Unit 9  Unit 9 Section A Stop Brain Drain I. Greetings II. Review: Have a dictation of the new words in Unit 8 Section A: formal/informal, elementary, specialize, confine, occupation, render, preferable, resident, civilization, incredible, contribution, wisdom, accumulate, distinguish Section B: expansion, scholar, motivate, prospect, civil, equality, preference, proportion, construct, variation, forecast, principal, economic, dominant, eliminate, display III. Start the new lesson 1. Introduction Policies have been made in the U.S. to steal brain from the third world. Brain drain in India has been a serious problem. The Indian Institute of technology offered students free room and board, even salary. Indian taxpayers footed the bill in the hope that one day the graduates would help reconstruct the nation. But many students left for America, never to return. Although the government set special programs to tempt foreign graduates, few of them came home to “pay their pledge.” The IIT graduates played a major role in founding California’s Silicon Valley. India had gone from an agricultural society to the cyber-revolution, without passing through intermediate stages such as the welfare state and the creation of social services. It is time to pass legislation calling for “Brain Trust”, helping to create the social structure needed in the next century. 2. Discourse analysis Part I (Para. 1~3): Policies have been made in the U.S. to steal brain from the third world. Part Ii (Para. 4~18): Brain drain in India has been a serious problem but the government has taken no effective measures. Part III (Para. 19): It is time to pass legislation calling for “Brain Trust”. 3. Language Points: 1. drain: n. 1) sth. that uses up strength, energy, or resources I think looking after her elderly mother is quite a drain on her energy. The drain of money from the country is a serious problem. 2) [C] a pipe to carry away the unwanted water The drains overflowed after the heavy rain. Don’t pour these tea leaves down the drain — you’ll block the sewer. v. 1) (cause to) flow off gradually or completely The water drained slowly out of the sink. With illness, her strength drained away. 2) (cause to) become gradually dry, as water or other liquid is removed They drained water from the land. She drained the bathtub and filled it with fresh water. 2. immigrant: n. [C] a person who has come into a foreign country in order to live there permanently London has a huge number of immigrants, coming from different parts of the world. Illegal immigrants are sent back across the border if they are caught. emigrant: n. [C] a person who leaves one’s own country to go and live in another country emigrants to Canada emigrant laborers 3. namely: ad. to be exact, (and) that is (to say) The minister would only repeat the official government position, namely that it can do nothing at the moment. Switzerland is surrounded by four large neighbors, namely France, Germany, Austria and Italy. 4. commercial: a. 1) related to business This city serves as an important commercial center in the western region. 2) making or intended to make a profit Her novels are well written and they have good commercial value as well. n. a radio or television advertisement The TV show was interrupted by too many commercials. 5. on top: in a better or higher position; on the highest part Labor is on top in it’s contract discussions with management. Put the letter on top of that pile of books, where it can be seen easily. 6. provision: n. 1)[C] a statement within an agreement or a law that a particular thing must happen or be done Our library has a provision that hands must be clean before books are taken out. We have added certain provisions into the agreement to protect foreign workers. 2) the act of making sth. available to people who need it The provision of a large, new library has been of great educational advantage to the students. The government is responsible for the provision of medical services. The provision of good public transport will be necessary for developing the areas around the city. 7. reference: n. 1) (an example of) mentioning He made no reference to his illness till after the lesson. 2) a source of information That student used the Internet as a reference for his term paper. In the reference library there are reference books, from which you can get information. 3) (a person willing to make a) statement about a person’s character or abilities My former boss said that I could use him as a reference. The boy had excellent references from men for whom he had worked. 8. post-independence era: the period after (India achieved its) independence “Post-”is a prefix which means “later than” or “after”. Examples: post-war years / change from industrial to post-industrial society For most of the post-1945 era, defense was not a highly important political issue. The opposite of “post-“ is “pre-”, which means “before” or “in advance”. Examples: pre-war years pre-arranged life in pre-industrial England 9. throw out: 1) get rid of, throw away as trash/rubbish You really should throw out that dirty old table and get a new one. 2) refuse to accept, reject The committee threw out my suggestions. 10. prime: a. 1) main, greatest, the most important A prime reason for our economic decline is lack of people willing to put money into new businesses. Getting on the Olympic team became her prime objective. 2) of the very best quality or kind a fresh piece of prime beef This is a prime example of the waste I’ve been talking about. The interview will be broadcast during prime time, at seven o’clock in the evening. 