CHAPTER 9 A Sumptuous
Architecture Treasure
----- A Panorama of Ancient
Chinese Architecture
? Human involvement in architecture has been
enduring from the Neolithic Age to the
present day in the long run,Over millenniums
of the Paleolithic Age,human ancestors
lived on hunting,fishery,and nomadism,
and were compelled to linger in trees and
caves in search of the shelter from natural
disasters and beasts‘ assaults,Toward the
arrival of the Neolithic Age man learned to
engage in stock raising and farming,and
settled down by digging caves and building
up simple residence with twigs and lumber,
thus commencing their architectural creation,
During over 3,000-year course of the feudalist
society Chinese ancient architecture had
gradually formulated its unique system coupled
with a considerable progress respecting urban
planning,gardening,civil housing and
construction technique,In 221 B.C having
leveled to ground the neighboring six kingdoms
the First Emperor of Chin established the first
united feudal empire in China,whereupon
mobilizing as full resources as possible in his
domain to embark upon a massive-scale
construction campaign,In the listing of high-
prestige buildings are enrolled such as the
A‘fang Palace,the imperial mausoleums,the
Great wall and Dujiangyan water-conservancy
project,succeeded by a hoard of immortal
masterpieces in various dynasties,
I,Sequence of Chinese
Ancient Architecture
Chinese architecture has approximately
coursed through the following phases,
? The primitive period and the Chin Dynasty
(before 200 B.C) was deficient in both
historical literature and tangible evidence;
though scores of the ruins of the city states
and imperial palaces have been confirmed
yet they are on the verge of further
archeological excavation.
? The Western-Eastern Han Dynasties (204
B.C-220 A.D) survived over four hundred
years,a thriving era in architectural
undertakings,when there remained an
abundance of historical records hereof and
the relics unearthed such as coffin
chambers and aisles,which exhibit a
glimpse of the frameworks.
? The Wei-Jin-Southern-Northern Dynasties
(220-590) beheld a rampant construction
campaign of palaces and Buddhist abbeys
thanks to the gigantic impetus of the
exuberating Buddhism,As regards technical
process,―Greco-Buddhist style‖,a substitute
for Han style,was absorbed into decorative
threads and engravings of flowers and trees,
birds,beasts and human figurines;
remarkable accomplishments were achieved
in rock grottoes,Buddhist pagodas and
imperial mausoleums.
? During the Sui-Tang Dynasties (590—
906) Sui was stationed in the capital
Chang‘an,assuming an extensive-scope
civil construction,The succeeding Tang,
with an aid of the political stability and
the prosperous diffusion of Buddhism
and Daoism,witnessed the full-fledged
building technology in palaces and
temples,
? After the revolt in the reign of Emperor
Gao quantities of architectural treasures
had been demolished to pieces except
the brick-stone pagodas,certain
grottoes and graveyards,The stone-
arch bridges in Sui and the wood-framed
Buddhist temples at the close of Tang
were rated as the most valuable relics
therein,The building style of Tang
appeared robust in structure and soigné
in technique,an imposing sight in the
history of Chinese architecture
? The Five Kingdoms-Song-Liao-Jurchen
period (906-1280 was paralleled by the
workmanship that took on a trend from the
intricate to the frail-looking in erection of
palaces in the mid-Song; despite them being
shattered in fires and earthquakes,Buddhist
abbeys or pagodas built in a fixed regular
and punctilious manner are equally available
everywhere in good standing in the northern
provinces,A book entitled Stereotypes in
Civil Engineering has been in reserve as a
testimony to the vicissitudes in this respect
? The Yuan-Ming-Qing Dynasties (1280-1912)
with the capital instituted in Beiping (Beijing
or Peking) saw the peerless scale in
imperial palaces and urban constructions
except with the same building stereotype as
before,The entry of Tibetan-style structures
at the turn of Ming-Qing and the entry of
Western-model matches at the decline of
Qing caused a partial abolition of the
contemporary architectural standards
whereas the Western rivals made debut in
certain Chinese metropolises,
? The Republic of China (1912-1949) was
challenged by a retarded progress hereof
while European or American-model was
exploiting the markets in some commercial
port cities,a western-oriented morale in
vogue,
? Considering stereotypes,Chinese ancient
architecture can be categorized as follows,
? ―Imperial palaces,office buildings and
official residences,
? ―Defense buildings such as city walls,city
gateways,forts,fortresses,passes,the Great
Wall and beacon towers.
? ―Memorial and decorative buildings such as
council halls,clock towers,drum towers,cross-
street pavilions,memorial gateways and
movable walls.
? ―Mausoleum construction works such as
stone watch towers,archways,cliff tomb,
sacrificial altars,and imperial tombs.
? ―Gardening projects such as imperial gardens,
official gardens,private gardens and villas.
? ―Sacrificial buildings such as Literati Temple
(Confucian Temple),Marshal Temple (Guang Yu
Temple) and ancestral halls.
? ―Bridge and water conservancy projects such as
stone bridges,wooden bridges,dams,harbors,and
wharfs
? ---Civil housing such as cave dwellings,thatched
cottages,tile-roofed houses,courtyards and principal
rooms.
? ―Religious structures such as abbeys,convents,halls,
temples in Buddhism and Daoism along with mosques
in Muslim and churches in Christianity.
? ―Recreational works such as night clubs,theatres,
dancing halls,stalls and auditoriums.
? Exclusively in Shanxi province can be seen
a host of the representative buildings in
good condition,the Founder Pagoda at
Buddhist Light Temple in Mount Wutai; the
quadrangle at Qiaojiabao in Qi county; the
honorific archway at Zhonghe street in
Heshun county; a pair of stone lions at
Daiyue Temple in Jincheng city; Zhongyang
Pavilion in Xiaoyi county;
? the tripitaka hall of Bojia Religion at Huayan
Temple in Datong city; the Nanlaoyuan
kiosk,the Duiyue Gateway,the wooden-
carved dragon at the front veranda of St,
Maria Hall,and the Sarira Stupa Pagoda at
Buddha-Adored Temple in Jin Temple in
Taiyuan city; the giant Buddhist statue and
the Sky-Flying Fairy Statue at Yungang
Grottos in Datong city,the upturned eaves
of Yungang Grottos and the Liao-Dynasty
sculptures at the tripitaka hall of Bojia
Religion at Huayan Temple in Datong city.
? Nowadays in China have remained the
following stereotypic ancient relics:
? The Great wall is esteemed an extremely
stupendous military project in the ancient
China extending eastward form Shanhai
Pass in Hebei province via Shanxi provinece,
Inner Mongolia,Shaanxi province and
Ningxia westward to Jiayu Pass in Gansu
province,an aggregate length of over
12,000 li (a li is equal to half kilometer),
The Great Wall was commenced to be
under construction in the Warring States
period as a defense screen against the
nomadic tribes or kingdoms cruising on the
northern border,which was resumed and
completed in the Chin Dynasty winding
westward from Lintao to Liaoning eastward,
The presently-standing Great Wall claims to
be the remainder of the Ming Dynasty based
upon the achievements from Chin,Han、
Northern Wei,Northern Qi via Sui and
Song to Yuan,
? The prodigious project had undergone the
unrivaled drudgery over the past 2,000
years while the stones and bricks,the soil
and wood inlaid therein condensed the
perseverance and intelligence steeped in
Chinese nation,having cemented a well-
ranging prestige of Chinese ancient
engineering technology,one of the greatest
architectural wonders across the globe.
? The Dharma King Temple Pagoda,founded
in Yongping 14,the Han Dynasty (71 A.D),
is situated in the north of Dengfeng county
in Henan province as one of the most age-
old Buddhist abbeys in China.
? The Temple consists of two sections,the
temple yard and the two-entrance pagoda
yard built up in the Ming Dynasty with a
three-partition gateway under a single-eaves
gabled roof,which has been preserved as
the earliest wooden structure therein since
the reign of Emperor Hongzhi (1488-1505)
as per the Records of Reconstruction Works
of Dharma King Temple written in Jiaging 10,
the Ming Dynasty (1531).
? On the sloping hill north of the temple yard
is located the pagoda yard wherein is
erected a 15-storey intense-eaves square
pagoda matched with three small single-
storey grave towers,The pagoda stands
40m-plus high with a flat outer wall and the
flying eaves laid with bricks layer upon layer,
a short tower raised on the top,It was
fabricated upright and elegant,with an arch
gate in the lower body and arch window
frames between the eaves on different
stories,a high-grade of the kind,
? Mount Maiji Grottoes,enrolled in the four
most prominent grottos in China,lies in the
southeast of Tianshui city in Gansu province,
The Mount protrudes upstanding as an
isolated peak in the western Chin Range,
looking like an immense wheat haystack.
? The Grottoes was excavated roughly in the
Later Chin Dynasty (384-417) and gradually
improved into a grandiose-scale complex of
stone grottos with Buddhist statuettes
installed within cubicles on the precipices
tier upon tier and the wooden-plank road
zigzagging its way round the cliff,
? Approximately in Kaiyuan 22,the Tang
Dynasty (734 A.D) there happened a
stalwart earthquake in Tianshui which
caused the collapse of the middle part of the
precipices and rendered solely left the
eastern and western grottoes,Currently the
eastern grottoes contain fifty four cubicles
and the western one hundred forty cubicles,
preserving a treasure of over 7,000 clay
sculptures or stone engravings and 1,000
m2 frescoes spread from the end of the
fourth century to the beginning of the
nineteenth century;
hereto stands a clay-sculpture Buddhist
statue as high as fifteen meters fulfilled in
the Sui Dynasty,over which rests a Han-
style attic---Seven-Buddha Pavilion and
under which are coupled two grottoes with
the stone-chiseled eaves in the four-pillar
three-partition frame,The pillars were
polished in an octagonal shape in
robustness and appropriate proportion,
? The clay sculptures and stone engravings in
Mount Maij Grottoes,no matter whether
they may appear in ―thin bone and slender
figure‖,a favorite fashion in Southern-
Northern Dynasties,or in plump and mellow
flesh,as was valued in the later centuries,
were evinced in the traditional approach of
―portraying the spirit with the image‖ or ―the
spirit cemented with the image‖,a full
incarnation of the unequaled style
respecting Chinese ancient sculptures.
? At the pinnacle of Mount Maiji is available a
9.4-meter high dagoba executed during the
throne of Emperor Wen of Northern Wei
Dynasty,Ascending there and looking afar
visitors can enjoy an overview of mountains,
valleys,and seas of green pine trees and
drifting clouds,the prime of ―Maiji Misty Rain‖
of the eight local sightseeing wonders in
Tianshui,
? The Buddhist Light Temple is situated at
Foguang village twenty five kilometers
northeast of Mount Wutai in Shanxi province,
Facing the east it was constructed on the
hillside with a spacious inner yard and a gross
of one hundred and twenty palaces,halls,
chambers and pavilions,It made appearance in
the rule of Emperor Xiao Wen of Northern Wei
Dynasty (471-499) and found expression in a
heap of the chronicles to the effect that
congregations of disciples used to dedicate
religious homage to the Buddhist shrines
therein in burning incense and praying,In
Huichang 5,the Tang Dynasty,a nation-wide
campaign was launched to abolish Buddhism,
hence came its destruction,
The current grand hall was restored in Dazhong 11,
the Tang Dynasty,in a seven-partition wide and four-
entrance deep compound with a single-eaves hip roof,
imposing corbel arches and far-reached eaves in a
stately beauty,The pillars,corbel arches,horizontal
tablets,window frames and walls were unanimously
structured in a simple design and painted vermillion
with lacquer,appearing to be antique in style,This
temple,in both structure and molding proportion,
epitomizes the features of the wooden buildings in the
Tang Dynasty holding a remarkable status in the
history of Chinese architecture as well as world
architecture,Besides the Tang-style sculptures,
murals and calligraphic works equally have shared
reputation,prized as ―four wonders‖ together with
what‘s mentioned above,
? The Suspension Temple in the south of
Hunyuan county in Shanxi province dates back
to the concluding phase of the Northern Wei
Dynasty and was reconstructed respectively in
Jurcheng,Yuan and Ming,The project is
suspended on the hillside,looking upward at
the hanging rocks and overlooking the deep
valley with a cluster of more than thirty halls,
chambers,garrets and pavilions ―strewn at
random‖ on an evergreen vertical escarpment;
being watched afar it seems to be a splendid
Heavenly jade mansion looming ahead,
? The framework therein avails itself of the
principle of structural mechanics and has
remained unimpaired over hundreds of
years in rainy erosion and disastrous earth
tremors,denoting the expertise and
dexterity involving the architectural
technology of the ancient Chinese people.
? Yungang Grottoes is located at the southern
cliff of Mount Zhouwu on the western suburb
of Datong city,inscribed onto the list of key
protection institutions of national cultural
relics,It was excavated alongside the 1000
m-long cliff,of which the cardinal grottoes
had been accomplished before the transfer of
the Northern Wei capital to Luoyang,So far
available have been fifty three cubicles
inclusive of twenty one large-sized ones
rivaled with 51,000 stone statues and
statuettes,one of the tripartite highly-valued
grottoes in China.
? Songyue Temple Pagoda as the earliest brick
tower preserved so far was mounted on the
southern side of Mount Song,six kilometers
northwest of Dengfeng county in Henan
province,in Zhengguang 4,the Northern Wei
Dynasty (523),Originally this Temple served
as an imperial sojourn palace and was
donated as a Buddhist abbey in Zhengguang
1,the reign of Emperor Xiao Ming,Bearing
an initial title Stay-Idle Temple at the outset,it
was transferred to Songyue Temple in
Renshou 2,the Sui Dynasty,It won prodigy in
scale during the period of the Northern Wei,
? Songyue Temple Pagoda is framed a
dense-eaves brick tower with a 41-m
height in a regular 12-side outer contour,
The central chamber enclosed therein is
shaped in regular octagon with 7.6 m in
width and 2.45 m in the wall thickness on
the ground floor,which is accessible
through four entrances in east,west,
north and south,Among armies of the
brick towers handed down to the present
day it stands out exclusively as a 12-side
miracle.
? The Pagoda is marked by not only the
unparalleled plane design but also the graceful
outline,This 41 m-high tower rests on a 1 m-
minus-high brick base,and the trunk solely
accounts for one third of the total height,the
remaining two thirds of the height being utilized
for the 15-layer dense eaves and the apex
inlaid with bricks tier upon tier reaching beyond,
Hereto is adopted the hollow-cylinder structure
for the brick pagoda,the interior of which is
furnished with the 9-tier eaves for installation of
wooden beams and planks,Despite no trace of
the planks left at present it pioneered for the
modern steel-concrete multi-storey cylinder
framework.
? The Incense-Accumulated Temple Pagoda
is lying at Shenheyuan southwest of Weiqu
town of Chang‘an county in Shaanxi
province,17 kilometers away from Xi‘an
proper,Erected in Shenglong 2,the reign of
Emperor Zhong (Li Xian) of Tang (706),it
was highly esteemed at that time in the
honor and for the bury of Monk Shan Dao,
the forerunner of Buddhist Sukhavati or
Pure Land Sect,So naturally it works as a
birthplace of the Sect weighing in the history
of Buddhism,
The age-old Pagoda was incipiently built up
as a 13-story brick tower with wooden
planks in a square plane,each side being
9.5 m in length; and it remains presently in
ten storeys with a 33-metre height owing to
the early damage to the apex,Its design
was engineered to be a dense-eaves
pavilion-like style,featuring an immense
height on the first storey and a meticulous
craftsmanship compared with those of the
genus,and retaining a certain degree of
worth over the history of architecture.
? As the most aged wooden framework present in
China,the grand hall of Nanchan Temple was
put up at Lijiazhuang Village of Yangbai
Township of Wutai County in Shanxi Province in
Jianzhong 3,the Tang Dynasty (782),roughly
one thousand two hundred years ago,
Constructed in a moderate scale,the grand hall
is designed as a three-partition square with no
poles inside but two full-length four-rafter
frameworks,The hip roof with flying eaves
extends far beyond while the corbel arch bears
no supplementary partition,a typified Tang-style
wooden structure in a well-balanced grace,The
majority of the poles fixed nearby appears
circular,but three of them square which are
suspected to be the original relics and are solely
found in Dunhuang frescoes,as being the first
discovery of the kind.
? The Three Pagodas in Dali lie at the foot of
Mount Cang north of Dali county in Yunnan
province,leaning westward against the
clouds-drifting Mount Cang and overlooking
the glistening calm waves in the Erhai Lake,
a resplendent natural scene,The chief
pagoda thereof was executed in the mid-
Tang or the later stage of Nanzhao Kingdom
and the other two costar pagodas in the
early Song or the rule of Dali Kingdom.
