum---Hierarchy,
and Buddhism had set a firm footing on Chinese land.
? Having been disseminated throughout the period
of the Eastern-Jin Dynasty & the Sixteen-
Kingdoms,Buddhism evolved into a common
belief winning over all the nationalities and
enhancing the mutual understanding and
communication thereof,which,in the existing
disruptive situation,seemed to be crucially
significant in blurring the national limit between
Han nationality and the other minorities as well as
fixing the tie of joint psychological identity,In the
meantime Buddhism,to some extent,played a
moderate role in impending the conflicts or
massacres and stabilizing the society,
? II,Heavenㄜ A Mystical Concept in Chinese
Religions
? Confucianism,Taoism and Buddhism
became unvaryingly fully-fledged religions,
the first twinkling in the stress of world
harmony,interpersonal harmony and the
concern of self-cultivation,the second
glittering in the pursuit of treasuring life
and tranquil mind,the third illuminated in a
coherent mix of love,hope,belief,saving
man from sin,the solicitude for the dying
and other religious elements.
? The ancient China stepped into the civilized
gateway from the clan society,The quintessence
of proto-religions could be represented by totem
and 求Heaven′ in the Chinese proto-religions
symbolized an omnipresent mystical force,In
looking around on land,Chinese primitives could
sorely see nothing but the vault of Heaven over
their heads; accordingly Heaven and Earth
seemed to be transformed into the images of
omnipresent supreme gods,Such pious
sentiment was revealed in the Book of Poetry,
求Awful bright Heaven is hung.′
? The concept of God in Heaven,to a great extent,
determined the later course of Chinese culture
by which the secular philosophy was centered at
the dominant position,for the concept in
question was prone to be converted to such
philosophical ideas as 求Heavenly Fate′,
求Heavenly Doom′ or 求Heavenly Way′.
? In The Paraphrase of Chinese Characters can
be found a character 菌 specifying the
connotation of Heaven with a pun 求pinnacle′ or
求on the head′ and both of them are similar in
pronunciation and pragmatic association,
Considering etymology it could be reckoned as
an 求associative compound′ character implying
求one,big′; pursuant to the Tortoise Shell Script it
could be paraphrased a human-like god more
giant than man,
? The double-syllable phrases composed of
求heaven′ abound in quantities for there has been
a tendency in Chinese language that phrases
are made up in two syllables,Take a typical
evolution of 求son of Heaven′,Duke of Zhou,in
order to propagandize the legitimacy in
substituting the Zhou Dynasty for Shang (Yin),
proclaimed that he had been authorized by
Heaven to execute his mission as he was 求the
eldest son of Heaven′,from which could be
inferred that all people on Earth should have
been the sons or daughters of Heaven.
? Hence the 求Son of Heaven′ became an adhesive
pertaining to sacredness and mystery ㄜ, One who can
take hold of Heaven and Earth is the Son of Heaven.′
求The Son of Heaven is a title of emperors,Could all the
emperors,good or bad,be venerated as the Sons of
Heaven? Of course,they could be because they were
unexceptionally authorized by Heaven to exercise
sovereignty on the land of 5,000 li.′ (A li equals half a
kilometer),The transfer of the semantic meaning relating
to the 求Son of Heaven′ disclosed that the secular
philosophical views arising from the concept 求Heaven′,
even if dating back to humanism or humanitarianism,
had been drowned in a primitive religious sense of
求Heaven′,Both the humanist standpoint in 求Heaven and
Man Combined into One′ and the match in Confucianism
failed to escape such a doom.
? The Book of Changes suggestive of 求Heaven′ in a
primitive religious sense exhibits an elaborate
interpretation of Heaven and Earth,求Chuan′(The
Commentary) represents what is great and originating,
penetrating,advantageous,correct and firm,In the
lowest line,undivided,(we see its subject as) the dragon
lying hid in the deep,It is not time for active doing,In the
second line,undivided,(we see its subject as) the
dragon appearing in the field,It will be advantageous to
meet with the great man,In the third line,undivided,(we
see its subject as) the superior man active and vigilant
all the day,and in the evening still careful and
apprehensive,(The position is) dangerous,but there will
be no mistake,In the fourth line,undivided,(we see its
subject as the dragon looking) as if he were leaping up,
but still in the deep,There will be no mistake,
? In the fifth line,undivided,(we see its
subject as) the dragon on the wing in the
sky,It will be advantageous to meet with
the great man,In the topmost line,
undivided,(we see its subject as) the
dragon exceeding the proper limits,These
will be occasion for repentance,(The lines
of this hexagram are all strong and
undivided,as appears from) the use of the
number nine,If the host of dragon (thus)
appearing were to divest themselves of
their heads,these will be good fortune.′
Here,Heaven gains supremacy over all,
CHAPTER 4 Ideograph & Pictograph Rich in
Senses
ㄜ Chinese Language & Characters in a Unique
Style
? With a view to examining the cultural traits
belonging to a certain nation it is imperative to
acquire a perspective through a window of the
language and characters conceded,Language
and script function as a threshold leading human
beings from ignorance to civilization,Not molded
at random,the specific language and script of
each nation hinged on the features and patterns
of thinking that had resulted in from its interior,
bearing a rich stock of the national cultural
heritage.
? I,Square Chinese Character
? The Chinese characters,neat and peculiar in
appearance,occupy the same spacing in printed
paper,whether drawn in 求珨§ (one),求媼§ (two),
求賸§ (already) and 求衱§ (again) with one or two
strokes,or copied in 求紬§ (assembly) and
求嫡§ (jar) with over ten strokes,The characters
diversify in posture,For example,求泬§ (fields)
求準§ (not) in upright and foursquare type,and
求資§ (dagger-axe) 求浀§ (night) and 求俓§ (tile) in
crooked and askew style,all are printed out in
identical size,With respect to this trait,therefore,
Chinese script is figuratively referred to as
求Square Characters′.
? There has been a wide scope of controversies involving
its origin since the time immemorial,and there has
prevailed a beautiful-sounding legend that Cang Ji
Invented the Script,Cang Ji was allegedly believed to be
a deity with four eyes on the face,intelligent and touched
in divinities,and to be so profoundly enlightened by the
beauty in nature as to have invented Chinese characters,
Owing to its advent,the secrets concealed in Heaven and
Earth coupled with the rules and laws therein could be
recorded down in writing and promulgated to the public,
even the invisible and traceless 求ghosts′,and 求monsters′
being exposed out of the disguise,Hence a thunderstorm
poured down at night while the monsters and the like
burst into a squalid weep,The legendary story advertised
none other than the great invention ofChinese script,As a
matter of fact it was not created by any deity and had
undergone a remote process in embryo,
? Compared with the other systems of scripts,Chinese
characters emerged early with an over 4,000-year history,
As demonstrated by the archaeological findings,only at
Banpo-Yangshao Cultural Ruins in Xi*an of Shaanxi
Province were discriminated 113 samples in different
simple signs that had been carved on the outer part of a
vertical-cavity pot decorated with wide grains or big
inverse-triangular veins,The strokes of the signs looked
simple in regular shapes,covering more than thirty clans
such as a horizontal stroke,a vertical stroke,a bevel
stroke and a cross stroke,The archaeological experts
released the textual research that these engraved
symbols could have been the primitive relics of Chinese
characters,At Dawenkou Cultural Ruins that traces from
5,000 years ago were found some pictographic marks
that had been carved on the grey pottery vessels and that
had virtually developed into the later-arriving pictograph.
? After its birth Chinese script coursed through such routes
as the pictographs,the indicative characters,the
associative characters,the pictographic-phonetic
characters,the referential characters and the phonetic
loan characters,What is meant by the pictographs?
Having evolved from hieroglyph they claimed to be the
earliest script system as a cornerstone of Chinese
characters,conveying certain connotations by means of
concrete images of things,It was said that 求the script was
formed in distinctive shapes of things and recognized as
pictures regardless of dots or strokes′,The following five
characters 求阨§ (water) 求堎§ (the Moon) 求醴§ (eyes)
求陬§ (chariot) 求鎮§ (horse) are the pictographs delineated
from visible objects,In respect of self-explanatory
characters,one part is the mark,the other is the
pictograph added with signs,Take two instances of 求奻§
(up) 求狟§ (down),they were portrayed as 求拂′ 求房′ in the
small-seal script,a Chinese ancient style of calligraphy,
? It is similar to pictographs,as was distinguished
by Zhen Qiao,求The indicative characters
resemble the pictographs; however the first lays
emphasis on explanations and the latter on
graphs.′ 求The characters bearing resemblance to
objects are defined as pictographs; and those
bearing no resemblance to objects but explaining
the senses hereto are indicative characters.′ The
associative compounds are made up of over two
independent signs,For instance,求挕§ (weapon)
comprising 求砦§ (stop) and 求資§ (dagger-axe)
was ever annotated by some philologists to mean
求to march with dagger-axes′,So 求挕§ could have
been originally referred to as 求swearing an oath
for fighting.′ The pictographic-phonetic
characters are also coined out of two segments,
one for graphs,the other for phonetics,
? Take 求蔬§ (big river),the three dots represent the
image of a big river,求馱§ (work) used in being
homophonic of the sound of a river,The phonetic
loan characters are the borrowed homophones,
such as 求昹§ resembling a swarm of birds
perching in trees,which was previously meant
求へ§ (the behavior of birds perQing in trees),
later was loaned to express 求west′ in directions,
The mutually synonymous characters refer to a
pair of characters that may have cross reference
to each other in connotation,such as 求蕉§
(examination,old ) and 求橾§ (old ),
? As regards the historic evolution,the coinage
governing Chinese characters has varied
tremendously over the past millennia from the
early pictographs in vogue to the pictographic-
phonetic-connotative script system,In
comparison with the Western counterparts,
Chinese characters are paralleled with the
features below:
? 1).Chinese script falls within ideograph in no
immediate contact with pronunciation,As long as
things and ideas are recorded in writing,they can
be read aloud and interpreted precisely in the
different dialects of Chinese nation for the sake of
mutual communication,
? Regarding graphs,the Western script has evolved from
the inchoate hieroglyph to the alphabetic linear system,
which only serves as the symbol of the language signs so
that the exchange between varied thoughts must be
fulfilled in the medium of phonetics,Consequently
Sausseur,a world-renowned linguist of Switzerland,
argued,求Language and script belong to the two different
sign systems; the sole reason why the latter exists lies in
the expression of the former′,(A Course in General
Linguistics) Nevertheless Chinese characters have taken
on the distinct course,the square forms of which can offer
a direct reflection upon the internal language code
conceived in the holographic phonetics and senses,
whereupon the language (specifically pronunciation) not
in need of being employed as a bond to convey senses,
? For instance,求怴 (endure) is composed of 求陑§
(heart,mind ) and 求絮§ (knife),the intension
being distinct and thorough; 求芊 (man)
symbolizes a hero of gigantic stature with two
legs on land and a head against the sky; and 求襞§
(dream) dramatizes a man sleeping in woods (輿 )
at night (浀 ),all vivid and perceivable images.
? 2),In terms of phonetics the Western scripts are
catalogued to be the alphabetic and the Chinese
match to be the syllabic,Being an appendage to
the variations in phonetics,the Western
alphabetic scripts articulate grammars and
semantic meanings in the posture abundant in
free associations of advanced consonants and
vowels,
? The information bestowed upon each word is
jointly shouldered by individual phonemes in the
complex arrangements of syllables with a clear-
cut limit between phonemes,On the other hand
Chinese characters appear in a simple syllabic
pattern,one character embodied in one syllable,
Not burdened together with phonemes,the
messages conceived in words are undertaken by
the sound patterns of syllables and the tunes
incidental therein,Thanks to plain syllables
Chinese language abounds in homonyms,And
then the tunes are employed to distinguish
between the characters,thus furnishing a vast
range for their application,Let us take a brief
glance at an antithetical couplet engraved on a
gateway in the Lady Mengjiang Temple at
Shanhai Pass (the Mountain and Sea Pass),
? The couplet consists of fourteen homonyms,求 漆阨陳陳陳
陳陳陳陳邈ㄛ腹堁酗酗酗酗酗酗酗秏,′ which shall be read
aloud as follows; 求漆阨陰ㄛ陳陳陰ㄛ陳陰陳邈˙腹堁梀ㄛ
酗酗梀ㄛ酗梀酗秏§ (Sea tide rises and ebbs everyday /
Drifting clouds appear and fade frequently),The artful
employment of the two homonyms 求陳§ and 求酗§ leads
to the diversity in pronunciation and connotation despite
the superficial similarities among the seven 求陳§ s and
seven 求酗§ s,offering an aesthetic enjoyment to readers,
Meanwhile the homonyms have brought forth a difficulty
in writing up accurately the character as per its
pronunciation or pronouncing it outright with a glimpse,
acting as a weakness incarnated in Chinese characters,
In the couplet aforesaid the character 求陳§ bears various
meanings 求tide,day,on the rise′ while the other 求酗§
betrays 求on the rise,often.′
? 3).Respecting the connotation the Western scripts seem
abstract and rational while the Chinese concrete and
perceptible,The Western scripts do so in that there is no
inherent coordination available between the signs and the
information transmitted from the precedent; otherwise
they are governed sensibly outright,It is not astonishing
that the Western scripts are generally characteristic of
incomprehensibility,On the contrary Chinese characters
are equipped with graphs and connotations,the latter
assuming supremacy over the previous,taking on
concrete images with a conspicuous apprehensibility,For
example,Chinese women in the ancient times lived in a
wretched status and so were cursed as a mishap;
accordingly came up in procession a group of derogatory
terms related to 求躓§ (women) such as 求潮§ (cunning),
求懋§ (avaricious),求瞏§ (bitch),求樣§ (prostitute) and 求毦§
(evil and fraudulent),
? Even some characters with neutral intensions pour out
sex discrimination,such as 求假§ (safe) implying a
woman locked up at home and forbidden to go away,求邰§
(compromise) depicting a woman seized by men*s hands,
A single Western letter bears by no means senses,but
any Chinese character remains matter-of-fact;
furthermore the phrases,sentences and essays made up
of the self-effective characters contain affluence of
connotation.
? In brief the non-alphabetic square characters have
served to be a marked feature of Chinese culture wherein
the sense achieved through the graph or 求A glance at it
will penetrate into the mind′ provides an intense audio-
visual stimulus,a feature that exerted a moderate impact
on the formulation of the traditional thinking stereotype
focused on intuition and the integral,
? Being inculcated in literature this trait can as often as not
heighten the intension in the works,Take a poem by Xie
Lingyun,求е鍛喱詁ㄛ粔楂絊蟀蹴§ (Towering ridges are
piled up / Islets stretch unbroken),the graphs hereof
release readers a sense arising from imposing mountain
ridges and broad rivers,disclosing the complexities in his
mind,In the poem to bid farewell to a scholar,Mei
Shengyu wrote,求扡輕輕阨Ёㄛ咂洈洈阨喧§ (Wading
across Huai I found it shallow ; Tracing along a brook I
found it slow ) employing nine characters in relation to
water in a consecutive manner,then impressing the
reader with a trip by waterway,When portraying birds in
求捋霪菠錵Y蟥請§ (Crows croak,magpies chirp while
mynas are singing.) he availed himself of the five
characters in the shape of 求纏§ (bird) as if arousing the
chirping of birds in readers* ears.
? Not only on literature has Chinese script
exercised a wide-ranging repercussion,but on
arts,The rules governing the coinage of Chinese
characters were 求Pictographs are made in the
shape of things′ and 求Coinage is started up from
nature.′ The coined characters appear pragmatic
in performance and aesthetic in posture,In the
legendary story 求Cang Ji Coined Characters′ was
engraved such a portrait that 求a rich variety of
beauties had been collected and incorporated
into characters′,susceptible immensely of
aesthetic appeal.
? The posture as exposed in Chinese characters has
evolved over decades of centuries from Tortoise Shells
Script,Bronze Script,Seal Script and Official Script via
Wei Style,Liu Style,and Song Style to the modern
Simple Style,Illuminated in substantial changes,they
make appearance in a horizontal or vertical stroke,in an
upstanding or untrammeled type,in a fixed or poised
manner and in a cursive or rough style,The calligraphy
art of Chinese characters can be rated as a unique hoard
in the history of the global scripts,unrivalled among any
other scripts,In addition the traditional seal carving and
engraving,though superficially skillful in the craft,
assumes a dainty presentation of the graphs or strokes in
the characters,Rich in style,it has forged an independent
system with an artful arrangement of strokes and brought
the beauty embedded in Chinese characters to acme.
? Concision as another feature is conferred
upon Chinese script,According to the
statistics concerned,it is the Chinese
version that takes on the thinnest copy of
all the United Nations documents printed
in five official languages,Considered
exclusively the frugality in time and paper,
Chinese characters still assume
superiority over the Western matches.
? Chinese Language
? Language,no matter who,the East or the West,it
may concern,serves solely as a communication
means,However the languages pertaining to the
various nations are laden with the absolutely different
characteristics,In this case Chinese language is
marked by some distinguished features below:
? 1),In contrast to the Western graph-style languages,
Chinese language is categorized into the non-graph-
style language for the messages permeated in the
sentences,including morphology,syntax and
semantic connotations can by no means of the
variations in graphs be articulated,instead by the
combination with the surroundings and the inherent
relationship regarding the language,the connotation
exercising supremacy over the strokes,
? Any relevant language segments,provided their
semantic meanings match logically,can be
alloyed into a sentence,which has been
designated by some linguists to be 求the
meaning-merged approach′,Both the semantic
elements and the pragmatic elements in the
sentences fabricated by the approach herein
appear unvaryingly more intense than the
求syntactic elements′ conceived in the Western
languages in such a manner that it can be
loaded with an extreme amount of information
stratified at varied levels boasting a forcible
manifestation,Take a prose by Ma Zhiyuan,a
writer in the Yuan Dynasty:
? Solitude in Autumn
? To the tune,Sand in Clear Sky
? Dried vines,old trees and ravens at dusk;
? A small bridge,a dripping brook,and a
thatched cot;
? The aged road,the west wind and a bony
charger.
? The sunset far and low glides,
? A heart-broke man plods at the
edge of the sky,
? The beginning three verses are equally a simple
array of nouns with no Western-style
grammatical elements inserted between them
but an in-born structure dependent upon the
readers* comprehension,Nevertheless the
images as described by these nouns are
exhibited at a stretch,a perfect prospect of a
quiet mountain village in autumn,The
perspective is challenged with color,sound,a
scene nearby and afar,the things in static and
dynamic states along with the sorrowful
sentiment embedded in the innermost of the
author,the artistic conception being profound
with a lasting appeal,No wonder that Chinese
language is capable of proffering a lifelike
portrait of things and emotion,
? With regard to the components by which
sentences are constituted there is no
Western-type structure in Chinese
language,which has exerted a substantial
repercussion on the morphology and
syntax,Fox instance,a syntactic rule that
nouns can never be preceded by an
adverb as a modifier is invariably rendered
reasonable in the Western languages,but
it does not work in the Chinese
counterpart,Look at the following
sentences:
? A.坻婓賒虳妦繫ˋ 刓祥刓,阨祥阨腔 ﹝
? (What is he drawing? Something neither like mountains
nor rivers.)
?,B.饒跺侘酸赲酷挾耀盈磑捁插
? (That man looks neither like a male nor a female,He looks
disgusting.)
? Hereto 求祥刓§ ( unlike mountains),求祥阨§ ( unlike rivers),
求祥鹹祥躓§ (neither a male nor a female) can be tenable
duly despite 求祥§ (not,adverb) preceding the four nouns,
Another Western syntactic rule that nouns can not be
overlapped can not prove effective in Chinese language,
Don*t you often read and hear such phrases as 求刓刓阨阨§
(mountains and rivers,a resplendent scenery),求瑞瑞迾迾§
(wind and rain indicating trials and hardships),求豪豪翌翌§
(flowers and grass),求抭抭嫡嫡§ (jars and pots implying
household utensils),
?,諧諧俍俍§ (full of bumps and hollows),求陬陬鎮
鎮§ (chariots and horses implying busy traffic) and 求抸抸
阨阨§ (soup and water,over- spilled and dirty )? And
求bachelor words′ or one-syllable words usually do not
work as predicates,as in 求坻 軗, (He walks),求圖 苤, (The
melon is small) and 求扂蠅 桴, (We stand) not tenable in
common cases,However,after being paired they can gain
acknowledgement,求坻軗ㄛ扂珩軗§ (He is leaving,and I
am leaving too,),求圖苤ㄛ蕞妀臐 (Though the
watermelon is small,its pulp tastes sweet,) and 求扂蠅桴ㄛ
坻蠅釴§ (We are standing while they are sitting.),A
sentence in the Western languages must be equipped
with the prerequisites (subject,predicate,object and so on)
or it fails to sound reasonable and acceptable,which does
not seem true in Chinese language wherein are available
as many sentences bearing no subject,no predicate and
no object as possible,
? The sentences without subjects,nominated
as the non-subject sentence in the West,
has been in a widespread application in
Chinese language,Considering the
structure it can be sub-classified as follows,
A).When explaining natural phenomena or
warning of certain upcoming things,it
appears in a so called verb-object phrase
attached at the end with an auxiliary 求賸§
(already changed),such as 求狟迾賸§ (It
has rained),求堤怮栠賸§ (The sun has
been shining ),求奻諺賸§ (Class has
begun ) and 求羲陬賸§ (The bus has started
up),
? B).When proffering demand or ban,it occurs in a
slogan,such as 求乾誘豪翌§ (Take care of flowers
and lawn),求呴忒壽藷§ (Close door before
leaving),求③軗晞耋§ (Walk through detour) and
求淥倓笢貌§ (Rejuvenate China),C),It comes up
in mottos or proverbs,such as 求祥冪珨岈ㄛ祥酗珨
秷§ (Wisdom comes from experience),求笱圖腕圖ㄛ
笱飪腕飪§ (Reap what you sowed),求祥趥C見
挸腕誥赽§ (Nothing venture,nothing gain) and
求勛珨Зㄛ酗珨秷§ (A fall into a pit,a gain in wit),
D),When showing wish and expectation,it recurs
in 求堋扂蠅腔衭祓勀嘉酗ч§ (May our friendship
last forever),求槨癩呤笢刓珂汜§ (In memory of Dr,
Sun Yat-sen) and 求楷栨&拻侐*乾弊翋砱嫖棷
苀§ (Carry on the glorious patriotic tradition of
the May 4th Movement),
? The sentence in no possession of the predicate
retains an extensive scope,notably in the classic
Chinese poems and lyrics,which is totally
incompatible with the Western 求syntactic rules′,A
poem written by Wen Tingjun serves as an
exemplar,
? 妀刓婌俴
? 憐汒矇虛堎ㄛ
? 佷ㄟ暷攣炕
?
? An Early Trip at Mount Shang
? Cocks Crow,Thatched Inn,Moonlight;
? Footprints,Wood Bridge,Frost white,
? This poem only contains six nouns in a simple
process instead of predicate or other grammatical
elements,unfolds a vivid image that a traveler
lodging at a country inn gets up at midnight and
hurries on his way,It sounds unconceivable in the
Western grammatical rules,Take a couplet
engraved in the Flower God Temple at the West
Lake,
? 港港綻綻ㄛ揭揭搡搡桏桏˙
? 瑞瑞迾迾ㄛ爛爛贍贍陳陳﹝
?
