1253 U UDJU AZUL DI YONTA (The Blue Eyes of Yonta) Guinea-Bissau, 1992 Director: Flora Gomes Production: Vermedia (Lisbon), Cooperativa Arco-íris (Bissau), Eurocréation Production (Paris), and Rádiotelevis?o Portuguesa (Lis- bon); color, 35mm; running time: 90 minutes. Released 1992. Producer: Paulo de Sousa; screenplay: Flora Gomes, Ina Césair, David Lang, and Manuel Rambout Barcelos; assistant directors: Manuel Jo?o ěcuas, Odete Somedo, and Gildo Mendes; photogra- phy: Dominique Gentil; editor: Dominique Páris; sound: Pierre Donnadieu; sound mixer: Anita Fernandez; costumes: Seco Faye and Teresa Campos; music: Adriano G. Ferreira-Atchutchi; set design: Miguel Mendes. Cast: Maysa Marta (Yonta); Pedro Dias (Zé); António Sim? Mendes (Vicente); Mohamed Lamine Seidi (Amílcar); Bia Gomes (Belante); Dina Vaz (Mana). Awards: Audience Award, Würzburg International Filmweek- end, 1994. Publications Articles: Deffontaines, Thérèse-Marie, ‘‘Les Yeux bleus de Yonta,’’ in Ecrans d’Afrique, vol. 1, 1992. Libiot, Eric, review in Première (Paris), June 1993. D’Yvoire, Christophe, review in Studio (Paris), June 1993. Ukadike, N. Frank, ‘‘In Guinea-Bissau, Cinema Trickles Down: An Interview with Flora Gomes,’’ in Research in African Literatures, vol. 26, no. 3, 1995. *** The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) that liberated Guinea-Bissau was more successful than any other guerrilla movement in Africa. In Those Whom Death Refused Flora Gomes had contrasted guerrilla warfare and nonchalant bureau- crats. Four years later he created a beautiful film that reminds us of the sacrifices made during the war but focuses on the present in Bissau. The Blue Eyes of Yonta shows that the socialist transformation promised at independence failed to materialize and that the shift to economic liberalization in the late 1980s created new hardships. The film graphically conveys the run-down poverty of Bissau, the nation’s capital: it may not look it, but all the action but one short scene takes place in the city. The contrast with an extravagant wedding reception at the local Sheraton Hotel illustrates the deep inequality that charac- terizes Guinea-Bissau less than a generation after independence was achieved at the cost of great sacrifices. The Blue Eyes of Yonta takes a critical look at the infatuation with things Western. Zé copies his letter to Yonta out of a European brochure of love letters meant to be addressed to beauties with blue eyes, to be written while the snow falls. The poet wallows in his longing for the Swedish girl with the blue eyes. And a war hero returns with presents from Portugal that follow European fashion and taste rather than African needs. At the same time we see a comfortable amalgamation of tradition and Western import. We hear a few references to God, but we also see tradition observed with a libation of wine at a wedding ceremony that strikingly combines traditional marriage transactions between the spouses’s families and a civil marriage. The bride’s white gown and her African hairdo beautifully demonstrate the felicitous integration of old and new. The various characters present different responses to the state of Guinea-Bissau nearly two decades after independence. Yonta stands at the center of this comedy of misplaced affections. Yonta’s frivolity reflects the city and its superficiality. She admires Vicente but does not share his dreams: ‘‘If your ideals have been spoiled, it’s not my fault. We respect the past, but we can’t live in it.’’ In the end Yonta is rejected by both Vicente and Zé, but she remains secure in the affection of her parents and her younger brother, however much he may tease her. Vicente is a war hero. But he has not been able to stick to the ideals he fought for. ‘‘[M]oney is the weapon now,’’ he tells Amilcar, ‘‘The war is over.’’ He drives a Volvo and brings the gifts from Europe, however inappropriate, that people will enjoy. When he is finally reunited with Nando, his comrade-in-arms, he observes resignedly: ‘‘In the jungle we thought it would be for everyone. But it’s not. What can I do?’’ The fruits of independence have come to some, here in the capital, and Vicente asks Nando to join him to get his share. But Nando has been marked even more profoundly by the struggle. He wants no part of Bissau and returns to Catio, once at the center of the war for liberation. His quiet departure confronts Vicente with the failure of their struggle. As he talks to the sculpture he cradles and dances to circling vultures, we wonder whether he has gone out of his mind. Zé is moonstruck by Yonta but comes to realize that they live in different worlds. Though her radiance bewitches him, he eventually rejects the conspicuous, Western-oriented consumption of Bissau she represents. He does not share the dream of the young who want to emigrate to Europe; he affirms that the place he came from—Bolama, the war-time capital, symbol of the struggle for independence—is as good as Bissau, and he is prepared to return there. If Yonta’s glamor recalls the glittering promises that came with independence nearly UGETSU MONOGATARI FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1254 two decades before, then his disappointment stands for all those whose aspirations have been frustrated. Flora Gomes named his youngest protagonist for Amilcar Cabral, the distinguished guerrilla leader and intellectual. Young Amilcar is quick and witty, boisterous and ingenious, full of initiative, mischief, and energy. And he shows signs of following in the steps of his famous namesake. He is afraid of no one: his older sister, a truck driver, government authority. He leads the children in putting an evicted widow back into her house. If this rebellion against the callous disregard of people’s needs suggests the prospect of a better future, Gomes does not tell us what it might look like: ‘‘I do not suggest alternatives. As a ‘contester,’ I am someone who, above all, makes observations and remarks on issues.’’ But with Nando and Zé he has firmly established that the country at large rejects the compromises that mark the capital. Gomes created a beautiful and funny film. We follow the entan- glements of our protagonists, relish their grace, enjoy the music, and discover Bissau. Through most of the film we revel in the caring among the adults and the prospect of romance among the young. Then, in the last fifteen minutes, the idyll unravels: Nando confronts Vincente with the betrayal of the ideals for which they fought, Vicente denounces Yonta and the consumer culture she represents, and Zé rejects Yonta in turn. Only at the very end do the children reassure us that all is not lost. The actors Gomes chose and trained are key to the success of his film. Bia Gomes, who appears in the role of Yonta’s mother Belante, had played a lead role in Those Whom Death Refused, but most of the actors in The Blue Eyes of Yonta were amateurs. Soon after he had completed Those Whom Death Refused, Gomes set out to search for actors amongst his friends, in the women associations, at the exit of schools, in poor neighborhoods, and also in some government minis- tries. He then spent nine months with the actors in regular work sessions. In the film they use the local Portuguese creole they are comfortable with. Gomes complimented the beauty of his actors by using soft colors to good advantage. —Josef Gugler UGETSU MONOGATARI Japan, 1953 Director: Kenji Mizoguchi Production: Daiei studios; black and white, 35mm; running time: 96 minutes; length: 8622 feet. Released 1953. Filmed 26 January-13 March 1953. Producer: Masaichi Nagata; screenplay: Matsutaro Kawaguchi, from Yoshikata Yoda’s adaptation of two stories, ‘‘Asaji ga yado’’ (‘‘The Inn at Asaji’’) and ‘‘Jasei-no in’’ (‘‘Serpent of Desire’’), from the collection of stories Ugetsu monogatari by Akinari Ueda (1768); photography: Kazuo Miyagawa; editor: Mitsuji Miyata; sound: Iwao Otani; production designer: Kisaku Ito; music: Fumio Hayasaka and Ichiro Saito. Cast: Machiko Kyo (Wakasa); Kinuyo Tanaka (Miyagi); Mitsuki Mito (Ohama); Masayuki Mori (Genjuro); Sakae Ozawa (Tobei); Ugetsu monogatari Sugisaku Aoyama (Old priest); Kikue Nori (Ukon); Mitsusaburo Ramon (Commander of the clan NIWA); Ryosuke Kagawa (Village chief); Kichijiro Tsuchida (Silk merchant); Syozo Nanbu (Shinto priest); Ichiisaburo Sawamura (Genichi). Awards: Venice Film Festival, Silver Prize Winner and Italian Critics Award, 1953; Edinburgh Film Festival, Gold Medal Win- ner, 1955. Publications Script: Kawaguchi, Matsutaro, Les Contes de la lune vague après la pluie, in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), 1 January 1977. Books: Tsumura, Hideo, A Certain Mizoguchi Kenji (in Japanese), Japan, 1958. Anderson, Joseph, and Donald Richie, The Japanese Film: Art and Industry, Rutland, Vermont, 1960; revised edition, Princeton, 1982. Ve-Ho, Mizoguchi, Paris, 1964. Mesnil, Michel, Kenji Mizoguchi, Paris, 1965; revised edition, 1971. Yoda, Yoshikata, Mizoguchi Kenji no hito to geijutsu (Kenji Mizoguchi: The Man and His Art), Tokyo, 1970. UGETSU MONOGATARIFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1255 Tessier, Max, Kenji Mizoguchi, Paris, 1971. Mellen, Joan, Voices from the Japanese Cinema, New York, 1975. Mellen, Joan, The Waves at Kenji’s Door: Japan Through Its Cinema, New York, 1976. Bock, Audie, Japanese Film Directors, New York, 1978; revised edition, Tokyo, 1985. Burch, No?l, To the Distant Observer: Form and Meaning in the Japanese Cinema, Berkeley, 1979. Garbicz, Adam, and Jacek Klinowski, editors, Cinema, The Magic Vehicle: A Guide to Its Achievements: Journey Two, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1979. Freiberg, Freda, Women in Mizoguchi Films, Melbourne, 1981. Sato, Tadao, Currents in Japanese Cinema, Tokyo, 1982. Serceau, Daniel, Mizoguchi: De la revolte aux songes, Paris, 1983. Andrew, Dudley, Film in the Aura of Art, Princeton, 1984. McDonald, Keiko, Mizoguchi, Boston, 1984. McDonald, Keiko, editor, Ugetsu: Kenji Mizoguchi, Director, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1993. O’Grady, Gerald, editor, Mizoguchi the Master, Ontario, 1996. Tomasi, Dario, Kenji Mizoguchi, Milano, 1998. Articles: Richie, Donald, and Joseph I. Anderson, ‘‘Kenji Mizoguchi,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1955. Godard, Jean-Luc, in Arts (Paris), February 1958. Rohmer, Eric, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), March 1958. Sadoul, Georges, ‘‘Diableries et miseres de la guerre,’’ in Lettres Fran?aises (Paris), 26 April 1959. ‘‘Mizoguchi Issue’’ of Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), May 1959. Gilson, René, in Cinéma (Paris), May 1959. Astruc, Alexandre, in Films and Filming (London), Summer 1961. Rotha, Paul, in Films and Filming (London), May 1962. ‘‘Mizoguchi Issue’’ of Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), August-Septem- ber 1964. Yoda, Yoshikata, ‘‘Souvenirs sur Mizoguchi,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), no. 174, 1966. Iwasaki, Akira, ‘‘Kenji Mizoguchi,’’ in Anthologie du Cinéma (Paris), November 1967. Yoda, Yoshikata, ‘‘The Density of Mizoguchi’s Scripts,’’ in Cinema (Los Angeles), Spring 1971. Wood, Robin, ‘‘Mizoguchi: The Ghost Princess and the Seaweed Gatherer,’’ in Film Comment (New York), March-April 1973. Cohen, R., ‘‘Mizoguchi and Modernism,’’ in Sight and Sound (Lon- don), Spring 1978. Godefroy, J. C., in Cinématographe (Paris), November 1978. Masson, A., ‘‘Revers de la quietude,’’ in Positif (Paris), Novem- ber 1978. Richie, Donald, ‘‘Kenji Mizoguchi,’’ in Cinema, A Critical Diction- ary, edited by Richard Roud, London, 1980. Sato, Tadao, and Dudley Andrew, ‘‘On Kenji Mizoguchi,’’ in Film Criticism (Edinboro, Pennsylvania), Spring 1980. Niogret, H., ‘‘Mizoguchi: Un art sans artifice,’’ in Positif (Paris), December 1980. Martin, Marcel, ‘‘Rencontre avec Yoshikata Yoda,’’ in Image et Son (Paris), October 1982. Millar, Gavin, ‘‘The Climate of Beauty,’’ in Listener (London), 5 May 1983. Gaelen, H., in Film en Televisie (Brussels), March 1985. Alion, Y., ‘‘Les contes de la lune vague apres la pluie,’’ in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), no. 459, April 1990. Burdeau, Emmanuel, and others, ‘‘Mizoguchi Encore,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), no. 504, July-August 1996. Lopate, Philip, ‘‘A Master Who Could Create Poems for the Eye,’’ in The New York Times, 15 September 1996. MacNab, Geoffrey, in Sight & Sound (London), vol. 8, no. 12, December 1998. *** Ugetsu monogatari was not the first Kenji Mizoguchi film to be shown in the West, but it was the first to reveal him to the West as a major artist. Swiftly establishing itself (especially in France) on many critics’ ‘‘Ten Best’’ lists, the film opened the way for the acclamation of the work of Mizoguchi’s final period. For some, he became the supreme filmmaker, the cinematic Shakespeare, realizing to the fullest the potential of film as an art form. That was at the time when the ‘‘potential of film’’ was generally felt to have been identified and adequately expounded by André Bazin; and assessment which can still be accepted if we add the proviso that Bazin accounted for only one of film’s many potentials. However, the supremacy of his ‘‘late’’ period and the kind of achievement that it represents, has been increasingly challenged since the 1960s. Two factors help account for this: one is the discovery of Mizoguchi’s earlier films, previously almost unknown; the other is the politicization of film criticism and the growth, within it, of an ideological awareness. In recent years, No?l Burch’s To the Distant Observer, Joan Mellen’s The Waves at Genji’s Door, and Frieda Frieberg’s useful pamphlet Women in Mizoguchi’s Films—three books written from quite distinct critical positions, with quite distinct estimates of Mizoguchi’s work—have agreed on one point, the application (in a derogatory sense) of the term ‘‘aestheticism’’ to Mizoguchi’s late work. Films previously hailed as the greatest ever made—Ugetsu, Sansho dayu, The Life of Oharu—are suddenly perceived as evidence of Mizoguchi’s withdrawal from the radicalism of his work in the 1930s and 1940s, and a retreat from a social/ political viewpoint into the realm of aesthetic contemplation. The relationship between aesthetics and politics is incredibly complex: the critical problems it generates have never been success- fully resolved. It is true that Ugetsu monogatari is ideologically more conservative than, say, Sisters of Gion or My Love Has Been Burning. The crux lies in the treatment of women. From the radical feminist protest of his earlier films to the celebration of woman as self- sacrificer, redeemer, and mother in Ugetsu is certainly a large and disconcerting jump. (Mizoguchi’s conversion to Buddhism in the early 1950s is doubtlessly a related factor.) Further, Ugetsu can be read as advocating the resignation to and the acceptance of one’s lot. This withdrawal from the active struggle in favor of a spiritual transcendence makes the hardships of the material world not so much endurable as irrelevant. The film encourages such a reading, yet cannot be reduced to it. Ugetsu contains within itself an answer to the charge of aestheti- cism. The story of Genjuro the potter can be taken as Mizoguchi’s artistic testament. At the beginning of the film Genjuro is a materialis- tic artisan, mass-producing pots as a commodity. His encounter with UMBERTO D FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1256 the Lady Wakasa introduces him to the world of the aesthetic. She shows him fragile and exquisite vessels that she presents, and he accepts, as his creations, but that are totally unlike the crude, functional wares we have seen him almost brutally shape earlier. The complexity of response that this whole central segment evokes is sufficient in itself to call into question the reduction of the film to a single clear-cut statement. The Lady Wakasa is both evil spirit and a pathetic, victimized woman; the world of the aesthetic (which is also the world of the erotic) has a fascination and authentic beauty that make it far from easily dismissible. That alluring world, however, has three negative connotations. First, it is presented as a possible option only if one turns one’s back on reality. It is a world of fantasy and illusion where the suffering of human beings in a material world of oppression, cruelty, greed, and human exploitation cannot be permit- ted to intrude. (One of the most expressive cuts in the history of the cinema is that from the exquisite scene of love-making on the cultivated lawn beside the lake to Miyagi, fearfully peering out from her hiding-place, a woman vulnerable to attack from all sides of a society created by men.) Second, Wakasa herself is not presented as an autonomous character, even in her appreciation of beauty. Every- thing she knows, her father had taught her. Her father (long since dead) appears in the film as a hideous, emaciated skull-like mask speaking in a disturbingly strange subterranean voice. The aesthetic, whatever else it may be, is clearly defined as a patriarchal imposition: ‘‘taste’’ is what women are taught by men. Finally, the father is linked to war, domnation, and imperialism. Wakasa’s father had the misfor- tune to lose, and have his clan exterminated, but the film makes clear that he would have inflicted precisely the same fate on his enemies, had the outcome been reversed. The overall effect of the film is to suggest, not that the aesthetic is invalid in itself, but that it cannot validly exist in this world. (The film’s contemporary relevance is by no means compromised by its setting in the sixteenth century.) The pot Genjuro is making at the end of the film, under Miyagi’s spiritual supervision, is significantly different from the two previous kinds of work: it is made with loving care, but also the product of experience; it is a work of art yet made to be used by Genjuro’s peers rather than admired by a cultivated elite. The great beauty of the film is of an order altogether different from the aestheticism of the Wakasa world. Mizoguchi never aestheticizes pain and suffering (in the manner of, say, David Lean in Dr. Zhivago). The extraordinary sequence-shot showing the mortal wounding of Miyagi is a case in point: the aesthetic strategies (long take, distance, complex camera movement, depth of field showing simultaneous actions in foreground and background) serve to sustain the character- istic Mizoguchian tension between involvement and contemplation, but do not in any way mitigate the horror of the scene. If on one level Ugetsu tends to reinforce traditional myths of woman, on another it remains true to the radical spirit of Mizoguchi’s earlier Marxist-feminist principles. The actions of both Genjuro and Tobei are motivated by the values forced upon them by patriarchal capitalism. They both seek success (Genjuro through the acquisition of wealth, Tobei through the prestige of becoming a Samurai) in order to impress their wives, neither of whom shows the smallest interest in such ambitions. The film is a systematic critique of the kind of male egoism (expressing itself in greed and violence and the destruction of human relationships, always at the expense of women) that a patriar- chal capitalist civilization promotes. —Robin Wood L’ULTIMO TANGO A PARIGI See THE LAST TANGO IN PARIS ULYSSES’ GAZE See TO VLEMMA TOU ODYSSEA UMBERTO D Italy, 1952 Director: Vittorio De Sica Production: Rizzoli-De Sica-Amato and Dear Films; black and white, 35mm; running time: 90 minutes, some sources state 80 minutes. Filmed 1951 in Cinecittà studios, and in and around Rome. Cost: about 140 million lire. Released 1952. Director of production: Nino Misiano; screenplay: Cesare Zavattini with Vittorio De Sica; photography: Aldo Graziati (a.k.a. G. R. Aldo); editor: Eraldo di Roma; sound engineer: Ennio Sensi; production designer: Virgilio Marchi; music: Alessandro Cigognini. Cast: Carlo Battisti (Umberto); Maria-Pia Casilio (Maria); Lina Gennari (Landlord); Alberto Albani Barbieri (The Fiancé); Elena Rea (Sister at the hospital); Memo Carotenuto (Voice of light for Umberto in the hospital); Ileana Simova (Surprised woman in the bedroom); plus many non-professional actors. Awards: New York Film Critics Award, Best Foreign Film (shared with Diabolique), 1955. Publications Script: Zavattini, Cesare, and Vittorio De Sica, Umberto D, Milan, 1953; published in ‘‘Umberto D Issue’’ of Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), 15 April 1980. Books: Castello, G. C., Il Cinema Neorealistico Italiano, Turin, 1956. Rondi, Brunello, Il Neorealismo Italiano, Parma, 1956. Hawald, Patrice, Le Neo-realisme Italien et ses createurs, Paris, 1959. Agel, Henri, Vittorio De Sica, 2nd edition, Paris, 1964. Leprohon, Pierre, Vittorio De Sica, Paris, 1966. Bazin, André, What Is Cinema? 