? The three pagodas are erected in tripartite,
the chief one Qianxun Pagoda standing
upright on a two-layer base,enclosed within
a ring of stone fence,With a 70-meter height
it is designed a 16–story dense-eaves
square brick tower and painted white with
lime plaster except the folded spire; on each
storey there is a cubicle in each direction,
the neighboring couple respectively for
Buddhist statuettes and for window frames
which are alternated on the neighboring
stories with a view to ventilation; and the
ground floor maintains a 13-meter height,
The lesser two pagodas tower 40 meters
high in a 10-storey dense-eaves octagon
bearing a pavilion-style contour; on each
corner is installed a pillar and on each
storey is devised a bench; all the more on
the fourth and sixth storeys are set the
corbel arches decorated with relief
sculptures in the window frames,a gold-
gilded spire resting on the stupa.
? Xi‘an Steles Forest was originally fulfilled at
the turn of Tang and Five Dynasties,In
Tianyou 1,the reign of Emperor Zhao of
Tang (904) when a governor named Han
Jian contrived to reconstruct the city of
Chang‘an in a reduced size,so Shitai Filial
Scripture and Kaicheng Stone Sutra would
be compelled to be removed to the western
chamber of the state council within the
imperial city lest they should be missing,
In Song the scriptures and other invaluable
engraved tablets were transferred to the
north of the education department (modern
location of the Steles Forest) and henceforth
a host of houses,corridors and pavilions
were under construction for the sake of
laying aside,displaying and protecting the
calligraphic treasures,
? In Jurcheng and Yuan the buildings in
question embraced further improvement,
Later in Jiaqing 34,the Ming Dynasty (1555)
when the central plain of Shaanxi province
incurred a catastrophic earthquake,the
Steles Forest was severely damaged and
then retrieved in the Wanli reign of Ming,
The wooden archway and the stone gates
were none other than Ming relics,the
engravings on which denote a typified Ming-
flavor colorful painting,
During the peaceful throne of Emperor Kang Xi
and Emperor Qian Long there was a large-scale
supplement and rearrangement of the tablets or
steles,a sight of ―In the front and the rear of the
central hall are unexceptionally re-exhibited the
new arrays of steles;‖ and the three newly–built
mansions were allocated for the preservation of
the masterpieces created in Ming and Qing,
Currently the titanic-size stone carvings in original,
such as the Six Galloping Horses at the
Mausoleum of Emperor Zhao of Tang,are
unalterably prized the national hoard.
? The Steles Forest maintains a huge stock of over
2,300 steles and epigraphs ranging from Han,
Wei,Sui,Tang,Song and Yuan to Ming and Qing,
of which some have won a lingering charm,the
Yishan Stele by Li Si (the prime minister of the
Chin Kingdom before 221 B.C),the Thousand-
Character Stele by Zhangxu and Huai Su
(calligraphers of Han),and the authentic
calligraphic works by such masters as Ou
Yangxun,Yu Shinan,Yan Zhenqin and Liu
GongQuan (writers and calligraphers of Tang),
which have served over a millennium as the
paragons for the would-be calligraphy practitioners,
? The Giant Wild Goose Stupa,located in the
enclosure of Ci‘en Temple four kilometers
beyond the Peace Gateway in Xi‘an,was
executed under the supervision of Monk
Xun Zhuang in Yonghui 3,the reign of
Emperor Gao of Tang (652) in the purpose
of disposing the Buddhist canons he had
brought back from Hindu.
? The Stupa was engineered to be of five stories and
180-chi high (3 chis equal 1 meter),During the rule of
Empress Wu Zetian it went through reconstruction
before being shattered again in the belligerent days,In
the Later Tang Dynasty (belonging to the Five
Dynasties) it was bettered into what it looks like
nowadays with seven storeys,Framed in a 64m-high
square cone it bears a 25-meter base line on each
side,brief-mounted and well-proportioned,assuming a
solemn and antique air,The trunk is equipped with the
gateways,corbel arches and horizontal inscription
tablets made of the wood-like bricks,the interior of
which is supplied with a flight of spiraling staircase
reaching the apex while on each storey there stand
four brick-inlaid arches so that visitors can take
advantage of absorbing the overview of Xi‘an proper,
Inside the two cubicles on the ground floor are
displayed two tablets,The Prelude to Sacred
Buddhism and The Prelude to Tripitaka Sacred
Buddhism of Great Tang,On the horizontal frames
of the stone gates in four directions were engraved
Buddha statuettes and Heaven Lord statuettes
and other cultural relics in the Tang Dynasty that
provide intelligibility to the contemporary
calligraphy,paintings and carvings; especially the
stretch of the halls therein carved on the horizontal
frame of the west stone gate is treasured a rarity
for the research of Tang-style architecture.
? Sakyamuni Stupa of Buddhist Palace
Temple in Yin county of Shanxi province,
abridged as the Wooden Stupa in Yin
County,is listed among the state key
institutions of preserving cultural relics,
Commenced in Qingning 2,the Liao
Dynasty (1056) it is shaped in a pavilion and
in an octagonal plane towering in total nine
storeys with a 67.31-meter height and a 30-
meter diameter at the base,It is invariably
fabricated with wooden structures and
corbel arches in precision and grandeur,
higher and more aged than any other
wooden frame towers available in China.
? The Imperial Palace of the Ming-Qing
Dynasties is situated in the downtown of
Beijing proper,age-long and majestic,
occupying a floor space of 720,000 square
meters and being the most prodigious,the
most unimpaired ancient wooden-frame
complex in existence throughout the world,
It was otherwise nicknamed the Forbidden
City in the old days,
? This architectural wonder retains a 961-
meter length in the north-south axis and a
753-meter width in the east-west axis,
enclosed by a 10 plus-meter high wall and a
52-meter wide moat; on each of the four
corners herein stands aloft an elegantly-
modeled turret in a carpenter-square plane
covered with a 72-ridge roof.
? The Forbidden City was commenced in Yongle 4,the
Ming Dynasty (1406) and virtually completed in Yongle
18 (1420),which is currently paralleled by an army of
over 9,000 chambers and rooms holding a building area
of 150,000 square meters,The overall layout conceived
therein seems compact and regular with the cardinal and
the secondary being distinctive in space,formulating a
north-south axis cutting through the Forbidden City itself
from Tiananmen Square to Mount Jin,sharply coinciding
with the axis of the ancient city site,Duanmen Gate in
Tiananmen Gateway,by way of a stone-planked imperial
path,leads to the main entrance— Meridian Gateway
which is,designed in recess,equipped with an attic
bearing a wide nine-partition front,35.6-meter high with
a hip roof and of which both wings are flanked by four
double-eaves garrets combined with a non-roof corridor,
whereupon nicknamed the Five-Phoenix Tower.
? Behind Meridian Gateway,the Forbidden City is
divided into the front part,or the Outer Court of the
past and the rear part or the Inner Court.
? The Outer Court is centered on the front three
halls (Hall of Supreme Harmony,Hall of Central
Harmony and Hall of Preserving Harmony) with
Hall of Liberal Splendor and Hall of Marshal Feats
at the two wings wherein a bench of emperors
used to exercise sovereign powers,At the outset
the three grand halls were nominated Hall of
Adoring Heaven,Hall of Divine Umbrella and Hall
of Prudent Deed; in Jiajin 41,the Ming Dynasty
(1562) they were changed to Hall of Golden
Extreme,Hall of Medium Extreme and Hall of
Establishing Extreme; and they were finalized as
the present titles in Shunzhi 2,the Qing Dynasty
(1645).
? The Gateway of Supreme Harmony appears
to be the main entrance to the foregoing
three grand halls,bearing a wide nine-
partition front and a double-eaves saddle
roof with an area of 1800 square meters,the
largest gateway in the Former Imperial
Palace,On the square south of it flows a
200 plus-meter long moat borne with five
stone bridges,Behind this Gateway is the
Outer Court.
? At the far southern end of the Outer Court is
lying Hall of Supreme Harmony,renamed
Hall of Imperial Throne,which was claimed
to be more imposing and more authoritative
than any remainders in the feudalist society,
The three grand halls were unanimously
installed on a 8.13-meter three-layer white
marble base revealing a majestic air.
? The central area of the Inner Court equally
consists of three palaces,In the south is Palace of
Heavenly Cleanness,the abode of the emperors,
which was under construction in Shunzhi 12,the
Qing Dynasty (1655),later reinforced in Kangxi 8
and restored after a fire disaster in Jiaqing 2
(1797),Palace of Earthly Tranquility pertained
exclusively to the empresses as the bedchamber
packed with two heating halls in the east and the
west,The in-between Palace of Union was put up
in the later stage as a small-sized supplement,
The two flanks in the Inner Court house the
imperial concubines,called the East-West Six
Palaces,
? Attached behind Palace of Earthly
Tranquility is the royal garden where Hall of
Imperial Serenity is centered with pavilions,
towers,chambers and lofts in rich varieties
scattered around aged trees and queer-
looking boulders and pebbles,an imperial
luxury as well as a high-brow classical folk
park.
? The architectural décor and colorful painting
in the Former Imperial Palace radiated
intricacy and sheen to such an effect that
the yellow glazed tiles,red walls,brown-red
gates,gold-tinged window frames,engraved
white-marble rails plus the azure sky and
drifting clouds comprise a wealthy,noble
and gracious space,
? An exhibition of the high-grade expertise
and creational ingenuity bestowed upon
Chinese ancient artisans,the Forbidden City
has survived not only as an invaluable
cultural heritage in China but also as a
glittering peerless pearl among the treasure
of global ancient architecture.
? Lapuneng Temple is a magnificent building of
Gelu School or Yellow Sect of Lamaism which
served in the past to be the heart of politics,
religion and culture involving the Tibetans living on
the border between Gusu province,Qinghai
province and Sichuan province,and which could
house a hierarchy of over 3,500 monks at the
height of prosperity,Lying on the northern bank of
the Daxia River within the domain of Xiahe county
of Gansu province the temple is circumscribed by
precipitous escarpments with dragon spruce and
white poplar trees clustered here and there,a
stream trickling around,It was erected in Kangxi
49,the Qing Dynasty (1710) in such a Tibetan
flavor that the chambers in tiers with wooden
windows,the upturned eaves carved in dragons,
the gold-tinted tiles and red–painted walls display
a solemn splendor,
? Lapuneng Temple is composed of six
academies (Awareness & Contemplation
Academy,Continued Upper Section Academy,
Continued Lower Section Academy,Gleeful
Vajra Academy,Retribution Academy and
Medicine Academy),sixteen Buddhist
monasteries,eighteen official residences of
high-ranking Living Buddhas,two forums for
publicizing religious scriptures and a vast
expanse of Lamas‘ apartments,as being a
colossal architectural mass with a floor space
of 80-plus hectares dotted with no less than 10,
000 chambers and halls as if a town of
moderate size.
? Awareness & Contemplation Academy proves to
be the centre therein,over which gate is hung a
horizontal inscription tablet conferred upon by
Emperor Qian Long of Qing reading as Wisdom &
Awakening Temple,The main hall maintains a 11-
partition front,a 100-meter width and a 75-meter
depth mounted with 140 pillars,some of which are
thick enough to be embraced by two persons hand
in hand,capable of accommodating 4,000 Lamas
simultaneously for praying rituals,Ornamented
with a miscellany of colorful flags in a dim light and
permeated in the smoke rising from hundreds of
buttered oil lamps,the hall seems holy and
mystical,It is covered with a hip roof installed with
the gold-galvanic bottles,sheep and wheels in a
gorgeous luster.
? Of the Buddhist monasteries Palace of
Longevity and Fortunes claims
predominance,acquiring a 20 plus-meter
height in six storeys rivaled with a gold-
gilded dragon winding through the roof and
a couple of copper lions squatting on kneels
at the entrance,an appealing sight in
grandeur.
II,Graceful Garden
Architecture
Chinese garden architecture,as one of the four
essentials in garden building,is competent for
sufficing respectively both the requirement in
architectural functions and the garden landscape
with a due concern on the incorporation of gardens
into natural environment and with the spot-
landscape structures or the near-watch scenic
spots being focused in sightseeing configuration in
order to play a finishing-touch role.
? The planning and locality-selection regarding the
garden structures took advantage of topography to
such a degree that the natural scenes and human
interests could be merged as often as not with the
involvement of poetry and paintings,As regards
the space allotment they shunned symmetry in
axis in search of the irregular or flexible layout and
the more spacious sense,In respect of the garden
building style the priority of aesthetic conception
was assumed in modeling and contour so as to fit
surroundings and local features,The exquisite
décor including guardrails,hollow windows and
grilles upgraded the beauty thereof.
? A pavilion or chamber or hall in Chinese-
style garden,in most cases,works as a
focus in the sight tableau that is linked with
a roof-covered corridor going through the
scenic-spot route,So it is not surprising that
the orientation of structures and the location
and size of windows were compelled to be
taken into consideration for the sake of
extending tourist routes.
? Out of Chinese-style gardens or parks
predominance ought to be granted to Chengde
Mountain Resort,The Full-Moon Park (the former
Summer Palace) and The Lingering Garden in
Suzhou.
? The Mountain Resort,otherwise termed Rehe
Sojourn Palace,is in the enclosure of Chengde
city of Hebei province,250 kilometers away from
Beijing,It was commenced in 1703 at the order of
Emperor Kang Xi who conceived of two aims,the
one that ―it is utilized for exercising marshal arts in
order to suppress the remote kingdoms‖ and the
other that ―it is intended to unite Manchu,Han and
other minorities to consolidate the monarchy.‖
? Availing itself of the natural landscape in Chengde,
the Mountain Resort stretches between the Lion
Range,the Martyr Range and the Vast-Kindness
Range occupying an area of 560 hectares as the
paramount royal park of Qing,It is encircled by a
string of eight temples as headed by Manjusri
Sculpture Temple,Samantabhadra Sect Temple,
inside which there is a cluster of the thirty six
scenic resorts put up in the reign of Emperor Kang
Xi and the other one of thirty six scenic spots
under the crown of Emperor Qian Long,scattered
among lakes,plains,ranges and valleys,two
thirds of which accounts for mountainous
topography,
? The Resort was constructed pursuant to the
following three conceptions,the first to convey the
emperor‘s benevolence to the multitude,the
second to formulate a plain beauty in the merger
of landscape and artificial structures and the third
to be choice specimens separately symbolizing
Mount Tai by General Vitality Palace,the south-of-
the Yangtze-River-Valley by a congeries of lakes
and the vast expanse of Mongolian grassland by
the Mongol–style tents in Ten-Thousand Garden,
The palaces served the emperors in administering
state affairs,as being disunited into the Eastern
Palace and the Main Palace unexceptionally in a
symmetry-in-axis and multi-entrance layout.
? The lake area contains seven lakes embellished
with shoals,islets,waterside pavilions,the
embankment and bridges in diverse designs,A
heap of three islets the Moonlight-River-Torrent
Islet,the Ring-of–Greenness Islet and the No-
Heat-Refreshing Islet look like three mammoth
glossy ganodermas (an alleged elixir for longevity
in the shape of mushroom) or patches of clouds
drifting over the water,The Moonlight-River-
Torrent Islet is fabricated to appreciate the
moonlight and surging river torrents at night; the
Green-Lotus Islet is furnished with the Misty-Rain
Pavilion in the mimicry of that one bearing the
same title in Jiaxing city of Zhejiang Province; the
Lesser Gold Mount in the model of the Gold Mount
in Zhenjiang city and the Water-Heart Pavilion is
designated for being connected to the
embankment.
? The plains area is divided into the Ten-
Thousand-Tree Park in the east and the
Horse-Racing Ground in the west where
Emperor Qian Long used to hold barbecues
with the chieftains of certain minorities.
? The mountain area is marked by an
unbroken view of interlaced hills,ridges and
ravines where decades of garden structures
in an antique-style stereotype were strewn
at random,of which the major portion,it is
pitiful,is no longer in existence.
? Samantabhadra Sect Temple lies to the
north of Chengde Mountain Resort with a
floor space of twenty two hectares,roomier
than the other seven,Modeled after Budala
Palace in Tibeta,it was built up against the
mountainous terrain,
? This temple used to work outright as a
prototype to represent the shrine of
Buddhism,It was executed in the throne of
Emperor Qian Long (1767-1771) with two
intentions,the one to celebrate his sixtieth
birthday and his mother‘s eightieth birthday,
the other to reconcile Dalai Lama in Tibet.