11. institute: 1) n. an organization, esp. one for education or research The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has courses in engineering and computer studies. 2) v. begin, set up Since we instituted the new rule, fewer people have been late to work. 12. set up: 1) establish or arrange They’ve set up a fund for victims of the disaster. 2) produce, cause The high winds set up dangerous driving conditions. 3) provide sb. with the money to start a business, buy a house, etc. After he left college, his father set him up in the furniture trade. 4) cause (sb.) to receive (sth. such as blame) The thief tried to set his companion up for punishment but he too was caught and tried. 13. parallel: 1) n. a likeness or connection between two or more events The police officer saw a parallel between the two murder cases. 2) a. running side by side at an equal distance apart; similar Parallel lines never meet. My feelings in this matter are parallel to yours. 3) vt. run side by side at an equal distance apart; be similar to The stream parallels the road for several miles. The histories of the two countries closely parallel each other. 14. pledge: 1) n. a formal promise or sth. that is given as a sign that you will keep a promise an election pledge to reduce taxes They made a firm pledge to support us. When you make a pledge, you should always try to fulfil it. 2) v. promise formally to do sth. The government has pledged that it will spend more money on education. We’ve pledged ourselves to fight for justice. 15. symbol: n. 1) a sign used in mathematics, chemistry, or other sciences The symbol for oxygen is O2. 2) a written character that is part of a special language or sign system The book contains symbols that I cannot read. 3) a sign, mark, picture, or other object taken or understood to be the representation of sth. The car is a symbol of freedom. 16. at the expense of: with sb. paying; by harming or causing a loss to He took a trip at the expense of the company. He became a brilliant scholar but only at the expense of his health. 17. were to: This structure is used in an if-clause to make the reader imagine a future condition, esp. one that is not likely, not possible, or unreal. If it were to rain tomorrow, the match would have to be cancelled. If it were to reveal its secrets, that organization would collapse in shame. 18. nothing but: only That child is nothing but trouble. Don’t make friends with him: he’s nothing but a criminal. 19. keep pace with: move forward, develop or increase at the same rate as (sb. / sth.) I can’t keep pace with you at this rate. Go slowly. We must make sure that we keep pace with new developments in computer technology. 20. in other words: expressed in a different way You think he should make a positive career move outside this organization — in other words you think he should leave. Your performance in the exam did not reach the required standard — in other words, you failed. 21. legislation: n. 1) a law or laws already passed New legislation has raised taxes on people’s incomes and on business. 2) the act of making laws Legislation of a new trade agreement will take time. 22. in the meantime: meantime, at the same time, meanwhile I’ll talk to you tomorrow; in the meantime have a good evening. The new hospital will be built next year, but doctors are having to work in the meantime in seriously overcrowded conditions in the old one. 23. shift: v. (cause to) move, change from one position to another The truck driver shifted gears. Media attention has shifted recently onto environmental issues. n. 1) [C] a change in position or location There has been a dramatic shift in public opinion. People used to support the war but now they are against it. A shift in the wind is expected tonight. There was a sudden shift of economic policy on November the 11th. 2) [C] (a group of workers who do a job for) a segment of work time The night shift begins at 11:00 p.m. As the night shift leaves, the day shift arrives. Are you on the night shift or the day shift? 24. abandon: vt. 1) leave sb. or sth. forever She abandoned her husband and children and went off with another man. 2) stop doing sth. before you have finished The match was abandoned at half time because of the poor weather condition. 3) allow (oneself) to be controlled completely by (a feeling, way of living, etc.) The old man abandoned himself to grief. 25. in favor of: on the side of, in support of The original plan was abandoned in favor of a new idea. Workers have rejected a pay offer of 3% in favor of a 4% increase linked with a shorter working week. 26. disintegrate: vi. break up into small pieces, fall apart The box was so old that it disintegrated when I picked it up. The company disintegrated owing to lack of financial backing. 27. fall apart: fall to pieces, disintegrate The book was old and soon fell apart. I don’t know how Mike managed to keep the car on the road for so long. At the end, it was practically falling apart. 28. trust: n. 1) [C] an organization or group that has control over money that will be used to help s sb. else Housing trusts help to provide houses for people who are not well off. 2) [U] an arrangement by which sb. has legal control of your money or property, esp. until you are old enough to use it The money your father left you will be held in trust until you are 21. 3) [U] confidence, based on the honesty or the ability to rely on sb. or sth. I have complete trust in his ability to keep a secret. IV. Summary: From this unit, we know that brain drain is a very serious problem in the third world. We should pass the legislation to stop it. V. Homework Write a composition “Why I came to college?” Section B Borderline Ridiculousness I. Greeting II. Review: 1. Answer the following questions: What’s the real purpose of the bill? Did India close the country to the world? Why? 2. Translation: 成功需要不断的努力。