1 and 2, Berkeley, 1967. Armes, Roy, Patterns of Realism, New York, 1972. Samuels, Charles Thomas, Encountering Directors, New York, 1972. UMBERTO DFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1257 Umberto D Mercader, Maria, La mia vita con Vittorio De Sica, Milan, 1978. Darreta, John, Vittorio De Sica: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1983. Bolzoni, Francesco, Quando De Sica era Mister Brown, Turin, 1984. Darreta, John, Vittorio De Sica: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1988. Micciche, Lino, Sciuscia di Vittorio De Sica: letture, documenti, testimonianze, Turin, Italy, 1994. Nuzzi, Paolo, and Ottavio Iemma, editors, De Sica and Zavattini: parliamo tanto di noi, Rome, 1997. Articles: Sadoul, Georges, in Lettres Fran?aises (Paris), October 1952. Films in Review (New York), November 1952. Reisz, Karel, in Sight and Sound (London), October-November 1953. De la Roche, Catherine, in Films and Filming (London), Decem- ber 1954. Lambert, Gavin, ‘‘Italian Notes,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), 1 January 1955. Fenin, George, in Film Culture (New York), Winter 1955. De Sica, Vittorio, ‘‘Money, the Public, and Umberto D,’’ in Films and Filming (London), January 1956. Village Voice (New York), 8 February 1956. Sargeant, W., ‘‘Bread, Love, and Neo-Realism,’’ in New Yorker, 29 June and 6 July 1957. Rhode, Eric, ‘‘Why Neo-Realism Failed,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1960–61. McVay, D., ‘‘Poet of Poverty,’’ in Films and Filming (London), October-November 1964. ‘‘Entire Issue of Articles by De Sica’’ in Bianco e Nero (Rome), Fall 1975. La Polla, F., ‘‘La citta e lo spazio,’’ in Bianco e Nero (Rome), September-December 1976. Passalacqua, J., ‘‘Vittorio De Sica,’’ in Films in Review (New York), April 1978. Agel, Henri, ‘‘Vittorio De Sica 1902–1974,’’ special issue of Avant- Scène du Cinéma (Paris), 15 October 1978. Agel, Henri, ‘‘Vittorio De Sica,’’ in Anthologie du cinéma 10, Paris, 1979. Goodman, Walter, in The New York Times, vol. 136, section 2, H22, 30 August 1987. UNDERGROUND FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1258 Kinder, M., ‘‘The Subversive Potential of the Pseudo-Iterative,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), no. 2, 1989–90. Langkjoer, B., ‘‘Det indre melodrama,’’ in Kosmorama (Copenha- gen), vol. 139, no. 205, Fall 1993. Bailey, Paul, ‘‘Looking Up For Rain,’’ in Sight & Sound (London), vol. 3, no. 12, December 1993. Bonadella, Peter, ‘‘Three Neorealist Classics by Vittorio De Sica,’’ in Cineaste (New York), vol. 23, no. 1, 1997. *** Umberto D is often considered Vittorio De Sica’s masterpiece, the purest example of Cesare Zavattini’s aesthetic, and most highly developed expression of this historic collaboration of director and screenwriter. It may also be the most relentlessly bleak of the great works of neo-realism. De Sica was aware from the start that Umberto D might be susceptible to the same charge of subversion that had greeted Miracle in Milan. On the other hand, he had hoped, as he pointed out in a later comment, that ‘‘the story of that old retired office worker, his tragic solitude, his boundless sadness and his pathetic, awkward attempts at warming his heart (would have) a kind of universality that would be understood by everyone.’’ This was not to be the case. De Sica was accused by many, including the then junior minister Giulio Andreotti, of washing Italy’s dirty laundry in public, of irresponsibility in projecting a negative view of the country. Against Umberto D were mobilized forces strongly opposed to exporting images of an Italy depressed and without justice; following Umberto D, the foreign distribution of films that were declared unflattering to Italian society was banned. The authorities feared, and with good reason, what the critic Georges Sadoul and a few others most admired. At the time of its first showing, Sadoul noted that Umberto D (along with Sciuscia, Bicycle Thief, and Miracle in Milan) constituted an extraordinary ‘‘act of accusation’’ against contemporary Italy. Official hostility was followed by critical indifference, and to complete the disastrous reception, Umberto D failed miserably at the box office. The story of old age, loneliness, and spiritual and material poverty was not likely to appeal to audiences who, in 1952, were eager to forget the past and to embrace the economic miracle that they thought—correctly as it turned out—was just around the corner. Critical debate since the release of the film has focused on what is generally understood to be its central aesthetic question, the question of duration. Jean Collet was among the first to underscore that through the restitution to film of real time, De Sica had succeeded in giving the most banal of situations remarkable depth. But it is André Bazin’s essay, ‘‘De Sica: Metteur en Scène,’’ that most completely delimits and defines the issue. Bazin is specifically interested in those privileged moments in Umberto D that afford a glimpse of what ‘‘a truly realist cinema of the time could be, a cinema of ‘duration.’’’ Two scenes particularly—Umberto going to bed and the awakening of the servant girl—exemplify those perfect instances in which duration determined by character creates a mise-en-scène that re- places drama with gesture, narrative with act. For Bazin, in these sequences ‘‘it is a matter of making ‘life time’—the continuing to be a person to whom nothing in particular happens—(that) takes on the quality of spectacle.’’ Zavattini’s lengthy descriptions of the most minute though absolutely necessary movements and expressions, scrupulously performed under De Sica’s direction and photographed in revealing long takes by G.R. Aldo, exhibit, for Bazin, ‘‘complete fidelity to the aesthetic of neo-realism.’’ A conflicting position is taken some years later by Jean Mitry whose objection is not to the concept of duration, but to what is, in his view, a duration without significance. Duration in Umberto D, according to Mitry, ‘‘is nothing more than banality and is charged very simply with prolonging, beyond the tolerable, events whose sense is clear from the very first images.’’ These events are as follows: Umberto D., a retired civil servant is among the aging demonstrators at a rally in support of increased pensions. (Umberto is played by a Carlo Battisti, a university profes- sor De Sica pressed into service after a chance meeting on the streets of Rome.) Impoverished but genteel, about to be dispossessed, completely alone except for the company of his dog, Flike, and the occasional companionship of a young servant girl, Umberto deter- mines to take his own life. His only concern is for Flike, for whom he attempts to find a home before doing away with himself. Failing in the first attempt, Umberto determines to kill himself and Flike, and failing again, has no recourse but to take up once more an entirely hopeless existence. Were it not for his indifference to hostility, Umberto’s confrontation with cold, often hostile persons and institu- tions would earn him the sympathy of the viewers, and the viewers the pleasure of the well-earned sentimental response. But De Sica, Zavattini, and Aldo take the necessary measures of script, direction, and camera that distance the viewer and deny easy sympathy. The cruelty of society’s neglect of Umberto (which so offended the authorities), and lack of compassion of peers and institutions (which no doubt offended the charitable), and Umberto’s grievous self- centeredness finally elicit, through the manipulations of style, the detachment of the viewer (and his or her attendant dissatisfaction) from Umberto’s despair. The rigor of Umberto D explains both its initial failure and its subsequent reputation. Bazin’s prediction was borne out; Umberto D would prove ‘‘a masterpiece to which film history is certainly going to grant a place of honor .’’ —Mirella Jona Affron UMUD’A YOLCULUK See JOURNEY OF HOPE UNDERGROUND France-Germany-Hungary-Yugoslavia, 1995 Director: Emir Kusturica Production: CiBY 2000 (France), Pandora Film (Germany), Novo Film (Hungary), with the participation of Radio-TV-Serbia, Komuna- Belgrade and Chaplain Films (Bulgaria); color; 35 mm; running time: 167 minutes (some prints are 192 minutes). Released 19 June 1995 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, and 20 June 1997 in the United States; UNDERGROUNDFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1259 Underground distributed in the U.S. by New Yorker Films; filmed 1994 on location in Belgrade and Plovdiv, Bulgaria, and at the Barrandov studios in Prague, Czech Republic. Producers: Pierre Spengler (executive), Maksa Catovic, Karl Baumgartner; screenplay: Dusan Kovacevic with Emir Kusturica; photography: Vilko Filac; editor: Branka Ceperac; production design: Miljen Kreka Kljakovic; art directors: Branimir Babic, Vladislav Lasic; set design: Aleksandar Denic; costumes: Nebojsa Lipanovic; original music: Goran Bregovic. Cast: Miki (Predrag) Manojlovic (Marko); Lazar Ristovski (Petar Popara Crni — Blacky); Mirjana Jokovic (Natalija); Slavko Stimac (Ivan); Ernst St?tzner (Franz); Srdjan Todorovic (Jovan); Mirjana Karanovic (Vera); Milena Pavlovic (Jelena); Danilo ‘‘Bata’’ Stojkovic (Deda); Davor Dujmovic-Perhan (Bata); Dr. Nele Karajlic (Falling Gypsy); Dragan Nikolic (Film Director); Emir Kusturica (Arms Dealer); and others. Awards: Palme d’Or, Cannes International Film Festival, 1995; Best Foreign Language Film, Boston Society of Film Critics Awards, 1997. Publications Books: Handke, Peter, A Journey to the Rivers: Justice for Serbia, New York, 1997. Norris, David, In the Wake of the Balkan Myth, London, 1999. BFI Companion to Eastern European and Russian Cinema, Lon- don, 2000. Articles: Levy, Emmanuel, ‘‘Underground,’’ in Variety (New York), 29 May- 4 June 1995. Finkielkraut, Alain, ‘‘L’imposture Kusturica,’’ in Le Monde (Paris), 2 June 1995. Malcolm, Derek, ‘‘The Surreal Sarajevan Dreamer,’’ in Guardian (London), 29 June 1995. ‘‘Propos de Emir Kusturica,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), no. 492, June 1995. UNDERGROUND FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1260 Zizek, Slavoj, ‘‘Multiculturalism, or the Cultural Logic of Multina- tional Capitalism,’’ in New Left Review, no. 225, September- October 1995. Kusturica, Emir, ‘‘Mon imposture,’’ in Le Monde (Paris), 26 Octo- ber 1995. Gopnik, Adam, ‘‘Cinéma Disputé,’’ in The New Yorker, 5 Febru- ary 1996. Hedges, Chris, ‘‘Belgrade Journal: Scathing ‘Conscience’ of Balkans Spares no One. An interview with Dusan Kovacevic,’’ in The New York Times, 8 February 1996. Robinson, David, ‘‘A Tunnel Vision of War: An Interview with Emir Kusturica,’’ in The Times (London), 5 March 1996. Yates, Robert, ‘‘Gone Underground,’’ in The Guardian (London), 7 March 1996. Maslin, Janet, ‘‘From Former Yugoslavia, Revelry with Allegory,’’ in New York Times, 12 October 1996. Dieckmann, Katherine, ‘‘When Kusturica Was Away on Business,’’ in Film Comment (New York), vol. 33, no. 5, 19 September 1997. Turan, Kenneth, ‘‘Sarajevan’s Journey from Cinema Hero to ‘Trai- tor,’’’ in Los Angeles Times, 6 October 1997. Iordanova, Dina, ‘‘Kusturica’s Underground (1995): Historical Alle- gory or Propaganda,’’ in Historical Journal of Film, Radio and TV (Hants), vol. 19, no. 1, 1999. *** Underground is a historical film exploring the violent state of affairs in Yugoslavia. The film’s narrative spans over five decades, highlighting episodes taking place in 1941, 1961, and 1993. Real events are combined with fictional historical encounters and occur- rences. Documentary footage of selected moments of Yugoslav history is used as a background against which the fictional protago- nists mingle with real historical personalities à la Forrest Gump. The film is characterized by elaborate scenes, ornate props, and a haunting musical score. Visually, the film is very dark, shot mostly in various shades of brown. There is even a shot taken from an unborn baby’s point of view, watching out of the darkness of the womb. The film leaves a lasting and unsettling impression. Underground is screenwriter Dusan Kovacevic’s and director Emir Kusturica’s personal take on Yugoslav history. In the film they follow closely the lives of three protagonists—Marko, a cunning cynic; Blacky, an artless dunce; and Natalia, an opportunistic blonde— who are shown at various stages of their lives that largely coincide with the highlighted moments of Yugoslav history. Marko and Blacky both have a crush on Natalia, and many of their actions are determined by this romantic rivalry. The somber backdrop to these sensual affairs, however, is a war with no end. In the first part, called ‘‘War,’’ which opens with the Nazi bombing of Belgrade in 1941, Marko, an energetic black marketeer, takes a group of friends and relatives to a cellar which he has equipped as an air-raid shelter. It soon turns out that he has planned the whole rescue operation with the intention of enslaving the people in the cellar. Above ground, Marko and Blacky complete a series of reckless burglaries that they present as motivated by anti-Fascist zeal. After performing a daring anti-Nazi stunt which is nothing else but another manifestation of a philanderer’s showmanship, Marko gets rid of Blacky by sending him to ‘‘hide’’ in the cellar. He can finally claim Natalia exclusively for himself. The events of the second part, ‘‘The Cold War,’’ take place in 1961. In postwar communist Yugoslavia, Marko has become a cele- brated poet, close to president Tito. He has married Natalia, and together they have created a mythology of themselves as brave anti- Fascists. A film is to be shot about their heroic experiences in the struggle. Simultaneously, Marko and Natalia still keep a large number of people, Blacky included, in the cellar. They trick them into thinking that the war goes on by playing soundtracks of Nazi bombings and Hitler’s speeches. They use them as slave labor to manufacture arms that Marko trades internationally. One day Marko and Natalia descend to the cellar to attend the wedding of Blacky’s son. Sweaty drunkenness reigns over this claustrophobic celebration and the wedding guests, all intoxicated, end up fighting over unsettled accounts. In the turmoil, the walls of the cellar crumble. The members of the wedding disperse in disarray and most of the enslaved inhabi- tants of the underground run away. Blacky and his son climb above ground and end up at the shooting site of a film which is supposed to glorify the heroic past. Mistaking the set for reality and believing that World War II is still going on, they kill all the extras wearing German uniforms. The son drowns in the Danube, and Blacky is captured by the police. Marko and Natalia escape the coming trouble, blowing up the house and the cellar. The third part, again called ‘‘War,’’ is set in the 1990s at an unidentified battlefield, presumably Bosnia, where the protagonists cross paths one last time. Marko and Natalia have continued in international arms sales, and are wanted by Interpol. Blacky, still mourning the loss of his son thirty-five years earlier, is now in command of the paramilitary forces shelling a nearby city. In a final showdown Marko is killed by his own brother, Ivan, one of the people formerly confined in the underground. The paratroopers shoot Natalia. Blacky passes by without recognizing his former friends. The film’s epilogue offers a sharp contrast to this apocalyptic ending. In a utopian wedding scene all the protagonists come back to life and gather together for a wedding feast on the Danube’s sunny shores. As they cheerfully celebrate, the piece of land on which they stand breaks apart from the mainland and quietly floats away. The wedding guests are too busy dancing and singing to notice that they are being carried away into an unknown destination. This final scene is the defining image that screenwriter Kovacevic and director Kusturica had in mind for this project. They were determined to use it as a metaphor for the Yugoslav people, who, as Kusturica explained in a 1996 interview with David Robinson: ‘‘go away never really knowing what has happened to them. That is the way of the Balkan people. They never rationalize their past. Somehow the passion that leads them forward is not changed. I hope some day people may find better ways to use the passion they have so far persistently used to kill one another.’’ Underground was awarded the Golden Palm at the 1995 Cannes International Film Festival, adding to the previous Golden Palm for Kusturica’s When Father Was Away on Business (1985) and his Best Director award for Time of the Gypsies (1989), and enhancing the director’s reputation as a ‘‘Balkan Fellini.’’ The award carried weight with international critics, most of whom saw the film as an esoteric piece of elitist cinema preoccupied with the messy state of Balkan affairs but nonetheless endorsed it. Underground, however, came under critical fire for the historical and political propositions upon which the story was built. The main accusation was that the film was a well-masked version of Serbian propaganda, presented at a time when Serbia was largely believed to be the aggressive force in the Yugoslav break-up war. Others charged that by making a film in UNFORGIVENFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1261 Belgrade at the time when Serbia was at war with his own native land, a Sarajevan director like Kusturica was committing an act of betrayal. Many in his native Bosnia denounced him as an intellectual traitor who had taken the side of the aggressor. The media noise was significant, but the debate remained quite cryptic for larger audiences. The director was so upset by the controversy that he declared a withdrawal from filmmaking—a promise which he did not keep. He returned to cinema soon thereafter and continued shooting in Serbia and internationally. —Dina Iordanova THE UNFAITHFUL WIFE See LA FEMME INFIDELE UNFORGIVEN USA, 1992 Director: Clint Eastwood Production: Warner Bros.; Technicolour, Panavision; running time: 131 minutes. Filmed on location in Alberta, Canada. Producer: Clint Eastwood; executive producer: David Valdes; screenplay: David Webb Peoples; photography: Jack N. Green; editor: Joel Cox; assistant directors: Scott Maitland, Bill Bannerman, Grant Lucibello, and Tom Rooker; production design: Henry Bumstead; art director: Rick Roberts and Adrian Gorton; music: Lennie Niehaus; sound editors: Neil Burrow, Gordon Davidson, Marshall Winn, Butch Wolf, Cindy Marty, James Isaacs, and Karen G. Wilson; sound recording: Rob Young, Michael Evje, and Bobby Fernandez; costumes: Valerie O’Brien. Cast: Clint Eastwood (William Munny); Gene Hackman (Little Bill); Morgan Freeman (Ned Logan); Richard Harris (English Bob); Jaimz Woolvett (Schofield Kid); Saul Rubinek (W. W. Beauchamp); Frances Fisher (Strawberry Alice); Anna Thompson (Delilah Fitzgerald); David Mucci (Quick Mike). Awards: Oscars for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Supporting Actor (Hackman), Best Cinematography, and Best Editing, 1992. Publications Books: Smith, Gus, Richard Harris: Actor by Accident, 1990, 1999. Zmijewsky, Boris, and Lee Pfeiffer, The Films of Clint Eastwood, New York, 1993. Bingham, Dennis, Acting Male: Masculinities in the Films of James Stuart, Jack Nicholson, and Clint Eastwood, Piscataway, 1994. Gallafent, Edward, Clint Eastwood: Filmmaker and Star, New York, 1994. Knapp, Laurence F., Directed by Clint Eastwood: Eighteen Films Analyzed, Jefferson, 1996. Munn, Michael, Gene Hackman, London, 1997. O’Brien, Daniel, Clint Eastwood: Film-Maker, North Pomfret, 1997. Articles: McCarthy, Todd, Variety (New York), 3 August 1992. Merrick, H., and P. Ortoli, ‘‘Le survivant d’un monde englouti,’’ in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), September 1992. Jameson, R. T., and H. Sheehan, ‘‘Deserve’s got nothin’ to do with it,’’ in Film Comment (New York), September-October 1992. Combs, R., and others, ‘‘Shadowing the Hero,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), October 1992. Coursodon, J. P., and M. Henry, Positif (Paris), October 1992. Jousse, T., and C. Nevers, Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), October 1992. Boutroy, P., Séquences (Montreal), November 1992. Pawelczak, A., Films in Review (New York), November-Decem- ber 1992. Tesson, C., ‘‘L’aventure intérieure,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), December 1992. Dowell, P., Cineaste (New York), 1992. Horguelin, T., ‘‘L’étérnel retour,’’ in 24 Images (Montreal), Decem- ber-January 1993. Tibbets, J. C., ‘‘Clint Eastwood and the Machinery of Violence,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), January 1993. Wilson, M. H., ‘‘The Perfect Subject for the Final Western,’’ in Cinema Papers (Melbourne), January 1993. Greenberg, H. R., Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Spring 1993. Witteman, Paul, ‘‘Go Ahead, Make My Career,’’ in Time (New York), 5 August 1993. Grenier, Richard, ‘‘Clint Eastwood Goes PC,’’ in Commentary, vol. 97, no. 3, March 1994. Beard, William, ‘‘Unforgiven and the Uncertainties of the Heroic,’’ in Canadian Journal of Film Studies (Ottawa), vol. 3, no. 2, Autumn 1994. Engel, L., ‘‘Rewriting Western Myths in Clint Eastwood’s New ‘Old Western,’’’ in Western American Literature, vol. 29, no. 3, 1994. Kelley, Susan M., and Armando J. Prats, ‘‘Giggles and Guns: The Phallic Myth in Unforgiven/Back from the Sunset: The Western, the Eastwood Hero, and Unforgiven,’’ in Journal of Film and Video (Atlanta), vol. 47, no. 1–3, Spring-Fall 1995. Deloria, P. J., ‘‘Title: America,’’ in American Historical Review, vol. 11, no. 5, 1995. Premiere (Boulder), vol. 9, July 1996. Ingrassia, Catherine, ‘‘‘I’m Not Kicking, I’m Talking’: Discursive Economies in the Western,’’ in Film Criticism (Meadville), vol. 20, no. 3, Spring 1996. McCarthy, T., in Premiere (Boulder), vol. 11, October 1997. Ingrassia, Catherine, ‘‘Writing the West: Iconic and Literal Truth in Unforgiven,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury), vol. 26, no. 1, January 1998. UNFORGIVEN FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1262 Unforgiven McReynolds, Douglas J., ‘‘Alive and Well: Western Myth in Western Movies,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury), vol. 26, no. 1, January 1998. Plantinga, Carl, ‘‘Spectacles of Death: Clint Eastwood and Violence in Unforgiven,’’ in Cinema Journal (Austin), vol. 37, no. 2, Winter 1998. *** Like its predecessor Tightrope, Unforgiven—a film critic Pat Dowell calls ‘‘droll, dry and deadpan’’—marks a turning point in the career of Clint Eastwood. Just as the almost cartoonish, ultra-violent Dirty Harry image changes in Tightrope to a single father nearly overcome by his human frailty and seeking redemption through family values, so Unforgiven challenges earlier film stereotypes, not just of Eastwood’s own spaghetti-western type but also of what has become of the Western genre itself. The classic