? Green,green,red,red,
? Everywhere,everywhere,orioles,orioles,
swallows,swallows;
? Breeze,breeze,rain,rain,
? Every year,every year,nights,nights,days,days,
? The couplet is lined up in an array of reiterative
locutions without any grammatical elements,
being a harmonious integral complex in Chinese
other than an 求excessive′ case in the Western
grammar,As a matter of fact the sentences
exclusive of predicates are frequently employed
in large quantities in daily communication
between Chinese people,This type takes on
forms as follows,
? A).The sentence with adjectives as the predicate,
such as 求笢弊佸 с櫛蚋詫§ (Chinese people
are diligent and courageous),求涴桲賒 か謠, (This
painting looks magnificent) and 求苤鳴赽 笳綠橾妗,
(The kid appears honest and sincere);
? B),The sentence with nouns as the predicate,
such as 求踏毞 陎ぶ拻, (Today is Friday),求坻 坋匐§
(He is eighteen),求珨輸ヴ 踝し彆, (Three jin of
apples costs one yuan),求坻 毞踩, (He comes
from Tianjin ),求涴苤鳴赽,湮桉齒ㄛ窪羹禱, (The
young guy has a pair of large eyes and black
eyebrows ) and 求涴桲袤赽 沭虯, (This table is
supported by three legs );
? C).The sentence with 求腔§ (of) as the predicate,
such as 求桲模闖繳腔§ (The Zhang family sells
coal) and 求苤燠羲陬腔§ (Xiao Li is a driver)
? Such being the case,why can Chinese language
accurately expound ideas and convey sentiments
without resort to such highly-specified
grammatical rules as the Western grammar? It is
dependent upon the ideographic performance
and pragmatic features,
? The priority ingrained therein is placed on manifesting
semantic meanings and targeting the coherence and
homologue between sense groups and elements with the
graphs or strokes in the charge of implications,which has
been projected into the artistic conceptions,求The real
scenery inadequately furnished will bring about more
setting for actor and actresses on stage′ in Chinese
drama,求abandoning resemblance so as to achieve the
vigor in style′ in Chinese painting and 求Not a huge stock of
words is needed to penetrate into what lies deeply
beneath it′ in Chinese prose and essays,Chinese
language is specialized in taking advantage of the
relationships of opposing and complementing each other
or supplementing each other or paralleling and
corresponding to each other with a view to transmitting
messages,exchanging ideas or sentiments and checking
the setup of the sentence,
? Henceforth as B.W,Humboldt von,the founder of General
Linguistics,who was well cultivated in Chinese language,
had asserted in his treatise entitled The Property of the
Grammatical Form of Chinese Language & the Features
of Chinese Language,求In a Chinese sentence proceeds
an array of characters that require your weighing them
and deliberating upon varied relations before moving to
the next,Since the ideographic connection occurs out of
the relations hereto,consequently the process of pure
tacit thinking will replace some portion of grammar.′ In the
meantime Chinese language attaches prime importance
to the exchange between functional words and notional
words in pursuit of the smooth rhyme,tempo and
simplified structure bearing rich connotations,as has been
mistaken for 求ellipsis′ without case,Those who are
accustomed to the Western grammar often feel
bewildered,but it is such that has molded the broadness
and profundity of Chinese language,resulting from which
a reservoir of contents and complexities emits a lingering
charm,
? 2,Western languages tend to be reconstructive
and Chinese language to be accumulative,
? As an alphabetic script,Western languages
feature variableness that highlights two aspects,
firstly,the obvious reconstruction of words and
phrases,that is,a popular phenomenon of no
repeated employment of an expression or a set of
phrases for the already-changed things; secondly,
the constant change in word order and sentence
pattern,
? Confronted with the Western match,Chinese
language appreciates a great degree in stability
and invariableness that is intimately related to its
property of ideograph or pictograph,
? Ideograph processes natural things to symbolic
signs in search of ascertaining objective laws,as
is supplied with multiple dimensions and relative
stability that pioneers in the word or phrase
accumulativeness,Responding to each other,any
objective thing usually undertakes a gradual
tempo in the course,affecting the linguistic
phenomenon in such a way that a batch of newly-
constituted words or phrases will not be applied
as the whole to indicate the already-changed
things or relations; instead the former set of
words or phrases injected with novelty shall be
deployed to do so,Thus a Chinese word is
enriched by a set of multiple meanings,For
instance,求恓§ out of 嫉恓 (listen by ear),泭恓
(hear of ),and陔恓 (news) refers to 求hear′; in turn
another 求恓§ in 恓善ァ庤 (smell the smell )
means 求smell′,
? Take a 求踡§ in 旰踡 (bond in clothing),踡坫 ( shrink),踡摹
(emergency),踡つ (imperative),踡椎 (compact),旆踡 (strict),
踡躇 (close) and 踡桲 (nervous),available is certain similar
consistency among these senses,Towards 求墊§ there
can be found a batch of 墊ぃ (eccentric),墊韻 (absurd),墊
桲 (odd and unreasonable) and墊懤 (perverse) implying
求violate′ as well as another batch of 墊б (clever and
lovely) and 墊墊 (darling) suggesting 求obedient′,in which
case the two senses seem absolutely contrastive,That is
why it doesn*t sound rare that quite a few relevant senses
can be derived from a root word,As the accumulativeness
regarding the intension grows,there has arisen the
generality and flexibility in a higher degree of Chinese
language,A child,for example,only if he or she is aware
of a concept 求陬§ (car,cart or chariot),can speak out a
pile of phrases concerned,鳶陬 (train),イ陬 (car or truck),
鎮陬 (horse-drawn cart),籟陬 (ox-drawn cart),聶陬 (donkey-
drawn cart),佹有 (rickshaw),謗謫陬 (two-wheeled cart),
黃謫陬 (one-wheeled cart) and謫陬 (tricycle),
? No wonder that Chinese students can learn to
write letters and compositions as long as they
have got a mastery of 2,000-3,000 characters,A
common-edition Xinhua Dictionary (Modern
Chinese Dictionary) comprises a total of no more
than 8,000 characters inclusive of the variables,
coupled with 3,200 entries of multi-syllable words
and phrases,a conspicuous feature in contrast
with the Western peers,(A popular dictionary for
students in the West is well stocked with 160,000-
170,000 words and all the more the Oxford
Dictionary maintains an ocean of over 600,000
words,which is still on the rise).
? In the second place the accumulativeness in
question sheds light over a high stability of word
order and sentence patterns,The grammatical
system involving Chinese language is established
by 求the categories based on word order,which
are constituted into a system.′ As uttered in the
Chapter and Sentence from Carving a Dragon at
the Core of Literature composed by Liu Xie,a
literary critic in the Jin-Dynasty,求Words shall be
arranged in order# which is nominated the
sentence,′ 求A sentence is a layout; the layout is
bordered with conjunctions,′ 求Words and
sentences will be applicable in a fixed order# if
they lost the coordination they would be like a
traveler on a remote way who gets no facilities to
continue his trip; if things were inverted against
rules they would not be fixed to anchor as a ship,
? That is why making sentences shall abstain from
reversion,writing articles in order will be
appreciated′ Owing to the fact that the message
pervaded in Chinese language is to be
transmitted primarily relying on the fixed order,it
has been the case for millennia that the subject
precedes the predicate and the modifier precedes
the modified,Though it was somewhat
inappropriate that the verb was placed before the
object in remote ages,the tradition has been
enduring in an intact manner to the present day.
? An analysis was performed regarding the
grammar of Tortoise Shell Script (the Chinese
pictograph carved on tortoise shells or animal
bones) and the findings disclosed that the word
order steeped in the remote ancient script bore
resemblance to that in Modern Chinese language,
? It is reasonable that a Chinese student,in case of a basic
command of the characters and proper grammar,will be
fully competent in reading the books written or compiled
in different times,another marked feature affixed therein,
Mr,Wang Li,a prominent linguist ever illustrated with two
examples from The Confucian Analects,1) 求赽獗鰍赽ㄛ赽
繚祥佽§ (The Master having visited Lady Nan,Zi Lu was
displeased),求赽婓ょ恓屻ㄛ堎祥眭瑢間 (When the
Master was in Qi Kingdom,he heard the music played
and for three months did not know the taste of meat) He
held that for one thing the pronunciation and vocabulary in
these cases have undergone substantial changes,for
instance,求佽§ (pleased) replaced by 求詢倓§ (happy),求恓§
(hear of) by 求泭獗§ (heard),and 求屻§ (music) excluded
out of use; for another in the grammar there has been no
palpable variation,the word order and sentence patterns
remaining unimpaired in its modern match,(Wang Li,
Historic Manuscript of Chinese Language) The stability in
Chinese language mirrors a profile of the characteristics
occurring in the accumulativeness.
? 3,Chinese language has remained as a solitary linguistic
system that plunges acute concern on the employment of
functional words and word order so as to sustain the
word-to-word relationship.
? All languages on the globe have been categorized into
four clans,the first designated as the 求scattered′ or
求solitary language′,the second 求with bolts′ or 求deflective
language′ such as Russian,English,German and Arabic
etc,the third 求adhesive′ language such as Turkish,
Japanese,Uygurian and Korean,and the fourth 求weaved′
or 求plaited language′ or 求multi-complex language′ such as
the language disseminated among American Indians,
Chinese language comes within the 求scattered′ solitary
one,for the grammar therein appears to be 求scattered′
and may sound justifiable in case some 求scattered′ words
are marshaled,Each Chinese word seems to have 求a
welding solder′ which can be 求welded′ into an integral
body along with others,fostering the language refining
because of no wordiness.
? As one of the characteristics soaked in Chinese
language is the employment of word order and
functional words to ascertain word-to-word
relationships,the verbal sense and the adjective
sense in the two couples of examples,求怮栠綻§
(The sun is red) & 求綻怮栠§ (the red sun) and 求珔
赽蟯§ (Leaves are green) & 求蟯珔赽§ (green
leaves),sheer rely upon the arrangement
between nouns and adjectives,As illustrated in
the case different combinations will lead to
different meanings,More instances can be cited
hereinafter,求麵氪祥頗ㄛ頗氪祥麵§ (The difficult
is not easy to learn; the learned is not difficult),
求蝨偭祥輛祭ㄛ輛祭祥蝨偭§ (An arrogant man
can not make progress; a man who makes
progress can not be arrogant) and 求懂氪祥囡ㄛ囡
氪祥懂§ (He who has come will not be weak or
virtuous; the weak or virtuous will not come),
? The beginning part and the concluding part in
each couplet vary to some degree,On the other
hand functional words work to identify word-to-
word relationships,As quoted below,the phrase
求迡趼§ (write words),if inserted with a character,
will sound different,from which spring up 求迡賸趼§
(has written words) 求迡徹趼§ (wrote words) and
求迡覂趼§ (is writing words),
? 4,The phonetic feature in Chinese language is
steeped in its outstanding musicality---melodious
in sound,gentle in tune,clear-cut in tempo and
harmonious in rhyme.
? The Indo-European language family has
invariably applied the stressed and unstressed
sound,the long and shortened sound as the
phonetic formulas to distinguish between words,
whereas the Chinese rival stands on the opposite,
As a solitary genus Chinese language is
paralleled with simplified phoneme associations
and absence of multi-consonants delivering a
meager number of syllables,The syllables are
composed of consonants,vowels and tunes,It
features a combination of vowels and consonants,
the precedent being nicknamed the male sound
and the latter the female sound as a concordant
family,It is the tunes that may be counted as the
patent of Chinese language,
? As declared in Compendium of linguistics by Ye
Cishen and Xu Tongqiang,求The tunes of Chinese
language are geared to identify words that are
formulated in rising and falling tunes,The same
syllable with distinct tunes will generate varied
phonetic forms of words or sentence elements,
then arousing differential senses,We can spot
the same vowel and consonant,and the same
association order /ma/ among 求鎔§ (mother),
求鎊§ (linen),求鎮§ (horse) and 求鎬§ (curse) and
however it is the varied tunes that have made
them sound diametrically different,The changing
tunes serve not only to be significant semantically,
but to be pragmatic in grammatical morphology,
? A word or a character equipped with various tunes may
work variably in grammar,Verbs can be cited hereto to
exhibit the distinguished change in parts of speech
caused by the tunes,Mr,Wang Li stated,求Any verbs that
are derived from nouns and adjectives shall be
pronounced in the fourth tune; any nouns transformed
from verbs shall be pronounced in the fourth tune as well,
In conclusion the derivatives are generally conferred upon
the fourth tune.′ At the same time a musical element in
tone modulation is affiliated to the various tunes
? The phonetic trait in question,in addition,is set up upon
units of syllables in which the consonants take
predominance,and the border between which seems
fairly clear-cut,a favorable condition for recording the
enjoyable tempo,It was none other than this that Chinese
classical poems exploited to array both regular and varied
units in tempo,such as a poem by Li Shangyin in the late
Tang Dynasty,
? 俀 ю
?
? 旮懈 〞〞萱 〞〞標傑ㄛ
? 景 〞〞狦 〞〞蚝ь
? 毞砩 〞〞蟒 〞〞蚅翌﹝
? 佷 〞〞笭 〞〞俀ю﹝
? 甜氝 〞〞詢跨 〞〞暰
? 峚蛁 〞〞苤敦 〞〞隴﹝
? 埣纏 〞〞陴ヲ 〞〞綴ㄛ
? 寥滄 〞〞极 〞〞載ш﹝
? Twilight
? I live in seclusion in town,
? Seeing spring pass,summer slows down,
? Heaven pities leaves quiet,
? Humans favor twilight,
? Line-up mansions varied,
? Moonlight*s shining on window sill.
? Birds are mating on high,
? Flying back with delight
? It should be affirmed that the English version can
by no means be equivalent in patterns and
rhythm to the Chinese original on account of the
characteristics in question.
? The poem aforesaid is matched with double-
syllable phrases and one-syllable words,
incarnated in two elementary patterns,2〞1〞2
ㄗ such as 毞砩 〞〞蟒 〞〞蚅翌ㄛ佷 〞〞笭 〞〞
俀юㄘ and 2〞2〞1ㄗ甜氝 〞〞詢跨 〞〞暰ㄛ峚
蛁 〞〞苤敦 〞〞隴ㄘ﹝ The lively rhythm may
engender 求the miracle of pause and transition in
melody′,which,fused with rising and falling tones,
has been extensively assimilated into the musical
patterns of Beijing Opera,求The achievement of
modulated tunes′ and 求the miracle of pause and
transition in melody′ are unexceptionally laid on
the basis of rhythm features,not on the bricks
without straw.
? The superimposed syllables proffer another
remarkable character in aesthetic charm in
Chinese phonetics as well as the one in Chinese
syllables,A lyric composed in artful overlapped
syllables by Li Qingzhao,a rare female lyric wit (in
the Song Dynasty) over the history of China,has
mounted the zenith in both aesthetic conception
and artistic form:
? 汒汒鞣
? 扆扆贊贊ㄛ濮濮ььㄛ
? ぼぼ絀絀べべ﹝
? 敓轡遜漁奀緊ㄛ
? 郔麵蔚洘﹝
? A Slow,Slow Song
? I*m looking for what I miss,deserted alone;
? I*m feeling so sad,so drear,and so morose.
? In this vernal lingering cold,
? With myself it*s hard to cope.
? To sum up Chinese language is claimed to be a
unique ideograph and to be multi-dimensional with
focused concern in semantic association and
concrete images,by which the world can be well
imitated or depicted,and which shall be attributed
to the noteworthy national〞cultural psychology
and thinking style
? A specific analysis can be conducted as follows:
? In the first place Chinese language was instituted
upon the basis of the unification of subject and
object that has been prized the rudiment in the
traditional Chinese philosophical thinking,Aided by
perceived reasoning,the subject 求observed things
and mounded images′ so as to see through the
phenomena,which has laid priority during the
course of coinage on the images or graphs with
the four methods involving coinage hereinbefore to
acquire the collaboration of phonetics,connotation
and morphology,and which has been reflected in
the language structure wherein a semantic
association of words and phrases prevail in plenty
of contents,images and perceptiveness,
? In the second place the traditional philosophical thinking
was inclined to take hold of object in an integral perspective,
Prior to human cognition exceeding the perceived
reasoning,only can the holding of object be realized via
that of relationship,that is,by way of the network which is
related to object,The relevant network to be held never
seems a fixed and clear entirety but an ever-changing one
that,accordingly,renders object ambiguous and
polysemous,In order to see through object people must
adapt to a multi-visual angle dynamic approach on a whole;
whereupon the language for articulation of object is surely
attached with a high degree of ambiguity and polysemy,
and a 求implicational fulcrum′ and a 求chain of pragmatic
factors′ shall be more efficiently utilized as a crucial means
of language structure,
? Concurrently there must exist a real substance concealed
behind its presentation since any object is included in a
certain type of relationship network,Therefore a
characteristic of the combination of presentation with
noumenon is inevitably reflected upon any language; that is,
when being cast to the network therein,language is
inexorably drawn into the real substance or noumenon
behind it,Hence forwards some references as aChinese
sentence possesses,it retains more often than not what is
actually meant or a profound implicitness,Take an example,
求Night gave me a pair of black eyes,instead I*d take
advantage of them to search for light.′ (Gu Cheng,A
Generation) The sentence sounds plain,but unexpectedly
abounds in intension,Countless sentences charged with
such implicitness can be discovered and read in Chinese
language.
? In the third place,the world in the eye of the traditional
Chinese philosophy was viewed as an entity comprising
two opposite planes (Yin and Yang),the contradictions
arising from which function to boost the generation and
development of things,As claimed in the Book of Changes,
求Therefore in (the system of) the I there is the Grand
Terminus,which produced the two elementary Forms,
Those two Forms produced the Four emblematic Symbols,
which again produced the eight Trigrams,The eight
trigrams served to determine the good and evil (issues of
events),and from this determination was produced the
(successful prosecution of the) great business (of life).′
Such a thinking pattern as one producing two and two
producing four by no means fails to exert a titanic impact
on the formation and evolution of Chinese language in that
求language is a practical# realistic consciousness.′ and 求By
way of the national form,language rules are none other
than ideological rules.′
? In respect of the intrinsic organizational structure
certain devices such as parallel & symmetry,
supplementing each other,opposing yet also
complementing each other are particularly
preferred to assist implicational association;
considering the syllable structure the combination
of consonants and vowels together with the
changing tunes affixed onto syllables is brought
into service to sustain messages,as being a
concrete performance of the dialectical thinking.
? In the ultimate analysis,the traditional Chinese
thinking pattern,originated from the entirety of
subject with object,owes predominance to
concrete images and perceptibility.
? The Chinese language system subject to
this pattern cannot but be matched with a
distinction that devotes significance to the
integral association and the intension
exercising superiority over the graphs or
strokes,as shall be taken into due
consideration by the learners of Chinese
language.
CHAPTER 5 Mighty Surges in the Flow of
Literature
--------One High Follows Another in Chinese Literature
A mighty tide of Chinese literature,resembling the ever-
flowing Yangtze River,has been surging on for millennia in
the literary ocean,Dating back to 1,000 B.C the four ancient
civilizations China,India,Israel and Greece were
simultaneously spurting songs,which,notwithstanding,
varied in form,India and Greece told tales in their songs that
were somewhat characteristic of novel and drama with a
great length while China and Israel were singing the lyrics
sustaining the topics of human life and religion,Behaving
the same way as her peers China forecasted at her incipient
sound the trace by which her literature could germinate in
the successive thousands of years# henceforth,poetry ㄜ
lyrics have invariably been the orthodox genre in Chinese
literature,
? From the surging-on gigantic literary river Chinese
ancestors screened a concise reverberating
model as a medium to give vent to their naive
sentiments and unsophisticated ideals,
Hereinafter the main stream had progressed in the
course of 求lyric′,gradually converging into the
lyrical tradition as an emblem of Chinese literary
distinction,The poetry,prose,drama and novel
have exceptionally been imbued in a lyrical
atmosphere,which has historically been the
literary consciousness jointly agreed upon by
generations of Chinese literati and which can be
prized the foremost trait of Chinese literature.
? Furthermore this lyrical trait has been permeated
into other cultural sub-systems,求The poetry has
not only exercised dominance over the whole
stage of literature,but affected the modeling art,
assimilated the painting and decorated the
buildings (such as the written couplets carved on
the pillars of a hall or gateway and those put up
on Spring Festival) and a host of handicrafts′,(A
Complete Collection of Wen Yiduo) Whereas
literature usually exerts influence on arts,
concurrently Chinese literature could not have
survived in being disrupted off the grand
background of Chinese culture,
? Chinese philosophy appeared to be a political-
ethical style assuming priority over how people
shall behave appropriately and 求how a state
shall be settled and governed′,which took on
the view to regard that literature shall exploited
to portray human life and that 求literature shall be
loaded with the world.′ The Grand Foreword of
Poetry affirmed,求Nothing seems more effective
than poetry in rectifying demerits and
commending merits,shattering Heaven and
Earth,and striking ghosts and deities,The
ancestral Kings,by availing themselves of it,had
conciliated husbands and wives,practiced piety
and tribute to parents,praised human ethics,
eulogized refined morale and transformed social
habits and customs′,having definitely
heightened its function in political teachings,
? Liu Xie also argued that literature was bestowed
upon three social aims; 求Political teachings by
way of literature,′ 求Historical recording by way of
literature,′ and 求Cultivation of personal character
by way of literature,′ a prevailing standpoint
towards the traditional Chinese literature,There
had existed a tendency that literature and
philosophy were pervaded mutually into each
other to such an extent that those ancient writers
coincided to be ideologists and statesmen,and
that the creative approaches of literature along
with the literary schools happened to be in
intimate contact with certain philosophical views
and political doctrines,
? The realism was bond with Confucianism; the
romanticism spouted out of Taoism with a trace
of Buddhism later; the metaphysical poems and
the wandering-deity poems in the Eastern Jin
Dynasty emerged under the influence of the
Yellow Emperor-Master Lao Doctrine; some anti-
feudalist novels and dramas in Ming and Qing
Dynasties disclosed interrelation to the left-wing
Wang Xizhi,a radical philosopher; the notes in
the Tang Dynasty were the derivative from
Buddhism and the celestial play belonging to the
melodrama in the Yuan Dynasty was sourced
from Taoist legendary stories,The art,otherwise,
had nourished literature,The primeval art in
China made debut as a mixture of poetry,music
and dance,
? During its later course Chinese classic poetry,
though proceeding on a unique way,was still
characteristic of the vigor in painting and the
fluidity in music,The multi-sided perspective
device employed to portray certain features of a
thing in painting and notably in sculpture was
imbibed into the poetry and also the tradition
regarding composition and appreciation was
shaped that subject was depicted through object,
and sentiment was let off by means of
surroundings and atmosphere,Above all the
double-orientation impact available between the
subsidiaries within Chinese cultural system,and
求a lively conglomerate brimming with many a
character′ forged the unequalled trait ofChinese
culture,hence that of Chinese literature,
? Chinese literature 求has not only impressed the sole
fingerprint of its own personality and spirit in the
unmated contact between thought and form′ (by
Bielinsky),but has achieved well-ranging popularity
worldwide,It has been surging on as a mighty river
diffusing a lingering artistic charm,Preceded by the
legends primitive ages,it had proceeded in succession
of the Book of Poetry,The Poetry of the South and
Prose of Scholars in the Pre-Qin Period,the Fu in Han,
the poetry & prose in the Wei-Jin Period,the poetry in
Tang,the lyrics in Song,the melodrama in Yuan and the
novels in Ming and Qing,During a lengthy course of
millennia one literary genre prospered and declined to its
sunset while another order lurked,made appearance
and went on stage rising here and subsiding there,the
climaxes being presented at intervals,a resplendent
prospect in the history of the world literature,Hereinafter
only will a few major literary styles be introduced briefly.
I,Book of Poetry
? Chinese literature is characterized by a tradition of
realism in the remote antiquity and the Book of Poetry,
which was compiled over two thousand and five hundred
years ago,is renowned as the originator of realistic
literature in China.
? The Book of Poetry is an aggregate anthology of the
verses fulfilled between the early Zhou Dynasty (the
eleventh century B.C) to the middle of the Spring-
Autumn Period (the sixth and seventh century B.C),This
classic canon was finalized approximately around the
sixth century B.C with a total collection of three hundred
and five poems,In the light of varied musical rhythms,it
was categorized into three sections,瑞 (the Book of
Songs),捇 (the Book of Odes and Epics) and 佮 (the
Book of Hymns),
? The Book of Songs was referred to as the folk
songs or ballads sung within different kingdoms;
The Book of Odes and Epics the music
circulating in Wangji,the abode of the Zhou
emperors; The Book of Hymns served chiefly to
worship gods in ceremonies and sacrifices and
to glorify the merits of the rulers and their
ancestors to the accompaniment of music and
dance,The Book of Poetry abounds in contents,
featuring an aesthetic value as well as diverse
values in cognition.
1,Outcry of the Times
? As Liu Xie,a literary critic,advocated that
求Poetry may serve to reflect sentiments′,the
remarkable artistic achievements steeped in the
Book of Poetry are ultimately a prominent
projection of the times.
? A great many stanzas pertaining to the literary
treasure reflected a picturesque reality of the
existing society through a medium of the
sentiments which the writers and singers
conceived of,For instance,the political
tranquility and peaceful social order during the
reign of King Wen of Zhou and the Duke of Zhou
were mirrored in the following lines,
?, Toil without a grievance′ in Zhou Nan,the
Songs Collected South of the Capital,Modern
Shaanxi and Hanan and,求 Joy without indulging ′
in Fen Feng,the Songs Collected in Fen,
Modern Hebei,By contraries the fatuity and
ferocity of King Li and King Ping of Zhou were
inevitably screened on such poems as Censure,
Warning and The Ruined Capital,a fury and
grief in vogue,Furthermore,the outcry arising
from The People Are Hard Pressed in the Book
of Epics infiltrated into the verses,求The people
are hard pressed/ They need a little rest.′,the
earliest plea for mercy on behalf of the
depressed,
? The discharge of the administration to
villains by some sovereigns of Zhou was
admonished in To Grand Master Yin
compiled in the Book of Odes,求State set
apart? / We toil with pain.′ Consecutively
the kings were interrogated in grief,
求State*s in a mess/ Why don*t you care?′
These satirical pieces,with a view to
political teachings,were targeted on
求making the audience (rulers) reproved
and reflect′,representatively susceptible
of 求a supplement to political teachings′ in
Chinese literature.