? It features the formation that the structures
lean against the terrain,notably the
mainstay Grand Red Terrace is hung on the
summit enjoying a panorama of the
landscape beyond,The sightseeing tableau
within the Temple comprises three units,the
mountain foot symbolizing the starting point
of Buddhist space,the mountain side the
turning point,the peak the climax.
? The Full-Moon Park is referred to as the
aggregate of Full-Moon Park,Long-Spring
Park and Evergreen Park,It is situated to
the east of the Summer Palace and to the
north of Beijing University holding an area of
5,200 mu (346 hectares) with a periphery of
roughly 10 kilometers,Originally it was a
300-mu royal garden in the Ming Dynasty,
which had later been awarded by Emperor
Kang Xi to his fourth son Yin Ren (Emperor
Yong Zheng),
? Having ascended the crown Emperor Young
Zheng launched a gigantic-scale
reconstruction works expanding it to 3,000
mu packed with twenty eight scenic resorts,
Emperor Qian Long as the successor
continued the project and by 1745 another
cluster of forty sightseeing spots had been
completed,
? Furthermore he ordered that the royal painters
make paintings of the genuine scenery,dependent
on which,what is more,he ever composed poems
by himself that have been circulating to the
present day,During the course of 1749-1751 he
demanded the construction of Long-Spring Park
east of the Full-Moon Park,at the northern end of
which in 1760 a host of ten buildings coupled with
fountains were erected,nominated the Western
Buildings,In 1772 a group of privately-owned
gardens was incorporated into Brilliant Spring Park
(later renamed Evergreen Park),
? In Jiaqing 14 (1809) an imperial decree was
issued that the gardens conferred before
upon the princes west of the Resort be
regained and incorporated to the thirty
scenic spots,Till then had the massive Full-
Moon Park been fundamentally
accomplished over a period of 100 years
? As an embodiment of the cream of Chinese
ancient gardening,it had congregated the
features of both local gardens in the South-
of-the-Yangtze-River-Valley and the
counterparts in the remote antiquity,
Countless craftsmen across the nation,by
taking avail of the device of ―a garden
involving gardens‖,suited measures to the
concrete conditions weaving the poetic
sentiments and painting conceptions into a
resplendent overview in a medley of natural
landscape and man-made scenes,
Earlier or later a total of 160,000-square-meter
buildings had been erected contributing to 100-
plus wood or stone bridges,140 gardening scenes
matched with a multitude of pavilions,
superstructures,halls,garrets,waterside pavilions,
towers,chambers,palaces and corridors,an
imperial resort even more spacial than Forbidden
City by 10,000 square meters,No wonder that
Full-Moon Park had shared a long-standing fame
over the global history of garden engineering,
conferred upon such titles as ―the model of all
gardens in the world‖,―the stereotype in all
gardening arts‖ and ―the Earthly paradise‖,
? It appeared not only as a grand-scale
imperial park,but as a sojourn palace for the
emperors ―listening to the briefings in quiet
surrounding‖ since there were available the
Outer Court and the Inner Court as well,In
addition to the exquisite décor and display
there had been stored a copious treasure of
rare jewels,cultural or historical relics and
books; the Long Cultural Origin Hall therein
had already been enrolled among the seven
nationwide-known royal libraries,which
worked,in fact,as a multi-purpose royal
museum,
Twice respectively in 1860 and 1900 the Full-Moon
Park incurred the demolition and pillaging by the
British-French allied troops and the Eight-Power
entente while later the ruins underwent repeatedly
the stealth and damage by local warlords,
bureaucrats,bandits,and treacherous dealers,
leaving solely a few spots of shattered columns
and walls,After the Liberation in 1949 a special
management body was instituted with a view to
safeguarding the survived buildings such as the
Genuine Hall Temple affiliated to the Evergreen
Park (the only intact building therein) and the
overall circumference,as has been embraced the
teaching specimen of patriotism.
? The Lingering Garden,founded in the Ming
Dynasty,occupies a floor space of three
hectares and was rendered open to the
public in 1953 after repair,The title of the
garden is meant the survival of the
marvelous scenery composed of peculiar-
shaped stones,slimly-pruned trees and
gracefully-engineered pavilions and
chambers from the commotion in belligerent
times.
? The Garden maintains three partitions,the
eastern one featuring the local-flavor yards
and chambers dotted with the precious
stones,the central pond surrounded by an
array of rockeries and the western stuffed
with mounds and trees; and what impresses
tourists most surprisingly is the fifty-meter
long zigzagging passage leading from the
street into the entrance of the Garden,an
outcome of ingenious application of artistic
devices
? The central pond is designed in a northwest-
southeast alignment which is cut apart by
two bridges and an islet called Penglai
(denoting Shangrila),Herein between
Spinet-Plucking Tower and Evergreen-Hill
Chamber is inserted Keting Pavilion in
homophone to ―take a break to enjoy the
surroundings‖,
On the northeast corner stands an ancient
studio entitled ―Get-Rope-to-Fetch-Water-in-
Well Place‖,as derived from a verse by a
Tang-Dynasty poet Han Yu,connoting that
one is obliged to learn before attaining
knowledge,
East of the Garden rests the Five-Peak-
Fairy Chamber rivaled with an upright pine
tree nicknamed Towering-into-Clouds Peak.
Northwest lies a cluster of rockeries with a
chamber Lively Land lingering at the
northern tip of a rivulet.
III,The Elite of Ancient
Chinese Architecture---Lu Ban
Lu Ban was born in Dinggong 3,Lu
Kingdom (507 B.C) toward the decline of the
Spring-Autumn Period,His initial name was
Shu Ban with Shu being his surname and he
was revered Master Gong Shu at the
moment,
? However among the populace he was called
Lu Ban for he had been rooted in Lu
Kingdom by kinship,and otherwise recalled
in some historical records as Gongshu Pan,
Gongshu Ban or Lu Ban.
? Lu Ban was born of an aged artisan family–
the GongShus,He had been registered in
the ancient annals as one of the earliest
skilled artisans and inventors bearing the
title ―excelling man‖ or ―perfect craftsman‖,
and esteemed as the founding father of civil
work artisans by the folk in generations.
? Toward the concluding phase of the Spring-
Autumn Period there prevailed the disputes and
uproars between the duke kingdoms while slavery
was being abolished and the feudal system was
on the rise,Talented as he proved in engineering
inventions,Lu Ban had not highly been valued in
Lu Kingdom and consequently he trudged over a
long distance to Chu Kingdom where throngs of
the elite in various trades were being employed
and well treated,and where his genius and
expertise had been exerted to the full extent,
Below are enclosed his major achievements:
? 1).The Scaling Ladder applicable in taking
cities or fortresses in the ancient battles,as
being collected in the book Gongshu from
Master Mo,―Gongshu Pan manufactured
scaling ladders for Chu Kingdom with
success.‖
? 2).The Reinforced Hook for the battle on rivers,
There is a record in Queries of Lu Kingdom from
Master Mo that,when being plunged in the battles
on rivers prior to the arrival of Lu Ban,the fighting
boats of Chu Kingdom advanced down stream and
retreat upstream that was prone to be defeated
whereas the rival of Yue Kingdom advanced
upstream and retreat downstream that was likely
to win the triumph,To reverse the unfavorable
situation Lu Ban was appointed,upon his arrival in
Chu,to make the reinforced hook capable of
securing the withdrawing opponent boats and
defending the advancing foe.
? 3).The Wooden Magpie as a flying device
made of wood and bamboo,As per Queries
of Lu Kingdom from Master Mo,―Master
Gongshu sliced bamboo and wood,
assembled them in a shape of magpie and
succeeded in driving it to fly in the air for
consecutive three days.‖
? 4).The Carpenter‘s Implements,The carpentry
craftsmanship had reached a fairly high degree
during the Spring-Autumn & Warring-States period,
Lu Ban and his fellow carpenters could not
manage without the implements regarding the
erection of houses and bridges,As demonstrated
in Lilou from Mencius,‖ Master Gongshu was so
resourceful that frameworks,square or circular,
failed to be made without recourse to the
compasses and squares.‖ It claims to be true that
the carpenter‘s square in wide use today was
probably based upon ―ju‖ invented by Lu Ban,
which is venerated by modern carpenters as Lu
Ban‘s Rule.
?,
? 5).The making of the graveyard for the Ji
family,The Book of Rites offered a record
that he made an enormous tomb for Master
Ji Kang‘s mother.
? By his strenuous endeavor,Lu Ban had
extended his marked dedication to Chinese
ancient technology in respect of architecture,
civil engineering and apparatus
CHAPTER 10
MagicalMedicine Benefiting
Human Beings
—The Long-Standing and Well-Established
Chinese Medicine
―Though recipes not known to all,
Doctors should keep in mind conscience;
On duty to cure the patients,
You never should sell it for pence.‖
? The Martial Emperor or Emperor Wu of Han
clung to a blind worship in deities in his 50
plus-year reign,conniving at the alchemists
such as Li Shaojun in pursuit of the elixir or
panacea who had been ultimately involved in
medicine,pharmacy and hygiene,The
application of meteorology and the monitoring
devices concerned had prompted the
advancement of the scientific interpretation of
natural phenomena,the strength-directed
doctrine and pathogeny science;
? on the other hand crop planting,
mulberry and silkworm raising with
resort to hot springs and green houses
had effected a crucial repercussion over
pharmacy while mathematics,physics
and alchemy had more or less
forwarded the endless source to the
medical theories,Chinese medicine has
devoted its share in immensity to
Chinese nation as well as all human
beings.
? This ancient ditty clearly discloses the
quintessence of Chinese medicine.
? China is enrolled among the incipient birthplaces
of human beings,At the dawn of Chinese
civilization 4,000 years ago the medicine and
hygiene,particularly the recognition of human
body and its diagnosis and cure had become a
public concern while the primeval medical science
was taking root,During the Western Han Dynasty
(206 B.C-8 A.D) there occurred an official
campaign in rearrangement and annotation of
ancient canons and literatures resulting in
―Classics Study‖,which had exercised a well-
ranging impetus upon the course of Chinese
medicine and pharmacy.
I,The Evolving Course of
Chinese Medicine
Chinese medicine is prized as one of the
five traditional medical schools in the
ancient world and the unique one that has
been unalterably circulating in force and
persistently evolving till the present day,full
of vim and vigor.
? The Chin-Han Dynasties worked to inherit
the pioneering medicine and usher in the
succeeding creations over the history of
Chinese medicine,having witnessed the
idea of analyzing and differentiating
pathological conditions,the remarkable
progress in clinical cure,the preliminary
outcome of the medicament-recipe system
and the early records of medical cases,
? By means of the Treatise on Typhoid,Zhang
Zhongjing,a prominent doctor in the Eastern
Han Dynasty,established the rudimentary
specifications of determining cure based on
differential symptoms and formulated the
system of treatment approaches integrated
with medical recipes depending upon the six
hollow organs (gallbladder,stomach,small
intestine,large intestine,bladder and the
three
? visceral cavities) and the five internal organs
(heart,liver,spleen,lung and kidney),therefore
reaffirming the fundamental theories governing the
four methods of diagnosis,the eight-principle
syndrome,viscera,the body channels and
collaterals,the three-pathogeny theory and the
eight therapeutic approaches,The Treatise on
Typhoid by Doctor Zhang,which proved highly
effective in curing chills and fevers and the internal
diseases,has ever since been esteemed a
medical scripture by generations of Chinese
doctors,Hua Tuo,another medical genius,
pioneered in surgical operations by an anesthetic
herb powder enlightening the upcoming surgeons
in regard to the medical academic research,
? The Medical Herbal Canon of Shen Nong claimed
to be a conglomerate of the materia medica
accumulated until the Eastern Han Dynasty,
exercising a far-reaching influence on the study of
medical herbs and recipes to come,And the
recipes and the relevant theoretical conclusions
taken down in the Treatise on Typhoid have been
revered the forerunner of all the recipes in the long
run,The early records of medical cases involved
in the patients‘ private information respecting
name,identity,birthplace,sex,the definition of
disease,the pathogeny of disease,the pulse
condition,the diagnosis,the cure (recipes,
acupuncture,moxibustion,gargles etc.) and the
precaution,an indicator of unsophisticated
academic morale in the ancient times,
? During the Three Kingdoms-Six Dynasties period,
being confronted to the century-long warfare,the
social disturbance and the amalgamation of varied
nationalities in culture and kinship,scores of
practitioners secured more opportunities in
treating the diseased,thus facilitating the rapid
development of clinical medicine with the newly-
recorded inventions in diagnostics and
therapeutics,This period saw the publication of
nearly 200 editions of medical works concerning
internal medicine,surgery,orthopedics,obstetrics,
gynecology,paediatrics and the first-aid,A
whopping progress had been obtained in
diagnostics and therapeutics,
? For instance,the Pulse Canon written by Wang
Shuhe and the Jiayi Canon of Acupuncture &
Moxibustion compiled by Huangpu Bi acquired
predominance of the sort,A pile of over seventy
works had been granted to materia medica,the
most impressive of the type being the Aggregate
Annotation to the Herbal Canon by Tao Hongjing
in the Southern-Northern Dynasties on a basis of
the already-made accomplishments thereof and
with reference to the Supplementary Records of
Renowned Practitioners,
? The Annotation not only resulted in a multi-fold
increase in herb descriptions,the specific
regulations on dosage,measurement and recipes,
but also broke up a new horizon for categorization
of medical herbs,giving rise to a millennium-long
repercussion,The Frying & Moxibustion of Medical
Herbs of Mister Lei written by Lei Xue claimed to
be the pioneering work in that matter,Triggered by
the metaphysical philosophy in the phase,
alchemy gained momentum both leading to many
a new disease and favoring the maturity of materia
medica.
? Chinese medicine became full-fledged in the Sui-
Tang Dynasties owing to the thriving economy and
culture,the stupendous progress in science and
technology,the frequent exchange between China
and foreign countries,and the emphasized
concern derived from the royal authorities,The
medical achievements in the preceding centuries
had been overall concluded while the effective
recipes arising from the contemporary doctors,the
folks and the alien peoples were being assimilated
so as to pave the way for its furtherance in theory
and practice,
? The academic research in pharmacy,disease cure
and prevention tended to be more exquisite and to
be aimed at higher efficiency,Fueled by the
prosperity of Tang,a comparably complete system
of medical education was founded ranging from
the royal-level to the local level whereas flocks of
overseas students were enrolled,whereupon
spurring on the comprehensive proficiency in
medicine to the extreme and laying down a
cornerstone for the successive medical education,
The imperial court issued the Newly Revised
Herbal Canon as a new code of materia medica in
the new epoch and a textbook for the medical
schools and academies,
? The Song Dynasty was marked by the
invention and utilization of gunpowder,
compass and letterpress printing while an
unprecedented concern from the emperors
was conferred upon the medicine,Under
such circumstances a moderate mob of
scholar-officials and generals equally paid
attention to the annotation and revision of
the ancient medical literature; for example,
Su Shi and Shen kuo,a literary tycoon and
a celebrated scientist,retained a private
collection of the medical treatises.
? The Liao-Western Xia-Jurcheng-Yuan
Dynasties were characterized by the
supremacy of Chinese minorities over
sovereignty that either employed directly the
Han-nationality medicine or made
innovations by depending upon their own
medicine and exploiting the former,a
distingue period over the history of Chinese
medicine.
? The Ming Dynasty remained to be a
politically-stable and economically-advanced
stage in Chinese history when the capitalist
production relationship spouted in the mid-
late time,the commercial-oriented economy
pushing ahead the overseas exchange,
sciences,technology and culture,
henceforth arrived the updated medicine,
Since Buddhism was extolled and the filial
piety advocated fervently the medicine came
to be counted as an important means to
fulfill the duty,
? There prevailed a slogan that goes like ―If
one cannot ascend to a devoted minister,he
might as well be an excellent doctor.‖ It was
made imperative that the intelligentsia who
had failed in the imperial service
examination flocked to the medical
profession,thus upgrading the educational
qualities and knowledgeable structure of the
practitioners and bettering the situation that
the surgeons in the preceding Song had
been far from being well bred and literate,
And also their social status was moderately
raised,
? Another advantage of the improved
transportation and communication rendered
more possibilities that doctors could
congregate in metropolises and travel
around to pursue the masters and to
conduct investigations among the folks in
the comparatively stable social order,
forwarding the favorable conditions both for
the accumulation and transmission of
medical experiences and for the
advancement of the medical theories,
Such a historic phase had created a host of
medical aristocratic families wherein either the son
was in succession to the father or the son-in-law
inherited the knack from the father-in-law,having
promoted the diversification in medicine to a great
extent,For instance,Chen Sicheng,the author of
the Secret Records of Syphilis,had been born of
an eight-generation medical family,A masterpiece
was as often as not initiated by the father,and
afterwards finalized by the son or even the
grandson,which claimed to be specialized and
authoritative in certain field,and so prone to be
acknowledged extensively,
? Creating novelty seemed to be the
mainstream of the medical science in Ming,
as illuminated by the two stars,On
Pestilence by Wu Youxing and the Syllabus
of Medical Herbs by Li Shizhen,The
knowledge of smallpox and the execution of
human pox vaccination became the most
impressive event of all,which had so
strikingly shocked the circle of world
medicine that Sir William Jenner was
enlightened three hundred years later in
inventing the cowpox vaccination,a new era
for immunity,
? The comprehensiveness of the medicine as
an applied science had been unfolded via a
long-standing stock of practitioners‘
experiences and a specialized progress,
Affected intensely by Chinese traditional
culture and thinking style,deepened with the
aid of the classical medical theories and
innovated by generalizing the clinical cases,
the Ming doctors had eventually forged a
medical science with unequaled theoretical
system.