American morality story has fallen on sad days, exhausted by overexposure and made decadent by the gimmickry of special effects exaggerating form over substance. Producer and director Eastwood returns the form to its moral roots, especially in the precise calculation of the effects of violence, its running commentary on honourable behaviour, and its consciousness of the power of falsity of reputation. At a time of increasing violence in society, a return to a classic genre permits a distanced examination of issues of revenge, guns, and respect. The story stems from an incident wherein a drunken cowboy slices up the face of a prostitute in Big Whiskey, Wyoming, in 1880. Gene Hackman, as Little Bill Doggett, in a wonderfully written and performed part that reveals unexpected depths in the hackneyed role of small town sheriff, decrees financial reimbursement as punishment for the cowboy, choosing economic stability for the whoremaster over a harsher justice, and thereby enraging Strawberry Alice, who leads the other prostitutes to put up a $1,000 reward for the lives of the two cowboys involved. This incentive draws a collection of misfit bounty hunters, including English Bob (Richard Harris), a British dandy, accompanied by his own dime-novel journalist/flack; the ‘‘Schofield Kid,’’ a self-promoting would-be Billy-the-Kid, whose extreme myopia makes him potentially lethal to his comrades; and Eastwood himself, as Bill Munny, a long-retired gunfighter turned marginal pig farmer, who is a widower with two children and friendless, except for an old colleague—Ned Logan (Morgan Freeman). UNSERE AFRIKAREISEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1263 The film is replete with unexpected reversals and new takes on old clichés, beginning with the feminist/activist roles of the prostitutes in revenging the injury to one of their own: they are not simple pawns or victims. By standing against the powerful and devious Little Bill, they create their own justice. Harris’s English Bob is introduced as a fearsome shooter and a dominating personality, only to be humili- ated and pummelled fatally in front of his newspaperman-cum- promoter (Saul Rubinek), by Little Bill, who has banned guns in his town. The deflation of English Bob is completed when we learn that his victims have been unarmed Chinese, and that his hagiography as a gunfighter, enhanced by pulp fiction, conceals cowardly and incompetent behaviour. The distance between myth and reality is best exemplified by Eastwood’s Bill Munny. The director portrays himself unshaven and dissolute, wrestling with pigs in a muddy sty and losing—no dialogue is needed to comment on this iconography of western hero passed his prime and tragically domesticated. The scene is all the more affecting given the opening long shot of Eastwood burying his wife on the loneliest prairie imaginable. The decision to pursue the bounty is wonderfully fuzzy and vague, that of a man who has battled with the bottle and is trying hard to be a responsible father. To all appearances Jaimz Woolvett’s Schofield Kid is the ‘‘true’’ gunfighter, a brittle, barely controlled youngster bristling with hostile machismo, danger- ous, unpredictable, and insecure. However, his physical myopia extends to his inability to recognize Eastwood as what he might become if he survives. Only after ignominiously killing an unarmed man in an outhouse does he give up his desire to be a gunfighter. As the film, with an admirably ambling pace, proceeds to show the inevitable working out of the algebra of revenge and violence, we learn from varying sources and demonstrations that most bullets miss their mark and that, contrary to what tenderfoot Eastern journalists and shoot-em-up movies suggest, killing men is not easy, especially when they are shooting back. Even the battered face of the slimy English Bob evokes sympathy. The evidence mounts that a chain of violence has terrible consequences, from the scarred face of the prostitute to the illness that affects Eastwood at the prospect of resuming his killing career to the beating of Eastwood by Little Bill. There will be no dramatic shootout on Main Street at high noon; rather, violence is messy, bloody, and usually indulged under cover of night with unfair odds. When Eastwood finally returns to wreak his own revenge for Ned’s murder, the action is brutal and the characters unforgiving: wounded, helpless men are killed where they lie on the floor, and being a successful gunfighter is shown as a terrible and inhuman instinct for effective violence, not as a romantic and he- roic figure. A box office success, winner of five Academy Awards and the Cahiers du Cinema best film of the year, Unforgiven returns the Western to its moral and thematic roots, but with a late 20th-century sensibility of cynicism, irony, and worldweariness. The cliché that violence begets violence is confirmed, as is its appeal: violence actually does resolve problems, though at an enormous cost even to its survivors. Not an easy tool, violence can turn unpredictably against its long-term practitioners. Revenge and honour prove complex ques- tions, and apparently simple situations have a logic of their own that complicates and entraps. Reputation, a commodity often created and abused, leads to unwelcome pressures to conform to the expectations of others. This sometimes sad, sometimes comic, melancholic look back at the past speaks eloquently to our present and future. In doing so, Eastwood has given this old genre potential new life for the next century. —Andrew and Gina Macdonald UNSERE AFRIKAREISE (Our Trip to Africa) Austria, 1966 Director: Peter Kubelka Production: Color, 16mm; running time: 12? minutes. Released 1966. Filmed 1961 in Africa. Photography: Peter Kubelka; editor: Peter Kubelka; sound recordist and editor: Peter Kubelka. Publications Books: Sitney, P. Adams, Visionary Film: The American Avant-Garde, New York, 1979. Jutz, Gabriele, and Peter Tscherkassky, Peter Kubelka, Wien, 1995. Articles: Sitney, P. Adams, ‘‘Kubelka Concrete (Our Trip to Vienna),’’ in Film Culture (New York), Fall 1964. Mekas, Jonas, in Village Voice (New York), 13 October 1966. Bodien, Earl, ‘‘The Films of Peter Kubelka,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1966–67. Mekas, Jonas, Interview with Kubelka, in Film Culture (New York), Spring 1967. Sitney, P. Adams, in New Cinema Bulletin (New York), May 1967. Téléciné (Paris), June 1973. Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), vol. 2, no. 3, 1978. Masi, Stefano, ‘‘Peter Kubelka, scultore del tempo,’’ in Bianco e Nero (Rome), January-March 1984. Sterritt, David, ‘‘Kubelka Makes ‘Music for the Eye,’’’ in The Christian Science Monitor, vol. 81, no. 115, 10 May 1989. *** In 1961 Peter Kubelka was asked to make a documentary about a group of Europeans on an African hunting trip. He accompanied them, recorded many hours of film and sound, and then spent five years editing this material into a most unconventional film. The result, Unsere Afrikareise, is one of the most densely packed 12? minutes in film history, and makes truly extraordinary use of the creative possibilities of sound. Kubelka bases his use of sound on the notion that accompanying an image with its own synchronous sound adds little, and merely imitates nature; rather, he weds an image to a sound recorded UNSERE AFRIKAREISE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1264 elsewhere. These combinations, which he calls ‘‘sync events,’’ are often matched quite precisely in timing and rhythm, as when a gun- shot appears to shoot a hat off a man’s head; or when white and black men shake hands to the sound of thunder. By combining disparate elements, Kubelka makes ‘‘articulations’’ (his words), which fuse separate pieces both rhythmically and thematically in a manner possible only in film. Kubelka’s juxtaposition of images in Unsere Afrikareise follows similar lines. Images taken at different times and places are cut together, often on matched movements, to create momentary illusions of continuity. The images are disparate enough, however, so that the viewer is never fooled. A hunter shakes an African’s hand and we cut to a zebra’s leg, shaking similarly, as if the hunter were shaking it, but the hunter is nowhere in the shot. When the next shot reveals that the zebra is being skinned, we understand that while the hunter was not literally causing the zebra’s leg to move, there was a deeper causal connection between the two shakes. Kubelka’s juxtapositions are anything but arbitrary; they reveal truths inherent in his material. The intensely concentrated quality of Unsere Afrikareise stems in part from the multitude of connections between image and image, sound and sound, and image and sound that Kubelka orchestrated into a unified whole. There is often a temptation to read direct thematic statements in many of the film’s articulations. Editing connections are continually made on the white hunters’ gazes, hand gestures, and gun- pointing, linking those actions to suggest the Europeans’ aggression toward their surroundings. Kubelka’s cuts often suggest that a Euro- pean has just ‘‘shot’’ an African, or the forest itself. The Africans, by contrast, appear as part of nature, rather than separate from it. It would be a serious mistake, however, to limit one’s perception of the film to such themes. What is most extraordinary about Kubelka’s achievement is not the specific connections he establishes between elements, but rather the system that the entire network of connections form. Repeated viewings of the film reveal it as too multiple in its implications to be resolvable into a single interpreta- tion. Thematic results of specific articulations are merely a few aspects of many in the film. Kubelka’s almost musical form estab- lishes a grand relation between virtually every image and sound and every other across the entire film. The resulting multitude of connec- tions is expressive of many, rather than a few, possibilities. The viewer is ultimately led out of time, to contemplate these connections in memory, and to regard the film as if it were a monument erected as a record of civilization, not as a statement on it but as a kind of totem for it. —Fred Camper THE UNVANQUISHED See THE APU TRILOGY 1265 V LES VACANCES DE MONSIEUR HULOT (Mr. Hulot’s Holiday) France, 1951 Director: Jacques Tati Production: Cady Films/Discina; black and white, 35mm; running time: 93 minutes. Released 1951. Screenplay: Jacques Tati and Henri Marquet; photography: J. Mercanton and J. Mouselle; production designer: Henri Schmitt; music: Alain Romans. Les Vacances de Monsieur Hulot Cast: Jacques Tati (M. Hulot); Nathalie Pascaud (Martine); Michele Rolla (Aunt); Valentine Camay (Old maid); Louis Perrault (Boat- man); André Dubois (Colonel); Lucien Frégis (Hotel proprietor); Raymond Carl (Waiter). Publications Books: Carriere, Jean-Claude, Monsieur Hulot’s Holiday, New York 1959. Cauliez, Armans, Jacques Tati, Paris, 1968. Armes, Roy, French Cinema Since 1946, Cranbury, New Jersey, 1970. Mast, Gerald, The Comic Mind, New York, 1973; revised edition, Chicago, 1979. Gilliatt, Penelope, Jacques Tati, London, 1976. Maddock, Brent, The Films of Jacques Tati, Metuchen, New Jer- sey, 1977. Fischer, Lucy, ‘‘Homo Ludens’’: An Analysis of Four Films by Jacques Tati, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1978. Fischer, Lucy, Jacques Tati: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1983. Harding, James, Jacques Tati: Frame by Frame, London, 1984. Chion, Michel, Jacques Tati, Paris, 1987; English translation by Monique Vi?as, Patrick Williamson, and Antonio D’Alfonso, Toronto, 1997. Haberer, Peter, Aspekte der Komik in den Filmen von Jacques Tati, Alfeld/Leine, 1996. Bellos, David, Jacques Tati: His Life and Art, London, 1999. Articles: Weiler, A. H., in New York Times, 20 February 1952. Time (New York), 31 March 1952. ‘‘Mr. Hulot,’’ in New Yorker, 17 July 1954. Mayer, A. C., ‘‘The Art of Jacques Tati,’’ in Quarterly of Film, Radio, and Television (Berkeley), Fall 1955. ‘‘Jacques Tati,’’ in Film (London), September-October 1958. Simon, John, ‘‘Hulot; or, The Common Man as Observer and Critic,’’ in Yale French Review (New Haven), no. 23, 1959. Armes, Roy, ‘‘The Comic Art of Jacques Tati,’’ in Screen (London), February 1970. Thompson, Kristin, ‘‘Parameters of the Open Film: Les Vacances de Monsieur Hulot,” in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), no. 4, 1977. Chevassu, F., in Image et Son (Paris), May 1977. Decaux, E., in Cinématographe (Paris), May 1977. Tuominen, T., in Filmihullu (Helsinki), no. 5, 1978. Prochnow, C., in Film und Fernsehen (East Berlin), vol. 7, no. 9, 1979. ‘‘Tati Issue,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), September 1979. LES VACANCES DE MONSIEUR HULOT FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1266 Codelli, L., in Positif (Paris), May 1982. Magny, Joel, and others, in Cinema (Paris), January 1983. Benson, Sheila, ‘‘Mr. Hulot’s Holiday,’’ in CoEvolution Quarterly, vol. 38, Summer 1983. Carriere, Jean-Claude, in American Film (Washington, D.C.), Decem- ber 1985. Hemming, Roy, in Video Review, vol. 11, no. 4, July 1990. Rimbau, E., in Nosferatu (San Sebastian), no. 10, October 1992. Jullier, Laurent, ‘‘L’art des bruits chez Jacques Tati,’’ in Focales, no. 2, 1993. Maquestieau, K., ‘‘Exit,’’ in Sinema, no. 116, July/August 1993. Segers, J., in Film en Televisie + Video (Brussels), no. 434, Septem- ber 1993. Sope?a Balordi, A. Emma, and Marie-France Lorente, ‘‘Les (autres) vacances de Monsieur Hulot,’’ in Humoresques, no. 6, Febru- ary 1995. Salonen, A., ‘‘Hullunkurinen Herra Hulot,’’ in Filmihullu (Helsinki), no. 4/5, 1997. *** Les vacances de M. Hulot is one of the most radical films ever made—the Sacre du printemps of the movies. If its radicalism has never been fully perceived—it has entertained audiences around the world, rather than scandalize them—it is because Les vacances is a comedy, and everyone knows that comedies aren’t to be taken seriously. But without Les vacances, there would be no Jean-Luc Godard, no Jean-Marie Straub, no Marguerite Duras—no modern cinema. With his 1953 film, Jacques Tati drove the first decisive wedge between cinema and classical narration. To do so, Tati had to return to the prehistory of movies—the age of Lumière, Méliès, Porter, and their anonymous predecessors, before the story-telling priority was firmly encoded in the way films were shot and edited—in order to find a non-narrative way of seeing. The gaze of Tati’s camera is, as in the earliest films, almost entirely innocent: it does not make the value judgements, the selections of one element over another, that force a story out of an undifferentiated world. Tati shoots without prejudice, without priorities; he sees (or attempts to see, within the limits of the frame) everything. Tati pretends that D. W. Griffith never existed. He holds his shots where the classical, story-telling grammar would demand that he cut away to another; he prefers long shots over close-ups, the embracing overview to the significant detail. One of the opening gags in Les vacances involves a group of passengers running back and forth from one train platform to another, misled by the unintelligible announce- ments on the P.A. system as to which track their train will arrive on. Griffith would film the scene with insert shots of passengers’ pan- icked faces, and perhaps cut back and forth between the two tracks to emphasize the suspense—will the passengers make their train or not? But Tati simply mounts his camera on the roof of the station, where he has a clear, downward overview of the whole scene, and films the action in a single, continuous shot. As the group of travellers dashes from the far track to the near, from background to foreground, the shot becomes a kind of warm-up exercise for the film that is to follow: the viewer is led to explore the entire field of the shot, from near to far and from side to side, top to bottom. The viewer learns to direct his attentions for himself; Tati will not make the choice for him. The English version of Les vacances is preceded by a warning: ‘‘Don’t look for a plot, for a holiday is meant purely for fun.’’ The disingenuous wording disguises a serious challenge to the audience— what regular filmgoer would agree that ‘‘plot’’ and ‘‘fun’’ were contradictory terms? For Tati, the renunciation of narrative is a liber- ating act; M. Hulot’s holiday will also be a vacation for the viewer, 93 minutes in which we are free to follow our own impulses, and not submit to the boss’s orders. The story-teller is no longer in charge; there’s no one hurrying us from one event to another, telling us where to look, when to laugh, what to feel. Tati’s film is the exact opposite of ‘‘escapist’’ entertainment, in the sense that it doesn’t relieve us of our own emotions and perceptions. It offers another kind of escape, perhaps a more profound one—an escape from domination, from regimentation—a cinematic flight to freedom. Les vacances has no plot, but it does have a structure. The film begins and ends with images of waves washing onto an empty beach—images of permanence, steadiness, rhythmic motion. The steady, natural rhythm embodied by the waves is echoed in the film’s pronounced alteration of day and night; the film thus acquires a powerful and unique sense of real time marked by natural events. This rhythm is never monotonous—there is also a strong sense of an ebb and flow of energy, of movement giving way to inertia and then regenerating itself. The day belongs to the outdoors—the open spaces of the beach, the sea, the countryside. Morning is announced by the beautiful blonde girl, Martine, standing on her balcony and looking down at the world below. She confers a sort of blessing, and the world comes into motion, energized by the lovely saxophone line of Alain Romans’ theme music. Night belongs to the hotel, with the guests crowded into the tiny lobby, silently reading, playing cards, or listening to the radio. Overlaid on this natural rhythm is the human rhythm of habit—exemplified by the ringing of the noontime dinner bell, but reflected in a dozen specific ways in the behavior of the minor characters—the businessman continually called away to the phone, the English couple out for their promenade, the student lecturing on radical politics. Repetition is a traditional comic device, but in Les vacances, it acquires a transcendent, poetic quality; Tati seems to have captured the heartbeat of the world. The film’s other structuring principle is psychological. The early sequences are concentrated on the beach and the hotel, but as these locations lose their novelty for the guests, they wander further and further afield—to the tennis courts, to a picnic, even (accidently) to a funeral. Sheer boredom—the chief danger that a plotless film invites—is thus incorporated into the film; it becomes a kind of ally, pointing the movie in new directions. Both of these forward impulses— repetition and boredom—are exceedingly subtle; because they oper- ate both on the level of subject (the repetition and possible boredom of a resort vacation) and of style (traditional comic techniques, the need to move to a new situation when the first has become exhausted), they are almost imperceptible. Tati’s own character, the tall, angular, perpetually astonished M. Hulot, is as often a straight-man to the other characters as he is a comedian. Tati doesn’t want to foreground himself as a star or as the center of the humor, because doing so would mean intruding too much on the spectator’s freedom of choice (by the time of the 1967 Playtime, Hulot has almost disappeared). Hulot does not embody the freedom of perception that the film strives for as much as he points the way to it, through his own spectacular failures of perception. Hulot VALAHOL EUROPABANFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1267 does not see (or hear—many of the film’s most imaginative gags involve sound) the same way the other characters do; his curse is to constantly perceive either too little (as when he lights a match in a storeroom full of fireworks) or too much (as when he’s paralyzed by the fear that a wad of taffy will drop too low on its pulling hook). Hulot is unable to control this attention—to focus his look. But in this context, where the other characters have learned to focus their attentions so tightly and narrowly that they are no longer able to see and enjoy the world around them, Hulot’s handicap is a privileged gift; in the land of the one-eyed, Tati suggests the blind man is king. Hulot’s under- and over-perceptions pose a threat to the established social order, which depends on a cramped restricted way of seeing. His misadventures attract those few among the guests—a young boy, an elderly gentleman, and briefly, the blonde girl—who aren’t part of that order, who haven’t yet lost their innocence of vision or who have been able to regain it. With Les vacances de M. Hulot, Tati tells us how we can join them. —Dave Kehr THE VAGABOND See AWARA VALAHOL EUROPABAN Hungary, 1947 Director: Géza Radványi Production: Mafirt, Radványi produkió; black and white, 35mm; length: 2812 meters. Released 1947, Hungary. Screenplay: Béla Belázs, Géza Radványi, Judit Fejér, and Felix Mariássy; photography: Barnabás Hegyi; music: Dénes Buday. Cast: Arthur Somlay (Péter Simon); Miklós Gábor (Boy); Zsuzsa Bánki (Girl); Gy?rgi Bárdi; László Kemény; Leci Horváth. Publications Books: Paimann’s Filmlisten, Vienna, 1949. Gregor, W., and Patalas, E., Geschicht des modernen Films, Gutersloh, 1965. Waldenkranz, R., and V. Arpe, Das Buch vom Film, Berlin, 1967. Articles: Eorsi, I., in Filmkultura, (Budapest), January-February 1977. Dura, M., in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), December 1979-January 1980. Gillisen, Olivier, in Image et Son (Paris), November 1979. Trosin, A., in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), July 