? In the exception of a political aim,the Book of
Poetry portrayed a clear-cut picture of the joys
and sorrows,or/and the ecstasy and rage
concerning the exploited class,Take an
example in Large Rat of the Songs Collected in
Wei,Modern Henan,the exploiter was
metaphorically compared as an 求avaricious and
cowardly′ large rat,the poets sighing repeatedly
in despair for no existence of Shangri-La
abundant in grins and shelter,a phrase of
yearning for beauty and ideals in their daily life,
? The verses regarding love affairs account for a
moderate percentage of pages in this treasure,
Riverside Rendezous described the gayeties of
young couples mating and playing with each
other on the riverside overflowed with melting icy
water in spring,A Shepherdess reveals the
jubilant engagement of a lad and a lass,imbued
with a natural flavor and pleasant air; whereas
the hero and heroine emerging from My Lover in
White and To Her Captive Lord plighted their
faith,求Living,we dwell apart;/ Dead,the same
grave we*ll share./ Am I not true at heart?/ By
the bright sun I swear.′##
2,Preeminent Accomplishments in
Art
? Prior to the Western Zhou Dynasty there had prevailed
some ballads,folk songs and verses but nowadays it is
impossible to retain a glimpse of their primitive features
on account of barren written records,Nonetheless
pursuant to The Songs Played with a Pipa collected in
Wu Yue Spring-Autumn Annals,Qinyun and Odes to
Five Masters recorded in the Book of Documents,it can
be inferred that those ballads,folk songs and verses in
remote ages sounded na?ve and unsophisticated
signifying a literature still in embryo,The Book of Poetry,
notwithstanding a trace dating back to the literature
before Zhou,was momentously characteristic of 求literary
elegance superior to history′ with a wider variety of glory
in manifestation and a richer coloring in epitomization,
? The Book of Songs consists of tetra-syllabic
verses,rhymed every other line,but flexible in
meters without rigid adherence to rules,Take a
glance into Plantain Gathering from the Songs
Collected South of the Capital,Modern Shaanxi
and Henan:
? We gather plantain seed,粒粒釁鑾
? Let*s gather it with speed,情晟粒眳
? We gather plantain ears,粒粒釁鑾
? Let*s gather them with cheers,情晟衄眳
? We gather plantain seed,粒粒釁鑾
? Let*s rub it out with speed,情晟嗇眳
? We gather plantain ears,粒粒釁鑾
? Pull by handfuls with cheers,情晟睒眳
?
? We gather plantain seed,粒粒釁鑾
? Let*s fill our skirts with speed,情晟堲眳
? We gather plantain ears,粒粒釁鑾
? Belt up full skirts with cheers,情晟烢眳
? This ballad was sung while the women were bending
over plantain in the country fields,The poem was
composed of three stanzas and twelve lines,with only
six verbs substituted,striking the reader profoundly with
an image of gleeful laborers and giving rise to a flight of
fancy by means of epithets and refrains,Simply imagine
that in a bright sunshine and a gentle breeze,a throng of
farming women,scattered by twos and threes in
wilderness,were singing and yelling in antiphony while
laboring,their voices echoing far and near,off and on,
long and unbroken,you would come to conceive of an
aesthetic conception arising out of brisk rhythms and
repeated chanting.
? Two literary devices,Bi and Xing,were immensely
employed in the Book of Poetry with a fairly satiated
effect in art performance,Bi was meant by 求comparison
of this matter with that matter′,specifying that a specific
and vivid matter as a simile or metaphor,involving the
things and ideas a writer plans to expound,should be
converted into another specific and distinctive image,
Cite an example in the Rat and Large Rat,the
ruler was compared to an image of the
abominable and the mean monarchs while a
mulberry tree from thriving to withering in growth
in A Faithless Man was metaphrased into a
vicissitude of love between a wedded couple,
? Xing was referred by animating people to muse,
that is,求starting a song by evoking images quite
apart from the central subject′,Let us take
further two instances from the Songs Collected
South of the Capital,Modern Shaanxi and
Henan,the peach blossoms in flourish in The
Newly Wed evoked readers* association to start
a congratulation message at the wedding; in
Wooing and Cooing,求By riverside a pair/ Of
turtledoves are cooing;′ resulted in chanting
lines,leading to a paean to the newly wed,The
appropriate application of Bi and Xing has
tremendously enriched the presentation variety
in poetry skills; So naturally many a touching
realm and image could have been created within
so short stanzas and verses.
? In brief,the Book of Poetry marked a
brilliant dawn of Chinese literature,its
artistic style and manifestation being a
lasting nourishment for Chinese
descendents,That is why Liu Xie
commentated on,求Rhymed Prose,Hymns,
Songs and Odes have entirely rested on
the Book of Poetry′.
II,The Prose in the Pre-Qin Period
? The Prose in the Pre-Qin Period consists of the historic
works and the essays by those masters or scholars,the
former being converged upon narration,the latter upon
exposition.
? A,The historic works elegant in rhetoric and vigorous in
characters.
? The sector in question abounded in the scope of
contents,The Spring-Autumn Annals that had been
completed by the end of the Spring-Autumn Period is
counted as the earliest chronicle in China,keeping a
record of the major events incurred in the different
Kingdoms ranging 242 years from Duke Yin of Lu
Kingdom 1 (722 B.C) to Duke Ai of Lu Kingdom 14 (480
B.C),
? This canon appeared concise and rigorous in
literary style; the notion of the auth or,positive or
negative,was conceived in one word,as being
the so-called 求Spring-Autumn Style′ or 求Petty
Phrase Betraying Truth′,The Zuo Biography,
otherwise termed The Zuo Spring-Autumn
Annals,a twin chronicle to the precedent,was
alleged to be composed by Zuo Qiuming,which
had left its footprint on history not only as a
historic masterpiece stuffed with detailed
recounting,but also as an first-rated anthology
exhibiting a dramatic portrait of key incidents
and dedicating a keen concern to the personage
and the major wars.,
? The Intrigues of the Warring States,a
historic narration of the disrupted
kingdoms,registered the go-canvassing
and the remarks of those lobbyists therein
in an eloquent and boastful style,full of
metaphors,similes and vivid description,
such as the scene of the farewell to Jin Ke
on the Yi River,who had been scheduled
to assassinate the king of Kingdom Qin,
spouting a striking appeal.
B,The essays of the masters and scholars
majestic in a variety of genres.
? The essays of the kind were identified as a
collection of the argumentations asserted by the
various schools for their diverse standpoints,
The chief pieces can be listed in order,The
Book of Master Lao or The Book of Way and
Morality was prized the Taoist scripture,rich in
verses like a prose poetry imbued with
philosophical ideas,The Confucius Analects,a
canon of Confucianism,cited the remarks of
Confucius and his disciples in a quotation style
featuring the plain and succinct expression
filtrated into sagacious views,
? Of all the essays in that matter The Mencius
Analects and The Book of Master Zhuang
retained superiority in literary value,The former
was susceptible of a imposing air filled with
intense emotion and acute agitation,Going
about drumming up support for the dukes,or
refuting the political rivals or holding a seminar
with the followers,Mencius worked as an
outstanding elocutionist expert in making the
point to a further degree,The latter one fell
within Taoist creation of high standing that
adapted the imaginary legends to the romantic
flavor and the strong poetic conception leaving
the reading public a 求natural and elegant
bearing′,
? Liu Yueyan made a comment on it; 求Like a
deity,Master Zhuang descended from
Heaven driving away all the sludge and
filth on Earth and refining it the elixir,′ a
phrase of fulsome praise.
? Following the aforesaid The Book of
Master Mo became pervaded in plain
diction but strict logic,The Book of Master
Xun and The Book of Master Han Fei,
strict and austere,had brought about a
fresh horizon in the literary field.
? Wit and beauty were therefore weaved into the historic
works elegant in rhetoric and vigorous in characters and
the essays of the masters majestic in variety,sparking a
golden age in the history ofChinese prose.
III,The Poetry of the South and Fu of the Han
Dynasty
? The term 求Poetry of the South′ made its initial
appearance in The Biography of Zhang Tang out
of The Records of the Historian,which was
originally referred to as the indigenous ballads in
Chu Kingdom,and afterwards was transferred to
be a special reference indicating a newly-born
poetic style as represented by Qu Yuan living in
Chu pertainiing to the Warring States Period,
The poetic style was pervaded into a rich color
of the indigenized culture as Huang Bosi in the
Song Dynasty observed,求All the book is soaked
in Chu dialectal phrases,Chu phonetics,Chu
regional names,and Chu things.′
? Towards the end of the Western Han Dynasty
when compiling the anthology of the poems by
Qu Yuan,Song Yu and the mimicries by the
their successive worshippers in Han,Liu Xiang
designated the title to The Poetry of the South or
The Poetry of Chu,which served to be another
far-reaQing aggregate collection of poetry in the
ancient China ranking next to the Book of Poetry
and marking a new epoch of the romanticism in
Chinese poetry.
? The Poetry of the South had been melted into Qu Yuan,
the greatest romantic poet in the history ofChinese
literature,as argued in The Criticism on Sorrow After
Departure from Carving the Dragon at the Core of
Literature,求Where there is no presence of Qu Yuan,
there is no shadow of Sorrow After Departure.′ Qu Yuan
was conferred on the first given name Ping,the second
given name Yuan,who lived in a transitional era of Chu
Kindom in wax and wane,Confronted with the decline of
his native land and the endless postponement of his
ambition and the repellency and banishment on exile,he
entertained the grief and grudge in writing up the ever-
established verses Sorrow After Departure,Asking
Heaven,The Nine Elegies,Lament for the Chu Capital,
Longing for Changsha and so on so forth before getting
himself drowned in the Miluo River,having left Chinese
descendents a lofty image and a hoard of predominant
poems,
? The Nine Elegies refers to an overall canon of
the nine poems that provided a perfect blending
of sorrowful affirmation,realistic portrait,
untrammeled emotion and intense exposition,
one prototype being Hymn to the Orange Tree,a
self-esteemed piece,which,like a fresh trickling
brook,unveiled the poet*s sublime sentiment of
求So selfless,you have virtues high′ and
求Unyielding to the vulgar tide.′ And the Nine
Songs inclusive of eleven poems composed in
accord with the sacrificial hymns sound clear-cut
in rhythm and refined in style,of which For
Those Fallen for the Country depicted in a
robust touch a solemn picture of those patriotic
soldiers facing death unflinchingly,
? Asking Heaven seems none other than a prodigious
poem in which legends and history were arranged in a
series of queries mingled with moved affection and
colorful imagination,which betrayed in a varied length of
verses the existing consciousness evolving in the interim
from legends to history due to the awakening rationale,
求a first-class queer writing′ in the history of Chinese
literature.
? Sorrow After Departure,Qu Yuan*s representative work,
is acclaimed the longest lyric as well as a glorious
romantic canon in the ancient China,The poet dragged
into the tip of pen a magnitude of legends,historic
celebrities,and natural scenery molding a brilliant
paradise imbued in deep imagination and complex
emotion,求a perfect unrivalled beauty.′
? This 求more classical than scripture′ creation
fused into a whole the unrestrained association
and the vigorous and profound sentiment,
求reclaiming the authentic resplendent starting
point of Chinese lyrics and a peerless prototype.′
(Li Zehou,The Process of Beauty)
? Till the Western Han Dynasty the Poetry of the
South inaugurated by Qu Yuan began to be
pregnant with and breed a new style〞Fu,as
was advocated by Liu Xie,求Fu was brewed in
the womb of the Book of Poetry and borne by
the Poetry of the South.′
? Fu bore two features,the first being
求appraising without songs′ implying that it
differed from the songs in the Book of
Poetry to the accompaniment of music,
and fitted for oral recitation in a form that
had omitted the redundant functional
words and the modal particles at the close
of stanzas having adapted Fu to a prose-
poetry genre,That is why Fu appeared to
come within the pure literature exempted
from the primeval songs and dance
despite its embryo in the Poetry of the
South.
? Otherwise Fu was loaded with elaborating
on and depicting 求the things and creatures
omnipresent in the universe′ so as to
adjust to the grand united empire,Liu Xie
said,求Fu is specialized in elaboration on
details; the elaboration in elegant writing
offers the observation of things and the
voicing of human minds.′ As a new literary
device,Fu had eliminated the thick
element of lyrics occurring in the Poetry of
the South and assumed an essential
feature in narrating details.
? At the outset of the Han Dynasty certain works by Jia Yi,
Huainan Xiaoshao and so on,though entitled Fu,
substantially proved to be a vestige of the Poetry of the
South signaling the interim process from the aforesaid to
Fu.,The cornerstone of Fu owed so much to the noted
Seven Queries by Mei Chen wherein the crown prince of
Chu Kingdom was supposed to be diseased and hold
conversations with a traveler from Wu Kingdom,In the
luxurious diction were screened six aspects involving
music,delicious food,chariots drawn horses,barbeque
and excursion,hunting and watching tide at beach,
finally extending to the 求maxims′ of the preceding sages,
an incarnation of the purpose that literature should be of
benefit to political teachings,
? The excessive elaboration and hyperbole therein
impressed the readers strikingly,as if being personally
on the scene,which served as an exemplar for the
forthcoming imitators in the title of 求Seven Styles′.
? The later half of the Western Han Dynasty saw a
flourishing time in Fu development,otherwise named the
Grand Han Fu period for during the reign of Emperor Wu
China became powerful in warfare and economy to the
effect that 求The Son of Heaven (emperor) overruns the
four seas; no majesty fails to establish high dignity.′
Expected to the demand 求to whitewash the glorious feats′
the writers used to exalt the emperors in a boastful style
of Fu,The positive commending mingled with tactful
censure forged the political character of Fu in Han.
? The most influential writer of Fu in the sovereignty of
Emperor Wu should be conferred upon Sima Xiangru
with Zixu Fu and the Royal Forest Fu,On the pretext of
such imaginary figures as Zixu (Emptiness),Wu You
(Nothingness) and Wang Shigong (Escape),the author,
through the medium of excessive boasting and splendid
diction,delivered a portrait of the fairy land and the
ecstasy of the royal hunting and dancing in the first Fu,
Reading through the piece,Emperor Wu spoke favorably
of his talents and later on called on him into the imperial
palace to serve as the laureate,In the second
masterpiece he unfolded an increasingly grandiose
scene of the royal traveling and hunting,elaborating to
an extreme degree on the imposing mountains and
rivers,the formidable chambers and pavilions,beautiful
blooms or blossoms and the rapture in hunting,as
sounded like 求a stream of luxury and elegance.′
? The overstuffed odes absent of true sentiment,it
is pitiful,channeled Fu to its pinnacle as well as
to ruin.
? Ban Gu,a well-famed writer in the Eastern Hun
Dynasty,composed the Two Capitals Fu in
depicting the economic prime of the western
capital Chang*an and the eastern capital
Luoyang,Another version of the Two Capitals
Fu by Zhang Heng exploited an all the more
boastful elaboration on the urban traders,
knights,lobbyists,elocutionists,acrobatics,
wrestling and other daily activities,The twin
pieces equally seemed grandiose in scale and
elegant in phrasing.
? In short a dainty description and a sedulous
strive for hyperbole were unveiled in their works
respecting the impressive natural scenery,
prospering cities,well-developed commerce,
abundant produce,imposing palaces,luxurious
clothing,precious birds or beasts,majestic
celebrities,adventurous hunting and revelry of
singing and dancing,By such a rampant style
the Fu writers exhibited in glittering images the
rich fortunes,the magnificent culture and the
dignity of the Chinese empire,projecting the
scene of its territory expansion,entrepreneurial
spirit and imposing character.
IV,Gloriously Radiant Poetry in the Tang Dynasty
? As mentioned above,China was claimed to be
the land of poetry; and so naturally the Poetry in
the Tang Dynasty is prized the culmination in
Chinese poetry,The Complete Anthology of
Tang Poems,which was selected in the Qing
Dynasty,maintains an amassed stock of roughly
50,000 poems written by a huge cluster of 2,300
poets,when the poet wits spurted in streams,
the poetic styles had matured,and the divergent
schools and styles had been in shape,a
marvelous spectacle of poems in a blaze of color,
1,Fresh Voices of the Four Juvenile Wits
? Rising in the early Tang Dynasty the Four Wits (Wang
Bo,Yang Jiong,Lu Zhaoling and Luo Binwang ) drew
wide the curtain of the poetry campaign as Du Fu,the
poetry sage in Tang proclaimed later,求Wang Yang Lu
Luo*s poetry in vogue′ and 求Flow endlessly like a river.′
The adolescents who lived in low standing but promised
to be ingenious,in a positive entrepreneurial spirit,broke
through the fetters of the royal pompous poems
flourishing in the Qi and Liang Dynasties,expanded the
scope of styles and contents and heightened what had
been expressed in poems in the aesthetic pursuit of
robustness and loftiness,having reclaimed an era of the
new poetry in the history of Chinese literature.,Take a
glimpse at a highly-recited poem by Wang Bo:
Farewell to Vice Prefect Du Leaving for Sichuan
冞債屾葬眳恀鵖
? You*ll leave the town of the past Chin,傑蜮落пㄛ
? The mist-veiled land you will have seen,瑞桉咡拻踩﹝
? We feel on parting sad and drear,迵澱燭梗砩
? For both of us are strangers here,肮岆鄞蚔芊
? If you*ve a friend who knows your hear,漆囀湔眭撩ㄛ
? Distance can*t keep you two apart,毞挭翿邁﹝
? At crossroads where we bid adieu,拸峈婓ゃ繚ㄛ
? Do not shed tears as women do! 嫁躓僕桭踫﹝
? Though tormented by the inextricable sense
(求We officials keep the same heart′),the poet
mopped up the lingering perplexity transforming
the sorrowful sentiment to the adventurous air
and cherishing an ambitious hope by 求A bosom
friend afar living / Makes elongated land
wearing.′
? Behind the Four Wits proceeded Chen Zi*ang as
another idealist poet who gained eminence by
his wide-ranging piece:
A Song at Youzhou Terrace 腎蚅笣怢貉
? Ahead the ancient sages I fail to see,ヶ祥獗嘉芄
? Aback the followers I fail to meet,綴祥獗懂氪﹝
? Alone in the world timeless,癩毞華眳蚙蚙ㄛ
? I shed my tears with grief,黃終辣衋慺癒
? Solitary as the stanzas may prove,Chen did never
entertain censure on the circumstances and
individuals,steeped in a universal consciousness
mingled with gallant sentiments,a sort of exalted
beauty.
2,Frontier Poems and Pastoral Poems
? The Grand Period of Tang the poetry was
catalogued into the frontier poetry school
headed by by Gao Shi and Cen Shen and the
pastoral poetry school led by Wang Wei and
Meng Haoran,both of whom symbolized the two
aspects regarding the doom of the ancient
Chinese literati〞serving as officials or dwelling
in seclusion.
? For one thing the vehement frontier poems sang
the elegy of majestic atmosphere in portraying
the scholars who pursued feats and fame and
endeavored to fulfill the political aspirations,An
example is quoted below from Wang Zhihuan:
A Dirge at Liangzhou 褸笣棵
? On the Yellow River winds up into clouds,
酴碩埭奻啞堁潔ㄛ
? A lonely castle stands in ridges of mounds,
珨え嗽傑勀嵀刓﹝
? Why does the Qiang flute play the Willow*s
Sorrow? Ф萃睡剕埳栦霞ˋ
? & Cause no spring breeze blows through Yumen
Post,景瑞祥僅迶藷壽﹝
? Embittered in vast wildness and the mournful
tune,the poet exposed the nostalgia underlying
soldiers* innermost,Here is cited another
instance composed by Wang Changling:
Out of a Frontier Fortress 堤
? The same moon and the pass as in Han and Qin,п
奀隴堎犖奀壽ㄛ
? Yet fighters from afar have not chalked up a win,勀爵
酗涽冼暑飽
? Would that the Winged General Li Were now still 筍妏
韓傑滄蔚婓ㄛ
? Living,to drive Hun Horsemen off Mountain Yin! 祥諒
綸鎮僅秝刓﹝
? The valiant mettle embedded in the soldiers was
thoroughly manifested to the reading public in the verse.
? For another the pastoral poems alloyed into poetry,
songs and paintings furthered the consciousness of
staying away from the profane life and craving for the
nature,as projected onto a poem by Men Haoran:
Spring Dawn 景窀
?
? I woke up when a spring dawn was almost gone,景蹺
祥橇窀ㄛ
? And from all sides each bird sings a merry song,揭揭
恓杽纏﹝
? The rain spattered and wind blustered last night,珗懂
瑞迾汒ㄛ
? I wonder how many flowers have fallen wide,豪邈眭
嗣屾﹝
? Which sounds like a brisk lively ditty that was being
hummed in the early morning,a mirror of the author*s
mood 求like an expanse of clear water,And the poems by
Wang Wei,the poet laureate,play as a graceful lyrical
melody and as a delicate painting of natural scenery:
The Birds Chirping in a Dale 纏霪膚
? I stay quiet watching the laurel blooms
adrift; 冾邿蟧阬銫
? At the still spring night the mounds echo
void,珗噙景刓諾﹝
? The rising moon induces the birds at the
hills 堎堤儐刓纏ㄛ
? To twitter loud along the stream in fits,
奀霪景膚笢﹝
In the Hills 刓 笢
? A blue brook zigzags between boulders,麾
洈啃坒堤ㄛ
? Red leaves in winter begin to wither,鞠漁
綻珔洁﹝
? A trail up winds in hills devoid of rain,刓繚
啋拸迾ㄛ
? Moist air dampens me in the array,諾港
坁刳癒
? Refreshing,reserved,pregnant with lively charm,
the poems of natural scenery,as it may be,had
reached the acme or maturity in the Grand
Period of the Tang Dynasty.
3,求Celestial Poet′ & 求Saint Poet′
? Li Bai and Du Fu are prized the two giants
standing out at the apex in the history of
Chinese poetry,glittering simultaneously like the
Gemini in space in perpetuity,Being highly
talented and of unequaled brilliance,Li Bai has
at a long run been revered the 求Poetry Fairy′ as
well as a romanticist master,The miraculous
imagination,bold exaggeration,superb glossary
and jingling rhythm were incorporated into a
superlative craftsmanship in a na?ve style with
facility:
?, The white hair drifts three thousand zhang,啞楷ロ
桾ㄛ
? Because my anguish lingers so long.′` 埽啾侔跺酗﹝
? (Note,l zhang equals 3.3 meters)
? 求The road is as wide as the blue sky,湮耋褘鈲鴥
? But I solely fail to tread outside.′ 扂黃祥腕堤﹝
?, Yesterday that left me halfway isn*t worth seeking˙
? The present day that gnaws at my soul looks grieving.′
? ィ扂白舝盃藭欶旅梐遛匢穬
? 觴扂陑氪ㄛ踏欶旅梮鈮傀禳
?, A wine cup in hand to invite the Moon,撼戚肂隴堎ㄛ
? In three shadows,I drink to the full.′ 勤荌傖芊
? These resourceful inventions embellished the
human life striking readers to an extreme degree.
? Contrasting to the imposing beauty and the
unchecked emotional gush as a mighty river,Du
Fu,who ascended the literary zenith a bit later,
diverged in such an artistic manner that seems
heartfelt and profoundly depressed like the
waves undulating day and night,One of his
highly appraised poems is partly ushered below:
? On Yueyang Pavilion 腎埬栠瞼
? Informed of the vast Dongting Lake long,昺恓韌穸阨ㄛ
? Today I*ve climbed on Tower Yueyang,踏奻埬栠瞼﹝
? #######.
? No word arrived at me from my relatives,о攬拸珨趼ㄛ
? I am left in a canoe,aged and sick,橾瓷衄嗽笸﹝
? #######
? Recalling the past on the northern frontier,祡竁婻
控ㄛ
? I can*t but weep at the rail with tears,ず唄欥蜑霜﹝
? Viewing a vast expanse of the lake water
and recollecting the dispersed relatives
and friends in the civil war,the poet was
heartfelt and deeply distressed,the
suppressed feeling spurted as if out of a
sluice gate,With the superlative degree in
the vigor of creating the poems,Du Fu has
been venerated as the 求Poetry Sage′ and
his masterpieces the classics of realism.
4,The Foremost Prolific Poet
? In the Middle Period of Tang rose a
noteworthy poet Bai Juyi whose works
pierced into the uncertainties of the
community with a fairly high proficiency,
amounting to the motif he had proposed
himself that 求Essays should be written for
the times ;poems should be composed for
the current affairs.′
? The Remorse-Cherished Song and the Legend of Pipa
fell within the predominant narrative poems by Bai Juyi,
the former being a romanticist success that recounted a
love tragedy occurring between Emperor Xuan of Tang
and his mistress Yang Yuhuan the imperial concubine in
rich imagination,exquisite structure,dainty diction and
harmonic tempo,a favorite verse acclaimed in
generations,The latter piece appeared to be a realistic
account of the misfortune incurred by a poor lass playing
pipa (a musical instrument like guitar),a portrait of the
women bearing a miserable fate in the feudalist society;
meanwhile to be a ventilation of the grievance and
melancholy he sustained after his demotion,It was
contrived in a complicated plot and detailed narration
matched with a clear-cut coherence and a fluent rhythm,
serving as a paragon of ideological significance and
artistic epitome.