? The early-mid period in the Qing Dynasty
was testified by the maturity and perfection
attained after a long run of sedimentation
and examination regarding the overall
medical conclusions,the clinical diagnostics
and therapeutics in differential departments,
as,in view of the miraculous effect at the
moment,excelled somewhat the remaining
peers around the globe,
? It deserves a special attention that the tepid-
disease school played a positive role in
curing epidemic pyreticosis,diminishing
death rate and preventing diseases; all the
more the all-round implementation of the
human pox vaccination against smallpox
had sparkled over the Chinese and global
medicine history.
II,Medical Theories in Ancient
China
Chinese medicine is prized as one of the five
traditional medical schools in the ancient
world and the unique one that has been
unalterably circulating in force and
persistently evolving till the present day,full
of vim and vigor.
? The Chin-Han Dynasties worked to inherit
the pioneering medicine and usher in the
succeeding creations over the history of
Chinese medicine,having witnessed the
idea of analyzing and differentiating
pathological conditions,the remarkable
progress in clinical cure,the preliminary
outcome of the medicament-recipe system
and the early records of medical cases,
By means of the Treatise on Typhoid,Zhang
Zhongjing,a prominent doctor in the Eastern
Han Dynasty,established the rudimentary
specifications of determining cure based on
differential symptoms and formulated the
system of treatment approaches integrated
with medical recipes depending upon the six
hollow organs (gallbladder,stomach,small
intestine,large intestine,bladder and the
three
? As presented aforesaid the medical theories
rooted in the ancient China had claimed its own
independent system through a historical course
ranging from embryo to maturity,from simplicity to
complication and from chaos to integrity,Whereas
there had existed some concepts and simple
theoretic justification concerned in the Spring-
Autumn period,the late-arriving The Yellow
Emperor‘s Canon of Internal Medicine marked the
birth of the systematic Chinese medicine with an
assistance from the practitioners‘ experiences and
natural philosophy prevalent in the Warring States
period,
? Upon the completion of the system hereof,
thousands of hundreds of medical prodigies
sprang up and manifold relevant schools or
doctrines coincided with an ocean of
medical books and treatises in that matter
that have to the present worked as a
guidance to the current clinical practice,
manifesting the obvious scientific trait of
Chinese medicine system.
? As presented aforesaid the medical theories
rooted in the ancient China had claimed its own
independent system through a historical course
ranging from embryo to maturity,from simplicity to
complication and from chaos to integrity,Whereas
there had existed some concepts and simple
theoretic justification concerned in the Spring-
Autumn period,the late-arriving The Yellow
Emperor‘s Canon of Internal Medicine marked the
birth of the systematic Chinese medicine with an
assistance from the practitioners‘ experiences and
natural philosophy prevalent in the Warring States
period,
? Upon the completion of the system hereof,
thousands of hundreds of medical prodigies
sprang up and manifold relevant schools or
doctrines coincided with an ocean of
medical books and treatises in that matter
that have to the present worked as a
guidance to the current clinical practice,
manifesting the obvious scientific trait of
Chinese medicine system.
? The Canon argues that the ―substance‖ serves to be the
essence of the universe and man appears to be a
component therein,whereupon Chinese medical theory
was based on the plain materialism just as life science is
dependent upon the substantive,as being an indicator of
the scientific intension enclosed therein,The ancient
philosophical concepts ―Qi‖ and ―Jingqi‖ were borrowed as
the rudimentary units of the substance in the medical
system; so naturally ―Man is born of Qi concealed in
Heaven and Earth,and live on the changing seasons.‖(On
Precious Life and Human Body from Blank Queries) ―The
substance in Heaven is Qi; the substance in Earth makes
form; only when form and Qi are fused do all things exist.‖
(The Records of Universe) In this sense the things on the
globe seem to be a union of the unbroken Qi and the
intermittent form,
? The Canon contends that the world is
substantive,―In Heaven and Earth all things
can live and grow‖ and ―Unless all things
disappear,life will not fade.‖,thus
presenting a philosophical category
―substance‖ that made up of the major
portion of Chinese ancient philosophy.( On
Regulating Mind by Four Kinds of Qi from
Blank Queries)
? Availing itself of such viewpoints as ―Qi‖ and ―Jinqi‖,the
Canon was capable of reaffirming physiology and
pathology concerning diagnostics and therapeutics to the
effect that the medical theoretical system had been set up
on the cornerstone of the ancient plain materialism,
Concurrently by means of ―Yin-yang‖ and Five Elements,
the Canon advocates that the unity of opposites permeated
in any contradictions claims to be the concluding law of the
movement and variation of the universe; the antithesis,the
co-existence,the co-progress and the co-transfer
embedded in ―Yin-yang‖ were also employed in analyzing
and differentiating pathological condition,―From Yin and
Yang can be inferred the cases in decade,hundred,
thousand,million and up to the innumerable; however the
core remains in one.‖(Yin-yang in Antithesis from Blank
Queries)
? At any rate the Canon,though wrapped in
some flaws,tendered an academic potential
for the upcoming practitioners,Preceded by
it,manifold medical schools competed with
one another in such a manner that Chinese
medicine was oriented to the further degree.
? Chinese medical schools,according to
some scholars,were approximately
categorized as the Eight Typhoid Masters
Prior to the Song-Jurcheng Dynasties,the
Three Typhoid Schools in the Ming-Qing
Dynasties,Hejian School,Yishui School,the
Seasonal-Febrile-Disease School and
Huitong School.
? As a pioneering group of the medical elite,the
Eight Typhoid Masters comprised Wang Shuhe in
Jin (4th century),Sun Simiao in Tang,Han Dihe,
Zhu Hong,Pang Anshi,Xu Shuwei and Guo Yong
in Song and Cheng Wuji in Jurcheng,who had
expounded from distinctive views the essence in
analyzing and differentiating pathological
conditions (ADPC) pervaded in the Treatise on
Typhoid,assuming such a massive impact upon
the later doctors that they have unanimously been
recognized as an academic faculty over the history
of Chinese medicine.
? The Three Typhoid School in Ming and Qing
is referred to as the Wrong-Edition-Revised
School (WERS),the Old-Edition-Retained-
School (OERS) and the Analyzing-
Differentiating-Pathological-Condition
School (ADPCS),WERS held that there had
been a certain degree of wronged remarks
in the Treatise and that it should be revised
with the latest textual research,as typically
sponsored by Fang Youzhi and Yu Jiayan at
the turn of Ming and Qing.
? OERS maintained that the millennium-old
Treatise should be retained intact and
authoritative who,in contrast to WERS,lent
an affirming positive support to Wang Shuhe
and Cheng Wuji who had early reedited and
furnished the incipient annotation to the
Treatise respectively,By view of a diverse
standpoint,ADPCS embarked upon its
brand-new research of the Treatise.
? Hejian School in Song,molded in the
specific historic background and social
environment,was characterized at the
outset by the discovery of the pathology
governing high-fever disease and the adroit
distribution of chilly-natured herbs; in the
later course by the secret recipes for
countering ailment-inflicting factors and
nourishing body fluid and blood,out of which
arose the two sub-schools CAIFS and
NBFBS,
? Packed with new breakthroughs both in
theoretical presentation and clinical
treatment,it had prompted the pathological
study paving a way for the emergence of the
Hot-Fever School of Ming and Qing,and
being one of the most influential schools
over the history of Chinese medicine
research.
? Yishui School,relying on the scrutiny of the
externally-incurred hot fevers by the
precedent doctors,became full-grown in
Ming and Qing,and gradually crumbled into
the Pestilence School and the Hot–Fever
School,the former of which majored in the
exploration of pestilent maladies and
dedicated immensity to the establishment of
the pestilence theory,and the latter of which
concentrated on the common hot-fever
ailments (inclusive of the damp-fever ones),
? Both of the Schools hereof had played a
vital role in separating the theory of the
externally-incurred fevers from the Treatise
on Typhoid,exercising a far-reaching
reverberation on the evolution of Chinese
medicine.
III,Chinese Doctors with
Lasting Reputation
The long-ranged Chinese medicine has
produced a colossal throng of well-famed
medical geniuses and a library of medical
masterpieces.
? Bian Xi,living in Qi Kingdom at the start of the
Warring States period,learned with diligence and
formally became apprentice to Master Chang
Sang,an eminent doctor of the day,with an open
mind,having acquired a wide scope of the
techniques concerned,notably pulse palpation,He
used to travel round the different kingdoms and
had formulated a set of diagnostic methods (four
procedures,observation,auscultation & smelling,
interrogation and pulse feeling) by generalizing the
practitioners‘ experiences,which has invariably
been in effect in the present day,
an illustrious contribution to the growth of Chinese
medicine,It was allegedly true that he examined
the patient scrupulously and offered a so effective
prescription that the patient would get recovered
within the shortest possible time,Gradually he
obtained an increasing prestige throughout Cathay
in such a manner that he was later conferred upon
the title of Bian Xi (a legendary medical genius in
the primitive age under the authority of the Yellow
Emperor) whereas his real name was totally
neglected.
? Hua Tuo,born in Qiao county (modern Bozhou of
Anhui province) at the decline of the Eastern Han
Dynasty,was engrossed in all aspects of medicine,
especially expert at surgical operations,venerated
as the ―Holy Surgeon‖ and ―Forerunner of Surgery‖,
In childhood and youth he enjoyed reading
immensely and traveled around Xuzhou to pursue
studies before being well proficient in Chinese
classics and those for preserving health,Earlier or
later he had been recommended or conscripted to
be an imperial official separately by the prime
minister Chen Gui and the general commander of
the army Huang Wan of his native land Pei
Kingdom,which met his tactful refusal,
As he had been determined to succour the
community by healing the malady-stricken masses,
so he migrated through Anhui,Jiangsu,
Shandong,Henan and other provinces winning
over a public reverence,Cao Cao,the last prime
minister of the Eastern Han,had suffered long
from the unknown headache that other
practitioners had no alternatives to handle before
Hua Tuo was called on,Upon being exercised an
acupuncture needle,the pain was terminated
immediately,Cao required Hua Tuo to serve him
exclusively,but the doctor returned home under a
pretext and made no more appearance,Subjected
to Cao‘s outrage the medical master was
murdered.
? Hua Tuo exhibited his paramount talent in
surgery,By inventing the anesthetic herb
power he succeeded in executing an
abdomen operation in general anesthesia,
The procedure he took up is as follows,At
first the patient was advised to swallow the
anesthetic powder with wine; when he or
she lost sense as a drunkard the abdomen
was cut open in order that he could operate
on the tumor or the impaired intestines or
stomach;
after being washed up the cut was sewn and
distributed with a sort of medical ointment; a week
later it would heal up and the patient would get
recovered around a month,Hua Tuo pioneered in
the invention of general anesthesia and anesthetic
powder in the third century A.D,who had been
roughly 1,600 years earlier than the Western
rivals with ether or ―laughing matter‖ in the same
case,It is made conspicuous that Hua Tuo stood
out as the foremost surgeon both in China and
throughout the world to perform abdomen
operations in general anesthesia.
? Born of a noble family in Gaoping county in the
Western Jin Dynasty,Wang Shuhe had been well
educated since the very young age,He came to
take interest in medicine under the influence of
Wei Xun,a disciple of Zhang Zhongjing (the
author of The Treatise of Typhoid),afterwards
became resolved to be engaged in the medical
field,He assumed an earnest attempt to scrutinize
the medical masterpieces and consult the veteran
practitioners in a reserved manner,courting the
merits from among the multitude and meliorating
his expertise,
Eventually he gained his fame,In 208 A.D
when Cao Cao drove south to fight against
Liu Biao stationed in JinZhou of Hubei
Province,Wang was assigned to be the
military doctor under Cao,Later on he
served as a royal doctor and finally was
promoted as the chief of the royal medical
staff,His preponderant feat is claimed to be
the Canon of Pulse Palpation,the
pioneering work of the kind available in
China.
? A preeminent pharmacist in the Tang
Dynasty,Sun Simiao was highly gifted in
reciting a 1,000-character essay daily at the
age of seven and well versed in a medley of
classics at twenty,embraced as the child
prodigy in his day,However he was inflicted
on physical weaknesses and afterwards his
family went bankrupt due to the involvement
in debt for his treatment,Henceforth he
made up his mind to be engrossed in
studying medicine and to succor the
distressed,
Being devoted to the occupation he had acquired a
widespread prestige in adolescence while crowds
of patients nearby and far flocked to him,He
elbowed his way into the sources of Chinese
medicine,digesting the nourishment from the
ancient canons as quoted being Blank Queries,
Crux of Medicine,Jiayi Canon of Acupuncture and
Moxibustion,Herbal Canon of Shen Nong,
Treatise on Typhoid,Canon of Pulse Palpation
and so on so forth,to the effect that ―While the
white hair had crept over my head I did not
abandon reading the professional scriptures.‖
? Otherwise he directed attention to the alien or Hindu
medicine,Preceded by years of strenuous exploration Sun
Simiao had approached a fairly high proficiency in medical
attainments,Considering ―the vast ocean of the classics
and recipes,‖ which seemed troublesome to retrieve in
case of emergency,he was resolved to compile a concise
―medical handbook‖ which,through decades of hardships,
went to press in 652 A.D as the primary pharmaceutical
masterpiece—Essentials of Thousand Recipes in
Emergency,After the demise he was revered as
―Pharmacy King‖ and Mount Wutai was re-entitled Mount
Pharmacy King,where he had lived in seclusion and where
a memorial temple with his statue was built up in honor of
his high-brow personality and gigantic contribution to
Chinese medicine.
? Li Shizhen,born in Qi Zhou (modern Qichun
county of Hubei province) in the Ming
Dynasty,is prized a predominant pharmacist
both in China and across the world who was
well prestigious for his pharmaceutical
encyclopedia---Syllabus of Medical Herbs,
Bred in a century-old medical family Li
aspired to undertake the profession as his
elder generations,But the Li family more
often than not incurred insults from the local
tyrants and evil gentry since the folk doctors
at the time held a humble status,
It was no wonder that his father decided the
son be preoccupied in the routine imperial
service examination so as to start up in
career someday,However Li was
unfortunate enough to have failed quite a
few times,In turn he had recourse to his
father for permission to be steeped in the
ancestral profession,Till in his thirties Li had
shared a high renown in the home land,and
inaugurated to ponder over the scheme of
the Syllabus of Medical Herbs at the age of
thirty five,
? To make certain of the shapes,properties
and efficacies of herbs he was adventurous
resolutely to hold a bamboo basket on back
in the company of his son and a disciple
named Pang Kuang,trekking through the
countless wild mountains and deep valleys
scattered across the country,
It was after twenty seven years of
painstaking efforts and arduous labor that Li
Shizhen had eventually fulfilled the
encyclopedia-like pharmaceutical canon
with three revisions of the manuscript,which
not only made a crucial dedication to
Chinese pharmacy,but exercised a wide-
ranging reverberation upon the global
pharmacy,botany,zoology,mineralogy and
chemistry.