1983. ‘‘Hungarian Cinema Section’’ of Filmfaust (Frankfurt), March- April 1984. Filmkultura (Budapest), February and March 1985. ‘‘Geza von Radvanyi,’’ in Variety (New York), vol. 325, 3 Decem- ber 1986. de la Breteque, F., ‘‘Une ‘logistique de la perception’: guerre et representation cinematographique de l’espace,’’ in Cahiers de la Cinémathèque (Perpgnan, France), December 1991. *** Somewhere in the remote region, the war ends. In the midst of ruined cities and houses in the streets, in rural hamlets, everywhere where people still live, are children who have lost their homes and parents. Abandoned, hungry, and in rags, defenseless and humiliated, they wander through the world. Hunger drives them. Little streams of orphans merge into a river which rushes forward and submerges everything in its path. The children do not know any feeling; they know only the world of their enemies. They fight, steal, struggle for a mouthful of food, and violence is merely a means to get it. A gang led by Cahoun finds a refuge in an abandoned castle and encounters an old composer who has voluntarily retired into solitude from a world of hatred, treason, and crime. How can they find a common ground, how can they become mutual friends? The castle becomes their hiding place but possibly it will also be their first home which they may organize and must defend. But even for this, the price will be very high. To this simple story, the journalist, writer, poet, scriptwriter, movie director, and film theoretician Béla Balázs applied many years of experience. He and the director Géza Radványi created a work which opened a new postwar chapter in Hungarian film. Surprisingly, this film has not lost any of its impact over the years, especially on a profound philosophical level. That is to say, it is not merely a movie about war; it is not important in what location and in what period of time it takes place. It is a story outside of time about the joyless fate of children who pay dearly for the cruel war games of adults. At the time it was premiered, the movie was enthusiastically received by the critics. The main roles were taken by streetwise boys of a children’s group who created their roles improvisationally in close contact with a few professional actors, and in the children’s acting their own fresh experience of war’s turmoil appears to be reflected. At the same time, their performance fits admirably into the mosaic of a very complex movie language. Balázs’s influence re- vealed itself, above all, in the introductory sequences: an air raid on an amusement park, seen in a montage of dramatic situations evoking the last spasms of war, where, undoubtedly, we discern the influence of classical Soviet cinematography. Shooting, the boy’s escape, the locomotive’s wheels, the shadows of soldiers with submachine guns, the sound of a whistle—the images are linked together in abrupt sequences in which varying shots and expressive sharp sounds are emphasized. A perfectly planned screenplay avoided all elements of sentimentality, time-worn stereotypes of wronged children, romanti- cism and cheap simplification. The authors succeeded in bridging the LES VAMPIRES FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1268 Valahol Europaban perilous dramatic abyss of the metamorphosis of a children’s commu- nity. Their telling of the story (the scene of pillaging, the assault on the castle, etc) independently introduced some neorealist elements which, at that time, were being propagated in Italy by De Sica, Rossellini, and other film artists. The rebukes of contemporary critics, who called attention to ‘‘formalism for its own sake’’ have been forgotten. The masterly art of cameraman Barnabás Hegyi gives vitality to the poetic images. His angle shots of the children, his composition of scenes in the castle interior, are a living document of the times, and underline the atmosphere and the characters of the protagonists. The success of the picture was also enhanced by the musical art of composer Dénes Buday who, in tense situations, inserted the theme of the Marseilaise into the movie’s structure, as a motive of community unification, as an expression of friendship and the possibility of understanding. Valahol Europaban is the first significant postwar Hungarian film. It originated in a relaxed atmosphere, replete with joy and euphoria, and it includes these elements in order to demonstrate the strength of humanism, tolerance, and friendship. It represents a gen- eral condemnation of war anywhere in the world, in any form. —V. Merhaut LES VAMPIRES France, 1915–16 Director: Louis Feuillade 1. La tête coupée; 2. La bacque qui tue; 3. Le cryptogramme rouge; 4. Le spectre; 5. L’evasion du mort; 6. Les yeux qui fascinent; 7. Satanas; 8. Le ma?tre de la foudre; 9. L’homme des poisons; 10. Les noces sanglantes Production: Film Gaumont (Paris); black and white, 35mm, silent; running time: each part is approximately 40 minutes. Released November 1915 through June 1916. Screenplay: Louis Feuillade; photography: Manichoux. LES VAMPIRESFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1269 Cast: Edouard Mathé (Philippe Guerande, reporter); Delphine Renot (His mother); Louise Lagrange (Jane Bremontier, his fiancée); Jeanne- Marie Laurent (Jane’s mother); Marcel Levesque (Oscar Mazamette); Jean Ayme (The First Grand Vampire, alias Doctor Nox/Count of Noirmoutier/Big Jules/Monsieur Treps/Baron de Mortesaigues/Colonel Count de Derlor); Musidora(Irma Vep/Anne Marie Le Goff/Juliette Bertaux/Mlle. de Mortesaigues/The Viscount Guy de Kerlor/Marie Boissier/Aurelia Plateau); Stacia Naperkowska (Marfa Koutiloff, the dancer); Bout de Zan (Himself); Renee Carl (The Andalusian lady); Fernand Hermann (Juan-Jose Moreno the burgler, alias Brichonnet/ Manuel Arriga); Louis Leubas (Satanas, the Second Grand Vampire, alias The Bishop). Publications Script: Feuillade, Louis, and Georges Meirs, Les Vampires, Paris, 1916. Les Vampires Books: Vedres, Nicole, Image du cinéma fran?ais, Paris, 1945. Sadoul, Georges, French Film, Paris, 1953; revised edition, New York, 1972. Lacassin, Francis, Louis Feuillade, Paris, 1964. Armes, Roy, French Film, New York, 1970. Bastide, Régis, Louis Feuillade, Perpignan, 1987. Lacassin, Francis, Ma?tre des lions et des vampires, Louis Feuillade, Paris, 1995. Articles: Leprohon, Pierre, ‘‘Louis Feuillade,’’ in Radio-Cinéma-Télévision (Paris), 27 July 1958. Beylie, Claude, ‘‘Louis Feuillade,’’ in Ecrans de France (Paris), 15 May 1959. Fieschi, Jean-Andre, ‘‘Feuillade (l’homme aimante),’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), November 1964. Lacassin, Francis, ‘‘Louis Feuillade,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1964–65. VAMPYR FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1270 ‘‘Feuillade,’’ in Anthologie du cinéma 2, Paris, 1967. Roud, Richard, ‘‘Memories of Resnais,’’ in Sight and Sound (Lon- don), Summer 1969. Champreux, J., ‘‘Louis Feuillade, poète de la realité,’’ in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), 1 July 1981. Arnaud, P., ‘‘Les Apparences transitoires,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), 18 June 1986. Niogret, Hubert, in Positif (Paris), February 1987. Oms, Marcel, ‘‘Entretien avec Jacques Champreux,’’ in Cahiers de la Cinémathèque (Perpignan), no. 48, 1987. Beylie, Claude, ‘‘Judex et Les Vampires,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), no. 482, November 1991. Leplongeon, N., ‘‘Les Vampres de Louis Feuillade: une strategie de cooperation spectatorielle,’’ in Iris, no. 17, 1994. Mansoz, Mathilde, ‘‘La face cachée des Vampires,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), no. 547, 1 February 1995. Johnson, William, ‘‘A Short Take on Long Films,’’ in Film Comment (New York), vol. 31, no. 5, September-October 1995. Thompson, Frank, in Film Comment (New York), vol. 34, no. 5, September-October 1998. O’Brien, G., ‘‘Silent Screams,’’ in New York Review of Books, vol. 45, no. 20, 17 December 1998. Callahan, Vicki, ‘‘Detailing the Impossible,’’ in Sight & Sound (London), vol. 9, no. 4, April 1999. *** For French cinema, the years 1915–1922 constituted a period of renewal. A considerable number of young filmmakers emerged with their first works, and the basis of a highly important avant garde movement was created. But the bulk of commercial production continued in a solid and unadventurous way, as if France were still the world’s leading film nation. This time of transition is symbolized by the situation at the Gaumont studios in Paris in 1919, where 46-year- old veteran director and head of production, Louis Feuillade, dressed in his grey ‘‘chemist’s overalls,’’ directed alongside a 29-year-old beginner, the ex-littérateur Marcel L’Herbier, resplendent in his monocle and white gloves. Within this temporary co-habitation of opposites there was, of course, only one direction in which the cinema was moving. But if the early 1920s are aptly represented by L’Herbier’s L’homme du large or Able Gance’s La roue, Feuillade’s Les vampires can stand for much that was the best in French cinema from 1915 to 1916. Feuillade had resumed his role as artistic director at Gaumont after his release from army service in 1915. In addition to making the obligatory patriotic films and the occasional meditation on the horrors of war, Feuillade plunged his energies into the crime series, echoing the success of his own Fant?mas and facing up to the new United States competition, spear-headed by The Perils of Pauline and The Exploits of Elaine, which was on the brink of dominating the French market. The years 1915 to 1920 saw the appearance of five successive series, of which the first and greatest was Les vampires, which appeared at irregular intervals in ten parts, each constituting a self- contained story, between 13th November 1915 and 30th June 1916. Les vampires is strongly conditioned by the circumstances of its shooting. Forced to work quickly and without a smoothly operating studio machine behind him, and confronted with such strong Ameri- can competition, Feuillade had no time to polish his scenarios or even establish a conventional script. The stories pitted an intrepid reporter and his comic side-kick against ever more bizarre and audacious exploits perpetrated by a gang of criminals led by the ruthless killer who was a master of disguise. In contrast to the American serials, Les vampires had a dark-haired villainess, Irma Vep (an anagram of ‘‘vampire’’) played with great relish by Musidora, in place of the innocent blonde heroine. Many of the stories, increasingly impro- vised on the streets around the studio, give the impression of having been started without any clear idea of how they will end. In addition, the pressures brought on by the changing cast of players meant that occasionally even the seemingly indestructible villain had to be suddenly and inexplicably killed off. It is the improvisation and incoherence which give Les vampires its power. Continually we are confronted with moments of total incongruity—a huge cannon is wheeled from nowhere, a whole party of socialites is gassed, an actress killed on stage, and a character is kidnapped by being lured to the window and lassoed from below. Unexpected deaths and resurrections, sudden car chases or rooftop pursuits, secret panels and spooky catacombs follow in a vivid pattern which has clearly been orchestrated by a director who, in continuing in the traditional style, still organizes his action in depth, with the players facing the audience in theatrical style. It is the anarchistic view of society, the supreme disregard of logic—so appropriate when the old social order of Europe was crumbling under the impact of World War I—which led André Breton and Louis Aragon to see in Les vampires ‘‘the reality of this century. Beyond fashion. Beyond taste.’’ —Roy Armes VAMPYR, OU L’ETRANGE AVENTURE DE DAVID GRAY France, 1932 Director: Carl Theodor Dreyer Production: Carl Th. Dreyer Filmproduktion Paris-Berlin; black and white, 35mm; running time: originally 83 minutes, currently 70 minutes, also some copies exist at 65 minutes 11 seconds; length: 2271 meters originally. Released 6 May 1932 in Berlin, also released in French and English versions. Filmed Summer 1930 in Senlis, Montargis, and surrounding areas. Producer: Baron Nicolas de Gunzberg; screenplay: Carl Theodor Dreyer in collaboration with Christen Jul, from the novel In a Glass Darkly by Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu; photography: Rudolph Maté and Louis Née; sound: Dr. Hans Bittmann, synchronized by Paul Falkenberg; art director: Hermann Warm; music: Wolfgang Zeller; dialogue director: Paul Falkenberg. Cast: Julian West, or Baron Nicolas de Gunzburg (David Gray); Henriette Gérard (Marguerite Chopin); Jan Hieronimko (Doctor); Maurice Schutz (Lord of the Manor); Rena Mandel (His daughter Gisèle); Sibylle Schmitz (His daughter Léone); Albert Bras (Ser- vant); N. Babanini (The girl); Jane Mora (The religious woman). VAMPYRFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1271 Vampyr, Ou L’Etrange Aventure de David Gray Publications Script: Dreyer, Carl Theodor, and Christen Jul, Vampyr, in Four Screen- plays, London, 1970. Books: Neergaard, Ebbe, Carl Theodor Dreyer: A Film Director’s Work, London, 1950. Trolle, B?rge, The Art of Carl Dreyer: An Analysis, Copenha- gen, 1955. Bowser, Eileen, The Films of Carl Dreyer, New York, 1964. Dreyer, Carl Theodor, Om Filmen, Copenhagen, 1964. Monty, Ib, Portrait of Carl Th. Dreyer, Copenhagen, 1965. Dyssegaard, Soren, editor, Dreyer, Danish Film Director, Copenha- gen, 1968. Perrin, Claude, Carl Th. Dreyer, Paris, 1969. Sémolué, Jean, Carl Th. Dreyer, Paris, 1970. Milne, Tom, The Cinema of Carl Dreyer, New York, 1971. Ernst, Helge, Dreyer: Carl Th. Dreyer—en Dansk Filmskaber, Copenhagen, 1972. Schrader, Paul, Transcendental Style in Film: Ozu, Bresson, Dreyer, Los Angeles, 1972. Skoller, Donald, editor, Dreyer in Double Reflection, New York, 1973. Nash, Mark, editor, Dreyer, London, 1977. Tone, Pier Giorgio, Carl Theodor Dreyer, Florence, 1978. Bordwell, David, The Films of Carl Theodor Dreyer, Berkeley, 1981. Drouzy, Martin, Carl Th. Dreyer f?dt Nilson, Copenhagen, 1982. Carney, Raymond, Speaking the Language of Desire: The Films of Carl Dreyer, New York, 1989. Jensen, Jytte, editor, The Films of Carl Theodor Dreyer, New York, 1989. Dreyer, Carl Theodor, Dreyer in Double Reflection: Carl Dreyer’s Writings on Film, Cambridge, 1991. Drum, Jean, and Dale D. Drum, My Only Great Passion: The Life and Films of Carl Theodor Dreyer, Lanham, 2000. VAMPYR FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1272 Articles: Close-Up (London), no. 1, 1931. New York Times, 31 July 1932. Viazzi, Glauco, in Bianco e Nero (Rome), no. 10, 1940. ‘‘Special Issue’’ of Ecran Fran?ais (Paris), 11 November 1947. Quarterly of Film, Radio, and Television (Berkeley), Winter 1952. Harrington, Curtis, ‘‘Ghosties and Ghoulies,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), no. 4, 1952. Everson, William K., in Cinemages (New York), no. 4, 1955. Neergaard, Ebbe, in Cinemages (New York), no. 4, 1955. Trolle, B?rge, ‘‘The World of Carl Dreyer,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1955–56. Longatti, Alberto, in Bianco e Nero (Rome), no. 5, 1958. Cutts, John, in Films and Filming (London), no. 3, 1960. Weinberg, Herman and Gretchen, ‘‘Vampyr—an Interview with Baron de Gunzburg,’’ in Film Culture (New York), no. 32, 1964. Kelman, Ken, ‘‘Dreyer,’’ in Film Culture (New York), no. 35, 1965. Bond, Kirk, ‘‘The World of Carl Dreyer,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berke- ley), Fall 1965. Milne, Tom, ‘‘Darkness and Light: Carl Theodor Dreyer,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1965. Chevallier, Jacques, in Image et Son (Paris), no. 221, 1968. ‘‘Special Issue’’ of Kosmorama (Copenhagen), June 1968. ‘‘Dreyer Issue’’ of Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), December 1968. Malmkjaar, Poul, in Kosmorama (Copehagen), no. 102, 1971. Vaughan, Dai, ‘‘Carl Dreyer and the Theme of Choice,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1974. Petric, Vlada, ‘‘Dreyer’s Concept of Abstraction,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1975. Nash, Mark, ‘‘Vampyr and the Fantastic,’’ in Screen (London) no. 3, 1976. Vampyr Issue of Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), May 1979. Prawer, S. S., ‘‘Book into Film—Dreyer’s Vampyr,’’ in Caligari’s Children: The Film as Tale of Terror, New York and Oxford, 1980. Carroll, N., ‘‘Notes on Dreyer’s Vampyr,’’ in Persistence of Vision (Maspeth, New York), no. 8, 1990. Thompson, Frank, in American Film, vol. 15, no. 6, March 1990. Arecco, S., ‘‘La piega barocca del vampiro,’’ in Filmcritica (Rome), May 1993. Megahey, L., ‘‘The Wonderful Face,’’ in Sight & Sound (London), vol. 3, no. 7, July 1993. Larsen, Paul, ‘‘I Dreyers v?v,’’ in Kosmorama (Copenhagen), vol. 41, no. 212, Summer 1995. Senn, B., ‘‘The Enigma of Vampyr,’’ in Midnight Marquee (Balti- more), no. 49, Summer 1995. *** There is a small handful of films that can only be accepted on their own terms, redefining as they do audience, even formalist expecta- tion. The boundaries between subjective and objective camera, the chronological link inherent in editing, such as cross-cutting, assump- tions made in relation to point of view or even a single shot, the logic of straight narrative—all are blurred. That a film made in 1932, especially, creates such an approach, maintained with aesthetic disci- pline and without a hint of self-indulgence, results in an event. Carl Dreyer was master of such works. Vampyr is one of his finest examples, owing its unusual structure, in part, to the fact that the film was the first he produced independently. The plot has the illusion of simplicity. A young man, David, in one nightmarish evening, stum- bles upon a series of unearthly events. The focus is on a young girl whose life is slowly being drained by a vampire, aided by a sinister village doctor. An early image of a reaper with his scythe, silhouetted, graphically establishes the film’s preoccupation: death, its illusive- ness, its mystery, its threat. Another scene encapsulates its theme, the idea of innocence in struggle, transformed and transforming back, with the curious sensuality beyond simple lust of the forbidden. Leone, wasting away through the vampire’s continued attacks, ob- serves her sister Gisele, first smiles with real affection, then, as the possession begins to take, with the calculated craving for her, another victim-to-be. Her face contorts, her lips pull back to reveal sharp teeth—then it passes. She falls back, a pitiable, vulnerable girl, bled not only by the monster, but by the impotence of those around her. The scene is pivotal to the languorous rhythm; now the pace sharpens. With David’s nightmare (his point of view), he is enclosed in a coffin, and we, too, learn the terror of helplessly watching our own imprisonment, the lid screwed on tightly over us, the vampire’s face peering in with candlewax dripping on the glass lid, then the stake in her heart (which is dismissed in only five brief shots), the havoc created by her earthly release . . . climax. All has been constructed almost mathematically, yet the result is curiously poetic— Dreyer’s gift. The final retribution—David and Gisele walking to- gether in the sunlight—is kept from cliche with cuts to the doctor’s horrific death, being trapped in the flour mill, the gear wheels jamming, the gasping, the smothering. (The idea was ‘‘borrowed,’’ incidentally, for the Harrison Ford film Witness, more than 50 years later.) All is well, yet the shadowy mist remains. One strength of Vampyr is the unfolding of what Ken Kelman described in Film Culture (Winter 1964) as ‘‘emotional images without adequate reason.’’ The plot provides necessary foundation, but the events wrapped around the discovery are as elusive in logical application as those events in our own dreams. Dreyer has filmed an essential dream structure. There is a touch of Victor Sj?str?m’s influence here, a director Dreyer has paid homage to. Both the pervading otherworldliness and his use, in his only film, of superimposition, which creates shadows and presences, is reminis- cent of Sj?str?m’s K?rkarlen (Phantom Chariot), 1920, a film that affected Dreyer profoundly. Everything here underlines atmosphere; Vampyr is a calculated, sensual nightmare. The air is misted greys and whites (black gauze over the lens), the gait of the characters is a glide, a floating. Night and day are confused. The dialogue is minimal, voices often muffled, odd snatches of conversation are barely understandable, at times, dislo- cated and difficult to recall—the way it is in dreams. Cries are mingled with an animal’s growl, something disembodied calling, or a strain of music. Photographer Rudolph Mate’s camera has become almost a force on its own, not just a recorder, moving before a character, after a noise. If a sound is heard off-screen, Dreyer allows a moment of suspense before showing its source, so awareness is seemingly predestined. His famed, delicately honed sensibility and his self-critical aesthetic nature paid off in exceptional visual intui- tion; each shot has the stamp of unusual deliberation, with long, slow pans, even simple reaction shots, and tracking shots. There were no specially built sets—the film was shot in a derelict ice-factory, a deserted chateau, and a plasterworks—and, with two exceptions, no professional actors. The characters are ‘‘ordinary’’ people and could be any of us, which makes the identification with the emotional turmoil that much more effective. The vampire is an IL VANGELO SECONDO MATTEOFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1273 elderly, rather dignified Frenchwoman (interestingly, her dress ech- oes that of a Lutheran pastor), the young David (under the pseudonym Julian West) is Baron von Gunzburg, the film’s backer, who couldn’t act but could wander, perfect for the impersonal, impassive dreamer, vacant, to be impressed upon. Only the sister, Gisele, and her father are professionals. With an essentially passive hero who experiences events—acting as manifestations of the unconscious—Vampyr has something in common with The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1919) with it’s framing story, but there the similarity ends. While Herman Warm was the art designer of both films, and several scenes in the Danish film are reminiscent of the earlier German one, Caligari’s expressionism was proper: exaggerated acting, stylised movement and distorted sets, photographed theatre. In his book Transcendental Style, Paul Schrader refers to Vampyr as ‘‘an exclusively expressionistic film,’’ without a trace of kammerspiel (‘‘chamber play’’). I don’t agree. The Nordic sober-mindedness and ‘‘weighty psychological intent’’ lent itself effectively to several of the latter’s ingredients: intimate, slow-paced drama, with a deliberate symbolism and rhythm—the four walls of kammerspiel is certainly extended, but there is at times a suffocating intimacy nonetheless. Caligari was theatre, in shards of black and white, but Vampyr is filmic in its purest sense, its phenomenal lighting accentuating the otherworldliness, the myriad vague greys, mirroring the dream-states within, blurred, shaded. Vampyr combines elements of both expressionism and kammerspiel; Dreyer was no rigid formalist, but experimented successfully with different styles in all of his major works. With the last scene combining the doctor stifled by cascades of flour with the wandering of the two now-less-innocent figures still in mist, out of the nightmare, Jonathan Rosenbaum writes that Dreyer has created ‘‘an exalted realm where the natural and supernatural, the physical and the metaphysical, can breathe the same enlightened air.’’ —Jane Ehrlich IL VANGELO SECONDO MATTEO (The Gospel According to St. Matthew) Italy-France, 1964 Director: Pier Paolo Pasolini Production: Arco Film (Italy) and C.C.F. Lux (Paris); black and white, 35mm; running time: 142 minutes; English version is 136 minutes and French version is 130 minutes. Released 1964, Italy. Filmed in Calabria, Lucania, and Puglia (southern Italy). (Note: the word ‘‘Saint’’ was used in English version against Pasolini’s wishes.) Producer: Alfredo Bini; executive producer: Manolo Bolognini; screenplay: Pier Paolo Pasolini, from ‘‘The Gospel According to St. Matthew’’ in the New Testament; photography: Tonino Delli Colli; editor: Nino Baragli; sound: Mario Del Pezzo; art director: Luigi Scaccianoce; music: Luis Enriquez Bacalov; other music: selections Il Vangelo secondo Matteo by Johann Sebastian Bach, Sergei Sergeevich Prokofiev, Wolfgang Mozart, and Anton Webern; special effects director: Ettore Catallucci; costume designer: Danilo Donati. Cast: Enrique Irazoqui (Jesus Christ); Margherita Caruso (Mary, as a girl); Susanna Pasolini (Mary, as a woman); Marcello Morante (Joseph); Mario Socrate (John the Baptist); Settimo Di Porto (Peter); Otello Sestili (Judas); Ferruccio Nuzzo (Matthew); Giacomo Morante (John); Alfonso Gatto (Andrew); Enzo Siciliano (Simon); Giorgio Agamben (Philip); Guido Cerretani (Bartholomew); Luigi Barbini (James, son of Alpheus); Marcello Galdini (James, son of Zebedec); Elio Spaziani (Thaddeus); Rosario Migale (Thomas); Rodolfo Wilcock (Caiaphas); Alessandro Tasca (Pontius Pilate); Amerigo Becilacqua (Herod); Francesco Leonetti (Herod Antipas); Franca Cupane (Herodias); Paola Tedesco (Salome); Rossana Di Rocco (Angel); Eliseo Boschi (Joseph of Arimathea); Natalia Ginzburg (Mary of Bethany); Renato Terra (A Pharisee); Enrio Maria Salerno (Voice of Jesus). Awards: Venice Film Festival, Special Jury Prize; Catholic Film Office award, 1964. Publications Script: Pasolini, Pier Paolo, I1 Vangelo secondo Matteo, Milan, 1964. IL VANGELO SECONDO MATTEO FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1274 Books: Stack, Oswald, editor, Pasolini on Pasolini, London, 1969. Gervais, Marc, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Paris, 1973. Siciliano, Enzo, Vito di Pasolini, Milan, 1978; as Pasolini: A Biogra- phy, New York, 1982. Bertini, Antonio, Teoria e tecnica del film in Pasolini, Rome, 1979. Snyder, Stephen, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Boston, 1980. Bergala, Alain, and Jean Narboni, editors, Pasolini cinéaste, Paris, 1981. Gerard, Fabien S., Pasolini; ou, Le Mythe de la barbarie, Brus- sels, 1981. Boarini, Vittorio, and others, Da Accatone a Salo: 120 scritti sul cinema di Pier Paolo Pasolini, Bologna, 1982. De Giusti, Luciano, I film di Pier Paolo Pasolini, Rome, 1983. Carotenuto, Aldo, L’autunno della coscienza: Ricerche psicologiche su Pier Paolo Pasolini, Turin, 1985. Schweitzer, Otto, Pier Paolo Pasolini: Mit Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten, Hamburg, 1986. Klimke, Cristoph, Kraft der Vergangenheit: Zu Motiven der Filme von Pier Paolo Pasolini, Frankfurt, 1988. Greene, Naomi, Pier Paolo Pasolini: Cinema as Heresy, Prince- ton, 1990. Jewell, Keala, The Poiesis of History: Experimenting with Genre in Postwar Italy, Ithaca, 1992. Viano, Maurizio, Certain Realism: Making Use of Pasolini’s Film Theory and Practice, Berkeley, 1993. Rumble, Patrick, and Bart Testa, Pier Paolo Pasolini: Contemporary Perspectives, Toronto, 1994. Rohdie, Sam, Passion of Pier Paolo Pasolini, Bloomington, 1995. Ward, David, A Poetics of Resistance: Narrative and the Writings of Pier Paolo Pasolini, Madison, 1995. Gordon, Robert S.C., Pasolini: Forms of Subjectivity, Oxford, 1996. Bara’nski, Zygmunt G., Pasolini Old and New: Surveys and Studies, Dublin, 1999. Articles: Sussex, Elizabeth, in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1964–65. ‘‘Pier Paolo Pasolini: An Epical-Religious View of the World,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Summer 1965. Kumlien, G. D., in Commonweal (New York), 2 July 1965. Blue, James, ‘‘Pier Paolo Pasolini,’’ in Film Comment (New York), Fall 1965. Butcher, Maryanne, ‘‘Greatest Story Ever Told . . . By a Commu- nist,’’ in Film Comment (New York), Fall 1965. Hitchens, Gordon, ‘‘Pier Paolo Pasolini and the Art of Directing,’’ in Film Comment (New York), Fall 1965. Jordan, Rene, in Films in Review (New York), January 1966. Walsh, M., in America (New York), 26 February 1966. Kauffmann, Stanley, in New Republic (New York), 22 March 1966. Whitehall, Richard, in Cinema (London), July 1966. Bragin, J., ‘‘A Conversation in Rome,’’ in Film Culture (New York), Fall 1966. Thomas, John, in Film Society Review (New York), December 1966. Maakaroun, E., in Etudes Cinématographiques (Paris), no. 109–111, 1976. Feringer, F. R., in Film Society Review (New York), April 1967. Durgnat, Raymond, in Films and Filming (London), June 1967. Orto, N., ‘‘Il rapporto mito-realta nell’itinerario di Pasolini,’’ in Cinema Nuovo (Bari), November-December 1977. Hahn, I., in Filmkultura (Budapest), November-December 1979. Escobar, R., ‘‘Pasolini e la dialettica dell’irrealizzabile,’’ in Bianco e Nero (Rome), July-September 1983. ‘‘Il Vangelo secondo Matteo Section’’ of Filmkultura (Budapest), March 1986. Pezzotta, A., ‘‘Io sono una forza del passato,’’ in Filmcritica (Rome), October-November 1988. Pescatore, G., ‘‘La grana del cinema,’’ in Cinema & Cinema (Bolo- gna), January-August 1989. Jorgensen, L.N., ‘‘Jesus pa film: en balancegang mellem afmagt og overmod,’’ in Kosmorama (Copenhagen), vol. 35, no. 187, Spring 1989. Douin, Jean-Luc, ‘‘Pasolini, touché par la grace/ L’évangile selon saint Matthieu,’’ in Télérama (Paris), no. 2255, 31 March 1993. Beylot, Pierre, ‘‘Pasolini, du réalisme au mythe,’’ in Cinemaction (Conde-sur-Noireau), no. 70, January 1994. Castoro Cinema (Milan), no. 166, July/August 1994. Sitney, P. Adams, ‘‘Three Filmmakers as Culture Heroes,’’ in Yale Review, vol. 82, no. 4, October 1994. Beylie, C., ‘‘Trois visages du Christ,’’ in Cinemaction (Conde-sur- Noireau), vol. 80, no. 3, 1996. Warren, P., ‘‘Le Christ n’est pas a son aise au cinema,’’ in Cinemaction (Conde-sur-Noireau), vol. 80, no. 3, 1996. *** Pier Paolo Pasolini was one of the most controversial and fascinat- ing of modern Italian filmmakers, and his films covered a wide variety of subjects and cinematic styles. He once described himself appropriately as a pasticheur, one who selected ‘‘items, objects and even styles from here and there.’’ A writer, poet, critic, and filmmaker, as well as an avowed Marxist, atheist, and homosexual, it is ironic that Pasolini made what many hailed as ‘‘the best life of Jesus Christ ever placed on film.’’ The Gospel According to St. Matthew is the exact antithesis of Hollywood-produced biblical spectacles: a stark, aus- tere, realistic, almost documentary re-enactment of the story of Christ. Pasolini was drawn to St. Matthew’s Gospel because he found it ‘‘rigorous, demanding and absolute’’ as opposed to Mark’s version, which was ‘‘too obviously written for people of little education’’; or Luke who was ‘‘too literary and mellifluous’’; or John who was ‘‘too much a mystic to be transmitted visually.’’ Pasolini chose to use the dialogue intact from Matthew, using a ‘‘standard Catholic translation to avoid polemics,’’ with two exceptions from Isaiah: one where Christ is walking with the Apostles in Calabria prior to the investiture of Peter, and the other where Christ dies. Pasolini was quick to point out that ‘‘the whole of Matthew is full of quotes from Isaiah, so I felt that was fair enough.’’ This is not to say that Pasolini simply presented a literal translation of Matthew’s text. His interpretation is a molding of that narrative with changes in chronology, some omissions, and some inventions, such as his version of Salome’s dance. When he first began to shoot the film, Pasolini used the same ‘‘reverential’’ camera technique he had used with Accatone, but suddenly realized that approach was ‘‘gilding the lily.’’ After just two days, he thought of abandoning the project, then opted for a technique comparable to cinéma vérité, using VARIETEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1275 a hand-held camera and zoom shots to create a documentary-like realism. For the physical background of the film, Pasolini used the impov- erished landscape and villages of southern Italy, which he found to be analogous to those of Palestine where he had visited prior to making the film. For the background music, he chose an electric combination that complimented his unorthodox approach to the film as a whole. The major contribution to the successful sense of realism was his use of non-professionals as actors. On many occasions Pasolini had said, ‘‘I choose actors because of what they are as human beings, not because of what they can do . . . I steal from them; I use their reality.’’ He particularly wanted no recognizable stars doing cameo turns in this interpretation of Christ’s story, so his actors came from various walks of life. ‘‘Judas is a Roman truck driver,’’ he said. ‘‘The Virgin Mary is my mother. Joseph is a lawyer and John the Baptist is a poet. I pick them for what they are; I ask them to play themselves.’’ Likewise, for the pivotal role of Jesus Christ, Pasolini selected Enrique Irazoqui, a student from Barcelona who was visiting Rome. His voice was then dubbed in Italian by Enrico Maria Salerno. Pasolini set out to create a ‘‘purely poetical and natural, non- denominational’’ version of the life of Christ and, despite his reputa- tion as a Marxist and atheist, the critical reception was highly favorable, with some claiming it to be the finest biblical film ever made. Especially cited were the wonderful faces of the non-actors and Pasolini’s pictorial recreation of tableaux inspired by the works of such painters as Botticelli, Rouault, Masaccio, and Piero della Francesca. As a self-proclaimed non-believer, Pasolini had castigated the dying Pope Pius XII, and stated later that had Pius lived three or four more years he would never have been allowed to make this film. In gratitude for the new climate brought about by the new pope, The Gospel According to St. Matthew is dedicated to ‘‘the dear, familiar memory of John XXIII.’’ —Ronald Bowers THE VANISHING See SPOORLOOS VARIETE (Variety) Germany, 1925 Director: E. A. Dupont Production: Universum-Film-Aktiengesellschaft (Ufa); black and white, 35mm, silent; length: 2844 meters. Producer: Erich Pommer; screenplay: Leo Birinski and E. A. Dupont, from the novel Der Eid des Stefan Huller by Felix Holl?nder; photography: Karl Freund; production designer: Oscar F. Werndorff; music: Ern? Rappdée. Cast: Emil Jannings (Boss Huller); Lya de Putti (Berthe-Marie); Warwick Ward (Artinelli); Maly Delschaft (Boss’s wife); Georg John (Sailor); Kurt Gerron (Docker); Paul Rehkopf; Charles Lincoln (Actor). Publications Books: Mitry, Jean, Emil Jannings, Paris, 1927. Moussinac, Leon, Panoramique du Cinéma, Paris, 1929. Jacobs, Lewis, The Rise of the American Film, New York, 1939. Kracauer, Siegfried, From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological His- tory of the German Film, Princeton, 1947. Arnheim Rudolf, Film as Art, Berkeley, 1957. Eisner, Lotte, The Haunted Screen, Berkeley, 1969. Manvell, Roger, and Heinrich Fraenkel, The German Cinema, New York, 1971. Klinowski, Jacek, and Adam Garbicz, editors, Cinema, The Magic Vehicle: A Guide to Its Achievement: Journey One: The Cinema Through 1949, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1975. Monaco, Paul, Cinema and Society: France and Germany during the Twenties, New York, 1976. Bretschneider, Jürgen, Ewald André Dupont: Autor und Regisseur, Munich, 1992. Articles: New York Times, 28 June 1926. Variety (New York), 30 June 1926. New Republic (New York), 28 July 1926. Leprohon, Pierre, ‘‘Le Cinéma allemand,’’ in Rouge et le Noir (Paris), July 1928. Potamkin, Harry, ‘‘The Rise and Fall of the German Film,’’ in Cinema, April 1930. Crisler, B. C., ‘‘The Friendly Mr. Freund,’’ in New York Times, 21 November 1937. Luft, Herbert, ‘‘Karl Freund,’’ in Films in Review (New York), February 1963. Deschner, Donald, ‘‘Karl Freund,’’ in Cinema (Beverley Hills), no. 4, 1969. Truscott, Harold, ‘‘Emil Jannings—A Personal View,’’ in Silent Picture (London), Autumn 1970. Luft, Herbert, ‘‘E. A. Dupont, 1891–1956,’’ in Anthologie du Cinéma 6, Paris, 1971. Combs, Richard, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), July 1979. Magill’s Survey of Cinema: Silent Films, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1982. *** Variety is one of the most significant films of the silent era, a work of technical expertise that liberated the stationary camera. It is VARIETE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1276 Variete a stunning example of montage, with overlapping dissolves perfectly executed—prior to the invention of the optical printing process. The storyline of Variety is standard: on one level, the film is just a predictable melodrama, with characters who are more types than three-dimensional personalities. Middle-aged trapeze artist Emil Jannings leaves wife and child for a younger woman. He is cuckolded and later jailed for murdering her lover. The scenario unravels in flashback, as Jannings tells the warden his tragedy. (This character is a sexual victim, a fate shared by Professor Unrath in The Blue Angel and August Schiller in The Way of All Flesh—roles also played by Jannings.) In Variety, the ordinary becomes the extraordinary in that the film is a technical tour de force, highlighted by exceptional editing and unusually striking camera movements and angles. Cinematographer Karl Freund’s camera is flexible. He even sets it on a trapeze, photographing from a swinging position the actors’ expressions of feelings. The camera becomes the conscience of the characters, who exist in a world of phoney glamor, two-bit circuses and decadent music halls, and, finally, in the case of Jannings, a cheerless prison. As the scenario unravels, the cutting from shot to shot suggests the changes in their points of view. There is also a superior use of subjective camera, allowing the audience to be involved in the action. As an acrobat plunges to his death, the camera drops from a high wire directly into the faces of the collectively frightened members of the audience. Dramatic tension is enhanced by low-angle shots, and multiple exposures. While directing a season of vaudeville in Mannheim, E. A. Dupont was summoned by Erich Pommer to the UFA studio to direct Variety. Originally, F. W. Murnau was set to make the film but, according to Freund, Pommer felt he lacked the appropriate passion for the project. Dupont had originally wanted to shoot the film utilizing mostly compositional shots; it was Freund’s input that convinced the filmmaker to perfect the method that made Variety so extraordinary. In this regard, Variety is as much a work of art by Karl Freund as E. A. Dupont. The cinematographer was a master of lighting and move- ment: he had also shot The Last Laugh for Murnau (also starring Jannings), Metropolis for Fritz Lang, and later such Hollywood classics as Dracula, Camille, The Good Earth, Pride and Prejudice, and Key Largo. Variety breaks away from the Expressionist cinema then popular in Germany, and can be seen as the official starting point of an era that became increasingly characterized by realism. But the characters still exist in a quite unreal environment. The film is EL VERDUGOFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1277 a psychological drama, with action based not on externals but thoughts and feelings. Variety was an international hit; particularly in the United States, the film was both a critical and commercial smash. Most significant of all, it served as a model for an entire generation of filmmakers. —Rob Edelman VENGEANCE IS MINE See FUKUSHU SURU WA WARE NI ARI EL VERDUGO (Not on Your Life) Italy-Spain, 1964 Director: Luis García Berlanga Production: Naga Films (Italy) and Zebra Films (Spain); black and white, 35mm; running time: 110 minutes, English version is 90 minutes. Released February 1964, Madrid. Screenplay: Luis García Berlanga, Rafael Azcona, and Ennio Flaiano; photography: Tonino Delli Conti; editor: Alfonso Santacana; art director: José Antonio de la Guerra; music: Miguel Asins-Arbo. Cast: Nino Manfredi (José Luis); Emma Penella (Carmen); José Luis López Vásquez (Antonio); Angel Alvarez (Alvarez); José Isbert (Amedeo); María Luisa Ponte (Stefania); Guido Alberti (Governor of Prison); Maruja Isbert (Ignazia); Félix Fernández (1st Sacristan); Alfredo Landa (2nd Sacristan); José Luis Coll (Organist). Publications Books: Galan, Diego, Carta abierta a Berlanga, Huelva, 1978. Santolaya, Ernesto, Luis G. Berlanga, Victoria, 1979. Pérez Perucha, Julio, Sobre Luis G. Berlanga, Valencia 1980. Hopewell, John, Out of the Past: Spanish Cinema after Franco, London, 1987. Articles: Cobos, J., ‘‘The Face of ‘63—Spain,’’ in Films and Filming (Lon- don), October 1963. Durgnat, Raymond, in Films and Filming (London), November 1965. El Verdugo Deneroff, Harvey, in Film Society Review (New York), April 1966. Hernandez, J., ‘‘Luis Berlanga aujourd’hui et hier,’’ in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), April-May 1979. Guarnier, José Luis, ‘‘Luis G. Berlanga,’’ in International Film Guide 1981, London, 1982. Kovacs, K. S., ‘‘Berlanga Life Size,’’ in Quarterly Review of Film Studies (New York), Spring 1983. Riambau, Esteve, ‘‘Une Chronique noir sur le franquisme: El Verdugo,’’ in Cahiers de la Cinémathèque (Perpignan), Winter 1984. Bagh, P. von, ‘‘Pyoveli,’’ in Filmihullu (Helsinki), no. 6, 1995. ‘‘Le bourreau (El verdugo),’’ in a special issue of Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), no. 465, October 1997. *** El verdugo was the eighth feature film written and directed by Luis García Berlanga in collaboration with his longtime associate, Rafael Azcona. The story pivots upon the fate of a pleasant, if somewhat timid, young undertaker whose dream is to go to Germany and become a mechanic. This dream is thwarted when he happens to meet the executioner in a prison where both of them are plying their trade. In spite of the aversion that the young man (and everyone else) feels for the executioner, he not only ends up marrying the execu- tioner’s daughter, but even takes over his father-in-law’s business. El verdugo is a farce or domestic comedy filled with macabre touches and scenes of black humor in which the taboos associated with death are transgressed. Even the actual mode of execution is the VERTIGO FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1278 subject of morbid jokes as the executioner, who garrots his victims, measures the neck size of his future son-in-law. The film is punctu- ated with these bits of gallows humor as well as with comic reversals that take the audience by surprise. A particularly fine example occurs at the end of the movie when the young executioner is carried kicking and screaming like the victim into the prison where he will perform his first execution. El verdugo shows that the biting black humor that we have come to associate with Bu?uel is, in more general terms, a Spanish characteristic. Berlanga’s irreverent treatment of death is symptomatic of a tend- ency found in all of his movies—to poke fun at pomposity and pretensions, and to deflate generally accepted values and beliefs. At the same time that El verdugo is highly entertaining, it also has a message that was vaguely subversive in Franco’s Spain in the early 1960s. In one sense, the movie is about two outcasts, the undertaker and the executioner’s daughter, both of whom are avoided by every- one. When they join together, it is with the hope of having a better life. But as Berlanga demonstrates, these hopes cannot be realized. Like other Berlanga protagonists, the undertaker becomes caught up in a destiny which he did not choose. He is a victim of innocent concessions