V,Sentimental Lyrics in Song Dynasty
? The lyric was a new miracle to the accompaniment of the
music prevailing in the territory of the ancient Yan
Kingdom (in modern Hebei and Shanxi) in the late Sui
Dynasty and early Tang Dynasty,Born out of the poetry,
it appeared to be different from the precedent,In respect
of formula it was confined by the musical tempo of the
tune with the verse pattern irregular in length,Regarding
contents the lyric did not penetrate into the community
as further as the poetry placing priority upon the
affectionate couples and grieving departures,It remained
in 求leisurely and carefree mood′ despise some
development effected during its later period,No wonder
that it was considerably rated a produce of pure lyrical
literature in Chinese classic poetry,
? Towards Song Dynasty the lyric ascended to an
unprecedented resplendent realm,being prized
with the Poetry in Tang as 求the twin crowns′ in
the history of Chinese literature,Transferred
from the vast world to the petty one,from the
universe,humankind and natural scenery to the
private sentiment,the lyric provided a lifelike
picture for the changing spirit of the times.
1,An Epoch-Making Lyric Poet 〞Su Shi
? At the outset of the Song Dynasty the lyric was
stumbling up and down a trail of 求love affairs′
thanks to the hereditary trait from the preceding
the late Tang and the Five Dynasties,deficient in
artistic creativity,As the literary thoughts and
aesthetic conception surged on in the course of
unceasing exploration,Su Shi,a genius in a
laudable tolerant spirit,was held in esteem the
model poet who piloted the lyric to a new
horizon.
? The opening-up attempt in the lyric by Su Shi was
tremendously attributed to the fact that he broke gallantly
through 求extravagant lines′,Charged with the patriotic
spirit,the adventurous mettle in life and the optimistic
heroic personality,he diverted the previous 求drunken in
wine cup′ and 求flirting in woods′ and so forth to the vast
panorama of the social life,His innovated representative
lyrics were embodied in The Mid-Autumn Festival (Tune,
求Prelude to Water Melody′) and The Red Cliff (Tune,
求Charm of a Maiden Singer′),which depicted the
cherished memory of the family members and the
deepened pious thoughts incurred at the Red Cliff (an
ancient battlefield in the Three-Kingdom Period),and
which had been seldom read or spotted in the former
works,
? His sentiment conceived in 求Men have sorrow
and joy,parting and meeting′ and his historic
view 求The state power has surely been passed
down to the present emperor′ had refreshed the
themes concerned,injecting the realistic sense
into the fair scenery and valiant historic
personages,In the picturesque scenes of 求the
crystalline palace on high′,the heroic mettle in
求Jugged rocks tower in the air,swashing waves
beat on the shore′ and in the good will of
求Though miles apart,we*ll share the beauty the
Moon displays.′ were unexceptionally exuberant
the poet*s solemn and stirring emotion and his
broad-minded spirit.
? In short,the lyrics by Su Shi,which sound
ingenuous,brisk,exalted and artful,had been
surely capable of reviving the soul and intriguing
the reading public,Since the outcome of Su
lyrics,it is true,求the poets have came to realize
how to bestir themselves,′ and all the more 求the
poetry and the essay along with natural wonders
have toppled and shattered,′
2,Xin Qiji ---求Reverberating through the Universe
and the History′
? Preceded by Su Shi,Xin Qiji,another lyric master,took
up the thread of the genre and broke open a new ground,
As a patriotic poet 求who roared in vigor and valiance
reverberating through the universe and the history,′ he
sang the song of the grievance and gaiety of the day,
and of the indignation and hope entertained in
theChinese nation giving a gigantic impetus to the lyrics
in Song,Shadowed in passion and lofty sentiment the
poet embraced the noble ideals,preferably venting
heroic aspiration and grief,So naturally his lyrics
featured the fervent subjective consciousness and lofty
conceptions,In view of wording he was expert in making
use of literary allusions appropriately enriching the
diction and free association,
3,A Heroine in the Lyric 〞Li Qingzhao
? The lyrics composed by Li Qingzhao appeared
graceful in well-polished phrasing,and vivid in
artistic images,a lingering charm to readers,Her
works can be classified into two stages
bordering on her withdrawal in crossing the
Yangtze River from the north to the south due to
the alien nomadic invasion,In the earlier stage
much was centered on the maidenhood and the
newly-wedded couples in a brisk and genteel
mood,a phrase of her love for nature and her
longing for satiated marriage,The lyrics in the
latter stage sounded grievous and touQing,such
as:
?, I look for what I miss;
? I know not what it is.
? I feel so sad,so drear,
? So lonely,without cheer.′
? 求But I*m afraid the grief-o*erladen boat
? Upon the Twin-Creek can not keep
afloat.′
? The deep-ingrained mourning arising from the turbulence
in her private life exposed her meditation upon the rise
and decline of the motherland,It is alleged that Liu
Chenweng,a patriotic lyric poet living towards the close
of the Song Dynasty,ever wailed lamentably on this
verse claiming that he should make another lyric in an
equal mood to match the one hereof,
VI,Novels in the Ming and Qing Dynasties
? In a grim sense Chinese novels (notably the book-length
order) started up in a late period out of the legendary
stories,having witnessed the tales of celestial ghosts in
the Six Dynasties,the tales of Marvels in the Tang
Dynasty and Huaben (the script for story-telling) in the
Song Dynasty---the earliest novel written in the
vernacular in China,Sorely when the feudal monarchy
and economy were progressing at a high level in the
Ming and Qing Dynasties and the capitalist production
mode and the townspeople had mounted onto the
historic stage did the novel---a literary form easily
appreciated among the populace in lively and plain
wording---spout energetically pushing forward in a titanic
tide,
1,求Three Eccentric Books′
? The Romance of the Three Kingdoms,The Water Margin
and The Pilgrimage to the West are equally recognized as
求Three Eccentric Books′ in the Ming Dynasty.
? The Romance of the Three Kingdoms is valued the
earliest book-length novel in China,which was produced
by Luo Guanzhong based upon a historic book The
Records of The Three Kingdoms and folklores,The novel
was devised in a massive structure and complex plots
screening a lifelike historic scene of the conflicts and
struggles regarding the military,political and diplomatic
issues between the various feudal warlord blocs,The
protagonists quoted as Liu Bei,Zhu Geliang,Guan Yu,
Cao Cao and so on were portrayed in a fairly successful
touch,However,the ultimate tendency of 求Affirming Liu
Bei and Opposing Cao Cao′ in the novel revealed the
feudalist orthodox conception in the author*s psyche,The
modeling of the characters,to some degree,fell into fixed
stereotype.`
? The Water Margin composed by Shi Lai *an was
contrived on a mammoth background of a
peasants* revolt presenting a tendentious
description of throngs of the outlaws,Lin Chong
rushing up to Mount Liang for refuge at a snowy
night,Lu Zhishen boxing Zhen Guanxi,Wu Song
killing Xi Menqing and beating Jiang Mensheng
in his drunkenness etc.,profoundly disclosing
the darkness existing in the feudal society and
the reality that 求misgovernment drives populace
to rebel.′ The characters depicted to the life and
the exquisite application of plots and wording led
to a high degree of success.
? The Pilgrimage to the West pioneered among
romanticist works,being imbued in entrancing
and superb fantasies such as Monkey Sun
Triggering Disturbance in Heavenly Palace,Pig-
Head Man Taking to Wife at Gaolao Village,
Monkey Sun Assaulting White-Bone Spirit Thrice,
and Tramping Flaming Mount,By way of the
celestial adventurous tales Wu Chen* en the
writer exposed the darkness and corruption of
the feudal society in a politically advanced
orientation,full of the admonition of the
contemporary society.
2,The Masterpieces in Townspeople literature 〞
求Three Remarks′ and 求Two Thrillers′
? In the literary torrent of the Ming Dynasty could
be noted the two tides 〞the two anthologies of
short stories in the vernacular,求Three Remarks′
(General Remarks of Censuring the Society,
Obvious Remarks of Reproving the Society and
Eternal Remarks of Awakening the Society
written by Feng Menglong) and 求Two Thrillers′
(The Thriller in the First Edition,and The Thriller
in the Second Edition by Lin Mengchu).
? The two wonders can be assessed a
picturesque scene of the social customs
and conventions in the later stage of
Chinese feudal society involving virtually
all the subject matters and all the trades,
especially biased to the daily life of the
burghers,which,therefore,were named
求Social Fiction′ and could be compared in
social significance with the Decameron
produced in the Renaissance.
3,The Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio and
The Unofficial History of Officialdom
? These two novels written respectively by Pu Songling and
Wu Jinzi can be enrolled into the elite in the literary
treasure of the Qing Dynasty.
? Inherited from the tradition implanted in the tales of
celestial ghosts in the Six Dynasties and the Marvels in
Tang and Song,the Strange Stories from a Chinese
Studio had thence fabricated a peculiar artistic style
comprising around five hundred short stories focused on
love affairs between ghosts,foxes or spirits and men or
women,betraying the intense aspiration of the young
couples who made a series of attempts to break apart the
feudal rites and to woo the laissez-aller in marriage,Each
piece seemed concise in a length of four or five hundred
words and enchanting in tortuous plots,Mr,Guo Mozhuo
ever wrote a couplet hung on the gateway of Pu
Songling*s former residence as follows,求You are expert in
portraying ghosts and deity /You are profound in mocking
decay and cruelty′,a pertinent comment on the book,
? The Unofficial History of Officialdom is prized the
cornerstone of the novels portraying the
intelligentsia in the vernacular in the history of
Chinese novels,and of the satirical ones which
hailed the new phase of satiric literature as well
as the dawn of the reprimand novels in the
modern time.
? A swarm of the feudal scholars in diverse
visages were unveiled in the novel,being
spearheaded at the service examination system
and reflecting like a mirror the maladies and
malpractice lurking in the dark empire toward the
decline of the feudalist history,Described in a
plain style,it seemed to have discernment into
the psychological ailments of the characters,
? For instance,when Yan Jiansheng was dying in
bed at a last breath,he was still striving to
stretch out two fingers as if to indicate that the
two lamp wicks lighting at the oil lamp should
have been reduced to only one,an image of a
sheer miser,Let us have another example,while
Mrs,Yan was incurring a fatal disease,his
concubine Miss Zhao pretended to wail and pray
before the shrine of Heavenly and Earth and
would rather die in the place of the Mistress;
however only when Mrs,Yan proposed Miss
Zhao be succeeded as Mrs,Yan after her death,
求Miss Zhao brooked no delay to call Mr,Yan into
the house and repeated what the Mistress had
just uttered,a piercing phrase into her mind.
4,An Agglomeration of Chinese Classic
Novels 〞A Dream of the Red Mansion
? The paramount achievement in Chinese classic novels
lies in A Dream of the Red Mansion (nicknamed The
Story of the Stone) that,fulfilled in a great length and set
on a wide-ranging social background,wound in a course
of the love affairs between Jia Baoyu (gentleman),Lin
Daiyu (lady) and Xue Baochai (lady) exhibiting the
destiny of the late feudal society doomed to collapse and
eulogizing the rebels of the standing feudalistic ethics Jia
Baoyu an Lin Daiyu in terms of their tragic marriage,The
profundity in thought,the rich variety of messages and
the extolment in art arising therein predominated without
doubt over the history of the world literature,as Lu Xun
asserted that A Dream of Red Mansion had invariably
shattered both the traditional perspective and the
traditional artistic devices,
? The personages hereof were portrayed in such a
preponderant manner that Jia Baoyu,Lin Daiyu,Xue
Baochai,Sister Feng,Granny Liu etc,have become the
ever-established artistic stereotypes,Everything steeped
in this miracle seems brisk,manifold and clear-cut as if
the human life were pouring spontaneously onto the
pages as it is,like a long scroll of natural scenery
hanging before the appreciators,which was attributed to
none other than the ingenious creation by the author
Cao Xueqin,The meticulous arrangement embedded in
the coherence between chapters and plots works as a
trickling limpid stream,over which is suspended a faint
illusory world of myth prophesying the fate of 求a dream of
the Red Mansion′ clad in the gracious mask but lingering
in a gloomy mood,
? This literary wonder was rivaled by a high degree of
linguistic attainments,the narratives being the matured
vernacular in a concise and somewhat genteel style
and/or in an explicit or implicit precise description of the
characters,and the dialogues suiting for the identity,
breeding,personality and the specific mood belonging to
the protagonists in an entrancing sort,What is more,the
other literary devices were alloyed to the novel inclusive
of poems,lyrics,scripts of melodramas and couplet
essays that matched satisfyingly with the plots and the
life style of the autocrats,It is worth commending that the
writer*s substantive breeding in the Chinese classics was
pervaded into such superb verses as The Lyric for
Burying Flower Petals and The Elegy of Lady Lotus
superficially uttered by Lin Daiyu and Jia Baoyu,
CHAPTER 6 Oriental Styles of World
Renown
? ----Ancient Chinese Arts in Profile
? Long established,the ancient Chinese arts
stood out in mammoth diversities with a far-
reaching repercussion,In terms of expression
form it was catalogued into painting,sculpture,
calligraphy,seal carving,handicrafts and
architecture; as regards cultural attainments it
diverged in scholar arts,royal arts,folk arts and
religious arts.
? Chinese arts had been imprinted in various
features and styles over the age-long historic
period,The rock engravings and drawings and
the objects chiseled as per some norm in
Paleolithic Age as early as 20,000 years ago
demonstrated the artistic intelligence of Chinese
primitives during the barbaric time,In the Xia-
Shang-Zhou Dynasties (2100 B.C-221 B.C) the
bronze products in artful ornate workmanship
were forged as an emblem of Chinese queer
imagination and unique casting technique,
? The Qin-Han Dynasties saw an
independent evolution of the distinctive
sectors of Chinese arts having created the
historically-acclaimed terracotta warriors
unearthed at the mausoleum pertaining to
the First Emperor of Qin,a rich variety of
pottery figurines in the images of men,
women and animals,a magnitude of
portraits,brick sculptures,carved stones
and the lacquer articles in skilful designs
soaked in the local cultural attainments.
? During the course of the Three-Kingdom Period
and the Six Dynasties (220 A.D-589 A.D)
Chinese arts witnessed the remarkable
accomplishments highlighting the gifted painters
and calligraphists who had attained a record
high within their own competence,and the
Buddhist stone statue or statuette engraving
grottoes,as represented by Mogao Grotto in
Dunhuang,Maiji Mount in Tianshui,Yungang
Grotto in Datong,Longmen Grotto in Luoyang
and Xixia Hill Grotto in Nanjing.
? In the Sui-Tang Dynasties (581-907) Chinese
arts derived the full-grown fulfillments from all
the sectors with the portrait painting dominant,A
host of painters specialized in the portrait
painting and the scenery painting rose out of the
differential schools while scores of calligraphists
concerning the regular script and the cursive
hand twinkled like stars at summer night,
exercising a long-standing impact upon the
succeeding ages,The colored sculpture,a
patentable Chinese handicraft,was perfected to
such a degree that the practice and style for
mausoleum engraving served to be a paragon
for the later generations.
? The scenery painting surged onto a new climax
during the Five Dynasties and the Double Song
Dynasties (907〞1279),a colossal stock of the
paintings of the genre incarnating the profound
monologue incurred in the painters innermost
being which aspired to be exempt from the
religious bond and to embrace nature in a
carefree mood.
? The Yuan Dynasty (1271〞1368) registered the
transitional stage of the scholar painting when
poetry,calligraphy and painting merged
imperceptibly into an integral art complex;
meanwhile the experience in writing up Chinese
characters and executing paintings on the art
drawing papers was completely concluded.
? A new-look painting school,the flower-bird
painting,rose abruptly in the Ming-Qing
Dynasties (1368〞1911),being juxtaposed in
trinity with the portrait painting and the scenery
painting,notably with a run of painters expert in
the grand-scale freehand brushwork standing
out,Affected by the tradition of carving bronze
and stone tablets prevailing since Song,the
calligraphy and seal carving broke open a fresh
ground,The building construction commenced in
this period set off a third upsurge ofChinese
classical architecture,having entailed in
quantities the royal palaces and the private
estates that have remained in lasting charm and
derived a worldwide reputation in the present
day.
I,The Chinese Painting in a Unique Artistry
? In a broad sense,the Chinese Painting was
incipiently referred to as the Chinese-style
painting in contrast to the Western
contemporaries,taking into account the scroll
painting,the mural painting,the engraved
painting,the Spring Festival painting and other
sorts; in a grimmer sense herein,it was meant
the unequaled style of painting formulated by
means of the Chinese writing brush and ink
according to the long-established tradition,
? The Chinese Painting does not sound like a scientific
concept in compliance with arts classification As per
instruments and materials,it can be assigned to the
water ink or color ink painting abreast with the oil
painting,the water color,the engraving and the pastel,
which,considering the functions,can be sub-classified
into the murals,the picture-story book,the Spring
Festival painting and illustrations,and furthermore which,
pursuant to varied themes,may be counted into the
portrait painting and scenery painting,It has been in the
remote antiquity flying its own colors,epitomizing
China*s painting traditions and the innovations in the new
epoch; self-governing in the global art field,and being
prized the indispensable portion of the Oriental painting
system.
? The Chinese Painting is categorized into three
sections,the figure painting,the landscape or
painting and the flower-bird painting equipped in
methodology with fine brushwork and freehand
brushwork and complemented in mounting or
decoration with rollers,scrolls,books and
screens.
? Under the influence of the traditional Chinese
philosophy the Chinese Painting,involving the
observation and cognition approach,held that
the micro could be observed by way of the
macro,or vice versa; any object might be sought
in motion from manifold angles,not subject to
the vision scope fixed by a foothold,
? Touching upon an image lingering in a specific time and
space,it averts the painter*s focus from the particular
light source that arouses change in brightness and color
as well as from the outer complexions of the image in
great detail; instead it directs due concern to the
quintessence and spirit lying in ambush,an approach so
called 求abandoning complexion for spirit.′
? The observation habit therein embodies the aesthetic
inclination ingrained in Chinese nation by which their
sentiments are prone to be conveyed by objects,In this
case such non-sentimental things as hills,rivers,blooms
and birds are discerned to be susceptible of the
conspicuous emotional scent,the features of the objects
in connection with human aesthetic feelings or spiritual
life being caught and explored; consequently by
memorizing the objects and exerting the imagination,
the mental images,the painter*s character and spirit can
be conceived of in his mind,as being called an artistic
conception nicknamed 求the mind full of natural world,′
? Regarding the expression approach the Chinese
Painting is channeled to the determination of the
conception in pursuit of the unification of the subject and
the object embodied in the artistic image,The mastery of
the framework of the object shall be obtained; otherwise
some other devices including stylization,decoration and
hyperbole are still applied in shaping a vivid image and
conveying the painter*s conception,The brushwork shall
conform to the demand in portraying things while
retaining comparably independent aesthetic values,With
regard to the distribution of color,black ink and color ink
are alternately adjusted in chiaroscuro,It is highly
promoted that poetry,calligraphy and painting are
melted into an organic whole with the painting projected
as the principal,The composition is not confined within a
specific space or time.
? Priority,in respect of the general requirement in
expression,is attached to the spirit steeped in
the artistic image emphasizing the integration of
the subject and the object,For the sake of this
aim the painters are required to offer a vivid
touch to portraits protruding the spirit,the
character or the innermost being of the figures
while giving the aesthetic judgment in a positive
or negative manner,The landscape painting is
held concerned with 求taking a picture as a
memento′(the overall marshalling of scenery)
and the artistic conception or the sentiment
emerging from the painter in search of the
combination of scenery and sentiment,
? The flower-bird painting exercises prime
importance upon 求painting nature′ and
求implying senses′,the first being referred
to as expressing the vitality and traits of
animals and plants,the latter as the
awareness of painters* emotions as a poet,
Henceforth both the landscape painting
and the flow-bird painting are assigned in
subtle contact with the social life despite
the natural phenomena depicted on the
surface,a prominent feature herein.
? Involving the composition the Chinese Painting is
exempted from the fixed time and space advocating
求the subtlety between the like and the unlike′ imbued in
any piece of painting,which is commonly supplemented
with poems,calligraphy and seals,The ideal 求artful skill
for painting and sentiment for the spirit of objects′
highly `demands well-bred painters.
? The landscape painting is treated as a traditional school
bearing two sub-sectors in freehand brushwork and fine
brushwork by which mighty mountains and rivers,
historic and scenic resorts,fields and villages,urban
gardens,chambers and pavilions and temples can
unexceptionally be epitomized,not only the natural
beauty in rich varieties but also the Chinese conception
in nature and aesthetic value and even the social life in
profile being screened,It was forcibly spurred in the
evolving course of the Chinese Painting,particularly
after the Yuan Dynasty gained momentum in the
painting history..
? The landscape painting is dedicated to the discovering
and portraying of the aesthetic object,the figures being
condensed into scenic spots as a minor supplement and
the ideals and sentiments of the aesthetic subject (the
painter himself) for the motherland and countryside
being landed in due manifestation,Hereto below are
displayed a couple of color patterns:
? A,The blue and green landscape,sketching the
contours of the gold-lit and the decorative objects (also
called 求the gold and green landscape′);
? B,the ink and wash Landscape,portraying grossly by
black ink;
? C,the light crimson landscape,black ink complemented
with light umber and light green suiting for sunrise and
sunset (simultaneously named the light colored
landscape);
? D,the petty blue and green landscape,light black ink as
bedding covered with blue and green;
? E,the non-bone landscape,pure colored painting
scarcely with black ink,
? The marrow in the landscape painting lies in the artistic
conception of the figure (scene) merged with the spirit
(sentiment),by which the implication and the
求unexpected delight′ arising therein draws the attention
from audience and impresses them strikingly,In order to
acquire varied artistic conceptions,the painters are
obliged to master 求artful skill for painting and sentiment
for the spirit of objects′,to read and learn whatever
seems possible to within their competence and to
conclude whatever has been perceived and recognized
in nature and human society into the mental images,
which are to be reproduced in two approaches,
describing the artistic conception and creating the
artistic conception.
? In view of describing objects the landscape
painting lays down stress upon 求taking a picture
of things as a memento′,that is,exercises a
macro-scope control over the scene,not so
scrupulous about minor details; at the same time
the devices inclined in stylization are forged with
a view to mirroring the characters of trees and
stones.
? In applying the principle of stylization it preaches
against imitating objects as they are,and favors
flexibility in highly refined stylization.
? Dealing with the spatial conception it demands that 求the
macro be observed by the micro′ and 求the far and further
be reduced′,hinting at that the vision in the far,high,
further and vast distance can be adjusted dependent on
the movable eyesight.
? The composition being contrived,more 求momentum′ is
concealed within the landscape painting than the other
two sectors whereas the procedure of 求starting,
collaborating,rising and falling′ is exploited,
? The brushwork applicable in the landscape kind differs in
more diversities than the remainders,primarily in the
touching methods,The methods in distributing ink
include 求dyeing′,求scraping′,求breaking ink′ and
求accumulating ink′ exerting a satisfying effect upon the
images.
? Another traditional school owes much to the flower-bird
painting focused on animals and plants,The Double
Crows Lingering in Trees,an exhibit now stored in
Nelson Ikings Art Museum of the United States,has been
known as the earliest single work of the flower-bird
painting,which was originally completed as a mural at
Taocang Pavilion in the Eastern Han Dynasty,In The
Treasures of Paintings written by Xie He in the Southern
Qi Dynasty was recorded a painter named Liu Yinzu
living in the Eastern Jin Dynasty as the pioneering
painter specialized in the flower-bird sort,The first
treatise concerned hereof The Remarks on Flower-Bird
Painting was found in Xuanhe Register of Paintings
concluded in the Northern Song Dynasty,
? Accompanied by the soigné flower-bird painting
in fine brushwork,the same genus in freehand
brushwork that looked bold and fluid in ink
alternately resulted from the Southern Song-
Yuan Dynasties,as typified in the 求four
gentlemanly paintings′ (plum,orchid,
chrysanthemum and bamboo),and till the early
Qing Dynasty Zhu Ta,a painter in this field,had
scaled the unprecedented height,Only when a
reservoir of the composing experiences and the
unique tradition that could stand predominantly
among the jungle of the world powers had been
formed did rise Qi Baishi,a modern master in
the flower-bird painting.
