Unit 6  Unit Six I Teaching aims: 1. to learn the new words and expressions; 2. to improve reading skills 3. to analyze the structure of the text II.Teaching focus: 1.key words: Text A Elegant, substitute, confidence, characteristic, reserve, specific, acquaintance, confess, thoughtful, award, objective, despair, determination, quotient Text B Valid, virtually, sweat, conceal, charity, wander, blend, scale, imitate, grace, symbol, accurate, bound, superficial, prevail 2.key phrases and expressions: Text A: Fill out, convey to, attach sth to, come up to, press for, be ill at ease, free from, be guilty of, take charge of, stick with Text B: Go to great lengths to do sth, act sth out, speak of, turn out, turn sb off, tune out, up to sth, more or less, follow one’s track, apart from, out of character III.Teaching steps: First period: Text A ~~ As His Name Is, So Is He? ~~ I.Introduction In this unit we encounter some ways of communication common to all of us yet seldom considered as part of the process. We also learn about the kinds of prejudice associated with these continual messages. In this text, the writer describes different kinds of prejudice that occurs because of our names. Prejudice communicated through names, appearance, shoes. We might want to remember this if we want to communicate successfully. II.Structure: Part 1. (paras1) My daughter smokes. Part 2 (paras2-5) The author makes a brief description of how her father had been destroyed by tobacco. Part 3 (paras6-7) regret for her daughter’s self-poisoning. Part 4 (paras8) The author shows great will to fight against tobacco. III.Language points: 1.As His Name Is, So IS He! (Title) Meaning: His nature or manner as a man is similar to what he is called, his name. The “as…so” here is used to express parallelism or proportionality. As the desert is like a sea, so is the camel like a ship. As is the teacher, so is the student/pupil. As time went on, so their hopes began to decrease. 2.elegant: adj. 1) pleasing and refined in appearance or style (opposite—inelegant) The lady is elegant in her manners and her speech. an elegant bookstore/clothes 2) (of ideas) neat and simple an elegant piece of reasoning 3.feel like: identify with (as used in this instance); have a wish for, want I don’t feel like taking a holiday now. Do you feel like a cup of coffee? 4.while filling out an application form… In adverbial clauses of time introduced by the conjunction “while” (and “when”, “until” “as soon as”. “once”, etc.), we may have finite verb forms or non-finite verb forms. So this clause of time may be rewritten as:. while she was filling out an application form… She was singing a song while she was working. (or: She was singing a song while working.) 5.application: n. 1) an official written request to be allowed to have a job or membership in an organization fill out a job application Applications should be handed in as early as possible. 2) the using of a rule or piece of knowledge in a particular situation Students learned the practical application of the theory they had learned in the classroom. The verb form of application is “apply”. 1) (to, for) to request sth.,esp. officially and in written form. You may apply for the job in person or by letter. We’ve applied to the council for a home improvement grant. 2) (to) bring or put into use or operation This rule applies to new students only. to apple one’s mind to a problem 3) (to) to put or spread on a surface Apply the paint evenly to both sides of the door. 6.substitute: v. 1) (for) to put (sth. or sb.) in place of another They were substituted violence for dialogue. Dayton was substituted for Williams in the second half of the match. 2) act or sever as a replacement; or be used instead Honey can substitute for sugar in the recipe. Notice that in both its intransitive and transitive uses, the verb “substitute” is used together with the preposition “for” n. [C] a person or thing that replaces, acts or serves as sb. or sth. else There is no substitute for good food and exercise. 8.take…seriously: treat (sth. or sb.) in a serious manner. He now learns to take things more seriously. 9.associate n 1) a person connected with another, esp. at work He is not a friend but an associate. 2) (often cap.) the holder of an associate degree an associate of art v. 1) (with)(cause to) join as friends or as partners in business They were closely associated with each other during the war. He associated with the criminals. 