made along the way that ultimately lead him to be sentenced to his fate of becoming the executioner. He is the true victim, the one who is strangled in a web of circumstances beyond his control, caught up in the system of justice and retribution that is all encompassing. In the context of Franco’s Spain, the ideological dimensions of this message are clear. As the executioner tells his son- in-law, where there’s a law, someone has to enforce it; someone has to do the dirty work. Perhaps that was Berlanga’s way of saying that in a dictatorial regime, whether they are willing or not, men are coerced into aiding and abetting the status quo. —Katherine Singer Kóvacs VERTIGO USA, 1958 Director: Alfred Hitchcock Production: Paramount Pictures; Technicolor, 35mm; running time: 127 minutes. Released May 1958. Re-released 1983. Filmed in part in San Francisco. Producer: Alfred Hitchcock; screenplay: Alec Coppel and Samuel Taylor, from the novel D’entre les morts by Pierre Boileau and Thomas Narcejac; photography: Robert Burks; editor: George Tomasini; art director: Hal Pereira and Henry Bumstead; music: Bernard Herrmann. Cast: James Stewart (John Ferguson); Kim Novak (Madeline/Judy); Barbara Bel Geddes (Midge); Tom Helmore (Gavin Eister); Henry Jones. Vertigo Publications Books: Amengual, Barthélemy, Hitchcock, Paris, 1960. Bogdanovitch, Peter, The Cinema of Alfred Hitchcock, New York, 1962. Manz, Hans Peter, Alfred Hitchcock, Zurich, 1962. Wood, Robin, Hitchcock’s Films, London, 1965; revised edition, as Hitchcock’s Films Revisited, New York, 1989. Truffaut, Fran?ois, Le Cinéma selon Hitchcock, Paris, 1966; as Hitchcock, New York, 1985. Douchet, Jean, Alfred Hitchcock, Paris, 1967. Simsolo, No?l, Alfred Hitchcock, Paris, 1969. Jones, Ken D., The Films of James Stewart, New York, 1970. La Valley, Albert J., editor, Focus on Hitchcock, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1972. Durgnat, Raymond, The Strange Case of Alfred Hitchcock, Cam- bridge, Massachusetts, 1974. Spoto, Donald, The Art of Alfred Hitchcock, New York, 1976. Taylor, John Russell, Hitch, London, 1978. Fieschi, J. A., and others, Hitchcock, Paris, 1981. Narboni, Jean, editor, Alfred Hitchcock, Paris, 1982. Rothman, William, Hitchcock—The Murderous Gaze, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1982. Spoto, Donald, The Dark Side of Genius: The Life of Alfred Hitch- cock, New York, 1982. Villien, Bruno, Hitchcock, Paris, 1982. VERTIGOFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1279 Weis, Elisabeth, The Silent Scream: Alfred Hitchcock’s Sound Track, Rutherford, New Jersey, 1982. Eyles, Allen, James Stewart, London, 1984. Phillips, Gene D., Alfred Hitchcock, Boston, 1984. Bruce, Graham, Bernard Herrmann: Film Music and Narrative, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1985. Robbins, Jhan, Everybody’s Man: A Biography of Jimmy Stewart, New York, 1985. Burgin, Victor, and others, Formations of Fantasy, London, 1986. Deutelbaum, Marshall, and Leland Poague, A Hitchcock Reader, Ames, Iowa, 1986. Humphries, Patrick, The Films of Alfred Hitchcock, Greenwich, Connecticut, 1986. Kloppenburg, Josef, Die dramaturgische Funktion der Musik in Filmen Alfred Hitchcocks, Munich, 1986. Brill, Lesley, The Hitchcock Romance: Love and Irony in Hitchcock’s Films, Princeton, 1988. Modleski, Tania, The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory, New York, 1988. Finler, Joel W., Hitchcock in Hollywood, New York, 1992. Sterritt, David, The Films of Alfred Hitchcock, New York, 1993. Arginteanu, Judy, The Movies of Alfred Hitchcock, Minneapolis, 1994. Boyd, David, editor, Perspectives on Alfred Hitchcock, New York, 1995. Pickard, Roy, James Stewart: The Hollywood Years, London, 1997. Auiler, Dan, Vertigo: The Making of a Hitchcock Classic, New York, 1998. Auiler, Dan, Hitchcock’s Notebooks: An Authorized and Illustrated Look Inside the Creative Mind of Alfred Hitchcock, New York, 1999. Trías, Eugenio, Vértigo y pasión: un ensayo sobre la película ‘‘Vertigo’’ de Alfred Hitchcock, Madrid, 1998. Condon, Pauline, Complete Hitchcock, London, 1999. Freedman, Jonathan, and Richard Millington, editors, Hitchcock’s America, New York, 1999. Harris, Robert A., Complete Films of Alfred Hitchcock, Secaucus, 1999. Bellour, Raymond, The Analysis of Film, Bloomington, 2000. McGilligan, Patrick, Alfred Hitchcock, New York, 2001. Articles: Crowther, Bosley, in New York Times, 29 May 1958. Pett, John, in Films and Filming (London), November and Decem- ber 1959. Agel, Henri, ‘‘Alfred Hitchcock,’’ in New York Film Bulletin, no. 15, 1961. Higham, Charles, ‘‘Hitchcock’s World,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berke- ley), December 1962-January 1963. Sweigert, William R., ‘‘James Stewart,’’ in Films in Review (New York), December 1964. Sonbert, Warren, ‘‘Alfred Hitchcock: Master of Morality,’’ in Film Culture (New York), Summer 1966. Cook, Page, ‘‘Bernard Herrmann,’’ in Films in Review (New York), August-September 1967. Nevins, Francis M., Jr., in Journal of Popular Culture (Bowling Green, Ohio), Fall 1968. Samuels, Charles T., ‘‘Hitchcock,’’ in American Scholar (Washing- ton, D.C.), Spring 1970. Skoller, D., ‘‘Aspects of Cinematic Consciousness,’’ in Film Com- ment (New York), September-October 1972. Silver, A. J., ‘‘Fragments of a Mirror: Uses of Landscape in Hitch- cock,’’ in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), no. 3, 1976. Joyce, P., ‘‘25 Years of Film Interviews: Hitchcock and the Dying Art,’’ in Film (London), November 1979. Bitomsky, Herbert, and others, ‘‘Vertigo—aus dem Reich der Toten,’’ in Filmkritik (Munich), June 1980. Ebert, J., ‘‘Vertigo—The Secret of the Tower,’’ in Framework (Norwich), Autumn, 1980. Peary, Danny, in Cult Movies, New York, 1981. Giacci, V., in Filmcritica (Florence), January 1981. ‘‘Hitchcock Issue’’ of Camero/Stylo (Paris), November 1981. Wood, Robin, ‘‘Fear of Spying,’’ in American Film (Washington, D.C.), November 1983. Andrew, Geoff, in Time Out (London), 1 December 1983. Villien, Bruno, and G. Gourdon, in Cinématographe (Paris), March 1984. Kehr, Dave, ‘‘Hitch’s Riddle,’’ in Film Comment (New York), May- June 1984. Tobin, Y., in Positif (Paris), July-August 1984. ‘‘Vertigo Section’’ of Revue Belge du Cinéma (Brussels), Autumn 1984. Malberg, C. J., in Chaplin (Stockholm), vol. 27, no. 4, 1985. ‘‘Hitchcock Dossier’’ in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), January 1985. Barten, E., in Skoop (Amsterdam), March-April 1985. Frauen und Film (Frankfurt), May 1985. Open, M., ‘‘Fear of Falling,’’ in Film Directions (Belfast), Sum- mer 1985. Gal, P. Molnar, in Filmkultura (Budapest), December 1985. Brown, R. S., ‘‘Vertigo as Orphic Tragedy,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), January 1986. Serenellini, M., in Cinema Nuovo (Bari), January-February 1986. Wright Wexman, Virginia, ‘‘The Critic as Consumer: Film Study in the University, Vertigo, and the Film Canon,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Spring 1986. Miller, G., ‘‘Beyond the Frame: Hitchcock, Art, and the Ideal,’’ in Post Script (Jacksonville, Florida), Winter 1986. Johnson, W., ‘‘Sound and Image,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), no. 1, 1989. Maxfield, J. F., ‘‘A Dreamer and His Dream: Another Way of Looking at Hitchcock’s Vertigo,’’ in Film Criticism (Meadville, Pennsylvania), no. 3, 1990. Braad Thomsen, C., ‘‘Dodens engel,’’ in Kosmorama (Copenhagen), Spring 1990. Leonard, Garry M., ‘‘A Fall from Grace: The Fragmentation of Masculine Subjectivity and the Impossibility of Femininity in Hitchcock’s Vertigo,’’ in American Imago (Highland Park, New Jersey), Fall-Winter 1990. Linderman, D., ‘‘The mise-en-abime in Hitchcock’s Vertigo,’’ in Cinema Journal (Austin, Texas), no. 4, 1991. Groh, F., ‘‘Vertigo’s Three Towers,’’ in Hitchcock Annual (Gambier, Ohio), [no. 1], 1992. Paini, D., ‘‘Au commencement etait le portrait,’’ in Iris (Iowa City), Autumn 1992. Modleski, T., and G. Vincendeau, ‘‘‘Les femmes qui en savaient trop’: un nouveau regard sur Hitchcock,’’ in Cinemaction (Conde- sur-Noireau, France), no. 2, 1993. Reid’s Film Index (Wyong), no. 10, 1993. Chankin, D. O., ‘‘Delusions and Dreams in Hitchcock’s Vertigo,’’ in Hitchcock Annual (Gambier, Ohio), Fall 1993. Poague, Leland, ‘‘Engendering Vertigo,’’ in Hitchcock Annual (Gambier), 1994. VERTIGO FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1280 Hinton, L., ‘‘A ‘Woman’s’ View: The Vertigo Frame-Up,’’ in Film Criticism, vol. 19, no. 2, Winter 1994–1995. Street, S., ‘‘Hitchcockian Haberdashery,’’ in Hitchcock Annual (Gambier), Fall 1995/1996. Bond, J., in Film Score Monthly (Los Angeles), no. 69, May 1996. Doherty, J., in Soundtrack! (Mechelen), vol. 15, September 1996. Hoberman, J., ‘‘Lost in Space,’’ in Village Voice (New York), vol. 41, 15 October 1996. Perry, Dennis R., ‘‘The Imps of the Perverse: Discovering the Poe/ Hitchcock Connection,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury), vol. 24, no. 4, October 1996. Turner, George, ‘‘Hitchcock’s Acrophobic Vision,’’ in American Cinematographer (Hollywood), vol. 57, no. 11, November 1996. Lyons, Donald, ‘‘Notes When Falling,’’ in Film Comment (New York), vol. 32, no. 6, November-December 1996. Morris, Christopher D., ‘‘Feminism, Deconstruction and the Pursuit of the Tenable in Vertigo,’’ in Hitchcock Annual (Gambier, Ohio), Autumn 1996–1997. Brown, Royal S., ‘‘Back From Among the Dead: The Restoration of Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo,’’ in Cineaste (New York), vol. 23, no. 1, 1997. DeRosa, Steven L., ‘‘A Very Different ‘Slice of Cake’: Restoring Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo,’’ in Macguffin (East Melbourne), no. 21, February 1997. Charity, Tom, and Brian Case, ‘‘Dizzy Heights/ The National Alf,’’ in Time Out (London), no. 1391, 16 April 1997. Nochimson, Martha P., ‘‘Amnesia ‘R’ Us: The Retold Melodrama, Soap Opera, and the Representation of Reality,’’ in Film Quar- terly (Berkeley), vol. 50, no. 3, Spring 1997. Ruedel, Ulrich, in Macguffin (East Melbourne), no. 22, May-Au- gust 1997. Redman, Nick, in DGA Magazine (Los Angeles), vol. 22, no. 3, July- August 1997. Johnson, William, ‘‘Enigma Variations,’’ in Film Comment (New York), vol. 33, no. 6, November-December 1997. Lucas, Tim, ‘‘Vertigo: Vertigo Before Hitchcock,’’ in Video Watch- dog (Cincinnati), no. 40, 1997. Ames, Deborah Lee, ‘‘Vertigo: The Nomenclature of Despair,’’ in Hitchcock Annual (Gambier), 1997–1998. *** Not particularly successful at the time of its release, Vertigo has come to be recognized as one of Alfred Hitchcock’s greatest films, where his profounder obsessions are reinforced by his technical inventiveness. It can be argued that Hitchcock’s ‘‘greatness’’ comes only from the accident that his recurring obsession with voyeurism is the topic that best meshes with the ontology of the filmgoing experience. In any case, the longstanding argument over the superior- ity of his British vs. American periods looks to have been settled in favor of the latter. The less savory aspects of Hitchcock’s life revealed since his death come as little surprise if Rear Window, Vertigo, and Psycho are seen as a supreme voyeuristic trilogy. The Peeping Toms in these films progress through ever-greater distress—from the ostensibly healthy (if significantly broken-legged) James Stewart with his telephoto lens in Rear Window through the psychotic Anthony Perkins with his motel peephole in Psycho. If Stewart’s Scotty Ferguson, the private eye in Vertigo, is more fascinating than either, it’s because he’s so precariously balanced between their psychic states. A former police detective who’s devel- oped a pathological fear of heights since being responsible for the fatal fall of a fellow officer, Scotty is institutionalized for a year in the middle of the film after assuming (wrongly) that his ‘‘weakness’’ (as the coroner puts it) prevented him from stopping the suicidal leap of the woman he was hired to protect and with whom he’s fallen in love. The film ends at the moment of her ‘‘second’’ death. It’s as bleak a conclusion as in any American film of its decade; Psycho is a rich comedy in comparison. The voyeuristic impulse behind Hitchcock’s style is most immedi- ately evident in the tourist sensibility that pervades his American films—a tourist will keep his careful distance from the grit of the world. Here, the Golden Gate Bridge, the Palace of the Legion of Honor, Podesta’s flowershop, Ernie’s restaurant, Coit Tower, Fort Point, the Palace of Fine Arts make up San Francisco’s slick surface through Robert Burks’s sharp-edged Technicolor. Hitchcock’s silent film mastery pays off in the scenes involving Scotty’s extended tailing of Madeleine, accompanied by Bernard Herrmann’s haunt- ing score. Vertigo extends this passive, tourist’s world into more intimate levels. The film’s plotline is the hokiest of ghost stories (‘‘Do you believe that someone out of the past, someone dead, can take possession of a living being?’’), but it soon moves into tragedy through flaws wrought by sexual obsession. The highly charged, pivotal scene comes quite late: Scotty has met a woman who reminds him of his dead love (in fact, she is the same woman—her fabricated ‘‘death’’ having been the cover for a man’s murder of his wife). They return to his bachelor apartment after an increasingly uncomfortable afternoon of buying clothes to make the woman resemble her previ- ous incarnation. Judy’s plea, spoken almost to herself, is: ‘‘Couldn’t you like me, just me, the way I am?’’ What looks for an instant like Scotty’s gaze of reciprocated love is instead his revelation of the key for her complete transformation: ‘‘The color of your hair!’’ The scene lurches forward into an ultimate degradation, as Judy agrees to remake her brunette-shopgirl self into the (Hitchcockian) blonde ice- goddess, with tailored grey suit and tightly bound hair. The scene, and the whole film, is the essence of the Hitchcockian sexuality—that is, sexuality only exists as obsession, one that degrades women and literally deranges men. In Vertigo, Hitchcock does manage to be pointed about the ironies of this quest: Scotty looks longingly at other blondes in harsh grey suits even while dining with a vibrant incarna- tion of the woman he ‘‘loves.’’ In a sense, he gets just what he deserves. The film’s genius is depicting such perversity as merely circum- stance-crossed love. In other words, its genius is in revealing the perversity behind accepted ‘‘normal’’ practices. What’s so odd about men redressing their women? Or in women remaking themselves in the adored image? Judy’s plea puts it embarrassingly straight: ‘‘If I let you change me, will that do it? Will you love me?’’ Traditional sexual politics swells into a grand grotesque, a Chinese-box melodrama of tricks and betrayals. The scenario itself is complicated and inconsis- tent, but the repeated motifs in the dialogue (‘‘Please try!’’ ‘‘It’s too late.’’) tie the disconnected love-pairings into the tightest of nets. Hitchcock is typically cruel to plain Midge, with her patient, enduring VIAGGIO IN ITALIAFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1281 love for Scotty. Her explanation of cantilevered brassieres is a woman’s anti-mystery, pathetically commonplace next to Madeleine’s appar- ent possession by the dead. Madeleine’s feigned obsession presages Scotty’s genuine necrophilia. (And, as in Psycho, the psychiatrist can’t strip away the necessary layers—the problem is more than the ‘‘acute melancholia, complicated by a guilt complex’’ offered as a diagnosis or explanation of the problem.) It’s easy enough to appreciate the best of Hitchcock’s films, and to be jolted by them, but Vertigo stands alone in its ability to move audiences emotionally. Perhaps the events are uncharacteristically heartbreaking because both Scotty and Madeline/Judy are caught in another, grander (and almost unseen) male power-play: Gavin’s murder of his wife, his betrayal of his friend Scotty, and his abandon- ment of his accomplice Judy. A bookseller, echoing Gavin’s words (and his actions), tells the tale of the original Carlotta being ‘‘thrown away’’ by her husband: ‘‘A man could do that in those days. He had the power and the freedom.’’ On its visceral level, Vertigo succeeds because of James Stewart’s explosive fury in the climax in the belltower, a betrayed idealist’s fury practiced in his Frank Capra films and mastered through his Anthony Mann westerns. It’s remarkable that, considering all its plot twists, Vertigo should work even better after a first viewing. Once the secret’s out, it’s a completely different film, and a better one; no longer a harrowing ghost story, it is a profound study of sexual obsession, tied together by the city that best displays the essential acrophobic metaphor. —Scott Simmon VIAGGIO IN ITALIA (Journey to Italy; Voyage to Italy) Italy-France, 1953 Director: Roberto Rossellini Production: Italiafilm/Junior (Rome), Sveva Films/Ariane/Francinex/ SGC (Paris); black and white; running time: 106 minutes, English version 84 minutes, some sources list 70 minutes. Released 1953. Producer: Roberto Rossellini; screenplay: Vitaliano Brancati, Roberto Rossellini; photography: Enzo Serafin; camera operator: Aldo Scavarida; editor: Jolanda Benvenuti; sound recordist: Eraldo Giordani; art director: Piero Filippone; costumes: Fernanda Gattinoni; music: Renzo Rossellini. Cast: Ingrid Bergman (Katherine Joyce); George Sanders (Alexander Joyce); Maria Mauban (Marie); Paul Muller (Paul Dupont); Leslie Daniels (Tony Burton); Natalia Ray (Natalia Burton); Anna Proclemer (Prostitute); Jackie Frost (Judy); Lyla Rocco (Miss Sinibaldi, Judy’s friend); Bianca Maria Cesaroli (Judy’s other friend). Publications Script: Rossellini, Roberto, and others, Voyage to Italy (in English and French), in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), June 1987. Books: Hovald, Patrice, Roberto Rossellini, Paris, 1958. Steele, Joseph Henry, Ingrid Bergman, London, 1960. Mida, Massimo, Roberto Rossellini, Paris, 1961. Verdone, Mario, Roberto Rossellini, Paris, 1963. Sarris, Andrew, Interviews with Film Directors, New York, 1967. Guarner, José Luis, Roberto Rossellini, New York, 1970. Ivaldi, Nedo, La resitenza nel cinema italiano del dopoguerra, Rome, 1970. Quirk, Lawrence J., The Films of Ingrid Bergman, New York, 1970. Armes, Roy, Patterns of Realism: A Study of Italian Neo-Realist Cinema, Cranbury, New Jersey, 1971. Wlaschin, Ken, Italian Cinema Since the War, Cranbury, New Jersey, 1971. Baldelli, Pierre, Roberto Rossellini, Rome, 1972. Brown, Curtis F., Ingrid Bergman, New York, 1973. Rondolini, Gianni, Roberto Rossellini, Florence, 1974. Bergman, Ingrid, with Alan Burgess, Ingrid Bergman: My Story, New York, 1980. Ranvaud, Don, Roberto Rossellini, London, 1981. Taylor, John Russell, Ingrid Bergman, London, 1983. Rossellini, Roberto, Le Cinéma révélé, edited by Alain Bergala, Paris, 1984. Hillier, Jim, editor, Cahiers du Cinéma 1: The 1950s: Neo-Realism, Hollywood, New Wave, London, 1985. Leamer, Laurence, As Time Goes By: The Life of Ingrid Bergman, New York, 1986. Serceau, Michel, Roberto Rossellini, Paris, 1986. Brunette, Peter, Roberto Rossellini, Oxford, 1987. Gansera, Rainer, and others, Roberto Rossellini, Munich, 1987. Rossellini, Roberto, Il mio metodo: Scritti e intervisti, edited by Adriano Apra, Venice, 1987. Rossi, P., Roberto Rossellini: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1988. Bondanella, Peter, Films of Roberto Rossellini, Cambridge, 1993. Rossellini, Roberto, My Method: Writings and Interviews, New York, 1995. Gallagher, Tag, The Adventures of Roberto Rossellini, Cambridge, 1998. Articles: Schèrer, Maurice, and Fran?ois Truffaut, ‘‘Entretien avec Roberto Rossellini,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), July 1954. Variety (New York), 3 November 1954. Truffaut, Fran?ois, ‘‘Rossellini,’’ in Arts (Paris), April 1955. Rivette, Jacques, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), April 1955. Monthly Film Bulletin (London), March 1958. VIAGGIO IN ITALIA FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1282 Viaggio in Italia Tynan, Kenneth, ‘‘The Abundant Miss Bergman,’’ in Films and Filming (London), December 1958. Sarris, Andrew, ‘‘Rossellini Rediscovered,’’ in Film Culture (New York), no. 32, 1964. Casty, Alan, ‘‘The Achievement of Roberto Rossellini,’’ in Film Comment (New York), Fall 1964. Apra, Adriano, and Maurizio Ponzi, ‘‘Intervista con Roberto Rossellini,’’ in Filmcritica (Rome), April-May 1965. Cinema (London), Summer 1971. Wood, Robin, in Film Comment (New York), Fall 1974. Damico, J., ‘‘Ingrid from Lorraine to Stromboli: Analyzing the Public’s Perception of a Film Star,’’ in Journal of Popular Film (Washington, D.C.), vol. 4, no.1, 1975. Beylie, Claude, and C. Clouzot, interview with Rossellini, in Ecran (Paris), July 1977. Lawton, H., ‘‘Rossellini’s Didactic Cinema,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1978. Bohne, Luciana, ‘‘Rossellini’s Viaggio in Italia: A Variation on a Theme by Joyce,’’ in Film Criticism (Meadville, Pennsylvania), Winter 1979. Ranvaud, Don, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), February 1981. Serceau, M., ‘‘Rossellini—le prisme des idéologies,’’ in Image et Son (Paris), April 1982. Amiel, M., ‘‘Ingrid Bergman: Force, dignité, courage,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), October 1982. ‘‘Ingrid Bergman Section’’ of Casablanca (Madrid), October 1982. ‘‘Rossellini Issue’’ of Casablanca (Madrid), March 1985. Nieuwenweg, L., ‘‘De liefdes van Roberto Rossellini: ‘Ik haat actrices, het zijn ijdele wezens,’’’ in Skoop (Amsterdam), Septem- ber-October 1985. Bergala, Alain, ‘‘La vacance du cinéaste,’’ in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), no. 361, June 1987. Faux, A.