? This style epitomized the aesthetic judgment
held by Chinese nation toward the aesthetic
objects〞natural living things,susceptible of
lyrical flavor,which had satisfied the aesthetic
aspiration ingrained in Chinese minds and then
has developed the tradition based upon the
painting from life and flanked with 求conceiving an
interest′ and 求portraying the spirit.′ Therefore the
determination of the artistic conception
governing the flower-bird painting related in
most cases to human affairs,not advocating the
painting for the sake of flowers and birds,but
unfolding the tie reinforced by those things and
human daily encounters and emotions,
? In terms of the modeling of objects no shackles were
imposed on the resemblance in such a manner that 求the
subtlety between the like and the unlike′ was in pursuit,
by which the spirit of the image and the author*s
sentiment could be allegedly be obtained,Regarding the
layout the main body was protruded for drawing notice,
the minor details pruned,craving for an optimal
proportion between the hollow spacing and the solid
figure,And the poem and calligraphy concerned with the
theme were complemented along with the painter*s seal,
being a multi-form art weighing on the painting,As for
drawing technique the fine brushwork in the flower-bird
painting was challenged by a realistic and decorative
flavor in parallel with the freehand brushwork which
appeared brief in layout and fixed in stylization.
? No other sectors were more abundant in cognitional and
educational values than the figure painting disclosing
the social consciousness in politics,philosophy,religion,
morality and art and literature as well as the aesthetic
scent.
? The arrival of the figure kind occurred earlier than the
counterparts and the Wei-Jin-Sui-Tang period witnessed
its crucial development,Owing to the open-mindedness,
the circulation of the metaphysical sect in the Wei-Jin
Dynasties and the diffusion of Buddhism into China was
staged an array of specialized painters upgrading the
portraits in refined touch,The effusive religious portraits
resulted in the original batch of portrait masters headed
by Gu Gaizhi,followed by the epoch-making
dissertations on the portraits as shown in the Extolment
of Paintings Prevalent in the Wei-Jin Dynasties and On
Paintings,settling a foundation of the vital tradition
hereof,Wu Daozi who lived in the Grand Tang Period
pushed forward the religious portraits to a new realm,
? A masterpiece by Zhang Zeduan in the Song Dynasty-
--A Perspective of Riversides on Brightness Festival---
achieved a considerable progress in the incarnation of
the figures* social identities and the inner complexities
of figures and the capability in massive composition,
Since the Yuan-Ming-Qing period a congregation of
scholars or professional painter aware of the populace,
sensitive of the national events and susceptible of anti-
feudal consciousness in embryo have created a
colossal stock of splendid figure paintings as embraced
in Chen Hongshou and Ren Bonian separately at the
close of Ming and Qing,Extensively absorbed in the
antique tradition and imported techniques the
contemporary figure painting has made unprecedented
contributions in displaying the modern life.
? The figure school is characterized by the five sub-
divisions and five categories as illustrated below.
? Five sub-divisions:
? 〞Historic stories and lively figures.
? 〞Celestial deities,Buddhist monks and Taoist
disciples.
? 〞Customs and conventions.
? 〞Genteel ladies.
? 〞Portraits.
? Five categories:
? 〞Figures in fine brushwork.
? 〞Figures in freehand brushwork.
? 〞Figures in thick ink.
? 〞Figures in sketches.
? 〞Figures in sketches and light hues.
? In respect of expressing approach,the prime concern
was exercised on the eyesight,gestures and postures;
specifically,an exhaustive portraying shall be guided to
facial complexion and gestures rather than clothing,to
postures working in concert with others rather than
circumstances,to figures themselves rather than
simplified background and to a meticulous expression of
figures rather than a stylized setting,Hyperbole and
deformation were adopted as well to drain the painter*s
unique emotion,Certain particular atmosphere was
frequently created so as to throw figures into sharp relief,
The narrative works composed on horizontal or vertical
scrolls may have been compartmented by way of
surroundings or the furniture displayed in cubicles and
inserted with the repeated occurrences of protagonists,
whereupon breaking down the confinement of unitary
time and space.
? Considering the technique of running painting
brushes and the distribution of ink,the mainstay
function of the brushes seemed conspicuous in
the works by means of such skills as fine
brushwork,simple sketch and minute-scale
freehand brushwork,consequently 求the
eighteen-sketch method ′ invented thereof,With
regard to the figure painting in freehand
brushwork sorely a few touches were more often
than not required to convey both the figure and
the spirit involved,which seemed far more
perplex than other two rivals--- the landscape
painting and the flower-bird painting.
? In the history of Chinese painting Gu Kaizhi in the
Eastern Jin Dynasty (348A.D〞409A.D) was
commended as a multi-talented painter who otherwise
majored in poetry and Fu as well,He was highly
excellent in painting portraits,historic celebrities,Taoist
and Buddhist disciples,animals and scenery who spared
no effort in conveying vividness and adding the finishing
touch for a perfect success,and in whose scrolls the
touches or lines looked uninterrupted,as compact and
consecutive as silk or flowing clouds,valued as 求the
classical gossamer touches,′ Resulting in from his
intelligent mind and thorough refining his coloring
attained a slight embellishment of deep colors exempted
from luxury and his works appeared in-depth in thought
and enduring in appeal,Gu Kaizhi was ranked the
predominant of all the scholar-official painters following
Zhang Heng and Cai Yi in the Eastern Han Dynasty.
? The authentic masterpieces by Gu have not been
preserved to the present day but certain facsimiles
circulated down of An Admonishing Female Historian,
Lord Luo Composing Fu and An Array of Benevolent
and Intelligent Ladies.
? Preceded by Gu,a long procession of highly-reputed
fainters had sooner or later germinated in China,Nian
Liben in Tang whose Emperors in Dynasties,Emperor
Tai of Tang Interviewing Alien Envoys and Xiao Yi
Gaining Lanting Calligraphy are available nowadays at
China National Library; Wu Daozi expert in depicting
Taoist and Buddhist disciples and entitled 求Painting
Sage′; Wang Wei known for Snow and Rivers Picture
and Fusheng Teaching Scripture; Mi Shi living in the
North Song Dynasty who was tremendously skilled in
scenery painting stained in black ink styled 求Mi Clouds
& Mountains′ or 求Mi Family Mountains′;
? Zhang Zeduan therein renowned for A Perspective of
Riversides on Brightness Festival; Tang Yin in Ming
culminating among 求Four Master Painters in Ming′; Chou
Ying superior in figures,scenery,chambers-pavilions
drawn by rule in fine brushwork and the flower-bird and
then prized 求Number-One Master Hand′; Zhu Ta active
at the outset of Qing with the pen name 求Eight-Mount
Man′; Zhen Xie or Zhen Banqiao,one of 求Yangzhou
Eight Weird Wits′,rated as a calligraphist,a poet and a
painter in mimicking upright orchid; the modern painter
Wu Changshou majoring in flowers,fruits and
vegetables in freehand brushwork and enjoying a
mammoth reputation overseas; the other two modern
masters Qi Baishi and Gao Lun who were highly
appreciated in the fine-brushwork landscape,flowers,
birds,beasts and figures,permeated in Japanese
technique and peculiar modeling,having set up the
求South-Ridge Painting School′; and Xu Beihong and so
forth flew their own tints in noteworthy feats.
II,Calligraphy Art Elegant in Exterior & Intelligent
in Interior
? Calligraphy is a writing art of script,making
specific reference in this case to the art of
expressing Chinese characters by means of the
writing brush,which has been fashioned from
the characters in a long-term application and
development of the calligraphists* aesthetic
views,The calligraphy registers both the
pragmatic value any script bears but the
unrivaled appreciative value,as being esteemed
one of the glorious Chinese cultural traditions.
? The writing brush serves as the principal instrument for
Chinese calligraphy,It was originated as early as in
primitive community when the various types of lines,thin
and thick,smooth and refined,were discovered to be
drawn on some pottery articles with a resilient writing
brush which gradually was availed itself in recording the
characters and welcomed into the writing art as an
indispensable element,The operation of the writing brush
involves such aspects as method,strength,momentum
and conception,Regarding the technique or knack of
operating the writing brush are available,starting stroke,
closing stoke,circulating stroke,square stroke,mid-tip,
literal tip,protruded tip,hidden tip,upright tip and turned
stroke,The strength is meant the sense of forcefulness
pregnant within robust or gentle strokes,The momentum
is referred to as the impetus acquired from the operation
of the brush in which,sewn or dispersed as some strokes
may be,a character still appears to be an integral whole,
The conception embodied in strokes is usually the
outflow of the calligraphist*s emotion in writing.
? Chinese calligraphy assumes due concern in the overall
layout between characters,rows or columns in a scroll
giving out a perfectly harmonious and consecutively
changing image; especially in the cursive hand and the
running hand the characters or strokes are as often as
not interrelated with slight threads to the effect that the
calligraphy scroll is marked by a musical rhythm and
tempo.
? The calligraphy-implements are equally subject to black
ink and paper besides the writing brush,Since the brush,
ink and paper rely on one another in a scroll the
technique in allocating ink draws focused concern
among the calligraphists,which involves the thick ink,
the light ink,the dried ink,the thirsty ink,the dampened
ink,the weathered ink and the rising ink.
? The styles of the calligraphy are chiefly
incarnated in the Seal Style,Official Style,
Regular Script,Running Hand and Cursive Hand
that have unexceptionally been employed by
both ancient and contemporary calligraphist,
The formation of a style is heavily interrelated to
the others but maintains its own features as well.
? The Seal Style had a series of subsidiaries,
Tortoise Shell Script,Bronze Script,Small-Seal
Style and Big-Seal Style prevailing in the
Warring States Period,The Tortoise Shell Script
was carved in a delicate arrangement of neat
and even strokes inside each character and
between columns,
? The Bronze Script was forged on bronze objects as
epigraphs which traces the source back to the Shang
Dynasty and gained momentum in the Zhou Dynasty,
Having evolved from Tortoise Shell Script,it was shaped
in regular and uniform squares with strokes in a rich
variety,The Big-Seal style was also designated the
Script of the Six Kingdoms as represented by the
Inscriptions on Drum-Shaped Stone Blocks,distingue
and uniform in posture,imposing and classical in quality,
which was esteemed the representative work of the Big-
Seal engravings,Stemming from the Big-Seal Style,the
Small-Seal Style was administered and sponsored
nationwide after the unification of China by the First
Emperor of the Qin Dynasty,
? It seemed more concise than its predecessor (or Zhou Script) in a
well-balanced roundabout form,a fairly resplendent sight,The
Engraved Stone Block at Mount Tai that had been allegedly written
by Li Si in the Qin Dynasty stood out as an apex of the kind,
succeeded by Li Yangbing,Yuan Zi and Song Xuxun in the Tang
Dynasty,Li Dongyang in the Ming Dynasty and Wang Shu,Deng
Shiru,Sun Xingyan,Gui Fu,Zhao Zhiqian,Yang Yisun and Wu
Changshuo in the Qing Dynasty.
? The Official Script,renamed Zuo Script or Historic Script,
was rooted in the Warring States Period and plunged in
vogue in Han,Breaking apart the roundabout body and
vertical array of the Small-Seal Style,it stretched in a
horizontal direction with the strokes,especially the
horizontal one,looking like a silkworm at the head and a
swallow*s tail at the end,a highly decorative script,
? The Han Dynasty marked the pinnacle of the Official
Script which has so far been inherited in the engraved
tomb steles and the written bamboo tablets as a cultural
legacy to the present day,and which,in structure,
appears square,loose or tight in varied types of strokes,
handsome and gracious,massive and plain,Over a
hundred of the well-known engraved tomb steles thereof
have been available today,In Tang the Script was
inclined to the pompous and clumsy manner,short of
forcefulness and fascination,as shown in Shi Weize,
Han Zemu,Li Longji and Xu Hao,etc,The Qing Dynasty
saw another climax in that matter when the calligraphists,
surmounting the demerits of Tang,directly resorted to
the engraved tomb steles in Han opening up a new route,
among whom could be ranked Jin Nong,Huang Yi,Gui
Fu,Deng Shiru,Yi Binshou,Chen Hongshou,Wu
Rangzhi,Zhao Zhiqian and Yu Yue.
? The Regular Script,otherwise called Authentic
Script or True Script,derived its origin from
Official Script,It was surging onwards in the Six-
Dynasties Period and had approached the
zenith till Tang,Its posture looked neat and
square in a magical lineup of strict strokes
registering dots,hooks,left (right)-falling touches,
The engraved tomb steles having survived down
from the South-North Dynasties to the modern
times retain a treasure of Regular Script scrolls;
all the more the stele inscriptions in the Northern
Wei Dynasty is worth attending which seemed
stately and nimble and inclusive of 求Ten
Beauties′ as Kang Youwei commentated,
? They came within three categories,upright stone tablets,
epigraphs for Buddhist statues and epitaphs,of which
shall never be ignored the Songgao Temple Tablet,the
Twenty Inscriptions at Longmeng Grottos,the Tablet for
Zhang Menglong,the Tablet for Zhen Xi and the Stone
Gate Epigraph,In the mid-Tang Dynasty,dependent on
the fulfillments in the early Tang,Yan Zhenqin broke up
a new ground composing a seemingly-clumsy but
dignified and broad style,求Yan Style′,Succeeding Yan,
Liu Gongquan living towards the later Tang created his
own clan in such a thin but stiff manner that had
historically been identified as 求Yan*s Muscles & Liu*s
Bones,′ both exerting a wide-ranging impact upon the
posterity.
? The Cursive Hand,a simple rough writing style,made its
debut as early as the Seal Script but till the Han Dynasty
unfolded itself in an independent way,It diverged in
three stages,Zhang Cursive hand,Current Cursive
Hand and Rough Cursive Hand,The Zhang inherited
some strokes from the Official Script,the characters
disconnected in a vertical course,Among the eminent
Zhang calligraphists could be enrolled Zhang Zhi,Shi
You and Du Cao in the Han Dynasty,Suo Jin and Lu Ji
in the Western Jin Dynasty,the handed-down treasure
Pingfu Model belonging to Lu Ji,The Current Cursive
Hand,otherwise called the Minute Cursive Hand based
upon the Zhang,deprived itself of the waving strokes
and was capable of moving swiftly,
? The characters in a vertical direction were usually
extended unbroken and melted into each other,thus
offering an increased fluency and rhythm in comparison
with the preceding kind,With an aid of the Cursive Hand
by his father Wang Xizhi,Wang Xianzhi operated on the
writing brush in a greater indulgence and an intensified
merger of characters,a new style having endured over
1600 years,Wang Xizhi was represented by the
Seventeen Copybooks in the Cursive Hand,The Rough
Cursive Hand or the Grand Cursive Hand looked
increasingly rough and indulgent in a continuous range
as a flashing lightning,as typified by Zhang Xu and Huan
Su in Tang,the latter being famed for the Self-
Description Copybook.
? The Running Hand,re-designated as the Running Escort
Hand,appeared simple and fluent bordering between the
Regular Script and the Cursive Hand,It was categorized
into two sub-styles,the Running Regular Hand
approximating the Regular Script,and the Running
Cursive Hand inclined to the Cursive Hand,The dot
stroke hereof was often intended to be extended into the
others,the brush tip turned forcibly and sprightly,being
as natural and lively as the floating clouds and flowing
streams,Innovated by the set membership of Wang
Xizhi and Wang Xianzhi,the Running Hand evolved out
of the plain air in the Wei-Jin Dynasties and leaped
forward to a splendid new horizon leading to the acme,
? Wang Xizhi enjoyed favorite appreciation of all
with his master piece the Preface of Lan Pavilion,
The Song Dynasty was paralleled by the four
noted calligraphers Cai Xiang,Su Shi,Huang
Tingjian and Mi Shi in disclosing their emotions
and interests by means of the Running Hand
scrolls,a sentiment-concerned style in Song,
Dong Qichang stood out in the Ming Dynasty for
his Running Hand in loose order and light
elegance.
? The ink slab can by no means be excluded from
Chinese calligraphy,It dates back to the early
ages and those unearthed from the graveyards
pertaining to the Western Han Dynasty
illustrated its rudimentary formation at that time,
? Being an unrivaled Chinese cultural article,it
has long been venerated as one of 求four
treasures in a study.′ When remarking upon the
writing brush,black ink,drawing paper and ink
slab,the ancient officials and literati invariably
prized the ink slab,solid and endurable,as the
principal of 求four treasures in a study,′ pouring
their extraordinary delight,A top quality ink slab
provided for fine ink facilitating the operation of
the brush,a necessity for the poetry,essays,
calligraphy and painting,Meanwhile as an
embodiment of arts in painting,calligraphy,
molding and carving,the ink slab served to be
not only a useful instrument in a Chinese study
but a fairly appreciative handicraft work.
? Generations of Chinese painters and calligraphists have
counted on the ink that adds to the artistic taste and
refinement,The lampblack ink is made from refined
lampblack and purified ox hide glue mixed with musk,
borneol,gold foil and other traditional Chinese medical
spices in strict compliance with the age-old formula,
which features a merit that the writings or paintings look
brightly purple in tinge,endurable and anti-erosive in
quality and vigorous and saturated on the scroll,a choice
pet dissipating a fragrance,The pine soot ink is
employed as a substitute of the first kind suitable for
patching up antique scrolls of painting or writing,The
colored ink,including red,yellow,blue,white and green,
applies to harmonizing colors as well as painting of the
other types.
? The appreciation and assessment as regards
calligraphic works should be performed in content beauty
and format beauty,by the first of which audience*s
attention is drawn towards the spirit of a specific time,
the positive interest and the fervent passion embedded
in it,and the second of which relates to five aspects,
involving styles,we can engage in the Seal Style,the
Official Style,the Regular Script,the Running Hand and
the Cursive Hand; in operation of the brush,there are
the square stroke,the roundabout stroke,the mid-tip,the
side-tip,the hidden tip and the exposed tip; regarding the
lineup of characters,such tactics are adopted as
insertion,avoidance,shifting,balance and symmetry; in
terms of the layout of scrolls there are requirements of
evenness,the big characters mixed with the small,the
long strokes inserted into the short and the thick strokes
distinguished from the thin;
? and as for allotment of black ink due account is
directed to the deep and the light,the damp and
the dry and the thick and the thin,In specific
cases a calligraphist is to be judged conforming
to the criterion mentioned above,Next a moving
spirit shall be available herein,that is,求the force
penetrating through the paper′ or 求forceful
adequately to be soaked in wood by three
inches.′ The third resorts to a tremendous
momentum and a lingering charm by way of
varied strokes,especially in the Running Hand
and Cursive Hand.
? China is a nation tinged with poetry wherein both long-
length narrative poems and short four-line and five-meter
verses had ever shone over a period of three millennia,It
was later discerned that the day had matured to such a
degree that it could no longer be cherished exclusively
by poetry and furthermore the poets,having extremely
exhausted their minds in the long run,failed to display
the rapture tempered with the grief in human life,
Consequently 求poetry revealing one*s will,songs
showing off one*s voice and dance exposing one*s
appearance arose out of one*s mind in the company of
musical instruments,′〞 求dramatic poetry′ commenced
to ramble from literature to art,from a petty study to a
grand stage,求poetic drama′ born on the native land of
poetry.
Breathtaking Operas on the Stage
〞The Bustling Stage in China
Breathtaking Operas on the
Stage
? Looking back gloomily over the past,the writers
and poets came to be aware of the remorse of
the sort 求pitiful white hair creeping upon the
head′ that could by no means be compensated
by 求the undertakings under Heaven by
statesmen′ and 求the glory in and after life′;
having secured such an insight they stepped
into a pastoral realm exploring a romantic phase
when actors and actresses would play roles on
stage accompanied to music.
I,From Fermentation to Maturity
? Chinese operas,standing abreast with Greek tragedy
and comedy and Indian Sanskrit plays as the three
pioneering dramas in the remotest antiquity,had
germinated from the primeval songs and dance to the
later sacrificial rites by witches,Among the ocean of the
folk recreations could be detected a trace of the incipient
operas,It can be concluded that the folklore arts had
ever bred Chinese operas.
? The Qin-Han Dynasties witnessed the prevailing 求A
Hundred Plays′ that was claimed as a major means of
pastime and a general reference to the ancient
recreational performances therein,including acrobatics,
witchcraft,marshal arts,spitting fire,folklore songs and
dancing and melodramas.
Of these there existed the wrestling contest,a strength-
demanding performance,by which the wrestlers
originally made an attempt to compete for strength and
later the actors did so to reproduce life stories,thus
promoting it to be converted into a wrestling play,The
Hunter Huang at East Sea attained predominance in this
aspect,The plot synopsis is as follows,one actor playing
the tiger,another playing Hunter Huang,wrestle with
each other till the hunter fails to exercise his magical
power and is swallowed by the tiger,which was
performed according to the given plot and took on the
primitive state of operas,being critical in the history of
Chinese dramas,
? In the Southern-Northern Dynasties 求A Hundred
Plays′ was transferred to be 求Dispersed Music′
in which the small-scale operas such as A Big
Face,renamed King Lanling,A Labouring Lady,
and Bo Tou had assumed a substantial impact
upon the upcoming operas to a great depth in
terms of the performing pattern (such as singing
integrated with dancing and dialogue or
soliloquy) and the stage property (masks and
facial makeups) ).Chinese operas continued into
the Tang Dynasty when the Staff Officer Play
rose in vogue depending on the vaudeville,
which was named after a criminal staff officer.
? In the practical performance,求staff officer′,having lost
the original connotation in army,was referred to as a
part in the play as well as a fixed stage pattern wherein
two actors asked each other in clownish and ironical
dialogues accompanied with singing and orchestra,It
was from this play that Chinese operas embarked upon
distinguishing between various parts or characters in a
play,Having being pregnant in embryo in the long run,
Chinese operas in the Song Dynasty in the twelfth
century eventually caught sight of the dawn of the
advanced state of its own as symbolized in Zhangxie
Number One Scholar belonging to the South Drama.
? Fully fledged,Chinese operas were growing copiously
and persistently throughout the Yuan-Ming-Qing
Dynasties emitting a grandiose ever-lasting art charm as
a 求national pastime′,An American missionary father said,
求Operas seem as much indispensable to Chinese people
as sports to John Bull and bullfights to Spaniards.′
Throngs of the audience reveled in the operas in a self-
intoxicated psyche while their participation in watching
and performing it claimed to be a necessity in Chinese
daily life during a certain period of time,No wonder that
求Li Yuan′,an original title of a managing institution under
the imperial court held responsible for arts,was
conferred upon the opera circle.
? A first-rate genre of arts can not endure sorely
dependent upon some advanced theories,in stead it
must cling to the keenness of flocks of the admirers,In
the case of Chinese operas the audience was esteemed
the prerequisite for its survival and growth,It is not
astonishing that the addiction to which Chinese people
were inclined in the theatre was soundly implanted in the
enthusiasm of the fans or amateurs,not simply in the
accomplishments of professional actors and actresses,
Chinese operas were inborn with an intensified trait of
entirety that was pervaded not only in the
conglomeration of the manuscript,performance,dance,
music and so on,but in the feedback of the relationship
between the performing staff and the watching public.
? Chinese theatres featured traditional openness,The
performers on the stage were virtually in the proximity of
their crazy fans who,being seated on benches around
tables,conversed at tea or shouted with joy in a fervent
atmosphere while a graceful movement or a wonderful
devised music scheme on the stage contingently won
over an ardent cheer among the audience,求Hao! Hao!′
(Great! Great! ) whereupon encouraging the staff as well
as giving vent to the audience*s passion,The prime
concern involving the opera music was rather drawn
toward the lasting appeal arising out of the stylized
music schemes that seemed usually more sensible to
the watching public than the diversification of the music
schemes.
? Otherwise the same arias may have
sounded different in a rich variety thanks
to the various performers in singing
patterns,voice timbres and music
schemes,as fueling the audience to
repeated watching; even very occasionally
they could be humming a tune or two after
the performing staff,Such a magical
charm as Chinese opera music had been
bestowed on fascinated generation upon
generation of the theatre amateurs.
? Besides,as an element in the macro-cultural system
Chinese operas cannot but be equipped with the
ingrained features of Chinese culture,The dramatic
effect was chiefly obtained through the literary grace of
the script and the musical melodies in a manner of
narrative poems coupled with a lyrical flavor,For
instance,the aria 求Taking a Stroll in Garden′ falling
within The Peony Pavilion,highly-appreciated opera,
unveiled nothing but the love passion entertained by Du
Liniang; and the most touQing act in A Rain from
Chinese Parasol Trees recounted the ever-lingering
concern that the Emperor Ming of the Tang Dynasty
poured forth to his imperial concubine Lady Yang.
? The development of plots in Chinese operas as often as
not functioned as a 求prelude′,which seems contrary to
the Western match which affixed due focus on dramatic
effect susceptible of tit for tat.
? The virtual prime of Chinese operas was inaugurated in
the Yuan Dynasty,Pursuant to statistics this short
dynasty chanced to meet over eighty playwrights whose
name had been registered in the chronicles,and a large
library of 500-plus opera scripts,one fourth of which
have still been in stock nowadays,Among those
melodrama writers were ranked the most impressive
Four Great Playwrights,Guan Hanqin,Bai Pu,Man
Zhiyuan and Zhen Guangzu,the far-reaching
masterpieces The Injustice Done to Tou Ngo and The
Western Chamber being respectively under the pens of
Guan Hanqin and Wang Shifu,And the stage
performance was proceeding in maturity.