2) (with) to connect in thought, memory, or imagination I associate summer with holidays. The scientist decided he didn’t want to be associated with the project, and left. 10.naturally: adv. 1) of course; as one would have expected Naturally, as a beginner I’m not a very good driver yet. Naturally, the children are behaving well when you here. 2) by nature He’s naturally interesting; he doesn’t even have to try. Dancing seemed to come naturally to her. 3) without trying to look or sound different from usual Speak naturally when talking on the phone. 11.confidence: n. 1) believe in one’s own or another’s ability John lacks confidence in himself. He answered the questions with confidence. 2) faith; full trust Don’t put too much confidence in what the papers say. confident: adj. feeling or showing confidence He is confident of victory. We should be confident of ourselves. 12.talent: n. 1) special natural or learned ability or skill esp. of a high quality Alice has a talent for language. This sort of work calls for special talents. 2) [U] people of such ability a major loss of talent to overseas jobs Promising talent is / are hard to find. 13.definition: n. an exact statement of the meaning, nature, or limits of sth. to give a definition In this dictionary, definition have been written using words from a special chosen list. define: v.1) give the meaning (s) of (a word or idea); describe exactly Some words are hard to define because they have many different uses. 2) to explain the exact qualities, limits, duties, etc., of The power of the President are defined in the constitution. 3) to show the nature of What defines us as human? 14.characteristic: adj. representative; representing a person’ or thing’s usual character Rainy days are characteristic of June Such honesty is characteristic of him. n. special and easily recognized quality of sb. or sth. Genes determine the characteristics of every living thing. What characteristics separate Americans from Canadians? 15.approval: n. [U] 1) favorable opinion or judgment ( opposite—disapproval) If sb. or sth. has your approval, you like and admire them. The new proposals have won the approval of the board. 2) official permission We can’t start building without the council’s approval. 17.For better or worse For better of (for ) worse: (as said in the Christian marriage ceremony ) whatever happens; Even if there are difficulties,he promised to take her for better of for worse. But in this context, the phrase means; whether they (=the qualities ) are good or bad. 18.reserve: n. (of a person or one’s character ) the quality of not liking to talk about oneself or to make one’s feelings known. Lose one’s reserve in talking Reserve of manner 19.specific: a 1).particular; certain; fixed; determined, or named Feathers are a characteristic specific to birds. 2).detailed and exact; clear in meaning; careful in explanation we don’t get any specific instruction. There are two specific questions we must answer. 20.latter: a. 1).the second (of two persons or things just spoken of ) There are plastic and wooden garden chairs but the latter ones are more expensive. 2). (after the ,this, these) near to the end; later He spent the latter part of his life in the countryside. Latter: n. (the~)the second of two things or people already mentioned Many support the former plan, but personally I’m for the latter. 21.qualified: a. having suitable knowledge, quality or skills esp. for a job Tom is well qualified for the job. Qualify: v. (cause to ) gain a certain level of knowledge, ability. Or performance Being a son of a member of government doesn’t qualify him to talk about political affairs. I won’t qualify until next year. 22.Even so: in spite of that There are many spelling mistakes; even so, it’s quite a good essay. I had a terrible headache, but, even so, I went to the concert. 23.prominent: a. 1).important and usu. widely known a political official prominent in matters concerning trade the government should be playing a more prominent role in improving public traffic. 2).standing or extending far out (beyond a surface) His nose is too prominent Her prominent teeth 24.Refined: a. having or showing education, sensitivity of felling, and gentleness of manners A refined way of speaking Refined manners/Refined tastes 25.Acquaintance: n. 1).a person whom one knows, esp. through work or business, but who may not be a friend No one in their entire acquaintance would wear such a dress. 2).information or knowledge, as obtained through personal experience rather than careful study I have an acquaintance with the language. I wasn’t sure about darryl when I first met her, but on further acquaintance I rather like her. The word is often used in the phrase “make sb.’s acquaintance”/”make the acquaintance of sb.”, which means: get to know sb. I’m so pleased to make your acquaintance, Mr. Smith. 