? Among a huge swarm of well-known
medical talents was enrolled Wang Qingren,
a practitioner of novelty in the Qing Dynasty,
who affiliated due concern to anatomy
conducting autopsy by himself and
elucidating it with illustrations,and who
lighted upon some brilliant ideas in respect
of clinical diagnoses and created a series of
recipes as regards enriching vital energy
and dredging extravasated blood so as to
invigorate the circulation of blood,
His representative work,the 30,000 -character
Corrections in Medical Circle furnished twenty five
illustrations and thirty one himself-invented recipes
in two volumes,The first volume offers an account
of his postmortem and observations hereof and
rectifies the ancients‘ errors in anatomy of viscera
and their physiological functions while clarifying
such an academic proposition that ―when
performing diagnoses,doctors should scrutinize
the viscera of patients.‖ and that ―The three cruxes
in treatment lie in awareness of vital energy and
blood.‖ The second volume articulates his
theoretical cognition of clinical medicine and
diagnostic experiences by applying the traditional
vital-energy-blood doctrine governing over fifty
maladies such as hemiplegia,
? facial paralysis,infantile polio,vomiting,
convulsion,chickenpox,sterility,dystocia,insanity,
and epilepsy,Furthermore the second volume
attaches biased importance to his own inventions
intended to invigorate the circulation of blood and
dredge extravasated blood,for example,the
masculine-nourished energy-returning recipe,the
vomiting-stopped recipe,the vital-energy-retained
recipe,the Yang-assisted itch-stopped recipe,the
first-aid-life-saved recipe,the root-of-
membranous-mile-vetch-anti-apoplexy recipe,the
antitote-blood-invigorated recipe,the channels-
directed-blood-invigorated recipe and so on,
Despite its title Corrections in Medical Circle,it is
virtually a gifted treatise respecting the medical
theories on treatment of blood stasis.
? At any rate Wang Qingren never failed to be
commended as an outstanding medical expert
stuffed with courage and innovation though,owing
to the limited conditions in his time,there existed a
lot of errors and misunderstandings with regard to
his anatomy records of postmortem,Nevertheless
he had inherited and creatively developed Chinese
medicine and pharmacy,particularly obtained an
acute insight into the cure of dredging
extravasated blood and invigorating its circulation
both in theory and in practice,respected as the
master therein,So far his research in blood stasis
has drawn a general concern from among the
professional circle at home and overseas.
? Appendix The First-Rate Masterpieces in
Chinese Medicine
? —The largest-size medicine work in China,
The Synopsis of Medicine
? —The largest-size alchemist work,The
Public-Succored Recipes
? —The paramount female doctor in the
ancient China,Zeng Zi
? —The first epidemic work,On Pestilence
? —The first pathogeny work,On
Pathogens of Diseases
? —The earliest work of acupuncture &
moxibustion in the world,JiaYi Canon of
Acupuncture & Moxibustion
? —The earliest work of medical herbs in the
world,Herbal Canon of Shen Nong
? —The first medicine masterpiece in the
world,A Treatise on Typhoid
? —The first palpation work in the world,
Palpation Canon
? —The first forensic medicine work in the
world,Anthology of Redressing Injustice
? — The first paediatrics work in the world,
Cruxes of Child Symptoms in Herbs
? The ―Oriental pharmaceutical encyclopedia‖,
Compendium of Matera Medica,
CHAPTER 11 ―External Exercise for Bones and
Muscles,Internal Discipline for a Breath of
Vitality‖
—Chinese Martial Arts to Display
Human Vitality
? Chinese martial arts,re-nominated as the
national arts,pertain to the traditional
sporting events in China which,in accord
with certain agreed-upon regulations,
incorporate such strokes as kicking,hitting,
wrestling,seizing,tumbling,striking,
wedging and stabbing into serial or single
exercises,barehanded or with apparatus.
? Chinese martial arts trace back to the
primeval society when man availed himself
of sticks,bars and other sorts of tools to
struggle against beasts; further he
undertook the making of more destructive
weaponry in pursuit of fortunes,During the
earlier periods the martial arts were
exclusively exercised in the army and later
laggardly imparted among the folks,
The Ming Dynasty marked a progressive phase
wherein a miscellany of schools involving martial
expertise,boxing and apparatus was thriving,all
the more in theoretical conclusions as highlighted
by Jinong Faggot Book,On Martial Arts,The
Remnant Arts After Farming,which,to a varying
degree,registered the course of the different
schools,the nominations and the characteristics of
sporting events,some affixed with ballads and
drawings,being an indispensable reference to the
forthcoming research into the martial arts.
? The modern martial arts cover three
categories,the boxing (Long Boxing,
Shadow Boxing,South Boxing,Body Boxing,
Eight-Diagram Boxing and so forth),the
armed combating (with long weapons,short
weapons and soft ones) and the sparring
(barehanded and/or with apparatus),They
have been created and advocated by
Chinese descendants of hundreds of
generations,being handed down as an
inestimable cultural legacy.
I,The Marrow in Chinese
Martial Arts
By vigorous,graceful and somewhat laborious
movements,Chinese martial arts provide
exercisers with enjoyment of beauty and
strength as well as possibilities to constitute
strong physique through sustainable exercises,
? In this term ―martial‖ is referred to as ―hitting‖
and ―arts‖ the methods or skills; hence the
marrow ingrained therein exists in a
progression of jumping,falling,crossing,
looping the loop,retreating,shaking,turning,
kicking,hitting,wrestling and capturing with
fairly pragmatic values.
? The strokes in progression at an
accelerating rate are counted the decisive
resort when confronting foes,The positions
of hands,legs and body in those strokes
weigh much in beating down rivals in a
twinkling without the slightest error or vice
versa,It is not astounding that Chinese
martial arts place priority on the thorough
apprehension of the competing knack in a
flash and its adroit employment.
? To attain the true essence imbedded in the
martial arts,the guidance by master-hand
coaches and conscientious practice are
required to such a degree that ―it is the
realm of dexterity that you fail to be
conscious of the boxing when exercising it‖,
a high degree of proficiency that throngs of
exercisers have long aspired earnestly,
? In the light of wrestling,the martial arts can
be rated in three grades,the inferior one
with no command of the skills,the middle-
brow with a pragmatic or moderate
command and the senior one with a high
degree of dexterity in conquering opponents,
A multitude of exercisers aspire to the senior
grade at the cost of life-time energy
? Out of Chinese martial arts the boxing is claimed
to be imperative to all exercisers,So far there has
been a colossal cluster of 192 boxing schools
charged with the detailed historical sources,
comparatively complete theoretical and technical
systems,The schools hereof were categorized
respectively in compliance with the mount (e.g,
Shaoling School at Mount Song and Wudang
School at Mount Wudang),the family kinship and
the region (e.g,the Yangtze River System and the
Yellow River System),
? The elementary genera register such a
lengthy listing,Long Boxing,Shadow Boxing,
South Boxing,Form-Meaning Boxing,Eight-
Diagram Palm,Backbone Boxing,Fanzi
Boxing,Ground Boxing,Wedge-Bond
Boxing,Grasshopper-Move Boxing,Eight-
Extreme Boxing,Monkey Boxing,Drunkard
Boxing,Hua Boxing,Fancy Boxing,Hawk-
Claw Boxing,Sponge Boxing,Six-Harmony
Boxing,Snake Boxing,Intention Boxing,
Teenager Boxing,Zha Boxing and so on so
forth.
? The Eight-Trigram Palm,originally named
―Turning Palm‖,otherwise called ―Body-
Moving Eight-Trigram Palm‖ or ―Eight-
Trigram-Interlocked-Rings Palm‖,features
the changed positions of palms and pace
movements,as somewhat resemble the
signs of the Eight Trigrams enclosed in the
Book of Changes,
? Its fighting principle ―assault and defense imbibed
as a whole‖ is implanted in the stratagem that ―I
move before foe moves and halt before him as
well; when foe is staunch I give way; when foe is
exhausted I keep energetic; when foe retreats I
advance; when foe moves I also move watching
and outwitting him; when foe comes I assault and
break him down; when foe advances I evade and
counteract him later; when foe is stationed I do not
cease to move.‖ In pragmatic action,the side-
advance-into-center tactics is preferred to frontal
assail.
? The Eight-Extreme Boxing is fully
designated as ―Door-Opened Eight-Extreme
Boxing‖ or ―Mount-Yue-Eight-Extreme
Boxing‖,The ―door-opened‖ in this case
denotes that the six cruxes in the fighting
technique are employed to break open the
rival‘s ―door‖ (defense posture),
? The ―eight-extreme‖ dates back to the
ancient assumption that ―Beyond the nine
continents (the world) exist eight universes;
beyond the eight universes exist eight
enormities; beyond the eight enormities
exist eight extremes‖,indicating the far-
away distance,And the ―Mount Yue‖ ushers
in a legend that the eight extremes issued
from the Mount Yue Temple in Jiaozuo city
of modern Henan province,
? The Eight-Extreme Boxing exploits the Six Cruxes
and the Eight Moves as the core of the fighting
technique,comprised of a series of moves,the
Baji-Butt,the Six-Knuckle,the Baji-Strength,the
New Baji Move,and the Baji-Double-Track; the
moves in armed combats with apparatus hereof
include sparring,straight lunge and diagonal
stabbing,They are characterized by swift and
concise strokes in bursting,shaking,breaking in,
hitting,approaching,stabbing,squeezing and
twining,and by repeated application of knuckles
and firm footholds,Since the founding of the new
republic it has been listed among the national
contests.
? The White-Eyebrow Boxing,a branch of the South
Boxing,is allegedly believed to be initially
imparted by a white-eyebrow monk in Mount Emei
of Sichuan province,which is still prevailing across
Sichuan,Guangdong,Hong Kong and Macao,
Staunch and ferocious in intense progression and
prolonged footings,its serial strokes contain the
Whip Boxing,the Double-Dash Boxing and the
Thousand-Character-Sword Boxing in a series of
the Small-Cross,the Big-Cross,the Three-Six-
Eight-Diagram,the Eighteen-Palm-Strength and
the Fierce-Tiger-Rush-out of–Jungle,It is matched
with such hand positions as the Hand-Shattered,
the Hand-Crossing,the Hand-Stopped and the
Hand-Resisted coupled with leg positions as
represented by the Side Kick (the Chick-Extend-
Claw) and juggling.
? The Shaolin Boxing belongs to the
catalogue of the Long Boxing,which,in a
broad sense,makes reference to the
Shaolin School and,in a narrow sense,to
the boxing practiced by the monks living in
the Shaolin Temple in Mount Song of Henan
province,and which unexceptionally covers
the armed combating therein,In the Ming
Dynasty the Muscle-Canon Exercise,the
Eight-Part-Belt Exercise and some
traditional gymnastics were publicly
propagated within the abbey,
From the turn of Ming and Qing to the reign
of Emperor Xian Feng the Shaolin Boxing
became alloyed with the outside schools,
shifting the stalwart combating to the
―intrinsic-extrinsic discipline‖,In modern
times it assumed an air of the merger of
boxing versus religion (Dhyana Sect) and
mind versus physique in sturdy struggling,
precipitous assault and withdrawal,
? The serial moves in Shaolin Boxing seem
short in a straight-line route,Considering the
postures it is required that head be
maintained upright while eyes being focused
on one point giving concern to both sides;
that chest be stuck out,waist straightened,
legs locked up with toes slightly closed; that
shoulder be loosened with arms in an alert
position; that the gravity center in body be
adjusted in motion and at rest for the sake of
a concerted assail; and that concerted
rapidity in pace,body and hands be
displayed in strokes,
It was categorized in a series of Teenager
Hong Boxing,Elder Hong Boxing,Veteran
Hong Boxing,Arhat Boxing,Zhaoyang
Boxing,Plum Boxing,Cannon Boxing,
Seven-Star Boxing and Tender Boxing (judo)
whereas the sparring series are inclusive of
Hand-Twisted-Six-Round,Hand-Bitten-Six-
Round,Ear-Grasped-Six-Round and Kick-
Hit-Six-Round together with Heart-Mind
Seizure in a single-man combat.
? The Zha Boxing,otherwise named ―Fork
Boxing‖ or ―Inserting Boxing‖,features the
stroke ―Finger Thrusting‖ (zha in Chinese) in
fastidiousness with a pithy formula in
combating,―The first move is finger thrusting,
the second capturing and the third stabbing.‖
It is characteristic of the precipitate
consecutive moves in progression,requiring
exercisers ―to stride like wind,stand like a
nail,rise like an ape,fall like an eagle,move
like a tiger and linger like a mountain.‖
? The postures should appear balanced,swift
and unhurried,staunch vs gentle,abrupt-
turning vs sudden-halting,composure being
imperative in the various moves,
supplemented by the ―ten essentials‖ for
assault and defiance (shrinking,minimizing,
twining,softening,clever-devising,missing,
rushing,hardening,hurrying and sliding),
? Related to the above mentioned there is a shoal of
the hand positions (thrusting,tantalizing,splitting,
covering,picking,embracing,inserting and
cutting),the body positions (evading,turning,
bending,somersaulting,rushing,barging,
squeezing and approaching),the leg positions
(juggling,ejecting,kicking,leaping,treading,
inserting and skimming),the pace positions
(advancing,retreating,circling,sticking-in,dashing
and turning) and the eye positions (fixing,staring,
transferring and gazing),Exercisers in motion
―should move right firstly when intending to move
left,and should retreat firstly when intending to
advance‖,There is a succession of leaping and
turning moves therein,
? The Zha Boxing maintains a stock of
subsidiaries in ten series,Mother-Children
Boxing,Waving-Hand Boxing,Kicking-Foot
Boxing,Land-Leveling Boxing,North-of-the-
Great-Wall Boxing,In-Ambush Boxing,Plum
Boxing,Chain-of-Rings Boxing,Dragon-
Sway-Tail Boxing and Move-Interlocked
Boxing,as affiliated by auxiliary strokes in
the first and second series,
Swords,spears,hooks and knives in varied
sizes are employed in apparatus fighting,
For the sake of elementary discipline are
matched with Cannon Boxing,Sliding
Boxing,Hong Boxing,Leg Boxing,Ten-
Route Leg-Ejecting exercises and many a
sparring series,The Long Boxing ever had
recourse to some moves from the Zha
Boxing that were equally compiled into the
general boxing textbooks of Chinese sports
colleges or departments involved.
? The Shadow Boxing was nominated after the
phrase ―Grand Terminus‖,which originates from
the Book of Changes (one of the Five Classics)
that is generally believed to be composed by King
Wen of Zhou,referring to the primitive mixed state
of Heaven and Earth,The Great Treatise in the
Book of Changes argues,―Therefore in (the
system of) the I there is the Grand Terminus,
which produced the two elementary Forms,Those
two Forms produced the four emblematic Symbols,
which again produced the eight Trigrams which
served to determine the good and evil (issues of
events)‖,
Some ancient Chinese scholars ever interpreted,
―The Grand Terminus claims to be a title of
nothingness,or extreme abundance in reverse
connotation,‖ ―The Grand Terminus is the primitive
mixed state of Heaven and Earth,that is to say,
the Grand Beginning,or the Grand One‖,From it
the Grand Terminus was worshipped to be the
source of what the universe was supposed to be
or the omnifarious inanimate objects and living
beings,which abided solely as a conviction of
Chinese traditional philosophy,not as a scientific
assertion,Exploited from a medley of folk boxing
schools and improved by generations of
exercisers,Shadow Boxing has been an age-long
boxing series.
? Shadow Boxing features a close unity of
mind,breath and moves (body),requiring a
composed but focused mind with relaxing
motion,quoted as saying ―Mind works as a
commander and body a soldier‖; ―When
body is in motion it is divided into moves,
and when body is at rest moves shrink back
into one‖; ―When in motion nothing stays at
rest,and when at rest nothing is in motion‖;
and ―Serenity is pursued in motion‖,
disfavoring awkward strength and nurturing
a consecutive motion like wheels and deep
breath,
The postures ―linger still like a mountain and move
like a river‖ characteristic of roundness,softness,
slowness,stability and evenness,The moves
extend far and wide in strict coordination,as all
being an antithetical unity of Yin-yang (the
negative and positive,So naturally it is true to all
schools of the sort that the theories concerned
sound identical regardless of the discrepancies
arising from the varied serial moves,Hereafter are
introduced the five popular type of Shadow Boxing,
the Chen Type,theYang Type,the Wuu Type,the
Wu Type,and the Sun Type.
? The Chen-Type Shadow Boxing was
founded by a distinguished boxer Chen
Wanting at the turn of the Ming and Qing
Dynasties,who,according to the Chronicle
of Wen County,was appointed the
commander of the local garrison in
Chongzhen 14,in the reign of Emperor Si of
Ming,later returned home in hermitage after
the decline of Ming,and at old age created
the boxing by himself coaching his offspring
and disciples.