? During the Ming-Qing Dynasties occurred a
quarrel between 求the miscellaneous sector′ and
求the elegant sector′,It is alleged that Kunshan
area north of Suzhou was valued the source of
求Kunshan Scheme′,one of the cardinal dramatic
music schemes in China,(The South Operas
possessed Haiyan Scheme,Yiyang Scheme,
Yuyao Scheme and Kunshan Scheme),On its
being spread to Suzhou,the scholar-officials
happened to prey upon the melodious tune,
gracious terms and fastidious music scheme
thereof while the vulgar rustic plays were still
staged in the countryside,
? Eventually the distinct refined Kunshan Scheme
ascended to be an orthodox opera in the evolving course
from 求civilian′ to 求nobility′ when an opera script prized as
求Opera Ancestor′ played a substantive role referring to
Pipa Records,a play of the South Opera composed by
Gao Ming (Gao Zencheng) at the turn of the Yuan-Ming
Dynasties.
? Pipa Records was adapted from a folklore entitled
求Horses treaded down Lady Zhaoma,thunderbolts
bombarded Cai Boxie,′ which was staged in Kunshan
Scheme since the playwright lived in Zhejiang Province
bordering with Kunshan.Being an orthodox scholar,Gao
Ming set the political teaching as the ultimate standard
for his scripts,as stated outright in one of his poems,
求Not involved in morals,plays are in vain though nice.′
? So naturally he fabricated in the play none other than good guys and
deeds adapting the original wretched story into an admonishing
prototype,as propagated in 求So fortunate the prime minister Niu,
extensively benevolent Zhang Guangcai,a heroine Madam Zhao
and loyally filial Cao Boxie.′ At the beginning of Ming the Emperor
Zhu Yuanzhang had just grappled the crown and needed urgently to
appease the civilians,On reading through the script of Pipa Records
in refined diction he became fascinated in it,comparing it with such
delicacies from mountains and seas that should have been
preserved in noble families whereas the Four Books and Five
Classics only were looked down upon as daily utensils in every
household,What a spectacular glory it was that a script of the South
Opera had been appraised above the sages* canon! This imperial
edict scored a lucky hit,thus Kunshan Scheme,a branch of the
South Opera sharing its prestige.
? Having viewed and emulated Pipa Records,the scholars
and writers conferred a high rating upon its music
schemes; shortly later Lu Tiancheng,an official critic,
ranked it as the first entry into his The Annals of Operas
commending it a 求sacred scripture′,whereupon 求the
elegant sector′ Kun Opera having formally fulfilled its
nobiliary evolution process and screened a new
flourishing horizon,This newly-born miracle was
contrived in so gracious phrases,so fastidious music
schemes and so stirring a charm that attending to it
should have become a fashion among flocks of the crazy
amateurs; especially the staging of Silk-Washing Stream
written by Liang Chenyu rendered Kun Opera to be all
the more brilliant as a national opera.
? However this 求pop opera′ in Ming languished gradually
into a classic in Qing when the political axis was in a
long run fastened in Beijing where the local residents
conceived no such great interest in a sluggish music
scheme of the South Operas as the Southern fans
thronged to in ecstasy; in turn the Northerners developed
preference to the local traditional folk plays,Henceforth
sprang up valiantly a cordial and plain art form out of the
clumsy and coarse images in Beijing proper and suburbs
overwhelming the genteel 200-plus-year-thriving 求elegant
sector′ Kun Opera,the later-arriving 求miscellaneous
sector′ gaining the advantage,which was meant the
varied genres of rustic melodies and primeval tunes.
? As proclaimed in Records at A Gaily-Painted Pleasure-
Boat in Yangzhou by Li Dou,a drama critic in the Qing
Dynasty,求The miscellaneous sector is comprised of
Beijing Scheme,Yiyang Scheme,Bangzi Scheme,
Luoluo Scheme and Erhuang Melody,all being called a
medley.′
? 求The miscellaneous sector′ marked the shift of the
focused concern in Chinese operas from the script
literature to the presentation art,The operas were staged
in such a easy way that the seven-character or ten-
character couplet librettos were substituted for the
traditional long-short terms and the varied stereotypes of
music schemes,such as the slow scheme,the swift
scheme,the smooth scheme and the disperse scheme,
were deployed to the emotional vicissitudes as regards
the protagonists.
? The distinctive operas or scenes in an opera could be
organized in a singing-oriented show,an acting-oriented
show and a marshal arts-oriented show,obviously
facilitating Chinese operas in a flexible configuration of
singing,speaking,acting and marshal arts,a substantial
contribution to the performance art on Chinese opera
stages.
? Henceforward over 360 genera of opera exuberated
nationwide,historically nominated 求Three Hundred Music
Schemes′,Till the advent of Beijing Opera were the
folklore spirit and the royal taste blended in an
assembled incarnation of the Southern flavor and the
Northern appeal,an expiration to 求the quarrel between
the miscellaneous and the elegant.′
? There had been an expanse of roughly a hundred years from the
arrival in Beijing of Anhui (province) opera troupe in Qian Long 55,
the Qing Dynasty to the rampant dissemination of Beijing Opera
during the reigns of Emperor Tou Zhi and Emperor Guang Xu,
Towards the turn of the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China
was still on the rise Beijing Opera,a host of the large-scale ticket
boxes having virtually turned the capital into a titanic theatre while
all trades in the community,noble or civilian,more often than not
could hum a couple of arias in Erhuang Scheme or Xipi Scheme,As
Kun Opera had comforted the watching public with leisurely-mood
enjoyments earlier,Beijing Opera was currently bringing them an
intrinsic substantiated recreation,It was thanks to the participation
and assessment of throngs of the amateurs or fans that prompted it
onto a course of intricacy,After 1911 Revolution many sub-genera
were descended from the sundry stage roles and professions,each
having gloriously radiated in art and being worthy of soign豆 savoring
at the present day.
II,Bewitching Presentation 〞 求Lost in Spirit′ and
求Come out of death and go into life′
? Chinese operas are claimed to be a perfected
aggregation of singing,speaking,acting and marshal
arts,It is not an easy trifling matter for actors or
actresses to become qualified adequately to be in
conformity with a certain artistic criterion so that the
audience will indulge in their semi-fancy semi-true
presentation.
? In this sense the opera performance solaces not only the
watching public,but the performing staff,as recollected
by Zhang Defu in The Know-How of Learning Opera
Show,求Not all that I presented on the stage belongs to
me,
? A devoted minister I acted made audience
respectful; an arch-careerist I acted made them
resentful; a chaste lady I acted made them offer
admiration; a prodigal I acted made them
present abhorrence; an aged man or woman I
acted looked senile; a boy or girl I acted looked
naive and lovely,Only in this way are the
appearance and spirit of the characters melted.′
The actors or actresses and the characters they
play will combine to bring the operas to the
artistic culmination.
? The playwrights used to remark,求What exists in
the world shall be available in plays; what is
available in plays shall exist in the world.′ In
case that the affairs of human life are staged
they will be imitated by the qualified performers
in such an artful manner that look semi-true and
semi-illusory,For example,scuffling in daily life
can by no means be 求embellished′ often
incurring wounds and bleeding,But on
ascending to the stage it should be wonderful-
looking and deserve tickets for watching,as
demanding a graceful presentation of scuffling,
? The Orphan Zhao was originally staged in the Yuan
Dynasty when melodramas were in fashion,then in Kun
Opera and Beijing Opera,each unexceptionally bearing
a scene of Chen Yin beating Gongsun Chujiu,The scene
in Beijing Opera was displayed in the following
procedure,Firstly Chen Yin swings his false long beard
to the left side,and throws the whip from the left to the
right,beating the right of Gongsun; in the second
movement Chen Yin swings the false long beard to the
right side and throws the whip from the right to the left
striking the left of Gongsun exactly,The set of
movements matched with the facial expression of actors
and the tapping of gongs 求pit-a-pat〞bang,pit-a-pat〞
bang,′ exhibiting a wonderful-looking and seemingly-true
scene.
? Look at another character Zhao Yanrong feigning
madness in The Imperial Sword,Her moves on the stage
filled with ease and verve conveys sadness and
indignation rather than imbecility,even her face scarred
from bleeding looks somewhat charming and witty,
making Miss Zhao become an art role instead of a mad
idiotic girl,The scholar Zhang Junrui in The Western
Chamber,incurring lovesickness,lingers lonely at inn
dreaming bitterly of his sweetheart,his ill-looking
complexion and staggering paces arousing the
audience*s sympathy towards him other than the
detestation for Zhang*s illness,The ingenious miracle
sneaks between the like and the unlike no matter what a
play delivers,marshal arts,madness or sickness,A
prestigious Sichuan Opera actor,Zhang Decheng drew a
conclusion from role-playing,
?, Performers present the truth in life,not the true life;
being vivid,what is on the stage can be taken granted; if
the librettos and props are to be assumed,the limited
scenes can unfold an infinite scroll of life; provided
performers lose the memory of themselves,the extinct
will revive.′,as being prized the apex of 求lost in spirit′.
? For the sake of both lifelike and wonderful effect,the
presentation should be complied with the stage
requirements and the life stereotypes,A moderate
percentage of the moves devised for staging has been
fixed and disseminated generation upon generation,and
therefore evinced as the 求stylization′ in Chinese operas,
? Take the three stylized moves of 求sleeping fish′ in The
Imperial Concubine Lady Yang Drunk in Wine,When the
imperial concubine sits cross-legged bending herself
ornamented with pearls and jewels,she looks so tender
along with the incessant ringing of the decor,as had
been adapted from the scene that Lady Yang used to
smell the blooms in the imperial garden,Another
instance is 求overbearing′ assumed by the warrior actors
at the start of each act,which was derived from the
move Xiang Yu,the Overlord of the fake Western Chu
Kingdom adopts in going up to the stage,and which
takes on the bearing of a valiant admiral and so has
equally been succeeded,
? So far exclusively in the marshal arts performance there
has been a multitude of sets of stylized moves,the
principal scores being 求meeting at battlefield,jumping to
fight,passing together,stopping by light,running cross
the stage,overbearing,riding a horse′ and so on so forth
(Qi Rushan,Organizing Chinese Operas).
? Exploited by well-trained performers,those moves might
appear profound; and the props as if they were reciting
the librettos,Let us have a glance at the armor utilized in
Carrying a Cart on Shoulders,the green armor belongs
to none other than Gao Chong,instead the black armor
to Nin Gao,As for the dressing of the female characters,
the head inlaid with minute jade articles and the body
with a cloak imply a middle aged lady holding a higher
social status,
? the head mounted in crystalline diamonds and the body
clad in colorful clothing signal an unmarried lass,and the
head set in silver clips and the body dressed in black
symbolize a poverty-stricken woman,The moment a
character strikes his or her pose on the stage,the
dressing suggests his or her identity,In addition the
meticulous application of the props can function as if
adding a finishing touch on a picture,In an opera
Beating the Princess,the senior general Guo Ziyi
bemoans his son in a prolonged wail,求My son,you come
up and see!′ while pushing away his chest-long artificial
whiskers which drifts in the air and settles on his
shivering hands,a sort of desolation being disclosed.
? When Huang Tianba,a warrior character in A
Chain of Rings,is required by The Ninth
Grandpa Liang to search horses for the emperor,
the plush-embroidered ball fastened on his silk
hat is shuddering,though he stands with the
back against the audience,demonstrating the
trepidation in his innermost being,In another
opera A Petty Banquet the general L Bu,in
flirting his mistress Diao Chan,does not speak
any word,but lowers his head and sways the
peacock feather on the hat across her cheek
before he inhales it deeply,a dissolute behavior
being self-evident.
? In the circle of Chinese literature prevailed an argument
that the classical poems rhymed in meters were
bantered 求dancing with fettered feet′,as was the same
case in the stylized moves of Chinese operas,Perhaps it
is interrelated with the conventional aesthetic conception,
Chinese ancestors had indeed cherished such a strictly-
governed art paradise so far as to accord free rein to the
format beauty excluded from contents and so naturally
the script-reciting actors and actresses were insanely
infatuated with the soigné librettos,A qualified actor or
actress should 求impersonate the past and delineate the
present′ imbibing varied moves,props,spirits and
talisman into a whole before leaping forward to 求lost in
spirit′.
? The other point aimed at role playing contended the
performing staff should 求come out of the extinct and go
into the live′ indicating they and the characters should be
amalgamated perfectly in a play,which seems
inaccessible to approach and only demands due
dedication.
? As recollected in The Commentaries on Operas by Jiao
Xun in the Qing Dynasty,there was a beautiful actress
expert in playing The Peony Pavilion in Hangzhou in the
Ming Dynasty,Every time ascending to the theatre,she
was soaked in tears as if she were recalling her personal
life story.
? Once upon a time when staging an act entitled Searching for A
Dream thereof,she appeared to be really woeful in the extreme
singing 求Since I have fallen in romantic love with him,I will trail him
into a tomb regardless of leaving behind me so much grievance and
agitation.′ when she really fell down the stage and never got back to
her feet! Originally this opera was composed depending upon 求The
dream comes out of sentiment and the opera comes out of the
dream.′,and the professional motive that 求The live could be
rendered extinct and the extinct could be made live′ should have
been truly realized,In writing the term 求what disturbs me in love is
no other than the lady in worn silk skirt,′ Tang Xianzu,the author of
the Peony Pavilion,was reminded of his own maudlin love affairs
kneeling down a faggot to wail woefully,It was not expected that on
his script being staged the recluse scholar Tang chanced to have
met the same love-devoted actress as himself,who could be
counted as 求the most discerning′ theatre-goer.
? Until the present day has the dramatic circle
been craving for presenting operas by minds or
mentally,A foremost Sichuan Opera actor Peng
Haiqing recounted that when acting Xiao Fang in
an opera 求Fighting on The Red Gate Tower′,he
was coached to 求mentally′ kill the rival other than
with a sword,The warrior actors in Beijing Opera
were in parallel advocated 求how to be
gentlemanly rather than valiant and how to look
majestic rather than nimble.′ A contemporary
illustrious actor of the same genre,Li Shaochun
made mention of a story about himself,
? Once upon a time when he was singing an aria from
Hongyang Cave under the guidance of Mr,Yu Shuyan
the opera authority; on completion he was questioned,
求What are you thinking of?′ Further he continued before
Li replied,求I*m aware that you were elaborating on the
music and librettos in singing the aria,but you missed
pondering over the bosom dialogue by the Sixth Son of
the Yang Family to the Virtuous Eighth Prince.
? You succeeded in the rhymed music,and failed in the
spirit.′ From then onwards Li Shaochun attached the
paramount concern to 求spirit′ whatever he may have
played,Putting on the opera Triggering Hell of Fuss in
Heavenly Palace,which was adapted from The
Pilgrimage to the West,he acted Monkey Sun in stealing
the celestial peaches and elixir of life,weighing upon the
spirit lurking beneath 求triggering a hell of a fuss′ rather
than the extrinsic move 求stealing′,whereupon amounting
to the acme of performing art.
? In Chinese operas there existed a number of 求single-role
opera′,particularly in Kun Opera wherein a single actor
or actress moved and sang alone on the stage in
decades of minutes,the audience watching with gusto.
? The SROs were primarily the segments tailed from those
complete-set operas,having frequently shared longer-
standing glory than their parent operas,the noteworthy
of which have been circulating over three hundred years
with lingering art brilliance,The mystery hereof slinked
behind the vivid or spirit-conveying show by the actor or
actress drawing the addicted watching public,In such a
segment as Going to Mount Liang for Shelter at Snowy
Night,Lin Chong,a hero falling in evil days,is distorted
at the cruel dilemma between hesitation and terror,
singing 求I am obsessed with blood and teardrops on the
way to wandering about destitute;
? having preoccupied in joining the outlaws at the water
margin,I can not but look back again at the imperial
court,′ 求Greeting the twilight and overcoming the passes,
I stride in wilderness alone.′ Shadowed in his
consecutive moves and pathetic music schemes,the
onlookers were obliged to sit tight,Another illustration
was manifested in a female-character play Longing for
Profane World,a teenage nun burns incense and prays
before Buddha by herself everyday day,Enclosed in a
cluster of arhat statues and oil lamps she feels 求This one
is crying out for me in smile on folded knees; that one is
longing for me with his lovely cheeks supported on
hands; the other one is throwing a glimpse on me in
semi-opened eyes,
? Only the monk in loose yellow gown is laughing in
convulsion,ridiculing me to have missed the prime youth
and now who is willing to marry me,an old granny!
Those heroic-looking arhats are incessantly watching on
me to see what will come out of me when I grow old;,..′
Chasing the glowing eyesight of the theatre-goer,the
audience would feel as if they were lingering in a grand
convent and could not ingest the surrounding scenes,
never bewildered in the monotone of SROs,There used
to be a statement that 求Actors are afraid of Going to
Mount Liang for Shelter at Snowy Night and actresses of
Longing for Profane World.′ owing to the fact that the
characters hereof exacted the well-trained performers in
imparting the spirit.
? It is,of course,laborious to fulfill the ideal of 求come out of
the extinct and go into the live′,In a dramatic jargon,
求extrinsic three concerts′ and 求intrinsic three concerts′
should be assigned to the theatre-goers,the precedent
of which was hinted a technical category,the concert
between head,waist and feet,the one between hip,
knee and feet and the other between shoulder,wrist and
hand and the trailing of which involved a great depth in
psyche requiring 求spirit merged with appearance′ in a
perfect way,Henceforth a pithy formula concluded
regarding the opera presentation that the stylized moves
in physique account for 30% success; the reinforced
exercises for 60% success; the 求spirit′ imbued in the
求exercises′ for 80% success;
? and the coalescing of soul and appearance or
求the intentional′ and 求the unintentional′ for
perfection,For example,in an opera Picking Up
Jade Bracelet the male character Fu Peng is to
hold a hand fan folding and opening alternately
in front of Miss Sun Yujiao*s home so as to comb
an excuse to approach her,In playing the fan-
holder an excellent actor can equal such a
degree that 求he holds a fan in hand as though he
held nothing; he sways the fan as though he
swayed nothing.′,who was deemed far more
masterly than those showing off the exercise in
fan,This is the realm of 求the unintentional.′
? The Annotations of Operas written by Jiao Xun in the
Qing Dynasty maintained an intriguing record,There
were available two theatrical companies Xinghua Troupe
and Hualin Troupe in Nanjing in the Ming Dynasty,which
both coincided to be staging an opera Records of A
Chirping Phoenix which throws censure on a bigwig Yan
Song,The actor surnamed Li in Hualin Troupe acted
Yan Song so remarkably true to life as to fascinate the
audience who had formerly attended to Xinghua Troupe,
The rival actor surnamed Ma in Xinhua Troupe felt much
chagrin and unwilling to submit before wandering out
stealthily,
? Three years had passed when Ma returned to his troupe
in competing with the previous match Li,This time Ma
performed Yan Song in such an engaging manner that
won over the applause and cheers among the watching
public,and all the more Li,who had already shared a
long-established fame in playing Yan Song,came up to
acknowledge formally Ma as his coach,It was made
clear later that on departure of the troupe Ma had gone
as a servant on purpose to wait on a high-ranking official
Gu Bingqian who used to be a bosom friend of Yan Song,
After three years of service he resumed his character-
playing business and had eventually attained a thorough
mastery of Yan Song*s disposition and manners,scaling
the summit of 求the intentional′ realm.
III,Dreams in Amusement Parks 〞A Modern
Annotation of Ancient Dream Theatres
? The ancient Chinese operas characteristic of singing,
speaking,acting and marshal arts on the stage amassed
an aggregate of the elite of Chinese arts and conceived
of the wisdom in 求changing principles′ governing human
communities,When it comes to Chinese classical operas,
求dreams′ might as well be counted as a 求golden key′,In
the field of vision possessed by the ancient Chinese,
these two metaphors 求Life passes like a dream′ and 求Life
acts like a play′ bore the same efficacy,In interrelation
with reality,operas and dreams Chinese ancestors could
have perceived their self-subsistence and apprehended
the sagacity in life.
? Why on earth were the ancient Chinese playwrights
zestful of 求dreams′? Probably it partook in the 求game′ wit
over the past centuries,The term 求play′ could be
annotated 求play with′ and 求play about′ in addition to
求show on the stage′,So naturally in the sense of culture,
求play′ is exclusively concluded the fabrication and the
guise of the realistic life,Why not the same case of
求dreams′? As remarked by Tang Xianzhu,a renowned
playwright in Ming,求When standing by a fence among a
crowd of different peoples,I hesitated and wandered
around as if I could see the departed ancestors and the
affairs in my dreams.′ Hereby Tang undoubtedly evinced
the involvement between 求plays′ and 求dreams′,
? In respect of the presentation methodology in the classic
operas,the chronology of events could be reversed or
intermingled so that a vast expanse of the vicissitudes in
human life could be manifested by way of the stag and it
is in this sense that the operas were prone to parallel the
dreams partially,Wang Shifu wrote the script of The
Western Chamber to the effect that 求Into dream I see the
grand mansion of the number one scholar; out of dream I
am lodging at a thatched inn.′ connoting the opera
therein was nothing but a sound dream,It seemed
another delusion in A Story in Handan by Tang Xianzu
that Lu Dongbin,
? an imaginary deity,induces Lu Sheng to
transcend the worldly life by sleeping on a
magnetic pillow and then entering a dream of
intoxication,in which Lu Sheng undergoes a
series of jubilee in marriage,service
examination,admission into government,river
excavation,recruitment on the western frontier,
banishment from the imperial court,promotion to
minister,award of Kingdom and demise,Waking
up in the morning,he came to be conscious of
having dreamed of the passing-by sixty years,
Toward the finish Lu Sheng converts to the
celestial world and queries with the Eight
Immortals:
? Lu,Sirs,I am stupid enough to suspect as if our meeting
today were in dream as well! Having waken up,I am not
sure of the case yet.
? Immortals,Are you just fond of the celestial spirit? It is
not an easy matter for a stupid guy to tell truth from a
dream,You*re perhaps still in dream.
? Lushen*s fear that 求as if our meeting today were in
dream as well′ accidentally revealed 求Buddhist
allegorical word′ (referring to the secret) underlying
beneath the operas 〞this opera was a dream itself,and
what Lusheng dreams of seemed to be exclusively a
dream out of the dream,′ as justifiably served to be an
accurate conclusion of the dream-playing in Chinese
classical operas as well as to project the playwright*s
addiction into dream fantasies,
? The dream-playing proved efficient in transforming the
abstract psychological activities into the concrete stage
images behind which lies the intricate psycho-complex,
Tang Xianzu further contended in A Forward to The
Peony Pavilion,求Why not true in the case of dreamed
affection? Do not we see so many couples in dreams? It
must be doomed that a man and a woman are
introduced to each other,consequently get married,A
decade later they will become intimate,All this is
relevant to human bodies.′ As per Tang,the gist
formidable to convey in the mortal world was likely to be
tremendously poured down in dreams.
? For instance,there lurked two contours in
morality beneath A Dream in Handan,the first
publicizing the religious nihilism or the conviction
that man*s life is like a dream; the other
portraying in a dreamland a faction of feudalist
creatures ranging from emperors to their
stooges as an exposure of the corrupted
bureaucracy toward the decline of the late Ming
Dynasty,The playwrights had attained a greater
extent of success in epitomizing his ideal pursuit
in dream-playing than those simply keen on idle
colloquy.
? An outstanding playwright Zhang Jian in Qing remarked
in his Autobiography Section of Sentiments from Dreams,
求When sentiments seem true,dream may look fancy; in
case of true sentiments,no dreams look untrue;
considering fancy dreams,no sentiments seem infancy,
Therefore I wonder which is true and which is fancy,
sentiment or dream? ′
? The paradox that the fancy and bizarre dreams could be
employed in imparting the true emotion worked precisely
as a crystallization of the wisdom permeated in the
求dream playing′; meanwhile it was this aesthetic
conception steeped in pursuing dreams that steered
Chinese operas in an artistic course diametrically
opposed to the Western rival.
? Chinese artists exerted a prime concern upon the 求spirit′
and 求will′ creeping behind 求substance′; on securing
求spirit′ they would relinquish 求substantial image′ and
relocate 求dream image′ successively,The dream land
could be highly valued as the paramount artistically-
potential magic stick,whereby Emperor Xun of Tang
who had been abdicated to the Western Palace could re-
rendezvous with the passed-away imperial concubine
Lady Yang,whereby a maiden Du Liniang who had by
no way stepped out of her boudoir could fall in love with
and be engaged in the never-met Liu Mengmei,and
whereby a bored scholar Chun Yufen,drunk in sleeping,
should have claimed ties of kinship with a princess,
accordingly administered NanKuo (a region) efficiently
as a governor,was promoted to a high-ranking post and
indulged in dissipation,
? and afterwards was repatriated home,ultimately
whereby a couple of butterflies symbolizing the
dead couple in life could shuttle freely in a semi-
fancy semi-true dreamland emitting an 求anti-
logic′ wit spark charged with aesthetic
conception.