26.turned down refuse to consider He tried to join the army but was turned down because of poor health. Why was I turned down for the job? Is it because I’m a woman? 27.press for: demand with force (for sth. From sb.) The chairman is pressing for improved working conditions. Many parents have been pressing for the local school to be reopened. 28.ill at ease: uncomfortable; anxious, or worried He appeared ill at ease at the party. She was ill at ease when she was criticized by her mother. The opposite of “ill at ease” is “at (one’s) ease”, which means “without worry or nervousness”. Give him a drink to put him at his ease. 29.Guilty: a 1) having done sth. Wrong He was guilty of an important false judgment. 2) feeling unhappy because one thinks that he has done sth. Wrong or has failed to do sth. That one should have done I feel guilty about not having written to you sooner. 30.To some extent: people use expressions such as “to a large extent”, “to some extent”, or “to a certain extent” in order to indicate that sth. Is partly true, but not entirely true. I agree with what you say to a large extent. To what extent can he be believed? 31.confess: v. 1).admit often unwillingly I’m rather bored, I must confess. He confessed that he had slept through the second half of the film. 2) admit that one has done sth. Wrong, esp. when what one has done is secret She confessed to her husband that she had her wedding ring. I’m afraid that I’ve got something to confess: I’ve broken your vase. 32.project on/onto/upon: imagine (one’s won esp. bad feelings or thoughts) sa being attached/connected to others 33.thoughtful: a. 1).quiet and serious because one is thinking about sth. She had a thoughtful expression on her face. The doctor looked thoughtful for a moment and then started to write something on the paper 2).showing care for the need of others She’s a very thoughtful person. It was very thoughtful of you to make all the necessary arrangements for me. 34.award v 1). give sth. Such as a prize or an examination mark, esp. as a result of an official decision, The university awarded grants to poor students She was awarded a medal for bravery. 2).give by a decision in a court of law The judge awarded a large sum of money to those hurt in the explosion. The court awarded him damages of $50,000 n. sth. Given as a result of an official decision, esp. a prize An award ceremony They have given awards of $900 to each of the winners. 35.objectively: ad. In a way of not being influenced by personal feelings; fairly Objectively(speaking), he can’t possibly succeed. Judges are supposed to judge each case objectively. 36.appealing: a. attractive; pleasing; interesting The idea of a free holiday is rather appealing. 37.despair n 1) complete lack or loss of hope He was filled with despair by his failure. His despair of becoming a great artist made him stop painting. 2).the cause of this feeling (esp. in the phrase “the despair of ”) v. She despaired of ever seeing her son again. Don’t despair: things will get better soon! 38.be stuck with 1) be unable to get rid of We were stuck with relatives who came to stay unexpectedly. 2).be unable to go or do anything further, esp. because of difficulties Will you help me with this mathematical problem? I’m stuck with it. 39.label n. 1). a word or phrase describing a group or class; name This city merits its label as the garden of the world . 2)a piece of paper or other material, fixed to sth. in order to give information about it , such as what it is, where it is to , who owns it, etc. Because there is no label on the luggage, we don’t know to whom it belongs. I read the information on the label before deciding which to buy. v 1). put into a kind or class; describe as They labeled the boy a thief. If you spend any time in prison you’re labeled a criminal for the rest of your life. 2).fix or tie a piece of paper or other material on sth, giving information about it The doctor labeled the bottle poisonous He was busy labeling all the bottles of wine that he’d made that year. Ⅳ.Summary Ⅴ.Homework: Translation Second period: Do exercises of text A in the Text Book and Exercises Book Third period: Text B ~~Experiences in Exile~~ Ⅰ.Introduction: The author made a sociological research during spring break with his friend. Through this research, they learned what is judging by appearances. That is, the appearance of poverty would inve prejudice on us.. Ⅱ.Language points 1.go to great lengths: make a great deal of effort (to do sth.) Some people go to great lengths to make their homes attractive. They went to great lengths to keep the affair secret. 