? The Yang-Type Shadow Boxing was fostered by
Yang Luchan,a native of Yongnian county in
Hebei province,who had earlier learned Chen-
Type Shadow Boxing from Chen Changxing in
Wen county of Henan province and then
developed it into Yang-Type Shadow Boxing with
an assistance of his son Yang Jianhou and
grandson Yang Chenpu,In its course such moves
as leaping,shaking feet and spurting were deleted,
and it was constituted in the middle-size posture
by Yang Jianhou and later on in the great-size
posture by Yang Chenpu,e.g,the present fashion
of the type.
? The Wuu-Type Shadow Boxing came into
being from Wuu Yuxiang,also a native of
Yongnian county in Hebei province,He had
learned Chen-Type Shadow Boxing from his
countryman Yang Luchan,further
proceeded to imitate Zhaobao-Type Boxing,
a branch of the Chen type after Chen
Qingping and finalized Wu-Type Shadow
Boxing through rectification of the former.
? The Wu-Type Shadow Boxing sprang out in
Beijing,As mentioned above Yang Luchan
learned the Chen type and founded the
Yang type in Beijing as a boxing tutor,He
adopted a disciple named Wu Quanyou who
was at the time conscripted in the garrison,
Wu made a later resort to Yang Banhou,the
son of the Yang-type founder and emerged
in the end as the initial master of the Wuu
type.
? The Sun-Type Shadow Boxing was ascribed
to Sun Lutang born in Wan county of Hebei
province who embarked upon the martial
arts in childhood learning Image-Meaning
Boxing from Li Kuihuan and then from Guo
Yunshen,the coach of Li,and who later
turned to Cheng Tinghua for Eight-Trigram
Palm and to Hao Weizhen for Shadow
Boxing,Imbued in the quintessence out of
what he had practiced in years,Sun Lutang
established the Sun-type.
? Among the legacies of Chinese martial arts can be
enrolled Emei School,described as ―Five
blossoms in a tree / that are held by eight leaves; /
Bright moonlight at Emei / Shines in martial-arts
field.‖ ( Emei Boxing Shop written by Zan Ran,a
senior priest of Buddhism at the outset of the Qing
Dynasty),which weighs as much as Shaolin
School and Wudang School,Nurtured in the motile
series of Daoism and the dyana of Buddhism or
sit-in meditation,it made debut as a unique
system of the dynamic-static martial art
amalgamated with other types of boxing,
apparatus-combating and sparring,
Regarding the dynamic exercise available
are the twelve body positions,―the Heaven,
the Earth,the Zigzag,the Mind,the Dragon,
the Crane,the Wind,the Cloud,the Great,
the Minor,the Secluded,and the
Profound ‖while the static exercise is rivaled
with the six steps,―the Tiger-Pace,the
Heavy-Thump,the Shrink-into-Earth,the
Body-Suspended,the Finger-Tip and the
Nirvana‖,of which the 36-type Finger-Tip
exercise was most empowered in massage
and subduing foes,
In addition Emei School availed itself of ―five
peaks‖(head,shoulder,elbow,buttocks and
knee) and ―six elbows‖ (upper elbow,down
elbow,left elbow,right elbow,circular elbow
and reverse elbow),The assail-defense
tactics is incarnated through such skills as
―jumping,shifting,dodging,somersaulting,
drifting,sinking,swallowing and vomiting‖.
? Apparatus has played a momentous role in
Chinese martial arts containing broadsword,
sword,spear,cudgel,double-broadsword,
double-sword,double-spear,double-hook,
nine-section whip,rope hammer,rope dart
and so on,with the first four pieces in
popularity,The broadsword play is
composed of the strokes,head-twining,
splitting,cutting and teasing,aided by the
moves of another hand,pacing in various
styles and leaping,full of the air of gallantry,
? With another hand in finger moves and
pacing styles,the sword play has an
attribute of touching,bursting,stabbing,
bantering,splitting and hanging,a brisk and
gracious performance,The spear play,
based upon the strokes of intercepting and
capturing and pricking,betrays a mixed
flavor of valor and yieldingness,And the
cudgel play seems to be a dauntless series
of brandishing,splitting,stabbing,holding
and turning.
? Furthermore there has prevailed a phrase ―the
martial arts in eighteen genres‖,which is referred
substantially to a congeries of martial arts,not
exactly to the eighteen genres,A host of writers
delivered a medley of interpretations hereto as
shown distinctly in the Romantic Wang Huan at
Hundred-Flower Pavilion from the Selection of
Yuan Operas compiled by Qi Jinshu in the Ming
Dynasty,in Chapter Two of the Water Margin
written by Shi Lai‘an at the turn of Yuan and Ming,
and in Acrobatics in Five varieties edited by Xie
Shaozhe in the throne of Emperor Wan Li of Ming,
To sum up,―the martial arts in eighteen
genres‖ consisted of the subsidiaries below,
the projectiles (bow,mechanic bow,arrow,
primitive rocket),the long weapons (dagger-
axe,spear,cudgel,stick,bar,axe,trident,
halberd,broadsword,spade),the short
weapons (sword,short-handle knife,whip,
hook,sickle,hammer,crutch,ring),the soft
weapons (chain,rope hammer,cotton-
thread rope dart) and the ―nothing to hit‖ or
barehanded wrestling,as affording a
synopsis of ancient Chinese martial arts,
II,The Cultural Gist of Chinese
Martial Arts
As an integral segment and a special
expression of Chinese culture,Chinese
martial arts unveil the elementary features
implanted therein in profile.
? Chinese martial arts have been long-standing and
well established,blended with a heap of cultural
attainments regarding philosophy,medicine,
military strategy & tactics,techniques,education,
and aesthetics etc,reflecting at a specific angle
the character and sagacity of Chinese nation,The
gist of the martial arts is imposed on such a
psyche or policy for assault-defense wrestling that
―Strength should be tamed by mind and body by
strength;‖ ―Hands,eyes,body,adroitness and
paces are unexceptionally subjugated to mental
power;‖ ―Staunchness in body and ingenuity in
mind should be fused into a whole‖,
? A flexible motional beat is welcomed in
bustling activities whereas resourcefulness
is to be exploited so as ―to lift a thousand jin
simply by stirring four liang.‖ (One jin is
equated with half kilogram,one liang with 50
grams.) Concessions are as often as not
made at the start to leave some leeway with
a focused concern upon the surety in
accurate and ferocious striking.
? Chinese martial arts derived its sources from
Chinese classical philosophies for the
interpretation of boxing principles,from the
classical military stratagem for the combating
codes and from the classical medicine for the
exercises,The technical evolving course of
Chinese martial arts coincided with the pattern of
the ancient culture and technology,particularly
with the evolution of the fighting fashion,the
artistic interests and the body-building skills,which
has experienced the three phases,the first ―valiant
spirit‖ propped up with strength and bravery,the
second ―martial technique‖ rivaled with technique
and astuteness and the third ―martial arts‖
specified comparatively in stylization.
? The initial evolving route was the merger of
the ancient health-keeping technique and
the military assault-defense wrestling.
? The next evolving route was the
exemplification and artistry of some
wrestling strokes and their combination with
dance and acrobatics.
? The third evolving route was the mixture of
body-building and mind-discipline extracting
a complete set of ―body fused with mind‖ or
―cultivating personality‖ technique.
? The top concern steeped in Chinese martial
arts was governed by the body-mind
relationship inside human body,so called
―External exercise for bones and muscles
and internal discipline for a breath of vitality.‖
None of all the schools failed to lay down
stress upon ―presence of mind,presence of
breath and presence of strength‖,
equilibrating Yin & Yang,regulating breath
and blood,dredging body channels,
reinforcing physique and gaining strength,
By means of ―form and content‖ relationship
the martial arts were upgraded to a
combating skill while the body-mind bond
was evinced through the fiend-friend bond
outside human body,Therefore no matter
which branch one may belong to,all
emphasized ―One shall gain momentum
dependent on the Mean‖ and ―One shall
achieve triumph by obtaining possibilities.‖
On this stratum it was adopted for defending
and conquering foes,
? Also from ―abandon body to pursue mind‖ to
―acquire what mind demands‖ it was
sublimated to a philosophical realm,The so
called phrase ―Heaven Combined with Man‖
was meant a high degree of unity between
Existence and Nothingness,Motion and
Quiet,Yin and yYang,Mind and Object,
Subjective and Objective as well as a
product of objective laws alloyed with man‘s
conscious dynamic role,
? On such a stratum it was availed itself of for
cultivating mind and nurturing character,
apprehending natural & social laws and
contributing to one‘s inner tranquility,when,thanks
to the demolition of biases,people could hold a
―playful‖ attitude towards wrestling with foes,aloof
from the secular lure in triumph and defeat,
success and failure,gain and loss,and advantage
and disadvantage,as claimed to be sharply
nothing but man‘s carefree activity and his
independent development cast off a miscellany of
dependent relationships,
? Henceforth Chinese martial arts cannot be
solitarily deemed as a sporting technique or
a combating skill,but directly as a thinking
style,a life attitude and an order of
personality cultivation,Chinese martial arts
are charged not only with the fastidiousness
in the serial strokes,but with the
squeamishness in temperament and delight
of life,saturated in a broad and profound
martial spirit overriding itself.
III,Cultivation of Breathing ercise
of Chinese Martial Arts
Breathing exercise (Qigong) is esteemed an
approach to strengthen physique and exploit
human body potential energy in Chinese
martial arts,
? In a broad sense it is not only confined to
the cultivation methods but also
encompasses its gist and the related
theories and methods targeted at
exploitation of human body potentials,In the
present day Qigong can be classified into
the following schools:
? The Soul-Particle school (spontaneous
exercise) is said to have been practiced by
the ancient genuine wizards,who were
convinced that inside human body there
existed a matter designated as ―soul particle‖
that was imperative in making up human
soul and worked as a carrier of human sub-
consciousness,
? The crux of cultivating it lay in the fact that
man was to be subdued by the ―soul particle‖
and would conduct some spontaneous
moves under the free reign of sub-
consciousness to such an effect that the
potential energy in body could be disciplined
and consolidated,This exercise was chiefly
applied for curing the exerciser himself or
the diseased,Its representative exercise,
the Soul-Particle-Motion-Show Technique,
? The Internal-Cinnabar school found the source in
Daoism and evolved from the alchemy flourishing
in the Eastern Han Dynasty,which,as a matter of
fact,appeared to be a mixture of Daoism,
Confucianism and the Book of Changes,the last
of which had imposed an immense impetus upon
the genre hereof,Those who practiced it held a
firm belief that,by reaching the extreme it claimed,
they could survive permanently as if they had
taken panacea; and it was on account of the belief
that people had undertaken a long-length pursuit
of such an exercise that it grew into a mainstream
with a complete and complicated system,It aimed
at the ―great way‖ or longevity,not at the
comprehension.
? The Martial-Arts school bore no definite
source,By cultivation and application of the
internal energy in human body,it was
practised to stimulate certain human
potential energy temporarily so as to
overrun foes,taking such examples as the
light-move exercise,and the hard-breath
exercise.
? The Tibet-Secret school was originated from Tibet
for the overall benefit of exploiting human potential
energy,which had developed a fairly entire
theoretical procedure holding that varied rounds of
cultivation should proceed from the Business
Sector to the Supreme Yoga Sector,While
practicing it the disciple murmured the authentic
phrases with a sacred deed in hand,In conformity
with the religious decree,however,the disciple
could not be engrossed in it until he or she was
granted the privilege through a religious ritual
―Penetrating It through Head‖ by the Living
Buddha,And as the opportunity came in a meager
manner,individuals had to procure it by destiny.
? The Hindu hatha yoga and the Western hypnotism
are also included herein.
? What was meant by Qi (vigor)? It was considered
the energy in human body that could be mobilized
by mind for practicing exercises,Energy is valued
the motive power of life,The course of maintaining
life is the one of transformation in metabolism
demanding consumption of energy,so do human
viscera in motion and manual or mental labor,
―Man lives on a breath‖,In case of suspension of
breath,the energy is exhausted and life expired,
That is why energy remains mandatory throughout
life cycle.
? Having inherited a host of Chinese
traditional Qigong (breath-exercise),Daoist
disciples found over a hundred methods for
practicing it susceptible of the static exercise,
the dynamic exercise and the dynamic-static
exercise with the incipient gaining upper
hand,There were roughly available five
orders concerning the static Qigong of
Daoism,the Mind-Cultivated,the Breath-
Disciplined,the Mind-Maintained,the
Apertures-Conserved,and the Internal-
Cinnabar,
? The Mind-Cultivated order,tracing back to
Master Lao and Master Zhuang,laid
emphasis on cultivating the mind and
nullifying desires with a long list of
procedures such as the Way-Conserved,
the Mind-Preserved,the One-Retained,the
Mental Abstinence,the View-Settled,the
Mind-Clarified,the Mind-Watched,the Sit-
Forget,the Mind-Practised-Nullity-Returned,
and the Mind-Practised-Way-Observed,
? In common with Buddhism was the Mind-
Cultivated order,From the Southern-Northern
Dynasties onwards,Daoism,starting from the
doctrines of Master Lao and Master Zhuang and
ingesting Tiantai Sect and Zen Sect of Buddhism,
had fashioned the mind-cultivated exercise,In the
Three Treatises on the Decree published in the
Tang Dynasty,the mind-cultivated exercise,in line
with the metaphysics-oriented philosophy,was
phased in the Serenity of Mind,the Extinction of
Desires and the Comprehension of Truth,of which
the third one was honored the supreme realm of
mind by the classical canon Master Zhuang.
? After the Song Dynasty the mind-cultivated
exercise was further alloyed with Dhyana
(deep meditation) in Zen Sect,appraised as
the ―top-grade method‖,and ―paramount
enlightenment way‖.
? The Breath-Disciplined was originated from
the exercise for regulating breath prior to the
Pre-Chin Period,featuring such processes
as the Breath-Impeded,the Much-Inhaled-
Less-Exhaled,the Internal-Vital-Air-Gulped
and the Outside-Air-Gulped.
? The Breath-Impeded practice was renamed
―the umbilical cord movement‖ in the book
On Sluggishness by Master Bao Pu,which
was interpreted as below,the exerciser
inhaled air gradually by nose shut it up and
held it on for the longest possible time while
counting the numbers from one to over
thousand,Till the last moment he or she
exhaled it in a retarded manner,
? The Much-Inhaled-Less-Exhaled practice
was specified as in the Taiqing Canon of
Breath Regulation,―The exerciser inhales a
long breath of air and gobbles it before
exhaling it at a hindered rate.‖ Specifically
the exerciser inhaled five breaths
continuously,and at an interval of pause
exhaled one with a third of air hidden in
body.
? The External-Air-Gulped practice seemed to
be a product of the Mind-Maintained
process and the Air-Gulped process,
composed of many a method such as the
Five Sprouts,the Six Genera of Air,fog,the
Three Orders of Atmosphere and the Purple
Air,
? The Five Sprouts were supposed to be the
five-color air emerging from the five
directions which,according to Daoism,was
in concert with the five human viscera and
the five kinds of air therein,So naturally it
was beneficial for viscera and longevity to
gulp the five-color air thereof,The remedy
was quoted in the Great Lord Canon of
Health-Keeping Breath Exercises as follows:
the exerciser was seated to the east direction
closing eyes and clicking teeth thrice while
fancying that the green air (sprout) from the east
was pouring into his or her mouth,then taking nine
breaths of it and three gulps of saliva secreted
from tongue and lips and further fancying that the
green air had entered the viscera and blood
vessels,In turn he/she was advised to inhale the
red air in the south,the yellow air in the centre,the
white air in the west and the black air in the north,
? For the Three-Atmosphere practice,the
exerciser should face where the sun was
rising at daybreak fancying that there were
emerging the three orders of atmosphere
turning green,white and red in the sunshine,
which was rushing down into the mouth,and
digesting them into 90% volume of lungs,
? The Fog-Gulped practice allured the
exerciser to fancy the five-color fog (or
clouds) reigning everywhere and to gulp it
into 50% volume of lungs,
? The Purple-Air-Gulped practice provoked
disciples to fancy the purple air rising out of
genitals and to gulp it.
? The ―vital air‖ In the Internal Vital-Air-Gulped
practice was referred to as the air coming up from
the lower part of abdomen (―red field‖ or ―air
sea‖).When such a vital air gushing up toward the
mouth,the exerciser was persuaded to shut it up
and swallow it consecutively until it returned to the
―air sea‖,The Pithy Formula of Mr,Fancy Gulping
Internal Vital Air recorded a decade of the
practicing processes,the Advance,the Air Dredge,
the Air Adjustment,the Air Gulp,the Air Operation,
the Air Cultivation,the Air Accumulation,the Air
Impediment,
and the Air Distribution,of which the Air Gulp
indicated the gulping of the ―internal vital air‖,and
the Air Operation the process that,upon gulping it,
the exerciser should channel the air by mind from
the ―red field‖ through back and spine to head,
then directing it across hair,face,neck,hands,
arms,fingers,viscera,legs and toes,in the end
fancying that the ―sick air‖ and extravasated blood
in body were being driven away by the ―positive air‖
and diffused via hands and feet,as such called the
Air Diffusion practice leading to the Internal
Cinnabar exercise.