? Following 求a dream at the thatched bridge′ in the
Western Chamber,Zhang Sheng,the male
character therein,spotted such a miraculous
scene:
?, Green willows stand slimly along the wall,
? Door is half closed at a fall night chilly.
? Wind is blowing off the dried leaves on twigs,
? Gloomy moon is fleeting through
windowsill.′
?
? Some critics pointed out this piece of description
failed to comply with common sense for 求a chilly
fall night′ with leaves being blown off could by
no means coincide with the 求green willows stand
slimly along the wall.′
? However it was through the paradoxical portrayal that
the wisdom of 求dream-playing′ had been incarnated,and
that the scholar Zhang Sheng who was just awakened
from a dream in a trance and the sub-consciousness
embedded in his innermost being,which prompted him
to return to the dream or his sweetheart Cui Yingying,
had been exhibited in such a high fidelity,In another
example of The After-Life,Luo He,a life-long laboring
grinder,happened to earn an extra piece of silver; lest it
be pillaged he thrust it into chest,which was dreamt of
being robbed; he stuffed it under the kitchen range,
which was dreamt of being burned; he soaked it into the
water jar,which was dreamt of being inundated;
? he squeezd it into the threshold,dreaming of it
being excavated out and himself being stabbed
and chopped down,The petty piece of silver
incurred him no sound sleep throughout the
night in entrancement,Exploiting a rhetorical
device of hyperbole the opera afforded a vivid
presentation of the nonentity in that mood,the
absurd consciousness pervaded in which
eminently had overwhelmed that of some
Western modernist dramas.
? It is worth attending that the 求dream wit′ steeped in
Chinese classical theatrical art appeared bilateral,On
one hand the acting staff created a quasi-dreamland
depending upon the fictionalized stylization; on the other
hand the watching public consciously made free
associations or 求dreamed in their own initiative′ by virtue
of the cultural background and experiences (the
comprehension of the rules concerning the stylized
moves),Brighter,a German playwright,was strikingly
impressed by the Chinese-style dream wit 求resorting to
trickery′,depicting in a lively way to the Westerners the
scene 求A Fishing Woman Piloting a Boat′ in a traditional
opera A Fishery Family Being Revenged Upon Local
Tyrants:
?, The actress (fishing woman) is standing and
rowing an oar as long as her knee,as seems to be
piloting a boat which is not available on the stage,Now
the river is running along the torrential rapids and the
boat is getting increasingly strenuous to steer; after a
while she pilots it into a bend rowing the oar a bit
relaxingly,Look,this is the performance of piloting a
boat.′
?
? It is thanks to the Chinese-style empty stage that a rich
variety of scenes could be manifested therein alternately,
requiring no replacement of background curtains and
relying radically on the presentation by actors and
actresses,
? a blood-shed battlefield now and another fragrant-
smelling garden then; a solemn court here and another
tender-seeming wedding chamber there,More cases
could be detected respectively in Monkey Sun who flies
upward to Heavenly Palace by a series of somersaults,
Lin Chong who rushes to Mount Liang for shelter at a
snowy night by lonely striding in some turns,and a
dozen of utility men playing a bit role who symbolize a
grand troop,It seems true in such a case that 求the vast
national territory can be curtailed into seven or eight
paces,a million of warriors conglomerated into three or
five actors.′
? As shown in an scene A Dream in an Amusement Park
affiliated to The Peony Pavilion,Du Liniang in the
company of Chun Xiang sings a couple of arias in
saunters,which was accounted for having rambled
through twelve pavilions and chambers while the
spectators were being guided to see in progression the
gold-gilded gallery,the bank-mossed pond,the tumbled-
down houses and walls,the brightly-lit ships,the hidden-
in-forest pavilions,the peony pavilion,the chirping
orioles and the azalea in blossom,On lowering the
curtain all was gone,yet the scenes leaping up vividly
before the eyes of audience as though they had
dreamed a dream.
? In the meantime due to the active participation in
求dreams′ of the spectators,their ideals were justifiably
mirrored into the operas typical of 求a grand happy
ending′,All roads lead to Rome and the happy-ending
dream served as 求Rome′ to the majority of Chinese
classical operas,No matter how rampant and
unconstrained,how puzzling and weird the plots may
have appeared,eventually none other than a grand
happy ending was concluded,In a romantic opera A
Couple of Butterflies,the female character Zhu Yingtai
who commits suicide since she obtains no permission
from her parents to marry a poverty-stricken scholar
Liang Shanbo seems outright a heroine in a tragedy;
however at the end Zhu and her fiancée Liang are
transformed out of the graveyard into a couple of flying
butterflies as a sign of reunion dream to the effect that
audience could not refrain from laughing through tears,
? Another heroine Tou Ngo is wronged to death
but later a kind-hearted ghost is entrusted in her
dream to take revenge upon the bully and to
resume her innocence,The complete story in
The Peony Pavilion is radically threaded by a
conception of dream,being awakened by the
dream〞seeking the dream 〞being dead in the
dream 〞reviving from death 〞fulfilling the
dream,A happy-ending dream was claimed to
be a destination to the love-beaten heroes and
heroines.
? Then,what spurred Chinese people to be
inclined to select 求happy-ending dream′?
? In the first place Chinese ancients held a conviction that
求Heaven is shaped in a sphere′,A relevant notion could
be seen in The Great Treatise of the Book of Changes,
求The virtue of the stalks is versatile and spirit-like.′
Therefore 求the spherical′ observed by the ancients had
been deeply projected into the bottom of the national
psyche,The spherical Heaven and the closely 每
circulated moral rites system were considered to be in
homologue in such a manner that the natural concept
求spherical′ was gradually tinged with the intensified
humanist color,from which a sphere-worshiped cultural
psychological structure arose as a green house for
stealthily breeding the 求happy-ending dream′.
? Furthermore,dreams looked like an artistic mirror of
reality and in turn art like a fantastic observation of
societies,In China 求rites′ and 求music′ were co-framed
and so were the national culture and the opera culture,
The ethical principles served to 求mount the brain.′ or set
the keynote for the operas as voiced in a written couplet
hung on a theatre:
? 求Sing play,watch play,talk on play and social things
are none but play;
? You*re gay,I gay,he gay,all gay and teachings are
in the gay.′
? Radiated from the ethical principles the operas were
unexceptionally biased to the anti-evil pro-good 求happy-
ending dream′ with a view to reinforcing the norm of the
national ethics,
? There lived a congregation of 求happy-ending-dream fans′
toward the turn of the Ming-Qing Dynasties who had
been engrossed in massively adapting the ancient
tragedies into the happy-ending dreams along with a
clear-cut preference to morality promotion,Take an
instance of The Injustice Done to Tou Ngo,a high-skilled
actor Ye Xianzu in Ming,considering such plots as Tou
Ngo dead in blood-stained white gown,the snow in
midsummer,the drought spell in Chuzhou and the
rehabilitation of the wronged case could not vent his
aspiration,should have revised the original script as
follows,At the moment Tou Ngo is executed,it snows
heavily and she survives the head-cutting death penalty;
? shortly later her wronged case is redressed,her
husband revives and the wedded couple enjoy reunion in
an ever-lasting fortune and glory,The Delight in
NanYang recounts the life story of Zhu Geliang,a
symbol of Chinese traditional sageness that he stood in
line with Liu Bei,an alleged offspring of the Emperor Jin
of the Han Dynasty to the effect that he led a weak troop
in having defeated Wu Kingdom and Wei Kingdom and
established Shu Kingdom in the end; afterwards he
withdrew into hermitage at Longzhong,A Sharp Sword
narrates the patriotic relegated minister Qu Yuan who
gets drowned in the Miluo River but at last supernaturally
resumes the post of the prime minister of Chu Kingdom,
? Smashing Jin-Invasion commends the
imaginative military feats of a dedicated chief
commander Yue Fei in overthrowing Jin
Kingdom,The genus of dreams worked as an
imposed modulation and control over the opera
culture by the national orthodox culture,which
let off the agitation and irritation implanted in the
audience,inhaled and exhaled the unstable
elements underlying the community at any time
so as to stabilize the social order,In this sense
the 求happy-ending dream′ could be rated the wit
as well the sorrow of Chinese nation.
? Considering the countless operas or dramas throughout
the global Chinese audience had shared a far wider
scope of freedom than the remainders,Having an
appetite for game they could join the staff acting some
roles; having a pleasure for watching they could sit out
remarking upon the merits and demerits of the staging,
their aesthetic perception being exalted and their refined
temperament being molded therein,Indulging in game or
watching they were prone to dream in a quasi-fancy
quasi-true state,It is widely accepted that 求The globe is a
grand stage; a stage is a curtailed globe′,Even though
the traditional Chinese operas have passed beyond the
acme and brilliance,yet the poise,elegance,delight and
passion ingrained in the merrily singing and gracefully
dancing have invariably been bewitching.
Music,Singing and Dancing
〞A Musical Eden of Recreation,Temperament and
Morality
? Music had been endowed with multi-lateral implications
in the ancient China,Ranging from 求press on to finish
without letup′ to 求govern the state and calm the masses,′
from 求show off bigwigs′ to 求sacrifice deities and ghosts,′
a multitude of phrases were intermingled with 求music′,
While 求appreciating music′ and 求playing games′ the
ancient Chinese laid down an emphasis upon the
integration of 求rites′ and 求recreation′,求Rites and music′
as a compound term,though seldom employed in
modern Chinese language,was closely interrelated with
the communities in the remote ages,Music served to be
a general reference to arts connoting both independent
musical forms and a unity of poetry,songs and dance,
? Rites signified a moral code of Chinese feudal culture
inclusive of hierarchy,rites & protocols,morals and
ethics,Despite discrepancies resulting in from the two
concepts and intensions thereof the ancients were
accustomed to merging the two into a whole designated
as 求rites and music′ owing to their consistency in
functions,Thus the original recreation 求music′ had been
appended to such connotations as 求exercising teachings′
and 求nurturing morals.′How did they work? A musical
classic The Records of Music registered,求Music is a
stirrer of human minds,wherein sentiments arise and are
formed in sound which is to be arranged in rhythm and
tempo,otherwise called music.′ In other words music is
a sort of carrier of emotion characterized by touching
listeners with sentiments,Furthermore the ancients
advocated that 求Music is competent in permeating
through the unfathomable depth of human souls and
affecting them in no moment
?, So the founding kings sponsored it in a circumspect
way,In moderate music people are calm and peaceful,
but not vulgar;
? in solemn music people make concerted efforts,but are
not in commotion,When people are calm and peaceful
making concerted efforts the army will become powerful
and the city is reinforced,being not afflicted with the
enemy.′ 求Music is something the sages ever took delight
in,It can appease people to such an effect that it can
impress them strikingly and vary prevailing customs and
conventions,which the founding kings avert with rites,
and by which people live in concord.′ Music,in the
opinion of rulers,served more as a means of political
teachings than as a pure and simple art of sound,
Meanwhile they had de facto recognition that refined
music could make gentlemen 求mold refined temperament
and become peaceful and noble in morals.′
? (Zuo Chronicle) It proves obvious that 求exercising
teachings′ and 求nurturing morals′ by means of music
related frequently to 求molding temperament′ and vice
versa,No matter whether the sovereigns acknowledged
it or not the quality of 求amusing′ did exist in music
performance,which served to be the first demand in
games for the ancients (notably the populace) and
thereby to arrive at the aims aforesaid,The Eden of
recreation,temperament and morality could be claimed
the aesthetic pursuit of the ancient Chinese music.
I,Fantastic Chinese Zither
? Chinese zither---a stringed instrument,(or qin in Chinese
language) fell within the most ancient musical
instruments in China,and the music played by qin
sounded as an emblem of the native music of Chinese
nation,Zither,chess,calligraphy and painting were
extolled as the means by which Chinese intelligentsia
drained emotions,A throng of historically-reputed
ideologists and artists including Confucius,Cai Yi and Ji
Kang equally gained popularity by playing zither,It is
well known even to Chinese children and illiterate
housewives that Sima Xiangru used to woo his match by
performing qin and Boya made friends with Zhong Ziqi
through it as well.
? The expression 求one who is aware of the music played
by others′(眭秞 zhi yin) has become the most-favored
phrase referring to a bosom friend,Not equipped with a
magnanimous volume and a pompous skill Chinese
string instruments were typified by the unique timbre,the
lasting appeal and profound implications in gratifying
listeners and sounded as a sign of Chinese musical
culture.
? Large quantities of remarks on Chinese zither have been
preserved over the history,of which Xishan Principles of
Zither maintained a popular acclaim thanks to its
generalized and well-argued contents,The author Xu
Shangyin was expert in playing qin who had participated
in resisting against the Qing sovereignty at the turn of
the Ming-Qing Dynasties and later settled in seclusion at
the Vault Temple in Suzhou upon being defeated,
? Aided by Yushan school that had propagated in
playing the ancient zither the style of 求clear,
subtle,thin and far′,he induced the aesthetic
rules thereof and deduced twenty four principles
applicable in music performance,which could be
summed up in three respects,harmonious music,
composed sound and far-reaching implication,
an incarnation of the exquisite qualities imbued
in Chinese zither performers.
A,求Harmonious′ Music
? As held in Xishan Principles of Zither the primary
account in playing qin should be imposed on 求harmony.′
What was meant by 求harmony′? It was constituted as a
comprehensive category comprising not only the
harmony between chords but the one between fingers
and music,and that between music and implications,A
musician named Leng Xian in the Ming Dynasty offered
an elaborate exposition of 求harmony′ in Sixteen Methods
of Playing Zither,求Harmony serves as the essential of
five notes,or the norm that notes shall not go beyond or
fail to reach,Being on the strings tunes shall be
controlled by fingers and identified by sound.
? Unhindered,strings work in accord; impeded,strings get
stuck,With fingers plucking at strings backward and
forward,the music sounds accordant,as proves an
agreement between stings and beats,Music is stratified
in rhythms,Provided it sounds gracious full of sentiments,
there shall be available concord between fingers and
music,In case of implications steeped in music then
arise miraculous repercussions,Only when notes are set
in equilibrium between the heave and the light,between
the hurried and the relaxed,between the smooth and the
firm,between the rising and the falling and between the
interrupted and incessant,does there emerge a harmony
between music and implications;
? hence the natural elegance and perfect integrity of
fingers and strings which is defined as the supreme
harmony.′ So in this sense 求harmony′ could be prized
the bearing of Chinese nation,the essence of Chinese
ideologies,the spirit of Chinese art and the pursuit of
Chinese music.
? 求Harmony′ was held to be interrelated with the morality
in playing zither,A musician critic Yang Biaozheng
contended in Commentaries on Playing Zither,求Playing
zither is intended to prohibit evil and rectify wrong so as
to meet the virtue in human temperament,Therefore the
string instruments initiated by sages shall be applied in
cultivating one*s character and nurturing one*s
sentiments,which is designated harmony′,Man*s virtue
is exposed in the sound of zither,
? In an attempt to secure the natural and free realm in
zither the performers ought to have matched up to the
relevant quality,A highly-skilled performer,it is certain,
could pluck out a refined sound on a moderate zither,
That is why,prior to exercising fingers,they should be
trained to be equipped with the disposition herein before.
? Every time before plucking zither the players should
adjust to a composed mood in a solemn bearing and
further could made a clear-desolate sound when silence
reigned supreme,String instruments or qin served as a
tool for nurturing the ancients* temperament and so
plucking zither was not contrived to please listeners or
spectators,Instead the plucking actors or actresses were
required to play refined harmonious sound so as to
conform to the quiet and pure style.
? It was appraised that zithe was distinguished
between the authentic sound and the discordant
sound,the preceding of which was in concert
with tempo,despite the insipid tune,to the effect
that it could comfort psyche; the succeeding of
which was miscellaneous and hurried in no
compliance with tempo,in the purpose of
inducing the masses to be indulgent in emotion,
Henceforward the authentic sound should
govern and check the discordant in such a way
that the 求harmony′ could be obtained by
generating the antique refinement.
? A prominent player Zhu Fenjie in the Qing Dynasty,
when young,accompanied his elder cousin Zhu Qiuzhai
in plucking qin every night,At the start he felt dull but
came to appreciate it a couple of months later and
turned to request the cousin to teach him,From then
onwards he was so preoccupied in plucking zither as to
give up sleep and meals,and as to pluck a song over a
thousand times each day,After ten years of striving he
had acquired adeptness in finger exercises but not
reached the marvelous spirit-conveying realm,The
cousin issued a comment on him,求How could you obtain
perfection by resorting simply to the minute part of sound?
It is effected from the practice of nurturing one*s
temperament to such an extent that the superb sound
will set in tacit agreement,You should place the
fundamental before the minute.′ With these phrases Zhu
Fengjie came to be conscious of the truth therein.
? He recollected hereinafter in A Supplement to Ancient-
Style Zither Notations from Cultivation of Plucking Zither,
求I have nowadays retained in mind the antique treasure
of the sages* learning that a priority shall be place upon
cultivating the character in my own way,A year later I did
not make progress in that field,and I felt the
surroundings and days were pressing upon me,
whereupon I reproved myself and made painstaking
efforts more than ever for fear that I would disappoint my
cousin,When recalling the past I note there was a
considerable change every five years,Till now there
have been three remarkable changes,the incipient one
making me sensitive of the wonder,the secondary
susceptible of the wonder,the latest entrapped in the
sound of zither,
? Every time I plucked it in rapture the two fingers
moved to and fro as in a supernatural manner as they
could,Sorely when the wonder spurts as naturally as it
does,the spirit results from the implication and the
player is totally engrossed in the process does emerge
the true music of zither!′
? B,求Composed′ Sound
? In order to explore 求harmony′,求composure′ should be
sleuthed at the first concern,as appeared to be another
realm in playing qin tracked down by the ancient
Chinese qin players,To deprive music of 求rashness* in
search of 求composure′ denoted the prime spirit soaked
in the intension of Chinese ancient music and the
paramount norm employed in the aesthetic pursuit
concerning the classical music.
? To pluck zither were highly demanded three
conditions,the tranquility of surroundings,the serenity of
mood or the psychological preparation,and the
composure in music,Master Lao ever advocated,求The
marvelous music sounds rare.′ According to him 求the
rare music′ remains at the peak of 求composure′,by
which players 求can exert as wide-ranging imagination as
possible′,Priority should be attached to breath
adjustment contrived for the serenity of mood as well as
finger exercises for the composure in music.
? By and large the ideal hereof was in intimate connection
with 求quietness′ and 求lightness′,the beginning of which
could be counted a general requirement involving the
quality of qin structure,the strings,the playing spot,the
player*s mood and skills,
? the latter of which weighed as another element in the
style of plucking zither,Xishan Principles of Zither
pointed out,求The prime element of zither sounds light,
Being plucked,zither exerts vehement passion over
lightness,I readjusted the light out of the remainder for
tallying with the ancients* criterion,and but not for
entertaining the masses,While living n quiet maintains
and enjoying evergreen woods in a gentle breeze,I
plucked at zither leisurely giving forth the perfect sound
and reaping the authentic interest.′ However the
求lightness′ did not mean 求tastelessness,′ instead was
intended to scour a rapturous fun hereby or
求indifference′,a miraculous realm in 求lightness′ not
prone to be achieved by common populace,
? The Muses in China were able to play qin in such a light
manner that the music did not sound dull; in turn it was
full of the joyful atmosphere but not ardent,full of the
passion but not interfering,and full of implied interests
but not pompous,as,like a well-bred gentleman,did not
attempt to sleuth graciosity but appeared gracious.
? C,求Far-Reaching′ Implications
? What was 求far-reaching′? It was implied the far-reaching
state of artistic conception which did impress
appreciators as if the charm were lingering on despite an
early stoppage of the music,In other wording the music
out of zither was plucked not to show off the players*
dexterity on the strings,but to extract something out of
them,that is,the free associations in players* innermost
being,Toward the decline of the Song Dynasty there
lived a musician Guo Gai who had composed a song
entitled A Babbling River in Hunan,the melody sounding
far-reaching in so profound implication that the listeners
exercised their imagination as boldly as they could,
Hereby the style of Chinese qin even ventured to
abandon the norm set upon the superb skill in playing or
the grand volume of the stringed instruments,instead
sought after the tolerant mind,far-reaching intension and
the innermost satisfaction arising therein.
? The Annals of the Jin Dynasty recounted a story,Tao
Qian (Tao Yuanming,a pastoral poet) lived an
unrestrained and unconventional life,He was addicted in
drinking liqueur and even did not quit writing poems in
case of no wine,It seems alleged that in summer he
used to sleep down by the northerly window with a
breeze caressing him; so naturally he nicknamed himself
求a king in the sunshine.′ Pitifully Tao Qian was not
acquainted with musical notes,but conserved a zither
matched by no strings and pegs,Whenever friends
dropped in on him at drinking,he invariably tackled it,as
incurred bewilderment to the quests,He explained,
求Since I have been conscious of the intrinsic wonder,
then what else is the sound on strings plucked for?′
Which suggested the authentic player should have been
not only confined within the sound of zither itself but
clung to the implication beyond it,an ultimate aim
embraced in the style of Chinese ancient zither.
II,Songs and Dance at Imperial Courts
? The Yellow Emperor was acclaimed to be a king of gods
versed in both polite letters and martial arts,not only as
a creator of Chinese nation,but also as an ingenious
composer,Assembling with all other gods or goddesses
at the pinnacle of Mount Tai he composed a song
entitled A Solemn Precipice,as being stuffed with
lamentable grievance,It was allegedly the case that
Duke Ping of Jin Kingdom ever ordered Shi Kuang,a
noted musician wherein,to play the tune but the
musician was scared of doing so; at the repeated
demands of the Duke he agreed in obedience,To their
surprise scarcely had the overture been plucked when
grey clouds accumulated and a tempest succeeded,
Afterwards it came to be discernible that the melody was
a creation by the king in Heaven,not the profane work of
mortal beings;
? The Zhou Dynasty pioneered in specifying 求rites′
(comprising sacrificial rites and official ceremonies etc.)
and 求music′ (the songs and dance accompanying 求rites′),
which was said to be promulgated by the predominant
statesman Duke of Zhou at the outset of his dynasty,
The establishment of rite and music had endured toward
the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty,exerting a prodigious
repercussion over a couple of millennia in varied specific
forms,which was principled in two aspects,the
specification of hierarchy and the adoption of refined
music and dance that was equivalent in meaning to
求orthodox music′ or 求standardized music′ and that
comprised of a portion of the rites and ceremonies,so
called 求ritual music′ held in esteem in the upcoming
centuries,The ritual music was paralleled by a large
variety of music and dance played at imperial courts,at
emperors* bed chambers and at halls,one order of which
was purposely marshaled at banquets,named 求Yan
music.′
? As an indispensable segment of Chinese royal music
since the birth,it had been classified into two sectors,
the one for specialized performers and the other for
emperors* involvement,having gratified to generations of
the sovereigns and progressed unceasingly,In the first
sector a large troupe of actors and actresses were
mobilized in the fixed stylization,as illustrated by the
sitting staff and the standing staff amounting up to 180 in
the Nine-Segment Music and the Ten-Segment Music
prevalent during the Sui-Tang,presenting a musical
grandeur,The Music Records from the Old Annals of the
Tang Dynasty disclosed,求Preceded by the Dance of the
Cavalry the remaining performances were accompanied
by none other than beating of big drums and interjected
with the miscellaneous styles of music diffused from the
remote Western Territory such as Guizi Kingdom,
sounding like a thunderbolt quivering mountains and
valleys.′
? The latter sector seemed more amusing than instructive
in that the implications were permeated therein,an
instance being the Impromptu Song,an antiphonal
singing performance between a host who sang some
songs in the Book of Poetry and guests replying in
concert,which was defined as the 求songs and poems
chorus′ wherein the poems were categorized in strict
conformity to emperors and dukes or princess,The Zuo
Annals recorded a historical story that once upon a time
Duke Wen of Lu Kingdom ordered sung at a feast a
poem abstracted from the Second Decade of Odes of
the Book of Poetry:
? The Heavy Dew
?
? The heavy dew so bright
? Is dried up on the trunk.
? Feasting long all the night,
? None will retire till drunk.
?
? The heavy dew is bright
? On lush grass in the dell.
? We feast long all the night
? Till rings the temple bell.
?
? Bright is the heavy dew
? On date and willow trees.
? Our noble guests are true
? And good at perfect ease.
?
? The plane and jujube trees
? Have their fruits hanging down.
? Our noble guests will please
? In manner and renown.