因此小王常常工作到深夜,希望能赶上计算机技术的最新发展。他们最终实现了要以自己的生命为祖国的自由而努力的诺言。 III. Start the new lesson 1. Introduction The author makes comments on the immigrant policy of the U.S.A. through his own experience. At first, he pointed out how ridiculous to fill out a long form with listed questions when entering the borderline of America. And then, he told readers how troublesome when he and his wife — a foreigner without a green card, decided to spend just a couple of months in America. At last, they managed to get into America without excessive matters by a trick. It proves that the borderline is so ridiculous. 2. Discourse analysis: Part I (Paras.1-2): People, especially foreign nationals, have a lot of questions to answer before being granted a U.S. entrance visa. Part II (Paras.3-4): In the author’s opinion, the questions are ridiculous. Part III (Paras.5-10): It was challenging for the author to bring his wife, who was an Italian, to go to America on vacation. 3. Language Points 1. borderline: 1) n. [C] (usu. sing.) a line that marks a border between two physical things or between ideas, conditions, feelings, etc. the borderline between France and Germany on the map the borderline between genius and madness Do you need a companion to cross the Mexican borderline? The borderline between informal language and slang is hard to define. 2) a. between two different groups Ann will certainly pass the exam, but Susan is a borderline case. I have several borderline applications to decide on; should we interview them or not? 2. likewise: ad. 1) in the same way; similarly Watch how she does it and then do likewise. I told my friend to enjoy her vacation, and she said, “Likewise, I hope you enjoy yours, too.” 2) also, in addition You must pack plenty of food. Likewise, you’ll need warm clothes, so pack them too. 3. declaration: n. 1) [C]a formal written statement providing information; a written statement to customs of taxable goods a declaration of income a customs declaration Please make a written declaration of all the goods you bought abroad. 2) an important statement, esp. a formal written one The Declaration of Independence was made in America in 1776. We were asked to make written declarations of what we had seen at the scene of the accident. / The company made a declaration of its business interests. 4. oblige: vt. 1) force sb. to do sth. The law obliges companies to pay reasonable wages to their employees. Valentine’s Day is a waste of time, but I still feel obliged to send my wife a card. 2) do (sb.) a favor; fulfil the wishes (of) I always did my best to oblige him, but he was never grateful. I’ll be obliged if you would complete and return the form as soon as possible. 5. substance: n. 1) [C] illegal drugs substance abuse If you use an illegal substance like that it could kill you. 2) material with particular characteristics Celery contains a valuable chemical substance that helps lower blood pressure. Polluting substances are found in many rivers. 3) [U] importance or relationship to real facts, essential nature What she says has substance because of her knowledge and experience. There appears to be little substance to the new plan. 6. export: n. 1) [C, U] action of sending (goods) to another country for sale The export of gold is forbidden in some countries. export earnings/ export sales/ export markets 2) [C] sth. exported We depend on our exports for foreign currency. Wool is one of Australia’s chief exports. 7. violation: n. 1) [C] an example of violating or being violated brutal violations of human rights / a violation of Cuba’s air space The truck was stopped for a traffic violation. 2) [U] violating or being violated It was an action in violation of the club’s regulations. He was in violation of his promises. violate: vt. 1) break or be contrary to (a rule, principle, etc.) They went to prison because they violated the law. A country will not be respected if it violates an international agreement. The construction of the building violated fire rules. 2) disturb (personal freedom, etc.) Questions of this kind violate my rights and I am not willing to answer them. 8. destructive: a. causing serious damage a destructive storm / the destructive power of nuclear weapons 9. torture: 1) n. the act of causing great physical pain (with intention or on purpose) in order to punish sb. or to force sb. to do sth. or to give information About half of the prisoners were murdered or died after torture or starvation. We suffered the double tortures of a boring delay and intense heat as we waited a long time for our turn to come. 2) vt. cause great physical pain or mental suffering to The police said he had taken two men away by force before torturing them. It is claimed that the officers tortured a man to death in 2000 in a city police station. He tortured himself for years with the thought that he could have sent his daughter to university and let her have a very different life. 10. origin: n. 1) parents and conditions of early life He’s of North African origin. He comes from a working class origin. 2) the beginning or cause of sth. That folk song has a French origin. Her unhappy childhood was the origin of her problems later in life. 11. ally: 1) vt. unite formally, join or become joined with sb. or sth. I refused to ally myself to that man. Britain has allied itself with other western countries for trade and defense. 