? The Mind-Maintained order,somewhat like
the ―observation and meditation‖ in
Buddhism,was claimed to be the
overwhelming exercise of Fulu School in
Daoism,having sourced from Daoist
scriptures,The objectives fancied by Daoist
disciples in practicing it fell within the
religious segment and nonreligious segment,
The religious objectives included the deities
inside and outside human bodies,the fairy
land and the Heavenly palace,
The deities in question took forms in the viscera
deity and the twenty four deities in body as
described in the Peace Canon; also available were
the thirty nine authentic deities,the Sun deity,the
Moon deity,the five-star deity and the Dipper deity
as stated in The Great Cave Authentic Canon,in
particular the authentic deity lingering at the center
of the lower ―red field‖,called in Master Bao Pu as
the ―conserve-true-one.‖ In addition there were the
―319-Palace Practice‖ and the ―Lord-in-Silence‖
adoring the Supreme Lord as the dictating deity at
the center of the upper ―red field‖,This fancy,
though permeated in theism and ecclesiastical
affairs,undoubtedly in facto contained the nucleus
of Qigong (breath exercise) in the practicing
course.
? The non-religious segment hereof was packed
with the Internal-Observed method,the Sunshine-
Moonlight-Gulped method,the Three-Hue–Air-
Gulped method,the Vital-Air-Gulped method,the
Bathed-in-Sunshine Method,and the Purple-
Cloud-Gulped method,The practice of the first
method (IOM) could be found in the Red-Ink-
Purple-Character-Three-Five-Vertical-Line Canon
which boasted that,being seated and fancying the
viscera for long,the exerciser could surely see
through them,
? The Purple Scorching Light Canon
repeatedly asserted IOM as the case that
the exerciser would be capable of seeing
and hearing things at a remote distance of a
hundred or even a thousand miles away had
he or she persisted in directing ears and
eyes to the faraway objects,The section 45
of Seven Sticks of Bookcase offered an
account of the Sunshine-Moonlight-Gulped
method:
? the exerciser was advised to fancy that the image
of the Sun or the Moon would be,as big as a coin,
rolling toward the throat and then should be
swallowed with saliva a couple of times,It was the
same case with the Vital-Air-Gulped method and
the Bathed-in-Sunshine method that aroused
exercisers‘ fancy of natural air pouring into human
body,as was convinced to be of special effect to
sufficiency of body fluid and deficiency of vital
energy,The Three-Hue-Air-Gulped method,the
Cloud-Atmosphere-Gulped method and the
Purple-Cloud Gulped method required dosage of
the air and light in rich tints with an intention to
ingest life energy from nature.
? The Apertures-Conserved order was
intended to safeguard the abdomen (―red
field‖) in subsidiaries such as ―the One-
Safeguarded‖,―the Foetus-Breath‖ and ―the
Spirit-Conserved-Breath-Disciplined‖,Sun
Simiao,a prestigious medical expert in the
Tang Dynasty,declared in the Epigraph of
the Spirit-Conserved-Breath-Disciplined,―To
learn this technique,one is obliged to fast
beforehand,composed in breath sea and
maintaining spirit at red field‖,
? Mr,Fancy asserted himself in the
Annotation to the Foetus-Breath Canon,
―The exerciser usually keeps a stockpile of
air in abdomen and retains spirit in body; the
air and the spirit are to be melted into a
mental foetus.‖ It seems similar to the
Internal-Cinnabar order.
? Besides the static exercises aforesaid,Daoism
had also inherited from the Pre-Chin Period and
the Chin-Han Dynasties such therapies as the
Pull-Up exercise and massage matched with
teeth-clicking,saliva-gulping and oral-cavity
pealing as the significant means for health,
longevity and even being celestial,The Pull-Up
and massage were fairly simple in moving human
body like animals at the beginning,as stated in
Master Bao Pu,―(The exerciser should move like)
Dragons take a lead while tigers follow; bears
stride while tortoises gulp things; swallows fly and
birds chirp while snakes shrink; Heaven looks
down while Earth looks up.‖
? The gist had been accrued into the Five-Animal
Play and the Eight-Fragment Show,This order of
exercise was in most cases fused with the
methods such as the Breath-Adjustment,the
Breath-Impediment,the Sit-in-Meditation and the
Fancying,forged in the dynamic exercise and the
dynamic-static exercise,The moves and postures,
as described by Sima Chenzhen in the Essentials
of Gulping Air,had evolved in scores,something
like the body-posture exercise of Hindu hatha
yoga,Assisted by the Air Gulping,the Teeth
Clicking and the Oral-Cavity Pealing,the dynamic
exercise plus the static had afforded a distingue
feature of Qigong pertaining to Daoism,
? Frequently Qigong was furnished with Pigu
exercise,the Bait-Taking and the skill in
intercourse,Pigu was considered an access
to the consummate state of Qigong; Bait-
Taking connoted the taking of medicine,
gulping of air and the internal cinnabar,A
due concern had been granted to the skill in
intercourse by various schools hereof in that
it contained the hygiene knowledge and
breathing exercises,another knack of the
practice of Qigong.
? Having assimilated the alien nourishment from
Buddhism and Hindu hatha yoga and having
chased the aim of health,body-building and
longevity in the long run,Daoism had advanced in
succession to the various genera of exercise
methods in the history of China,forging a multi-
lateral and multi-strata system of Qigong,
Compared with Buddhism aimed at spiritual
vimukta (freedom) and Confucianism with
punctilious priority upon moral cultivation,Daoism
claimed to be scrupulous in health building,
uniquely equipped with the dynamic exercise,Pigu,
the Bait-Taking and the skill in intercourse
involving the dynamic vs the static and the intrinsic
vs the extrinsic in human body,
? Also in contrast with the medicine and the martial
arts targeted separately at curing the diseased
and combating with foes,the Daoism-rooted
Qigong exhibited a higher-level practising
approach and an intricate theoretical system,Of
the philosophical schools typified by Confucianism,
Buddhism and Daoism throughout Chinese feudal
society,Daoism was generally acknowledged the
overriding segment in health building while
Confucianism was applied to govern the society,
and Buddhism to tame the masses.
? Except the deity-fancying order,the
practicing methods of Daoism-rooted
Qigong,in an objective sense,mostly
refrained from religious contents and could
thoroughly be counted as pure Qigong
(breath exercise) provided exercisers were
excluded from the conviction of being
celestial and permanent longevity.
CHAPTER 12 ―Never dTakingAll
Pains & Never Mind oingat
Great etails‖
─Exquisite and Gourmet Chinese
Cuisine
? ―Male and female have delight in diet,which
is human nature‖ The Chinese ancestors
and sages had exuded a conservative
attitude toward sex,whereas the torrent of
human nature had been channeled to eating
tables,which had not only ushered in a
mammoth prosperity in Chinese cuisine,but
bestowed a social significance upon it,
? In the first place,considering the customs
and conventions such as marriage and
funeral arrangements,eating is outright
deemed a weighty factor or even the climax,
Secondly it serves as the most vital means
of social connections,In Chinese
countryside the phrase ―know‖ is as often as
not replaced by the sentence ―I dined with
him at the same table‖,
Meanwhile it is claimed to be an influential
manifestation of the national affection,In
case that a bosom friend arrives from afar
an exquisite dinner will function to a greater
extent as a sign of hospitality,During the
ancient times even the earnest state
administration was substituted with ―adjust
the tripod and quadripod‖,a typical term of
cookery,as reflecting a lofty standing of
Chinese cuisine.
? Chinese people are adept in and capable of
eating whatever run on the earth,fly in the
sky and swim in waters,Westerners have
no taste in animal‘s viscera while Chinese
regard them as the ―nutriments to relevant
human organs‖; take an example,the
animal‘s liver is justified in nourishing human
blood,the animal‘s kidney in invigorating
human kidney,and the ―petrel‘s nest,‖ the
jelly rarity that gold-feathered petrels
vomited after gulping marine alga in the
seaside nests,in resuming vital energy,
Hereto enclosed is a catalogue of the ancient
delicacies,the bear‘s claws,the leopard‘s embryo,
phoenix‘s (eagle‘s) marrow,the dragon‘s (snake‘s)
gall bladder,the horse‘s genitals,the elephant‘s
nose,the shark‘s fin and the gorilla‘s lips,It is said
that the kings of the Zhou Dynasty used to
appreciate such relishes as bee pupas and
cicadas,and their subjects took to the cypress-
cured mice whereas in Canton the baked cicadas
and diving beetles were sold out together in
restaurants,In a word the catalogue can be
extended further,
? In addition,Chinese people are skilled at
creating artificial delicacies,On entering the
vegetable restaurants,you can discover on
the menu the ―plain pig‘s kidney‖,―plain pig‘s
intestines‖ and ―plain fish‖ etc.,which,
cooked with soybean product,appear to mix
bad with good,Doufu or soybean cake,
notably,has long prevailed as a widely-
welcomed delicacy among the people of
different trades,the elder and the youngster,
and the male and female,
? The sauce industry seems to be another
special achievement hereof that avails itself
of soybean (or broad bean) as the staple
ingredient added with an optimum amount of
wheat bran,starch,salt and sugar in
fermentation,The sauce works not only as a
tasty appetizer,but as a nutriment
comprising many types of enzymes to
facilitate the complicated chemical reactions
within human body,a beneficial contribution
to nutriology and health care.
? Comparatively speaking,the Western cuisine is
inclined to science and nutrition while Chinese
peers tend to artistry,In the vision of Chinese
people,eating as a major issue in life weighs not
only as the demand of stomach,but also as a
creating course of art that involves a wide range of
factors,the preparations of cooking,the layout of
tableware,the order of serving,the eating
surroundings,the quality of dishes,the number of
diners,More often than not Westerners regard the
cooking of food as a complete mechanic job,from
which the Chinese diverge,
? A baker,engaged in rolling doughs in a street,can
be observed knocking on his working panel in
regular rhythm with his rolling pin; a butcher at
crumbling cattle ―(is laboring perfectly as if) he
were dancing to the beat and melody of classical
music;‖ a chef at cooking will rap the metal ladle to
subdue the procedure,all of which,as a matter of
fact,produces little favor to the task,but heightens
the artistic flavor,It does not prove an easy trifle to
lay out tableware,Some better-off families
developed a hobby to reserve at home scores of
sets of tableware which,of silver,ivory,rare timber
or bamboo,had to be matched with specific dishes,
a process of aesthetic judgment,
? After the Tang-Song Dynasties,the location
of Chinese tea houses and restaurants were
selected in most circumstances on a river
bank or lake side,wherein garden-style
buildings were erected,flower terraces,
pavilions and bamboo-lined trails scattered
here and there,Arriving there the diners
must have felt fresh and cozy with a good
appetite,This style of restaurants suffices
for both scientific norms and artistic sense,
? Even the denomination of dishes is brimming with
a luster of art,Take the two-cuisine black carp,the
carp meat is braised and the skeleton soup is
supplied with a string of peas drifting on the
surface,designated as ―A-Line of-Egrets-Is-Flying-
Up-into-the-Sky‖,an embellishment of poetry,For
other examples,the Chicken-in-Jadeite-Soup,the
Jade-Bracelet-Frog-Legs,Duck-Webs-
Surrounded-by-Hundred-Flower,and the Braised-
Mixture-of-Dragon-Tiger-Phoenix,these all are
none other than an impeccable marriage of
literature and appetite.
? The specification of Chinese cuisine seems severe
requiring the ―presence of nice color,fragrance
and savor‖,The ―color‖ in this case refers to the
color and the modeling of dishes,Respecting the
match in colors and the carving and designing of
materials,Chinese cooks are usually qualified of
approaching the height of artists,In the throne of
Emperor Yi of the Tang Dynasty when Princess
Tong Chang was going to marry out,Emperor Yi
ordered a course named ―Red Dragon‘s Breast‖
be delivered to his daughter,which was processed
from red beef into one-chi long threads (One chi is
equivalent to 33 centimeters.) resembling a host of
vigorous dragons in motion,
As registered in the News of Southern Chu
Kingdom there had been served two dishes of
frogs in what turned out to be modern Canton
(Guangdong province),devised in an ornate style,
the eaters acclaiming them as a marvel,An off-
beat genre stood out of Chinese cuisine---―on-
show dish‖ prepared primarily for admiration,
molded in a soigne manner and pregnant with
morals such as fish symbolizing ―Surplus fortunes
are available annually‖ (In Chinese language,―fish‖
and ―surplus fortunes‖ are homonyms).The on-
show dish was current rampantly in the Qing
Dynasty,especially at the royal banquets when
the aristocrats or Confucian descendents rendered
wishes to Ci Xi Empress Dowager,on the dishes
could be found such auspicious spellings as
―Great Luck‖ and ―Longevity‖,a gourmet format.
? ―Fragrance‖ makes reference to the fragrant
smell rising out of the dishes served on the
table before eating,as being an effective
appetizer,In the early stage of history
Chinese people had become aware of frying
spices in order to make up the strong-
fragrance dishes in rich varieties,crisp
fragrance,oil fragrance,smoke fragrance,
milk fragrance,pungent fragrance,mildew
fragrance,charring fragrance,peppery
fragrance,tingling fragrance,cocoa
fragrance,Chinese-onion-garlic fragrance
and tingling-biting fragrance,
Within most of Chinese kitchens drifts oily
smoke that seems troublesome to clean
while the fragrance of various species can
be spread farther and wider,which captures
the eagerness of hurrying-home guys and
wandering-around travelers,thus forming a
rare complex sedimented in their psyches in
the long run,Those hermit poets could not
but sing candidly of ―bass and asparagus in
water-shield soup‖ in the native land,the
fragrance in memory holding a grip of their
minds and dreams consistently,
? ―Taste‖ overwhelms nutriments in the view
of Chinese diners,With regard to certain
gourmet dishes the food can but be treated
as a carrier of taste and diners are gratified
to appreciate an abstract sensation arising
therein,No wonder that chicken‘s talons are
valued high in China though Westerners
cast contempt upon them due to
meagerness forsaking it as with the bones
and feather,An ancient Chinese writer Li
Liweng nicknamed himself ―a crab slave‖ for
he took much delight in savoring crabs
attentively,
Once upon a time there was a joke that
Shanghainese had spent one day and one night
on a train savoring a single crab and just
completed it upon reaching the destination,a
boastful hyperbole of the attitude toward ―savoring
taste.‖ As a proverb goes,―Little eating effects
taste.‖ So naturally savoring of delicacies is prized
a serious matter among Chinese populace,
Provided that someone is able to detect the subtle
differences between dishes,he or she will be
accorded a title ―expert of delicacies‖,the laurels
of pride,But in case of being called ―an amorous
wolf‖ he is probably despised
? Owing to the demand resulting out of artistry
emerges the public resolute attitude ―The
more soigné dishes,the better; the more
meticulous slicing skill,the better.‖ Chinese
folks may be indolent in some affairs,
however spare no efforts in culinary art to
such an extent that they have not only
invented scores of cooking recipes but
designed quite a few procedures or even
decades of procedures for single one course,
Take the common slicing workmanship,fish,
pork and other species of meat have to be
sliced into pieces or threads that are to be
stockpiled separately in fat and lean,What a
patience and perseverance it demands that
a skilled cook slices meat into pieces as thin
as silk cloth and threads as slender as silk
yarns,which are apt to be stirred up by a
slight breath! A Dream of the Red Mansion,
a classic masterpiece of Chinese literature,
exuded a description of the spiced eggplant
for Granny Liu:
eggplants are cut into cubes; lean pork is crushed
into garrulous particles; both of them are fried in
chicken oil; chicken breast,dried mushrooms,
tender bamboo shoots,mushrooms,spiced dried
soybean cakes and sorts of dried fruits are
altogether cut into cubes; all materials are
simmered in chicken oil; all the ingredients are
baked in sesame oil; they are mixed in distiller‘s
grains; they are sealed up in jars; in being served,
they are taken out and stirred with a fried chicken
talon,What trivial procedures it requires!