? In which the sun served as an analogy of the
emperors,the dew of the dukes,Since the dew
would be evaporated in the sunshine the
analogy connoted that the dukes should confess
inferiority to the Son of Heaven or the emperors,
At the spot Nin Wu,a minister of Wei Kingdom
did not respond to Duke Wen of Lu in antiphonal
singing due to his misuse of the songs
exclusively devised for the emperors,It seems
conspicuous outright that the human aspiration
in the librettos in 求songs was embedded under
the guise of recreation,an imperative portion in
the existing political community.
? Toward the concluding years of the Spring-Autumn-
Warring-States Period the establishment of the rites and
music was being shattered and the fresh and lively 求new
music′ in rich varieties spouted beyond the abode of the
Son of Heaven,In respect of musical instruments the
day saw the arrival of the string-plucked qin and spinets
that had exploited a new source of sound,then the
majestic-scale bell chimes bearing a vast range of sound,
A musical masterpiece Master Guan proposed and
verified the 求three-fraction gain-loss approach′
concerning music principles to the effect that the five
scales made up of Gong,Shang,Jiao,Zhen and Yu had
been reaffirmed,A host of musicians and singers rose in
procession with an advanced degree of performing and
singing,Shi Xiang as a music official in Lu Kingdom; Shi
Kuang in Kingdom Jin; Shi Juan and Shi Jing in Wei
Kingdom; Bo Le as a qin player in the Warring States
Period;
? Han E,Xue Tan,Wang Bao,Mian Ju,Hou Tongden
as specialized singers at the same time; and a
concluding figure Master Gongsun Ni,the author of the
Records of Music,was extolled a preeminent music
theoretician.
? The Music Department was instituted during the Qin-Han
Dynasties in the hope of collecting and compiling folk
music,poems and dance to such a greater extent that
the rulers could inspect the civilians,consolidate the
monarchy and delight themselves in luxury,wherein the
antiphonal songs,instrument beating and blowing,dance
and miscellaneous play of Han nationality and the
counterparts originated from the Southwestern and the
Northwestern minorities were extensively exchanged
and exalted,
? The most-favored singing form ever spotted by the Music
Department was the 求Antiphonal Song′,which had formerly been
derived from a 求blank song′ with the company of stringed and wind
instruments,and which evolved into the 求Antiphonal Grand Music′
sounding as a prelude to the Grand Music of the Tang Dynasty,
Flutes,harps fiddles and other many instruments were transmitted
from the Western Territory into the central China and gradually were
innovated as Chinese national musical instruments,pipa standing
out as the most influential exemplar,The Han Dynasty beheld two
talented musicians,Li Yannian who majored in singing and
composing songs and Jing Fang who was celebrated in creating
求Sixty Temperaments′,notably detecting the flaw of the
temperaments settled by wind instruments,enlightening the
successors to the extreme; and it beheld other two dancing experts
as well,Madame Qi,the empress of Emperor Highness of Han (Liu
Bang) and Zhao Feiyan who were vivacious of dancing on bent
waist and on palms respectively.
? The Wei-Jin period maintained the thread of Han in no
drastic variation,Toward the South-North Dynasties the
music and dance commenced to diverge in copious
manners,Nourished by the folk culture the Southern
Dynasties developed the inheritance from the Wei-Jin
into 求refined music & dance′ and 求sundry music & dance′
employed separately for ritual sacrifices or royal
ceremonies and banquets,In addition there were staged
at sumptuous feasts the fashionable Western Music
Song and Wu Song at Midnight,which had been rooted
in the former Wu Kingdom and Chu Kingdom,At the
close of the Southern Dynasties,as the widely-
appreciated dance and music for the imperial court,the
Moon-Lit Night at Flowered River in Spring and the
Blossoms at Jade Backyard,it is said,were shed a long-
standing luster,
? In the meantime the Northern Dynasties gave
rise to the 求northern songs′ tracing back to Xian
Bei nationality since the reign of Emperor Tuoba
Shi in the Northern Wei Dynasty,and the dance
spread from the northern minorities gained
popularity during the throne of Emperor Wen
Xuan in the Northern Qi Dynasty while the alien
musical torrent surged eastward into the central
China from India and the Western Territory,
paving the way for the towering splendor of the
Sui-Tang Dynasties in exchange with Chinese
native equals.
? Till the rise of the Sui Dynasty the prevalent songs
and dance were remolded into the 求seven-segment
music*,later in the 求nine-segment music′ by Emperor
Yang of Sui himself,At the moment was constituted the
Supreme Constant Administration held responsible for
the affairs hereof retaining a massive crew of over
30,000,a grand panorama of the existing recreational
morale.
? The Tang Dynasty made its debut as an unprecedented
colossal feudalist empire,whereupon music enjoyed a
high esteem owing to the stabilized society and
prospering economy,Being enthroned Emperor Tai
inherited the Sui tradition incorporating the musical
achievements in the Southern-Northern Dynasties into
the 求ten-segment music′,
? In the reign of Emperor Xuan,seeing that the imported
elements and the native rivals had been forged into a
whole with a minimizing distinction,the 求ten-segment
music′ was categorized in the sitting staff that was
extolled in playing stringed and wind instruments at the
front of halls,and the standing staff that was despised in
beating drums,blowing sheng or Chinese-style reed
pipes and tackle acrobatics at the rear,The Tang music
consisted of the 求grand music′ or ensembles as
represented by the Alien Melody,the Alien Dance and
the White Elm Twig,and the 求disperse music′ or suites
of songs and dance,Instruments had amounted to over
three hundred types,In Kaiyuan 2,the Tang Dynasty or
743 A.D.
? there had existed three music academies besides a
department responsible for blowing and beating show,of
which the Interior Music Academy located near Penglai
Palace was authorized to govern the official troupes,and
the Left Music Academy and the Right Music Academy
built in Chang*an proper in charge of the folk* artists,
Unsatisfied yet,Emperor Xuan conscripted again quite a
few thousand of actors and actresses and stationed
them respectively at the Pear Garden affiliated to the
Imperial City,in the western capital and Luoyang; all the
more frequently working as an 求art adviser′ he handed
over his own compositions to the troupes for
presentation,Emperor Xuan and his concubine Madame
Yang Yuhuan used to coach them how to perform
Colorful Feathered-Gown Dance,who were hereby
recognized 求Imperial music disciples′,Meanwhile
another 30-head 求Teenager Music Staff′ was founded at
the Pear Garden as a reserve.
? As a matter of fact Chinese imperial courts had
equally furnished the same conditions and guarantee for
the exuberant growth of music and arts as the Western
peers,whereby a huge throng of folk artists lived in
welfare and were offered opportunities to distill their
proficiency,A sole distinction lay in the fact that whereas
the Western royal kinsfolk idled away time by exclusively
appreciating musical art,Chinese feudal monarchs did
undertake both appreciation and active participation
therein.
? Emperor Xuan was dexterous in musical attainments,
especially in beating jie drum,which,propagated from
the Western Territory,had been welcomed into the Sui-
Tang Dynasties as a key instrument for playing 求yan
music′,and which was equipped with a wide register in
such a stirring manifestation that flocks of the fans
became obsessed over it as a fashion,
? He had gone even farther than the others to be fond
of jie drum extolling it as the principal of 求eight sounds′
(referred generally to as the musical instruments),He
had not only beat the drum by himself but composed
scores of musical pieces hereof,For example,the ever-
lasting musical works A Rain-Worn Bell and A Mild
Spring were equally designed for jie drum beating,While
the emperor was composing the latter piece,it is
assumed,willow leaves turned green and apricot trees
germinated in buds; upon completion of his performance
of the piece,the leaves and trees contended for
unfolding and the emperor exclaimed in an exhilarating
manner,求Mild Spring! Mild Spring !′
? The well-famed melody Colorful-Feathered-Gown Music
was believed to be composed by Emperor Xuan,
? Once upon a time when he climbed a post looking into
Mount Daughter,abruptly it occurred to him that he was
involved in an illusion that he had heard the marvelous
sound afar in the Moon Palace and hoped to fly there,
No sooner had he returned to the imperial abode than he
wrote down what he had just fancied,Prior to its
fulfillment there came up a governor who was appointed
to be quartered in West Liang and now presented the
emperor a genteel music entitled Brahman,an Indian
creation,Emperor Xuan considered it seemed much like
his suspended work,therefore adapted it to the finale of
his piece and conferred upon it a title Colorful-
Feathered-Gown Music,which sounded lissome and
quietly elegant arousing an infinite reverie as if a
company of fairies were descending off the Moon Palace
dancing and playing before human beings,and which
求ought to be enjoyed in Heaven′ remaining as a rare
artistic spectacle.
? Affected by the emperor,a throng of princes,princesses
and ministers became keen on music as well,According
to The Grand Records in Times of Peace and Tranquility,
Du Jianhong,the prime minister,was of great
attainments in playing jie drum,In the reign of Emperor
Yong Tai he headed for Sichuan from the capital
Cang*an,Traveling alongside the Jialing River,he
sojourned at a post a day; on being tipsy in liqeuer he
demanded the servant to fetch a jie drum and performed
a couple of tunes that astonished his company and
求shocked the monkeys and birds in the nearby
mountains so strikingly as to flee away.′ Look at another
example in the Language Forest of the Tang Dynasty,Li
Mian born in Qianyang derived much delight from the
antique qin and also instructed the two girl singers,who
were retained at his home,to play it with the self-
composed music score,Garrisoned at Xuan Wu he
ordered a tung tree felled and made two zithers by
himself entitling them 求Dripping Well′ and 求Flavor
? Li Mian born in Qianyang derived much delight from the
antique qin and also instructed the two girl singers,who
were retained at his home,to play it with the self-
composed music score,Garrisoned at Xuan Wu he
ordered a tung tree felled and made two zithers by
himself entitling them 求Dripping Well′ and 求Flavor
Bedrock′,Once Li was offered a piece of antique iron in
Run Zhou; striking it with hands,he heard a melodious
ring and preserved it as a musical instrument,Elated at
free time he took a monkey nicknamed 求mountain lord′
to the Mount Gold bringing with him the antique qin and
the iron who,in the moon-lit night,beat the qin and
knocked on the iron keeping himself in a romantic mood.
? The Qing Dynasty witnessed the royal family and
noblemen intoxicated in operas,especially Beijing Opera,
For instance,Emperor Guang Xu was capable of beating
the time-marking drum perfectly,A ministry in charge of
opera affairs was set up during the earlier days of the
imperial court 〞 Coaching Department which,in
Yongzheng 7,was merged into Music Administration
under the Outer Court and took hold of the refined and
popular music,whereas the opera performance was held
under the supervision of the Southern Department
affiliated to the Interior Ministry,which instituted the Inner
Division and the Outer Division with over 1,000 staff
mutually in charge of full-length festivities on grand
occasions,Cao Xingquan recollected in his Memoirs of
Opera Staging at Inner Court of the Previous Qing:
?, There existed three prodigious theatres pertaining to
the imperial court,the largest being situated at Rehe
Sojourn Palace,the second at Tranquility-Longevity
Palace and the third at Delight Hall within Summer
Palace.′ These theatres were constructed in three
stories,nominated separately Fortune Hall,Emolument
Hall and Longevity Hall,On the floor were devised five
holes from which prop pagodas,Buddhist statuettes and
performing staff could ascend,In addition to the
mentioned above the operas were also displayed,it is
recorded,at Eternal Spring Palace,Rapid-Sweet
Chamber,West-Workshop Palace,West-Coil Hall,
Crimson-Receiving Hall,Oriole-Hearing Palace,God of
Longevity Hall,and Imperial-Supremacy Hall,a
testimony to the fondness of the royal members and
nobilities for music.
? Near Shishahai Lake in Beijing was located the Mansion
of Prince Gong of the Qing Dynasty,which was built with
waterside pavilions and chambers in bamboo forest and
lawns,conferred a title 求Grand Garden,′ a best-
preserved imperial abode at present,There remains a
large-scale theatre,a chief construction thereof,
disclosing a scene of the contemporary prosperity,At the
Mansion there is still prevailing the Stringed Music〞the
unique orchestra of the traditional Chinese musical
instruments including pipa (Chinese lute),sanxian
(three-string zither) and erhu (a two-string Chinese
fiddle),A Qing scholar Rong Zhai compiled an album of
the stringed music entitled Reference to Stringed Music
comprising a total of thirteen ensembles,
? Joint-Revel Music,General Music,Sixteen Meters,
Zither-Sound Meters,Quiet-Sound Contact,Peaceful-
Meter Contact,A Rising Moon,A Rising Moon in Qin
Sound,Incantation at Pu Convent,A Long-Gown Dancer,
Farewell at Yang Pass,A Night Trip in Pine Wood,A
Dancing Horse,Over one hundred years ago the
theatre and chambers therein were well-illuminated
every night and the operas were performed in Kun
Scheme and Yiyang Scheme in loud gong-striking and
drum-beating while the light music and dance were being
presented at the tea halls,a majestic sight at the time,
Not only did the noblemen savour the wonderful
performance but they requested their offspring to learn
what was staged on the theatre with a view to molding
the temperament as the would-be rulers as well as
attaining the unified aesthetic pursuit of recreation,
temperament and morality.
III,Vulgar Music among Townspeople
? Like the case in any other ancient nations throughout the
global Chinese ballads or folk songs did germinate and
circulate in the primitive hunting,sacrificial rites and
ceremonies,love and marriage affairs,pasturage and so
on,As registered in the Book of Poetry 求The laboring
sing for incidents and the hungry sing for food′,the folk
songs enclosed in the fifteen genera of 求national wind′
therein proved true in that matter,Why were Chinese
folk songs called 求wind′ in the ancient times? It was
convinced partially that the sound of wind differs in pitch,
volume,articulation and tempo,so does the tune of
music;
? consequently music was nicknamed 求wind′,
Meanwhile the librettos and formats embedded
in music were in most cases a reflection of local
customs and conventions,so naturally the
folksongs were designated as 求national wind.′
The Book of Poetry exploited the 求four-character
pattern′ (or four-meter pattern) in the verses,
which had been extensively and securely
applied over the history,playing a crucial role in
the development and diversification of the
librettos and formats in Chinese folk songs,Take
the maiden piece from the Book of Poetry:
? 笚鰍 ?壽鷈 Wooing and
Wedding
?
? 壽壽鷈藋,By riverside a pair
? 婓碩眳粔﹝ Of turtledoves
are cooing;
? 髜鬈抃躓,There*s a good
maiden fair
? 澱赽疑樕﹝ Whom a young
man is wooing,
?
? Which sounds a love song by an ancient young man
courting a young lady,and which looks fresh in intension
with the format itself wrapped in fluid vocality,
? As mentioned hereinbefore Chinese music had been
blocked during a course of period behind the gateway of
the imperial palaces and not shared by the common
people though they claimed the right for its creation,
which was commencing to be convulsed in the Sui-tang
Dynasties which found expression to certain musical
activities at fairs sponsored by Buddhist abbeys and to
the poem-singing at restaurants,Owing to the swift
expansion of the industrial and commercial businesses
the Song Dynasty experienced a drastic change in the
urban life wherein the civilians headed by the
townspeople had acquired their own amusement
localities,greeted as 求tile market′ or 求enclosed fence′,
? Whereas the music performance at the imperial
courts weighed in the preceding ages,yet from then
onwards the rivals arising from 求tile markets′,求the
enclosed fence′,and the upcoming 求theatres′ and 求tea
houses′ outgrew the precedents in that case,for the
history saw no more value of the court music,No wonder
that the occurrences in question before Song fell with the
history of the imperial court music,and those since Song
had been de facto chronicle of the townspeople*s (or
civilians*) music.
? Music serves to be what people pursue for pleasure,The
town dwellers seemed more preoccupied in the 求vulgar
music* which had been repelled by Confucianism than
the 求high-brow music′ employed for the updating of
ethics.
? Compared with the later,the popular music overrode
sensual stimulus,bold portrayal and playful enjoyment,
exclusively by which the spiritual horizon could be
expanded to the far and wide,and the pursuit or
eagerness for life and love manifested in a thorough way,
The 求dispersed melody′ flourishing in Yuan was
engrossed in depicting private affection between men
and women,unconfined personalities in plain,fresh and
amusing phrases,Take a piece 求Returning Home Drunk′
written by Wang Heqin,
?
? 求My mouth is against his short hair,his back is against
my breast; while my cheeks are caressing his neck,he
sleeps soundly sighing in bed; all night I can not meet his
face,as if I were combing his hair.′
? A couple of words portrays a vivid picture of
a drunken husband and a sorrowful wife
charged with playfulness,embodying the
recreational quality that the stratum of urban
residents claimed as an ultimate concern for
dissipating the anxiety and stress incurred in
daily life.
? Let us have a glimpse of a folk song thriving
in the Qing Dynasty:
?
? Where is my darling at present?
? For whomever do blooms open?
? Why not wild goose bring his letter?
? My heart befalls poor lovesickness,
? Tears are rolling down my pale cheeks.
? So much scare and so much sadness
? How could woman alone resist?
?
? This is a fairly easy song but the melody sounds
heartfelt,
? Respecting the popular music culture the art harlots
deserved mentioning,In the ancient China harlots were
classed in two,first was the streetwalkers,the second
the art harlots involved in singing,dancing and music,
who were more often than not matched with
consummate skills and had made a peerless contribution
to the diffusion and growth of music creating the so
called 求brothel harlot culture′,in which the art harlots
wearing brightly-lit gowns in thick make-up sang,danced
and played in the company of the stringed orchestra,
appealing to the royal members,VIPs,even the civilians
who were overwhelmed with rapture beyond drinking
and carnal pleasure.
? Tea bars remained as another substantial scene for the
popular pastime,whereat the players,differing from the
aforesaid,engaged in pure art activities,namely quyi
(Chinese folk art forms) exclusive of sensual allurement,
It was referred to as ballad singing,story-telling,comic
dialogues,clapper talks,cross talks etc.,which had
derived the origin from On Art,a treatise by Master Xun
in the Pre-Qin Period and the narrative verses pertaining
to The Folk Poetry Collected by the Music Department
during the Han Dynasty and the Six-Dynasties,and
proceeded via the 求notes′ in Tang,the 求drum librettos′,
求singing and earning′ and 求multi-palace tune′ in Song,
gradually evolving into a weighty category of Chinese
arts,
? So far there have been over 300 genres of quyi across
the country,the music playing an unrivalled role in the
overwhelming majority hereof except for the cross talk,
clapper talk and story-telling,Quyi demanded highly a
perfect merger of music and language,taking on the
form of individual presentation at tea bars in most cases
and dissolving the pastime in moral teachings while the
spectators could obtain satisfaction thereby,As far as is
known nowadays there were available three divisions in
view of quyi,the string libretto,the drum libretto (later
called 求the big drum′) and the brand music,The string
libretto dominated the South in the company of pipa and
sanxian to the effect that the names of the first-rate
players were adopted for the titles of musical keys,
? such as 求Key of Ma′ and 求Key of Yu′,The
drum libretto exercised control over the
North accompanied by drums,clappers
and sanxian,The brand music consisted
of,namely,an aggregate of the sundry
tunes circulating in both the South and the
North and entitled in such a medley as
Limpid Sound,Limpid Melody and Literate
Setting chiefly with the same instruments
as above and Chinese zither.
? It can be concluded that the popular art functioned as a
primary component in the pastime of the town dwellers
offering vent to the sentiments and art interests steeped
in this social stratum,an impressive feature of Chinese
culture,In Pengshan country of Sichuan province was
unearthed from a tomb of the Han Dynasty a pottery
figurine that smiles in a jocular mood with a drum in its
left hand,a club in its right hand,and the right leg raised,
reminding us of the existing situation of story-telling,
There was printed a picture in The General Records of
Musical Circle describing a scene on a street corner,a
player is singing with a wooden club in hands in the
company of two assistants beating the clapper and
blowing the flute respectively while a crowd of fans are
rushing to the spot,evincing the thriving quyi art in a life-
true manner.
? White Girl and Black Girl were esteemed the two
legendary figures over the history of Chinese singing-
telling art,White Girl,the elder sister,inborn with a sweet
voice,set foot in learning the Castanet Big Drum (Pear-
Blossom Big Drum) at the age of twelve and ascended
the stage at seventeen arousing an instantaneous
sensation in Ji*an City,Latter on she imparted her knack
to Black Girl the younger sister so that both of them
highlighted on the stage of the Bright Lake Chamber
Theatre on the Daming Lake,rendering it a daily-visited
resort for audience,Toward the close of Qing,a writer
Liu E offered an account in An Old Man*s Travels of the
elder sister,求Wang Xiaoyu (While Girl)## sang a few
beginning librettos in a light pitch,which sounded
marvelous## following a successive decade of
phrases she carried it onto a growing pitch##
? upon approaching the climax three or four
rounds she abruptly dropped to the mild
compass as though a flying snake were
zigzagging into and out of the hillsides of the
thirty six peaks of Mount Huang making decades
of circuits around them in a flash## The
onlookers being stirred with it,the player and the
sound came to a sudden halt and silence
reigned supreme instantly before a thunderous
cheer broke out among them.′ Miss Wang was
solely aged 20,but a rare artist.
? Though Chinese music diverged between 求the high-
brow music′ highly prized in a circle of the literati and
求the vulgar music′ extensively applauded among the
multitude,briefly,yet the two sectors could by no means
be expelled off the three aims,nurturing of human
temperament,recreational attribute and molding of one*s
personality,the conglomerate of which was deemed the
concluding pursuit of Chinese musical talents.
?
? Herewith enclosed are the ten most-favored pieces
of Chinese ancient music,
? 〞 A Trickling Stream in High Mountains,There is a
legend descending from Pre-Qin Period that while the
zither master Bo Ya was plucking alone in wilderness,a
woodcutter named Zhong Ziqi should have been
conscious of the signification underlying the tune,求My
lofty aspiration is like a soaring peak; my life-long
ambition is like a trickling stream.′ Astounded,Bo Ya
responded,求Sounds wonderful and your mind chances
to be in common with mine.′ Hearing of the decease of
his bosom friend,Bo Ya was so grieved as to cut off the
strings and fling away the qin for no more use.
? 〞 Guang Ling Ensemble or Checking Breath at
Guang Ling,During the course of the Wei-Jin Dynasties,
Ji Kang,prior to his sentence to death penalty on
account of his revolt against the despot dictatorship
assumed by the Sima family,played it in composure to
hold his spiritual sustenance.
? 〞 Swarms of Wild Geese Landing on Sand Beach,
composing of a melodious tune and depicting swarms of
wild geese hovering round in the air before landing.
? 〞 Plum Blossoms Sung Thrice sings praises
of the flawless white,light fragrance and
endurance to cold of plum blossoms to
symbolize men of noble attributes,求Sung Thrice′
is referred to as the repeated playing of the
refrain at three different pegs on erhu or
Chinese fiddle.
? 〞 Armies in Ambush on Ten Fronts portrays the
decisive battle at Haixia in 202 B.C between
General Liu Bang and General Xiang Yu where
Liu deployed his armies in ambush on ten fronts
encircling Xiang who was radically defeated later
and committed suicide in desperation.
? 〞 Panpipe & Drum at Twilight,a lyrical music that
was adapted in 1925 by The Great Harmony Music
Publishing House in Shanghai to a symphony of string
and wind instruments conferred with a title The Moon-Lit
Night on a Flowered Spring River.
? 〞 A Dialogue between Fisherman & Woodcutter
expresses the varied enjoyments attained by a
fisherman and a woodcutter as regards the laboring life
in nature,It was diffused in more than thirty editions,
occasionally enclosed with the librettos.
? 〞 Eighteen Beats with Alien Flute is an adapted
music dependent upon a poem bearing the
same title involving a theme 求Madame Cai Wenji
Returning to Han Empire.′ That is a deeply
touching story that during the battles and unrest
at the decline of the Eastern Han Dynasty,
Madame Cai Wenji was married to the left-wing
king of the southern Huns bordering on the
northern China and later on she became
increasingly nostalgic as she had departed from
her motherland for a lengthy course of twelve
years.
? Being acclaimed back by Emperor Cao Cao,
Madame Cai was tortured severely between the
attachment to her two children and the ecstasy
of returning to the native land,full of a cruel
dilemma.
? 〞 The Elegy of the Imperial Palace of the
Han Dynasty is intended to disclose the sorrow
and solitude borne by the emperors* maids of
honor,arousing a general sympathy for their
misfortune,It was circulated in Chinese zither
(zheng or qin) and two-string Chinese fiddle
(erhu),It is said that Mr,Liu Tianhua revised the
music with erhu.
? The Mild Spring & White Snow is said to have
been composed by Shi Kuang in Jin Kingdom or
Liu Juanzi in Qi Kingdom during the Spring-
Autumn Period,Available in the current music
score are stored the two pieces of instrumental
music,the Mild Spring analogizing the sprouting
of all plants bathed in the gentle breeze and mild
sunshine,and the White Snow the stainless
transparency and awe-inspiring beauty.