2.take sides: If you take sides or take sb.’s side in a conflict or war, you support one of the sides against the other. Mother took sides with Alice against Father in the disagreement. He has never taken sides openly for or against his boss. 3.validate: v.1)prove or confirm that a claim or statement is true or correct The experiments are designed to validate his theory. Mr. Brown tried to validate his criticisms. 2)Make (a reason, agreement, etc.) have value In order to validate the agreement between yourself and your employer, you must both sign it. valid: a.1) (of a reason, view, etc.) having a strong firm base; that can be defended Her excuse was not valid. There is still no valid research that supports your theory. 2)Having value; that can be used according to the law for a stated period or in certain conditions; legally effective Is this agreement valid? The marriage was held to be valid. 4.virtually: ad. Almost; very nearly; in every way that is really important My thesis is virtually finished; I’ve only a few changes to make in the writing. On the label, the milk is described as “virtually fat-free”. 5.wrinkled: a. getting folds or lines in sth. His suit was wrinkled and he looked very tired. 6.CConceal: v. (from) hide; keep from being seen or known She knew at once that he was concealing something from her. He tried to conceal his heavy drinking from his family. 7. invite: vt.(seem to) encourage (sth. bad) You’re just inviting trouble if you do that. Some shops invite people to steal by making it too easy to take things. 8.prejudice: n. unfair and often unfavorable feeling or opinion not based on reason or enough knowledge, and sometimes resulting from fear or distrust of ideas different from one’s own The government should issue a new law to discourage racial prejudice. v.1)cause ( sb. Or sb.’s mind) to have unfair and often unfavorable feeling or opinion (against/in favor of) sth. Or sb. ; influence I don’t want to prejudice people against us. His pleasant voice prejudices me in his favor. 2)Weaken; harm (sb.’s case, expectations, etc.) Your unreadable handwriting will prejudice your chances of passing the exam. 9. act out:1) express ( thoughts, unconscious fears, ect.) in actions and behavior rather than in words They acted out their frustration. Children’s strong feelings often get acted out in bad behavior. 2) act a part, usu. in a real-life situation and for some purpose She acted out the heroine’s part in detail. She acted out the role of a wronged lover to make him feel guilty. 10. mildly: ad. slightly; not deeply or seriously I suggested it to him, but he seemed only mildly interested. 11.speak of: be evident of or convey a quality, experience, or feeling Her eyes speak of suffering. Her behavior speaks of suffering bravely borne. The whole robbery spoke of inside knowledge on the part of the criminals. 12.turn out: prove to be ; come to be known It turned out that she was my sister’s friend. As events turned out, we were right to have decided to leave early. 13.turn off: (originally) leave (one road) for another; (here) make (sb. or sth. ) leave; drive away We turned off the motorway at exit 31 into a side road. Unwanted visitors will be turned off my land. 14.tune out: ignore; stop listening or paying attention to The children tuned out their mother’s commands. She tuned out after I said no extra money was involved. 15 bargain store: a store where cheap things are sold 16.charity: n. 1) [C] a society or organization for helping people. Money from the sale of these cards will go to local charities. Many charities sent money to help the victims of the flood. 2)[U] (generosity in) giving money, food, help, etc. to the people who are in need; help given in this way The old man was too proud to accept what he regarded as charity. They live on charity. 17. access: n.1)means of entering; way in; entrance The only access to the hill is across the fields. 2)means or right of using, reaching, or entering Students need easy access to books. A commonly used phrase is “easy/difficult of access”’ which means “easy/difficult to reach”. He is a man easy (difficult) of access. 18.exclusive: a.1)limited to a specific kind, e.g., for socially suitable people and charging a lot of money This is an exclusive shop. This is one of the most exclusive hotels in the city. 2)not shared with others in a certain group This company has an exclusive right to film the novel. This room is for the exclusive use of guests. 19. wander: v.1)move about (an area) without a fixed course, aim, or purpose We wandered through the stores, hoping to get ideas for his birthday present. 2)move away (from the main idea) Ⅲ.Exercises: exercises of text B in the exercise book IV.Homework