2) n. a nation, group, or person associated with another or others for some common cause or purpose The USA and Great Britain were allies in World War II. She described him as a close friend and an ally. 12. quiver: n. 1) a case for holding or carrying arrows Hunters keep the arrows for their bow in their quiver. 2) the act or state of quivering A quiver of fear ran through her. quiver: vi. tremble slightly I quivered with fear at the sound. Her voice was quivering with anger. 13. deport: vt. 1) force sb., usu. a foreigner or criminal, to leave a country The federal authorities deported him for illegal entry. Thousands of illegal immigrants are caught and deported every year. 2) (~ oneself) behave in a particular way, esp. in the proper, correct way The young children deported themselves perfectly. 14. turn out: happen in a particular way, or to have a particular result, esp. one that you have not expected Notice that the verb phrase “turn out” can be followed by an infinitive phrase, that-clause or directly by adjectives. Though it looked like rain this morning, it has turned out to be a fine day. The truth turned out to be stranger than we had expected. It turns out that she had known him when they were children. I had thought the examination was difficult, but it turned out easy. 15. on account of: because of , as a result of She’s angry on account of what you said over lunch about her husband. We had to move to London on account of my job. 16. fuss: 1) n. a show of great concern over sth. unimportant The meal wasn’t as hot as it could have been, but I didn’t say anything — I don’t like to create a fuss. She made so much fuss when Richard spilt a drop of wine on her blouse. 2) vi. give too much attention to small and unimportant matters, usu. in a way which shows that one is anxious and not relaxed Stop fussing with your hair; it’s time to go. Please, stop fussing — the food’s cooking and there’s nothing more to do until the guests arrive. / I wish he’d relax for a moment instead of fussing all the time! 17. keep out: prevent sb. or sth. from getting in Take this raincoat; it should at least keep the rain out. The landlord of the popular coffee shop said that he had no intention of keeping out the young people so long as they behaved themselves. 18. drop in : pay an unplanned visit (to a person or place) without notice or warning before going He usually drops in at my place on his way home. When you have the time, why don’t you drop in (on me)? 19. permit: 1) n. an official document that allows you to do sth. or go somewhere She has managed to obtain a temporary residence permit. You will need a parking permit if you want to stop in this street. 2) vt. allow sth. or make sth. possible The security system will not permit you to enter without the correct password. 20. good for: able to be used legally or valid for (a period of time) Her driver’s permit is good for five years. The jumper may be old but it’s good for another few months. 21. as it happens: This expression is used to introduce a statement, esp. one that is rather surprising. As it happens, I have left the book at home. / She called Amy to see if she had any idea of her son’s whereabouts. As it happened, Amy had just seen him. 22. inquire: v. (fml.) ask about sth. They inquired whether he would take the position of high school physics teacher. He inquired of the policeman the shortest route to the department store. If you want to know the times of the trains, you must inquire at the office. 23. assumption: n. 1) sth. that one thinks is true although one has no proof Are you making the assumption that most Americans prefer baseball to football? Eden acted on the assumption that his allies would support him. 2) the act of starting to have control or power His assumption of the duties of chairman takes place in July. 24. on (the) grounds of (/ that): by reason of He quit the job on (the) grounds of ill health (or: on the grounds that he was ill). He had been fired from his job on (the) grounds of incompetence. The former prime minister was not allowed to speak in public on (the) grounds that it would stir up trouble. 25. fraud: n. 1) (an act of) deceiving sb. illegally with the purpose of gaining money or property She got a five-year prison sentence for fraud. The man carried out a number of frauds on trusting people who lent him money. Police believed the company was involved in a series of frauds in banks all over Europe. 2) [C] a person that cheats others He said he was an insurance salesman, but later she discovered he was a fraud. He told people that he was a well-known musician, but he was really a fraud. 26. lest: conj. for fear that He hurried on, lest she should meet him again. The new teacher studied the class list over and over again, lest he forget his new students’ names. 27. provoke: vt. 1) cause a sudden reaction that is often very intense or unpleasant The new laws have provoked violent demonstrations in some towns. That politician’s offensive remarks provoked widespread criticism. 2) try to make sb. angry by doing or saying things that one knows will annoy them He saw the danger of provoking his father into violence and stopped shouting. If you provoke that dog too much it’ll bite you. She attacked the boy because he provoked her into a state of anger. 28. get away with: not be caught or punished for sth. one has done wrong He was the only child in the class who could be rude to the teacher and get away with it. Yesterday I managed to get away with parking right outside the theatre in a “no parking” zone. Iv. Summary: From this text, we can learn a lot about different cultures. V. Do Exercises VI. Homework: Preview Unit 10 Section A