? Chinese ancients had early developed a series of
gastronomy,braising,boiling,and braising with
soy sauce,roasting,branding,grilling,scalding,
deep-frying,steaming,drying and salt-preserving,
The Cardinal Techniques of Subjects in Qi
Kingdom registered a number of culinary skills and
approximately one hundred descriptions of dishes
and the relevant recipes,of which the grilling skill
involved twenty kinds such as the grilling in a
bamboo pole,the grilling in mud,the grilling-
burning and the boiling-grilling,
? One course entitled ―pole grilling‖ (the grilled meat
in bamboo poles) broke fresh ground,the meat of
goose,duck,river deer,deer,pig and sheep are
sliced into pieces and pounded soft; the pieces are
mixed with seasoning,egg and flour before being
stuffed into a bamboo pole; the poles are placed
over a coal stove and grilled till the stuffing gets
tender or well done; and eventually the pole will be
cut open at dinner table when a strong fragrance
of the grilled meat coupled with a sweet scent of
bamboo assails the diners‘ nostrils,
? Having preference to gastronomy,the Chinese
became engrossed in the studies of properties
pertaining to foods,Chinese medicine contends
that foods exist in four properties,the cool,the
mild,the hot and the calm,The hot and mild foods
are positive in nature dislodging chills,generating
heat,facilitating vital energy,retaining the mean in
body and dredging arteries and veins,The calm
food falls between the hot and the cool,
? The cool food is negative in nature
maintaining human body cool,relieving
fever and nourishing vitality,Knowledge of
the properties of foods claims to be helpful
in medicine and health care,For instance,
eating mutton and dog meat in winter,which
is believed to be hot in nature,helps
dispossess chills; instead eating water
melon and green gram soup in summer
assists eaters in relieving internal heat
thanks to the cool nature.
? Different seasons induce different tastes,The
Internal Affairs from The Book of Rites recorded,
―Sour is needed in spring; bitter is needed in
summer; pungency is needed in autumn; and
saltiness is needed in winter.‖ Spring witnesses
the sprouting of plants,the vulnerable
contamination of foods by bacteria,an unstable
weather and lack of vegetables when human
savoring desire is likely to be hindered,so it
seems desirable that man imbibes some acid
things for the sake of killing bacteria and whetting
appetite.
In summer undue eating of meat will arouse
acid reaction in stomach and excessive
water consumption,and you will feel cool
and relaxed in ingesting bitter gourd or leaf
mustard soup as a cold refresher,Mild and
somewhat pungent food is moderately
welcomed in cooling-off autumn,
Winter meets a necessity of complementing
high-heat meat with an increasing amount of
salt that will be reacted with acid in stomach
to generate hydrochloric acid for digestion,
This pithy expression of tastes according to
changing seasons,as a matter of fact,is
held a scientific conclusion pregnant with
physiologic-physics and physiologic-
chemistry.
? The food-therapeutics sprang out as a queer
lustrous bloom from the soil of Chinese medicine
and cuisine,The first Chinese medical code The
Yellow Emperor‘s Canon of Internal Medicine
argued,―To cure the diseased,medicines are
needed along with an assistance of five grains,
five fruits,five meats of livestock and five
ingredients,of which the tastes match mutually
and can be digested favoring vital energy and
nurturing body fluid,‖ as is equated with another
age-old phrase ―Thirty percent of medical
treatment and seventy percent of nutriment are
equilibrated‖ The medical tonics contrived for food-
therapeutics possess two categories,
? The first genus refers to pure foods to
consolidate and embellish the non-diseased
people,for example,cherry that ―tastes
calmly sweet,regulates the mean in body
and invigorates vital energy,edible in large
amounts to adorn skin‖,tangerine and
shaddock that ―clarify ozostomia,invigorate
mind and develop a slender build in
longevity,‖ dates that ―complement the mean
in body,reinforce energy and mind to free
from vexation,edible in long duration to
develop a slender build in longevity,‖
the seeds of water melon and pumpkin that ―taste
sweet,moderately chilly in nature and not
poisonous to beautify skin,‖ bamboo shoots that
―quench thirst,foster urine and enhance strength,‖
and raw ginger that ―suspends bleeding,facilitates
sweating and dislodge rheumatism‖ and so forth,
The second genus is the product of medical herbs,
a prolonged list such as ginseng soup,donkey
hide gelatin soup,tangerine reel soup,poris cocos
ointment,peony root bark,and glutinous
rehmannia soup,emitting effectiveness that
accounts for a high percentage in the folk
prescriptions circulated from remote antiquity.
? In brief Chinese cuisine culture has grown to the
extreme of prosperity,The preference to catering
trade held by the Chinese is manifested not only in the
quality of foods,but in the quantity,At a banquet or a
family dinner a host or hostess will humbly apologize
to guests,―The dishes are not cooked so well,‖ but will
never say,―The dishes are not adequate.‖ in that
Chinese dinner tables are invariably far more
abundant with foods than stomach bears,―I am over
stuffed.‖ sounds to be a grumble of many diners
afterwards,In the Southern Song Dynasty 800
hundred years ago,Zhang Juan,a high-ranking official
of the imperial court,once entertained Emperor Gao of
Song at a sumptuous banquet catered with 102 formal
courses and 120 informal courses of desserts,
? The banquet proceeded from morning till night,
marshaled in six rounds and inserted by the serving of
trays of pickles,cakes and fruits,which,in case of the
presence of ten giant men with the elastic stomach,
could never be swallowed up on the spot,The so
called ―Manchu-Han Aggregate Banquet,‖ prevalent in
the Qing Dynasty,was actually an assembled grand
meal across the South and North covering 100
celebrated courses and 50 sorts of light refreshments
with an addition of a score of liqueurs,pickles and
fruits,and continuing through a whole day in three
relays,teased as ―a three-relay banquet.‖
Not only noble or fortunate households
boasted of luxury at tables,but some worse-
off populace organized contingently such
dinner parties that must have stuffed up
each guest! Admittedly this attitude toward
entertaining guests among Chinese people
was related to their craving for face-saving,
ostentation and extravagance; however in
the final analysis it was attributed to their
view on catering itself,
Catering is valued the top-concern business
in life,Chinese hostesses,eminent or
humble,are unexceptionally adept in
cooking a couple of favorite dishes since,
provided that man‘s stomach is satiated by
foods,in their opinion,a husband‘s mind will
be bound!
? Below comes a brief introduction to the four
major systems of cuisine,tea and wine.
I,Four Influential Cuisine
Systems
Hitherto there have been shaped
four influential local cuisine systems
(including a swarm of subdivisions,
of course),Su (Suzhou,Yangzhou
and Hangzhou) system,Yue
(Guangdong) system,Chuan
(Sichuan) system and Lu (Shandong)
system.
? A,Yue (Guangdong) Cuisine
? Yue Cuisine made its debut in Guangzhou
characteristic initially of a wide range of
ingredients in severe criterion with seafood
and game food as the first-rate courses,
Take the fowl,pigeon and francolin and
quail are frequently fetched onto tables in
addition to the common three species of
birds,Considering seafood the Cantonese
take to garoupa,pomfret,hairtail,conger eel,
turtle,prawn and swimming crab,
? Their favorite game food includes reptiles
and amphibians,giant salamander,terrapin,
pangolin,and market civet,tortoise and
snake,Yue Cuisine holds fastidious norms
in selecting ingredients,For instance,the
Tender Boiled Chicken with Soy Sauce
solely requires Qingyuan (county) chicken
and Wenchang (county) chicken; the
mouse-speckled garoupa,the silver pomfret,
the off-shore prawn,the gold-stained
tortoise and the black-mane goose are
selected as superior delicacies.
? The second characteristic is the biased taste,light,
delicious,refreshing and slippery,accompanied by
such staple recipes as steaming,saute and stir-
frying with thick gravy,as being ascribed to the
longer duration of summer and their long-run
craving for aquatic food and livestock,Instead in
winter the residents living south of the Southern
Ranges develop preference to the strong-
fragrance or the heavy-oil courses,such as the
dog‘s meat en casserole,the stewed pork chunks,
fried oyster and blood clam,braised conger eel,
braised pig‘s knuckle with soy sauce.
? The third characteristic is the plenty of supportive
vegetables,as is ascribed to the substantial scope
of local produce,In the north of Yue (Guangdong)
can be grown mushrooms in winter whereas the
wild mushrooms are clustered at the Delta of the
Pearl River all years around along with bamboo
shoots,white fungus etc,Attributed to the
favorable climate,that province abounds in rich
varieties of vegetables tender,evergreen,sweet or
crisp,supplied with seasonal fruits such as
pineapple,litchi,plum,cocoa net,banana,
Chinese chestnut,of which all can be assimilated
as flavoring into the hygiene dishes.
? The closing characteristic is the assorted types of
porridge and cakes,The long-endured summer
and the tremendous consumption of perspiration
both demand a wide diversity of meat porridge as
ideal convenient snacks,Porridge shops (including
some canteens affiliated to five or four-star hotels)
have recourse to a huge stock of base porridge
(called ―taste porridge‖)full of hen,pig‘s bones,
dried scallops and soybean rolls,which,when
being served,are transferred into small woks,
added with such already-made ingredients as fish,
shrimp,crab,frog,meat ball,pig‘s giblets,beef,
chicken and duckling as well as ginger,Chinese
onion and pepper powder,and which
consequently are compounded into many a sort of
porridge,Located at the crisscross of international
exchange,Guangzhou has amalgamated the
merits in making cakes from overseas and at
home to the effect that each teahouse or hotel has
prepared a thick brochure covering hundreds of
cakes and refreshments.
? B,Chuan (Sichuan) Cuisine
? Chuan Cuisine traces from the ancient Ba
Kingdom (modern Chongqing)and Shu
Kingdom (modern Chengdu) that is
remarkably challenged by the oily and hot
taste because of the foggy,cloudy and
damp climate in the Sichuan Basin for such
a taste (tingling and peppery,or bridged as
―mala‖ in Chinese) seems somewhat
efficacious in dispossessing dampness,
? Sichuan folks are keenly fascinated in
savoring ―Maodu‖(oxen‘s giblets,the staple
ingredient of Mala Hot Pot) and Granny Ma
Soybean Cake (tasting tingling,peppery,
oily,boiling hot,salty,tender and slippery)
and other courses stuffed with chili and wild
pepper.
? Another feature lies in artful employment of trite
materials into a number of dishes,Availing
themselves of a piece of half fat-half lean pork,
Sichuan chefs will give free rein to talents cooking
it into the salted-fried pork slices,the re-cooked
pork slices with garlic shoots(pepper),the
shredded pork in sweet pungent taste,the fried
pork cubes with peanuts,the sliced pork with rice
crust,the steamed pork chunks inserted with
mung bean pie,the steamed pork chunks in
pickles,the starch-steamed pork,the fried pork
cubes in sweet sour sauce and the cold-dish
sliced pork etc,each issuing forth a peculiar smell.
? Sichuanese are equally adroit in preparing
snacks such as the tingling-peppery oxen-
head beef,the prickly-spiced chicken cubes,
the tea-stewed duckling,the marinated
rabbit,the pickles in series,the sweet
dumplings of glutinous rice flour,and the
eight-treasure rice pudding,as being the
concluding feature.
? C,Lu (Shangdong) Cuisine
? Lu Cuisine,exactly speaking,Qi Cuisine
and Lu Cuisine,finds its birthplace in Linzi
and Qufu,the late capitals of ancient Qi
Kingdom and Lu Kingdom respectively,As a
remainder of the royal recipes it is
punctiliously exacting about the quality of
ingredients involving precious stuff,swallow
nest,shark fin,abalone,fish tripe,sea
cucumber,deer meat,mushroom,white
fungus and clam oil for tasty courses.
? On account of the cold-extended duration in
the northern China and shortage of
vegetables,the cooks in Shandong have
cultivated a unique skill in making high-heat
and high-protein dishes,which is rated the
second trait hereof illustrated by the skin-
crisp roasted duck,the nine-bend pig
intestines (a rival of the previous course),
the bone-detached braised chicken,the in-
wok-fried Yellow River carp,the braised
triton in soy sauce,and the deep-fried oyster
as choice delicacies.
? Lu masters have retained a fine tradition
that a wok of flavoring broth (with old hen
and pig trotters etc,as materials) is installed
beside the frying pan at any time,as being
sprinkled into the pan when necessary,a
substitute for gourmet powder,Also they
develop interest in milk soup; for instance,
travelers can enjoy the milk soup with some
sort of vegetable in Ji‘an city,the provincial
capital..
? D,Su Cuisine
? Su Cuisine occurred incipiently from Suzhou,a
little later from Yangzhou and Hangzhou,Its
dominant feature claims to be a miscellany of the
Southern relish and the Northern relish thanks to
the fact that this region used to be the abode of
the emperors during the Six-Dynasties and the
Southern Song Dynasty,and that the Great Canal
on which the three cities are situated bears a long-
standing fame over a millennium in navigation,
thus the region remaining as an interchange
between the South and the North,
Su chefs,on the one hand,are dexterous in
cooking the South-style courses,tasty,
refreshing and slippery; on the other they
behave well in the high-heat and high-
protein dishes as well,such as the stewed
pig knuckles with ham,the braised Lion‘s
Head and the stir-fried eel pastry,In the
menu of Su Cuisine can be ascertained
such a long listing of items that suit both the
Southerners and the Northerners.
? Plenty of lake produce and seafood
accounts for the following attribute,for
instance,the crab-yellow Lion‘s Head,the
crab-yellow swallow nest,the shark fin in
shrimp soup,the West-Lake sweet sour fish,
the steamed hilsa herring (specially of the
Fuchun River),the meat-stuffed lotus root,
the spicy Tai-Lake crucian carp soup and
the lotus-seed duck broth,as being the
prominent river-delicacy dishes of Su
Cuisine.
? With a high prestige throughout China,
exquisite cakes and snacks serve to be the
closing quality,the exemplars being the
pine-nut-crystalline-meat sweet cake,the
steamed crab-yellow-soup bread,the crab-
yellow shaomai (Chinese hot dog) and
Ninbo tangyuan (sweet dumplings of
glutinous rice flour)
Ⅱ, Tea Culture
Tea is the traditional beverage of Chinese
people who claim to be the pioneer in
planting,making and drinking tea across
the globe,An ancient maxim goes as,
―Every morn man has in mind seven ideas,
Faggot,rice,oil,salt,soy sauce,tea and
vinegar.‖ betraying an overwhelming status
of tea in the psyche of the Chinese.
? It is said that Shen Nong,,a Chinese planting
god in remote antiquity,chanced to discover tea
in wild mountains,―Shen Nong used to taste
hundreds of weeds when he encountered one
day seventy two poisonous species,With the aid
of tea he could be detoxified.‖ At the outset tea
had been solely treated as antidote before it was
found that it could be applicable in relieving
internal heat or fever and invigorating mind in
addition to the usage in medicine,Therefore
people turned to enjoy tea as a favorite drink
while mass growing and mass making of tea
were in vogue,as has been circulating over two
thousand years,
? As a matter of fact the Chinese were engrossed
in tea virtually as early as the Egyptian pyramids,
Tea had coursed through so age-long a historical
era,especially when the feudal culture was
glittering most illuminatingly that it had become
an indispensable favorite and had participated in
the complete course of Chinese feudal society
from nil to being,from the simple to the brilliant,
from the dawn to the dusk,There is no
uncertainty that tea has served to be a media to
best ascertain as well as to truly represent the
spiritual pursuit of Chinese ancient culture,an
emblem of culture in China.
? Tea,in the mind of Chinese ancients,was
endowed with ―human attributes‖,it induced
intelligence and noble character from the
clean dew of fairy mounts and the
quintessence of Heaven and Earth,It was
not surprising that they had recourse to
ostentatious interests in drinking tea,
? Firstly fastidious surroundings were exacted,
Being served indoors it should be equipped
with a clean courtyard and/or a silent hall;
being savored outdoors it should be
matched with a shining day with breeze
and/or bright moonlight at cool night,The
literati in the Ming Dynasty developed most
literary pursuits in this matter,
Wen Zhenheng declared in the Annals of
Customs & Hobbies,―A cubicle shall be built
on hillside where a young servant is held
responsible catering for tea when the host is
pleased to converse with friends day and
night for long.‖ Accordingly,he asserted it as
the business of prime importance to
―secluding men‖,Some magnates used to
employ the chatting partners at tea house
while the leisurely literati took to tea
savoring in hills and woods,as
demonstrated by:
? ―Tea‘s steaming in bamboo forest,
? And a fishing boat is moored.‖
? ―At the silent foot of Mount South,
? Tea steam is rising out of woods.‖
? From which arose a flavor of pursuing
gentility and serenity