-M., ‘‘Mises en scènes de la confrontation,’’ in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), no. 361, June 1987. Marie, Michel, ‘‘Un pélerinage esthétique,’’ in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), no. 361, June 1987. Roncoroni, S., ‘‘Pour Rossellini,’’ in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), vol. 361, June 1987. Ostria, Vincent, ‘‘Archéologie de l’amour,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), no. 410, July-August 1988. Truffaut, Fran?ois, ‘‘Roberto Rossellini par Fran?ois Truffaut,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), no. 410, July-August 1988. VICTIMFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1283 Wagstaff, Chris, ‘‘True Stories,’’ in Sight & Sound (London), vol. 3, no. 8, August 1993. Nosei, E., ‘‘Invito al viaggio,’’ in Filmcritica (Siena), vol. 45, no. 445, May 1994. Denby, David, ‘‘Naples, Open City,’’ in Premiere (Boulder), vol. 8, no. 1, September 1994. *** The five films that Rossellini made with Ingrid Bergman between 1950 and 1955 have still to receive their due recognition in the Anglo- Saxon world. The ridicule that was heaped on Stromboli can be largely attributed to the ‘‘scandal’’ of their personal relationship: more specifically, to the shock of the American public (and the critical establishment) on discovering that Bergman, who had become a national icon of female ‘‘niceness,’’ was actually a woman with autonomous sexual desires and professional aspirations. The continu- ing neglect of the films outside circumscribed academic circles must be attributed to the overwhelming dominance of expectations of the ‘‘realistic’’ (something quite distinct from ‘‘realism’’): most obvi- ously, the use of post-synchronization is likely always to remain a problem, with Rossellini’s indifference to the nationality of his actors ensuring that in every version of every film some performers will be patently dubbed. Beyond that (but not unconnected with it) is the uncertainty (a crucial manifestation of the films’ distinction) as to what exactly they are really about. The aim of neo-realism in its early phase was the ‘‘truthful’’ depiction of contemporary social realities in as immediate and unmediated a way as possible. Yet the early neo- realist films (Rome, Open City, Bicycle Thieves, etc.), for all the quasi-documentary ambitions and the frequent use of non-professionals, are always patently acted and are always patently fictions: the ‘‘reality’’ we are invited to scrutinize is a constructed one. Rome, Open City can be seen to draw on a whole array of cinematic conventions, schemata, and stereotypes (one extended sequence even evokes Hitchcock). As he developed, Rossellini seems to have found such a method and aesthetic increasingly suspect, and the notion of ‘‘filming the reality in front of the camera’’ acquires a new dimen- sion. That ‘‘reality’’ (or a significant aspect of it) consists, after all, of a group of actors speaking constructed dialogue. Is Viaggio in Italia a film about a woman called Katherine Joyce (British upper-middle- class, with an undisguised and unexplained Swedish accent) or an actress called Ingrid Bergman? While never directly autobiographi- cal, Bergman’s roles in the Rossellini films invariably make oblique reference to aspects of her life, and Rossellini’s demand for spontane- ity (handing the actors their lines—or simply a rough indication of what they were to talk about—immediately before the take, allowing no time for rehearsal, refusing to permit more than an absolute minimum of retakes) was clearly motivated by the desire that she reveal herself rather than act a character. This clearly troubles our relationship to the character on the screen. On one level, Bergman’s characters are always our primary identification-figures: in Viaggio, we discover Italy as Bergman discovers it, sharing her experiences. Yet identification is constantly disturbed. Scene after scene returns us from what Katherine sees to Katherine seeing it: are we studying ‘‘Italy’’ with her, or studying her with ‘‘Italy’’ as catalyst? Then there is the question of our relation- ship to the film’s Italy (a very selective Italy). On one level, Kathe- rine’s journey is as banal as possible: she is offered all the obvious sightseeing attractions (famous sculptures, catacombs, Pompeii), and the banality is emphasized by the recurrent use of tour guides monotonously reciting their standard commentaries. Yet through (and beyond) the banality Katherine reaches a transcendent experi- ence that transforms her perception of reality—an experience that remains unarticulated in any explicit manner, but which we are invited both to share and to understand. Early neo-realist theory and practice suggest that the movement was strongly committed to the depiction of the material world, of contemporary social/political actuality. What came to obsess Rossellini, however, was the possibility of revealing the spiritual through the strict presentation of the material and physical. The cinema has constructed a whole panoply of signifiers of ‘‘spiritual experience’’: a rhetoric of acting, music, lighting, focus, big close-ups, special effects. Rossellini, knowing that the spiritual can only be implied, never shown, rigorously eschews all such rhetoric, employing the simplest, seemingly transparent methodology. Katherine/Bergman is brought into contact with all those fundamentals of existence from which in our daily lives we try to insulate ourselves: the terrifying power and mysteriousness of nature; otherness; time, transcience, eternity; death. Her experience is conveyed to us obliquely, through the structuring of sequence upon sequence, culminating in her climac- tic utterance at Pompeii (on paper, a line of staggering banality, in its context one of the cinema’s supreme moments), ‘‘Life is so short.’’ The context (which is that of the entire film) transforms a cliché into a felt and lived essential truth. The perfunctoriness of the ending (an apparent religious miracle, paralleled by the ‘‘miracle’’ of the couple’s reconciliation) is often found problematic. It is helpful to recall that Rossellini and Bergman went on to make La paura (Fear), for which Rossellini shot two quite different (and contradictory) endings. As there, the ending of Viaggio is an admission of uncertainty as to what may happen: no guarantee is offered that the couple’s problems have been resolved, or that the reconciliation is more than momentary. One might say that the film doesn’t really end: it just stops. —Robin Wood VICTIM UK, 1961 Director: Basil Dearden Production: Allied Film Makers/Parkway. A Michael Relph and Basil Dearden Production; black and white; running time: 100 minutes; length: 9,000 feet. Released 1961. Producer: Michael Relph; screenplay: Janet Green, John McCor- mick; photography: Otto Heller; editor: John Guthridge; sound: Leslie Wiggins; sound recordists: C. C. Stevens, Gordon K. McCallum; art director: Alex Vetchinsky; music: Philip Green. Cast: Dirk Bogarde (Melville Farr); Sylvia Syms (Laura); John Barrie (Det. Inspector Harris); John Cairney (Bridie); Norman Bird (Harold Doe); Peter McEnery (Barrett); Anthony Nicholls (Lord VICTIM FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1284 Victim Fulbrook); Dennis Price (Calloway); Peter Copley (Paul Mandrake); Donald Churchill (Eddy Stone); Derren Nesbitt (Sandy Youth); Alan MacNaughton (Scott Hankin); Nigel Stock (Phip); Charles Lloyd Pack (Henry); Mavis Villiers (Madge); Noel Howlett (Patterson); Hilton Edwards (P. H.); David Evans (Mickey); Margaret Diamond (Miss Benham); Frank Pettitt (Barman). Publications Books: Hinxman, Margaret, and Susan d’Arcy, The Films of Dirk Bogarde, London, 1974. Hill, John, Sex, Class, and Realism: British Cinema 1956–63, Lon- don, 1986. Tanitch, Robert, Dirk Bogarde: The Complete Career Illustrated, London, 1988, 1990. Articles: Wilson, Cecil, ‘‘Bogarde’s First ‘X,’’’ in Daily Mail (London), 19 August 1961. Times (London), 30 August 1961. Dyer, Peter John, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), Septem- ber 1961. Dehn, Paul, in Daily Herald (London), 1 September 1961. Powell, Dilys, in Sunday Times (London), 3 September 1961. Variety (New York), 6 September 1961. Whitebait, William, in New Statesman (London), 8 September 1961. Cinématographe Fran?aise (Paris), 9 September 1961. Partridge, Bruno, ‘‘Some Chances Taken, and Some Not,’’ in Time and Tide (London), 14 September 1961. Films and Filming (London), October 1961. ‘‘A Plea for Perversion?,’’ in Time (New York), 23 February 1962. Kael, Pauline, in I Lost It at the Movies, Boston, 1965. Film Form (London), autumn 1977. Medhurst, Andy, ‘‘Victim: Text as Context,’’ in Screen (London), July-October 1984. VIDAS SECASFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1285 Medhurst, Andy, ‘‘Dirk Bogarde,’’ in All Our Yesterdays, edited by Charles Barr, London, 1986. Stuart, Jan, in The Advocate, no. 744, 14 October 1997. Lugowski, David M., in Cineaste (New York), vol. 23, no. 3, April 1998. Umland, Rebecca, and Sam Umland, ‘‘The Night Porter / Victim,’’ in Video Watchdog (Cincinnati), no. 45, 1998. *** Victim is one of an impressive series of social problem films that Basil Dearden directed and Michael Relph produced between 1944 and 1963. Stylistically (and morally) they change very little, and to the radical young critics of the early 1960s Dearden and Relph epitomised everything that was wrong with British cinema. Accord- ing to Victor Perkins, ‘‘Their method is to devise a number of stereotypes to represent every possible attitude to the matter in hand. . . . Thus in Sapphire and Victim, Basil Dearden and his scriptwriter Janet Green have produced thriller-problem films that work neither as thrillers nor as examinations of a problem, and particularly not as films.’’ It is hardly a recommendation that Dearden and Relph were smiled on by the industry and liked by the more conservative critics, but now that the heat of battle has died down it is possible to see considerable virtues in their work—a civilised tolerance, a shrewd ability to combine exciting narrative stories with a less than superfi- cial analysis of serious social problems, and a particular ability to probe and prod at English sexual repression. Victim was the second of Dearden’s and Relph’s three collaborations with the talented scriptwriter Janet Green and the first British film to deal seriously and openly with homosexuality. The film takes its cue from the 1957 Wolfendon Report, which recommended the decriminalisation of homosexuality between consenting adults— proposals that were not enacted by Parliament until 1968. In its efforts not to be exploitative and sensational, Victim makes the lives of homosexuals seem sad, drab, pathetic. As one of the despairing victims puts it, ‘‘nature played me a dirty trick . . . tell them there’s no magic cure for how we are.’’ Gay writers like Richard Dyer and Andy Medhurst, while acutely aware of the film’s limitations, have also seen good things in it—particularly Dirk Bogarde’s portrayal of a man whose love, however deeply repressed, is reserved for other men. Stylistically the film is much more distinguished than it has been given credit for. Dearden and Relph—and the veteran art director Alex Vetchinsky—make good use of the opportunity to break out of the studio and explore a hitherto unseen London. The Salisbury, a glittering Edwardian pub in St. Martin’s Lane, well known even then as a gay meeting-place, is used effectively as the focal point of the film’s homosexual community; and Otto Heller’s lighting is superbly effective in creating a world that is always precarious and vaguely threatening. Perkins is right in the sense that all the characters— with the notable exception of Bogarde’s sexually ambivalent hero— are stereotypes, but they are stereotypes who are cleverly deployed to get across the film’s message that homosexuals are ordinary people from all walks of life rather than sub-criminal freaks. Finally, though, it is the relationship between Bogarde and Sylvia Syms that now seems to give the film a dark resonance entirely missing from, for example, the Warner Brothers social problem films of the 1930s. In earlier British films like Brief Encounter, The Passionate Friends, and Mandy, it is women’s sexuality that is the problem, as repressed but passionate women become discontented with their dull, drab husbands. In Victim it is Bogarde who is unable to adjust, tempted away from his dutiful, attractive wife by a passion that is all the more real because it is inappropriate to his career, his status, and his peace of mind. —Robert Murphy VIDAS SECAS (Barren Lives) Brazil, 1963 Director: Nelson Pereira dos Santos Production: Produ??es Cinematográficas L. C. Barreto, Herbert Richers and Nelson Pereira dos Santos; 35mm; running time: 103 minutes. Released August l963 in Rio de Janeiro. Filmed in Alagoas. Producer: Luiz Carlos Barreto, Herbert Richers, and Nelson Pereira dos Santos; screenplay: Nelson Pereiras dos Santos, from the book by Gracialano Ramos; photography: José Rosa and Luis Carlos Barreto; editor: Nello Melli; sound: Geraldo José; music: Leonard Alencar. Cast: átila Iório (Fabiano), Maria Ribeiro (Sinhá Vitória), Orlando Macedo (Soldado Amarelo), Jofre Soares (Coronel); Gilvan Lima e Genivaldo Lima (The boys), and the dog Baleia. Publications: Books: Rocha, Glauber, Revis?o Critica do Cinema Brasileiro, Editora Civiliza??o Brasileira, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1963. Ramos, Graciliano, Vidas secas, Livraria Martins Editora, 32 edition, S?o Paulo, Brazil, 1974. Bernadet, Jean-Claude, Brasil em Tempo de Cinema, Editora Paz e Terra, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 1977. Rocha, Glauber, Revolu??o do Cinema Novo, Alhambra/Embrafilme, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1981. Johnson, Randal, and Robert Stam, ‘‘The Cinema of Hunger’’ and ‘‘Nelson Pereira dos Santos Vidas Secas,’’ Brazilian Cinema, Associated University Presses, Inc., 1982 Johnson, Randal, Cinema Novo X5, Masters of Contemporary Brazil- ian Film , University of Texas Press, Austin, 1984. Salem, Helena, Nelson Pereira dos Santos, o Sonho Possível do Cinema Brasileiro, Editora Nova Fronteira, 1987. Articles: Vianna, A. Moniz, Correio da Manh? (Rio de Janeiro), 22 August 1963. Azeredo, Ely, Correio da Manh? (Rio de Janeiro), 27/28 August 1963. VIDAS SECAS FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1286 Mello e Souza, Cláudio, Estado de Minas (Minas Gerais), 20 Octo- ber 1963. Variety (New York), 25 Decemeber 1963. Azeredo, Ely, Tribuna da Imprensa (Rio de Janeiro), 6 April 1964. Estado de S?o Paulo, 9 May 1964. Lefèvre, R., Cinéma (Paris), November 1965. Petris, M., Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), November 1965. Viany, Alex, Publica??o do Departamento de Divulga??o da Federa??o de Cineclubes do Rio de Janeiro, March 1967. Canby, Vincent, New York Times, 6 June 1969. Conrad, R., Film Quarterly (Berkeley), no. 3, 1971. Johnson, Randal, ‘‘Vidas Secas and the Politics of Filmic Adapta- tion,’’ in Ideologies and Literature III, number l5, January- March 1981. Schild, Susana, ‘‘A Arte de Recriar,’’ Revista IBM (Rio de Janeiro), September 1984. Augusto, Sérgio, Folha de S?o Paulo (S?o Paulo), Nelson Pereira, o pai do Cinema Novo, 22 June 1987. Schild, Susana, Jornal do Brasil (Rio de Janeiro), Nelson por Nelson, 22 June 1987. *** Nelson Pereira dos Santos is rightly considered the father of Brazil’s Cinema Novo movement. With his first two films, Rio 40 graus (1956) and Rio Zona Norte (1957) influenced by Italian neo- realism, he started to sow the seeds of a film industry with a social conscience, resolving to portray the lifestyles of the country’s most disadvantaged populations. His fifth film, Vidas Secas (Barren Lives), acclaimed at Cannes in 1964, together with Deus e O Diabo na Terra do Sol (Black God, White Devil), by Glauber Rocha, firmly estab- lished the Cinema Novo as an innovative trend in cinematography. That said, the relevance and eloquence of Vidas Secas transcend the limits of the Cinema Novo movement. Notwithstanding its distinctly regional placement in the dry lands of Northeastern Brazil and its setting in the 1940s, it shares the timeless universal drama of poverty-stricken landless people who are obliged to move to the big cities in the hopes of a better life. For its piercingly realistic portrayal of this universal problem, Vidas Secas takes its place of honour not only as a masterpiece of Brazilian filmmaking, but on the interna- tional scene as well. The film opens with an extreme long shot showing a stretch of desolate and arid countryside under a beating sun. From the distance a couple, their two children, and their dog slowly approach, heralded by the grating noise of the wheel of an ox-drawn wagon. There is nothing in this scene—the countryside, the light, the obvious poverty of the protagonists, the exasperatingly grating noise of the wagon wheel—to soothe the eyes or ears of the viewer. Its raw realism is transmitted quite naturally and without apology. The economy of the opening shot of Vidas Secas—which will persist throughout the narrative—reflects the perfect harmony between the style of the production and what it sought to portray. It is, in all senses, a frugal film and therein lies its strength. Although the intention with Vidas Secas was to join the national debate on the subject of agrarian reform, Nelson Pereira dos Santos had no need of didacticisms or political language in order to get his message across and, likewise, discarded any sentimentality in the film’s approach to the problem. He based the film on the Graciliano Ramos novel by the same name, which although written in 1938 remained topical in 1964—as it does, in dramatic terms, thirty years on. Among the film’s merits is its fidelity to the spirit of Graciliano Ramos’s text, with its concise style and literary qualities. (A return to the writings of Graciliano Ramos would yield another great moment in the career of Nelson Pereira dos Santos with Memórias do Cárcere, in 1983.) Vidas Secas follows two years in the life of a family whose poverty and limitations are extreme, both in terms of their ability to express themselves and even in terms of their ability to survive. The family consists of Sinhá Vitória (Maria Ribeiro) and Fabiano (átila Iório), two children (acted by the juveniles Gilvan and Genivaldo), and Baleia (whale), the dog. All they possess they carry on their backs, as they search for a little patch of land on which to settle. They come upon an abandoned farm, where Fabiano will work as a cow hand for just over a year. In this time, the family will experience some small advances and many humiliating set-backs, mainly due to Fabiano. Due to his ingenuousness and lack of understanding, Fabiano will be exploited by the owner of the farm, and forbidden by the ‘‘authori- ties’’ to sell his pathetic produce. Goaded by a soldier, Fabiano loses his money at gambling, and ends up in prison, where he is beaten. His only way out would be to join a band of outlaws, at the invitation of a cell mate. This he refuses to do: he is a good man, and wants only to live in peace with his family. Surrender to social rules that are unfair or nonexistent is allied to impotence in the face of the ceaselessly blazing sun, drying up the land and the rivers, producing hunger and thirst, killing people and animals. To portray this desolate scenario, Nelson Pereira dos Santos sought to catch ‘‘the true light of the Northeast.’’ Filming took place under the most natural conditions possible, with no filters, using, as the director explained, ‘‘God’s light.’’ The resulting over-exposure creates a suffocating atmosphere, which on several occasions seems to blind not only the protagonists but the viewer as well. With authenticity and frugality as its touchstones, the camera— often hand held and subjective—reveals the daily existence of a fam- ily that can never be inserted into a ‘‘normal’’ social context, seen, most of the time, through the eyes of its members—including the dog. In its admirable austerity, Vidas Secas is a pungent treatise on aridity. The aridity is in the landscapes, in the hopelessness of the family’s prospects, and in the relationships between the members of the family. It is present also in cruel details, such as in the scene in which Sinhá Vitória strangles the family parrot before cooking it for food, remarking, ‘‘he couldn’t even talk.’’ Ironically, the lack of dialogue is one of the features of the film, true to Graciliano Ramos’s novel. On several occasions, Sinhá Vitória and Fabiano say that they don’t live as ‘‘real people’’ do. The woman dreams of exchanging her bed of dried twigs for one of leather, a bed such as ‘‘real people’’ might have. In a rare attempt at dialogue as they sit by the campfire, Sinhá Vitória and Fabiano actually talk to themselves more than to each other. They rarely touch each other, and their smiles and expressions of affection are directed not at each other but at the dog, which in a further irony, is treated in a ‘‘human’’ way in such an inhuman setting. (The very lifelike scene in which the dog dies inflamed the animal protection societies during the Cannes Festival of 1964. To prove that no murder had taken place, Baleia—a bitch, in fact—was taken to the Festival and accorded star treatment.) The children are also largely silent, except for one of the boys who repeatedly asks ‘‘what is hell?’’ ‘‘It is a hot place, where people go when they are condemned,’’ replies his mother. With extreme sobri- ety and maturity, Nelson Pereira dos Santos showed that hell was in VIRIDIANAFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1287 the dry lands of the Northeast, and is inhabited by thousands of Fabianos and Sinhás Vitória, who make for the big cities in order to become ‘‘real people.’’ They continue to do so to this day. —Susana Schild VIRIDIANA Spain-Mexico, 1961 Director: Luis Bu?uel Production: Uninci S.A. and Films 59 (Spain) and Gustavo Alatriste (Mexico); black and white, 35mm; running time: 90 minutes. Released 17 May 1961, Cannes Film Festival. Filmed in Spain, near Madrid and Toledo. Cannes Film Festival, Best Film, 1961. Producer: R. Mu?oz Suay; screenplay: Luis Bu?uel and Julio Alejandro, from a story by Bu?uel; photography: José F. Aguayo; editor: Pedro del Rey; art director: Francisco Canet; music: Handel and Mozart; arranger: Gustavo Pittaluga. Cast: Silvia Pinal (Viridiana); Francisco Rabal (Jorge); Fernando Rey (Don Jaime); Margarita Lozano (Ramona); Victoria Zinny (Lucia); Teresa Rabal (Rita). Viridiana Publications Script: Bu?uel, Luis, and Julio Alejandro, Viridiana, Mexico City, 1963; in Luis Bu?uel: Three Screenplays, New York, 1960. Bu?uel, Luis, Viridiana: Scénario et dialogues—variantes—dossier historique et critique, Paris, 1984. Books: Kyrou, Ado, Le Surréalisme au cinéma, Paris, 1963. Durgnat, Raymond, Luis Bu?uel, Berkeley, 1968. Aranda, José Francisco, Luis Bu?uel: Biografia Critica, Barcelona, 1969; as Luis Bu?uel: A Critical Biography, New York, 1975. Alcala, Manuel, Bu?uel, Madrid, 1973. Buache, Freddy, The Cinema of Luis Bu?uel, New York, 1973. Bazin, André, Le Cinéma de la cruauté: De Bu?uel à Hitchcock, Paris, 1975; as The Cinema of Cruelty: From Bu?uel to Hitchcock, New York, 1982. Cesarman, Fernando, El ojo de Bu?uel, Barcelona, 1976. Mellen, Joan, editor, The World of Luis Bu?uel: Essays in Criticism, New York, 1978. Higginbotham, Virginia, Luis Bu?uel, Boston, 1979. Williams, Linda, Figures of Desire: A Theory and Analysis of Surrealist Film, Urbana, 1981, 1992. Edwards, Gwynne, The Discreet Art of Luis Bu?uel: A Reading of His Films, London, 1982. Bu?uel, Luis, My Last Breath, London and New York, 1983. Rees, Margaret A., editor, Luis Bu?uel: A Symposium, Leeds, 1983. Lefévre, Raymond, Luis Bu?uel, Paris, 1984. Vidal, Agustin Sanchez, Luis Bu?uel: Obra Cinematografica, Madrid, 1984. Aub, Max, Conversaciones con Bu?uel: Seguidas de 45 entrevistas con familiares, amigos y colaboradores del cineasta aragones, Madrid, 1985. Bertelli, Pino, Bu?uel: L’arma dello scandalo: L’anarchia nel cin- ema di Luis Bu?uel, Turin, 1985. Oms, Marcel, Don Luis Bu?uel, Paris, 1985. De la Colina, José, and Tomás Pérez Turrent, Luis Bu?uel: Prohibido asomarse al interior, Mexico City, 1986. Sandro, Paul, Diversions of Pleasure: Luis Bu?uel and the Crises of Desire, Columbus, Ohio, 1987. Baxter, John, Bu?uel, London, 1994, 1998. Evans, Peter William, Films of Luis Bu?uel: Subjectivity and Desire, Oxford, 1995. Tesson, Charles, Luis Bu?uel, Paris, 1995. Articles: Hull, Davied, in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1961–62. Douchet, Jean, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), January 1962. Rothschild, Elaine, in Films in Review (New York), February 1962. Bu?uel, Luis, in Film Culture (New York), Spring 1962. Riera, Emilio, in Film Culture (New York), Spring 1962. Benayoun, Robert, in Positif (Paris), March 1962. Seguin, Louis, ‘‘Viridiana et les Critiques,’’ in Positif (Paris), March 1962. Sarris, Andrew, in Village Voice (New York), 22 March 1962. VIRIDIANA FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1288 Martin, Marcel, in Cinéma (Paris), April 1962. Lefévre, Raymond, ‘‘Viridiana; ou, Les Infortunes de la Charité,’’ in Image et Son (Paris), Summer 1962. Robinson, David, in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1962. Rotha, Paul, in Films and Filming (London), June 1962. Sarris, Andrew, in Movie (London), June 1962. Vas, Robert, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), October 1963. Milne, Tom, ‘‘The Mexican Bu?uel,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1965–66. Mardore, Michel, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), March 1966. Rowe, Ian, in Screen Education Yearbook, London, 1968. Sarris, Andrew, ‘‘The Devil and the Nun: Viridiana,” in Renaissance of the Film, edited by Julius Bellone, London 1970. ‘‘Bu?uel Issue’’ of Image et Son (Paris), May 1971. ‘‘Bu?uel Issue’’ of Cine Cubano, no. 78–80, 1973. Hogue, P., in Movietone News (Seattle), February 1975. ‘‘Bu?uel Issue’’ of Contracampo (Madrid), October-November 1980. ‘‘Spanish Directors’ Issue’’ of Cahiers de la Cinémathèque (Perpignan), Winter 1984. Steinborn, B., in Filmfaust (Frankfurt), April-May 1985. Roger, A., ‘‘Viridiana ou le Tableau vivant,’’ in Iris (Iowa City), Autumn 1992. Aub, M., ‘‘Gustavo Alatriste parle de Viridiana,’’ in Positif (Paris), no. 391, September 1993. Special Issue of Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), no. 428, Janu- ary 1994. Poulet, J., ‘‘Espace mental et filmique dans le cinema espagnol,’’ in Cinemaction (Conde-sur-Noireau), vol. 75, no. 2, 1995. Castoro Cinema (Milan), no. 59, 2nd edition, January 1996. Larraz, E., ‘‘La vision ironique de don Luis,’’ in Cinemaction (Conde-sur-Noireau), vol. 80, no. 3, 1996. Moine, R., ‘‘Mises en cene,’’ in Cinemaction (Conde-sur-Noireau), vol. 80, no. 3, 1996. Moine, R., ‘‘Je suis athee grace a Dieu: la rhetorique chretienne d’un iconoclaste,’’ in Cinemaction (Conde-sur-Noireau), vol. 80, no. 3, 1996. Elia, M., in Séquences (Haute-Ville), no. 189/190, March/June 1997. *** Viridiana is the most atypical of Luis Bu?uel’s films. If he had set out deliberately to antagonize and shock a whole school of faith, he certainly did it in this film, which, while it was his undoubted masterpiece, concealed a bomb that made it impossible for him ever to return to his native land, Spain. Not that he wanted to. Viridiana was a film he had to make in order to free himself, to let the world know that he was not in idle jest when he broke away from his Roman Catholic faith. The score he had to settle with the Church must have been building for a long, long time. It took over 60 years for him to declare himself utterly free. He was always regarded as the great iconoclast of his time; no director was as unpredictable; but few would have guessed how deep was his hatred for Roman Catholicism. When the Spanish Civil War was concluded and Spain had settled down to a forgiving and let-it-be-forgotten peace, he, as Spain’s greatest film director, was invited by Franco’s minister of culture to return to his native country and make whatever film he chose with the blessing of Franco. Nobody, even his co-workers, knew that he was planning so defiantly an anti-Catholic film as Viridiana. He always worked rapidly once he had begun and, in no time, he had finished shooting his picture and was safely across the Pyrenees, with the whole of his film smuggled out ahead of him. Franco raged, destroy- ing the out-take films deliberately and tantalizingly left behind; he dismissed his minister of culture, and cursed the day he had ever trusted a faithless Spaniard who knew too much for Franco’s good. It was not long before Spain acknowledged that it had been betrayed by its priesthood during the Civil War, and put its trust in its young, who had not seen their country go to the devil in the name of God and Franco. Viridiana is basically the story of innocence betrayed and lost. The heroine, Viridiana, has completed her novitiate and is about to enter the Church forever, when her Mother Superior persuades her to pay a farewell visit to Don Jaime, her uncle, who had paid for her education and entry into the service of God. Although Viridiana consents to the visit, she has always loathed her uncle because he has never shown her the slightest affection. He is very rich, however, and she is persuaded that she must see him one last time before she takes her farewell of the world and its ways. Don Jaime, to her surprise, is affectionate and charming, and lets her know that she is the very image of his dead wife, for whom he still maintains a kind of necrophiliac passion. He has a handsome illegiti- mate son named Jorge, who is attracted to the young and innocent Viridiana, but is willing to bide his time. Besides, he has brought a mistress of his own to his uncle’s estate. Don Jaime is able to drug Viridiana’s wine, and later steals into her bedroom to look upon her as she lies happily unconscious. She is so devoted to Jesus that she wears a crown of thorns and a huge wooden crucifix. She is clothed only in a simple shift. Don Jaime, in a trance, utters his wife’s name, removes the crown and crucifix that the girl wears, and brutally rapes her while she lies senseless before him. Consumed by guilt, he then hangs himself. Viridiana, recovering consciousness, realizes sadly that she is not without guilt herself, for she has blinded herself to the realities of the world; she formally rejects the vows she had made, and returns to the estate she has inherited with Jorge, hoping to make her peace with God. Still imbued with a crippled kind of faith, she takes it upon herself to rescue a band of castaway and diseased gypsy beggars, inviting them to become workers on the land she inherited with Jorge. They work the land lazily, and at night they indulge themselves in one of the most defiant orgies ever filmed. It is sacrilegious if one is a Christian, which Bu?uel was pleased to say he was not. The drunken, diseased beggars stage a supper scene that is a deliberate parody of the grouping in Da Vinci’s painting of ‘‘The Last Supper.’’ They dance grotesquely, entertaining themselves lewdly to the thun- der of the ‘‘Hallelujah Chorus.’’ The picture Bu?uel made of his country’s plight is replete with symbolism of what Spain had become, a warning of what it might be in a world gone mad. The only moral salvation the film hints at is a hope that in a reformed Viridiana and a wiser, less destructive Jorge there may be the seed for a new generation of Spain, cut clean away from the ancient hypocrisies bred in the Church. His heroine comes of age, and realizing the falseness of her onetime faith, pledges herself to a new life that may embrace complete freedom. Viridiana may be a compelling shocker, but it is also a beautifully made picture with wonderful visuals, and the shock it gives may be virtually necessary to its meaning. Bu?uel himself expressed it well when he said, ‘‘The sense of film is this: that we do not live in the best of all possible worlds.’’ He was never afraid to show people how vicious and contemptible they are. When it is all over, Viridiana sits playing cards, listening to rock-and-roll music with her uncle’s VISKNINGAR OCH ROPFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1289 aggressive illegitimate son. But after the cardplaying and the record has come to an end, what then? —DeWitt Bodeen VISKNINGAR OCH ROP (Cries and Whispers) Sweden, 1972 Director: Ingmar Bergman Production: Cinematograph, in cooperation with Svenska Filminstitutet; Eastmancolor; running time: 91 minutes; length: 8,190 feet. Released 1972. Oscar for Best Cinematography, 1973. Producer: Ingmar Bergman; production manager: Lars-Owe Carlsberg; screenplay: Ingmar Bergman; photography: Sven Nykvist; editor: Siv Lundgren; sound: Owe Svennson; art director: Marik Vos. Cast: Harriet Andersson (Agnes); Kari Sylwan (Anna); Ingrid Thulin (Karin); Liv Ullmann (Maria); Erland Josephson (Doctor); Henning Moritzen (Joakim); Georg Arlin (Fredrik); Anders Ek (Isak); Inga Gill (Aunt Olga). Publications Script: Bergman, Ingmar, Viskningar och rop, in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), December 1973. Books: Bj?rkman, Stig, and others, editors, Bergman on Bergman, New York, 1973. Ranieri, Tino, Ingmar Bergman, Florence, 1974. Ho, Thi Nhu Quynh, La femme dans l’univers Bergmanien: Analyse de quatre films d’Ingmar Bergman, Fribourg, 1975. Kaminsky, Stuart, editor, Ingmar Bergman: Essays in Criticism, New York, 1975. Hope, Kenneth Weaver, Film and Meta-Narrative, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1976. Bergom-Larsson, Maria, Ingmar Bergman and Society, San Diego, 1978. Kawin, Bruce, Mindscreen: Bergman, Godard, and the First-Person Film, Princeton, 1978. Marion, Denis, Ingmar Bergman, Paris, 1979. Manvell, Roger, Ingmar Bergman: An Appreciation, New York, 1980. Mosley, Philip, Ingmar Bergman: The Cinema as Mistress, Bos- ton, 1981. Petric, Vlada, editor, Film and Dreams: An Approach to Bergman, South Salem, New York, 1981. Cowie, Peter, Ingmar Bergman: A Critical Biography, New York, 1982. Livingston, Paisley, Ingmar Bergman and the Ritual of Art, Ithaca, New York, 1982. Steene, Birgitta, Ingmar Bergman: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1982. Jones, William G., editor, Talking with Bergman, Dallas, 1983. Lefévre, Raymond, Ingmar Bergman, Paris, 1983. Dervin, Daniel, Through a Freudian Lens Deeply: A Psychoanalysis of Cinema, Hillsdale, New Jersey, 1985. Gado, Frank, The Passion of Ingmar Bergman, Durham, North Carolina, 1986. Bergman, Ingmar, Laterna Magica, Stockholm, 1987; as The Magic Lantern: An Autobiography, London, 1988. Smith, Joseph H., and William Kerrigan editors, Images in Our Souls: Cavell, Psychoanalysis and Cinema, Baltimore, 1987. Articles: Chaplin (Stockholm), vol.14, no. 3, 1972. Film in Sweden (Stockholm), no. 2, 1972. Bergman, Ingmar, extract from diary, in Cinéma (Paris), Decem- ber 1972. Variety (New York), 20 December 1972. Milne, Tom, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), March 1973. Strick, Philip, in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1973. Mellen, Joan, ‘‘Bergman and Women,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berke- ley), Fall 1973. Positif (Paris), September 1973. Le Fanu, Mark, ‘‘Bergman: The Politics of Melodrama,’’ in Mono- gram (London), no. 5, 1974. Gallerani, M., ‘‘L’anima e le forme nella scrittura di Bergman,’’ in Cinema Nuovo (Bari), September-October 1978. Lundell, T., and A. Mulac, ‘‘Husbands and Wives in Bergman Films: A Close Analysis Based on Empirical Data,’’ in Journal of University Film Association (Carbondale, Illinois), Winter 1981. Koskinen, M., ‘‘Det typiskt Svenska hos Ingmar Bergman,’’ in Chaplin (Stockholm), vol. 26, nos. 5–6, 1984. ‘‘Dialogue on Film: Sven Nykvist,’’ in American Film (Washington, D.C.), March 1984. Sitney, P. A., ‘‘Color and Myth in Cries and Whispers,’’ in Film Criticism (Meadville, Pennsylvania), no. 3, 1989. Sitney, P. A., ‘‘Liksom en saga av Broderna Grimm,’’ in Chaplin (Stockholm), no. 3, 1989. ‘‘Bergman, il paradosso di un ‘Ateo cristiano,’’’ in Castoro Cinema (Florence), November-December 1991. *** In the rare company of such films as Marnie and Il deserto rosso, Cries and Whispers fuses its meaning to its controlled use of color. Brilliantly simple, it is a film of reds, even punctuated with red-outs rather than darkening fades. Opening with crepuscular light in the sculpture garden of a 19th-century mansion, the film moves quickly indoors where it settles, with a single exterior flashback, until its epilogue. The house is remarkable for its red upholstery: richly saturated red walls and furnishings set off the white gowns in which three sisters, Agnes, Karin, and Maria, and their servant Anna, dress themselves following the model of their dead mother who appears in a flashback. Agnes lies dying, apparently of a cancer of the womb or stomach. After her death the white motif shifts to black. Perhaps the most brilliant and simple act of color organization comes from the dramatic placement of a final flashback motivated by Anna’s reading in Agnes’s diary (after her death) of an ecstatic afternoon of lush VISKNINGAR OCH ROP FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1290 Viskningar och rop autumnal colors. The natural effulgence is all the more striking for being reserved and isolated at the end of the film. In the film’s dramatic center, where the logic of dreams holds sway, the corpse of Agnes elicits comfort from the three surviving women. Anna alone cradles the dead body in an image that suggests a Pietà, but shows as well a full breast beside the ‘‘dead’’ face incapable of earthly nurture. As Mater Dolorosa, the servant has a religious faith in the liminality of death itself. This is consistent with the very first sight we get of her early in the film, waking and praying beside the fetishes of her dead daughter. An elaborate linkage of gestures, both rhyming and reversing, throughout the film suggests that the different characters are vectors of a single fantasy system that generates its narrative complexity by scattering and redistributing its aspects among imagined persons who are in essence a single haunting presence. Anna is as much the absent mother as is Maria (Liv Ullmann plays both her and the mother); even the miserable Karin (named after the filmmaker’s own mother) is her most threatening face. The men of the film are all shadowy figures for the dead, radically absent father. Alternately fierce and weak, they underline the missing male presence in Agnes’s life. The doctor, Maria’s sometime lover, and Karin’s husband, Frederick, represent the punishing power of musculinity, while Maria’s suicidal husband and a minister illustrate male weakness as self-absorption. Within the visual and color economy of the film the wound of Maria’s husband (who stabs himself in the stomach reacting to her hint that she has slept with the doctor) is part of a covert symbolical equation with broken glass Karin inserts in her vagina (apparently to deny her husband sex) and their ultimate visual echo: a red book held against the mother’s dress (in a memory flashback) as a displaced menstrual stain. In this dreamlike, liminal world of the metamorphic woman, fusing fantasies of defloration, menstruation, and castration, the four men are versions of masculine self-hatred in sadistic and masochistic registers. We know from Bergman’s autobiography the fetishistic impor- tance he gives to the magic lantern. In the flashback of the mother there is a magic lantern version of Hansel and Gretel. Here the magic lantern represents simultaneously the gift of fairy tales, and thereby the psychic-defense machinery for exteriorizing infantile and oedipal terrors, and the gift of cinema for the incipient filmmaker. The oral gratification and oral aggression at the core of the fairy tale are prominent components of Bergman’s film, whose very title brackets I VITELLONIFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1291 speech with labial (whispers) and dental (cries) suggestions. Maria’s seduction of the doctor involves a sensual and somewhat greedy scene of eating; in direct contrast, the silent meal of Karin and Frederick, in which she spills wine and denies him sexual pleasure, precedes the horrific mutilation of her genitals, and that too ends with her rubbing the blood on her mouth and laughing; Agnes vomits, and Anna goes through the motions of breast-feeding her. Maria fulfills the role of the fairy-tale mother who fails to care for her children and abandons them to the forest. But in Anna we have the all-giving mother who has lost her daughter. The lesson of Hansel and Gretel, according to Bruno Bettleheim, is that the child must learn to curb his infantile desires and win self- sufficiency through his own ingenuity. The ingenuity of Cries and Whispers is the Orphic transformation of terror into art, of the loss of the mother into the musical richness of autumnal color and the self- sufficiency of memory. —P. Adams Sitney I VITELLONI (The Young and the Passionate) Italy-France, 1953 Director: Federico Fellini Production: Peg Films (Paris) and Cité Films (Rome); black and white, 35mm; running time: 104 minutes. Released 1953, Venice Film Festival. Filmed December 1952-Spring 1953 in Viterbo, Ostia, and Florence. Producer: Lorenzo Pegoraro; screenplay: Federico Fellini, Tullio Pinelli, and Ennio Flaiano, from their screen story; photography: Otello Martelli, Luciano Trasatti, and Carlo Carlini; editor: Rolando Benedetti; art director: Mario Chiari; music: Nino Rota. Cast: Franco Interlenghi (Moraldo); Alberto Sordi (Alberto); Franco Fabrizi (Fausto); Leopoldo Trieste (Leopoldo); Riccardo Fellini (Riccardo); Elenora Ruffo (Sandra); Jean Brochard (Fausto’s fa- ther); Claude Farell (Alberto’s sister); Carlo Romano (Michele); Enrico Viarisio (Sandra’s father); Paolo Borboni (Sandra’s mother); Lida Baarova (Michele’s wife); Arlette Sauvage (Lady in the movie theater); Vira Silenti (Chinese maiden); Maja Nipora (Chanteuse). Publications Script: Fellini, Federico, Tullio Pinelli, and Ennio Flaiano, I vitelloni, in Il primo Fellini: Lo sceicco bianco, I vitelloni, La strada, Il bidone, edited by Renzo Renzi, Bologna, 1969; translated as I Vitelloni, in Fellini: Three Screenplays, New York, 1970; also published in Quattro film, Turin, 1974. Books: Renzi, Renzo, Federico Fellini, Parma, 1956. Taylor, John Russell, Cinema Eye, Cinema Ear, New York, 1964. Rondi, Gian Luigi, Italian Cinema Today, New York, 1965. Budgen, Suzanne, Fellini, London, 1966. Salachas, Gilbert, Federico Fellini, New York, 1969. Betti, Liliana, Fellini, Zurich, 1976. Fellini on Fellini, New York, 1976. Ketcham, Charles B., Federico Fellini: The Search for a New Mythology, New York, 1976. Murray, Edward, Fellini the Artist, New York, 1976; revised edi- tion, 1985. Rosenthal, Stuart, The Cinema of Federico Fellini, Cranbury, New Jersey, 1976. Stubbs, John C., Federico Fellini: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1978. Alpert, Hollis, Fellini: A Life, New York, 1981, 1998. Fruttero, Carlo, and Franco Lucentini, Je te trouve un peu pale: Récit d’été avec trente fantasmes féminins de Federico Fellini, Paris, 1982. Costello, Donald P., Fellini’s Road, Notre Dame, Indiana, 1983. Grazzini, Giovanni, editor, Federico Fellini: Intervista sul cinema, Rome, 1983. Burke, Frank, Federico Fellini: Variety Lights to La Dolce Vita, Boston, 1984. Fava, Claudie F., and Aldo Vigano, The Films of Federico Fellini, Secaucus, New Jersey, 1985. Kezich, Tullio, Fellini, Milan, 1987. Baxter, John, Fellini, New York, 1994. Costantini, Costanzo, editor, Fellini on Fellini, translated by Sohrab Sorooshian, London, 1995. Gieri, Manuela, Contemporary Italian Filmmaking: Strategies of Subversion: Pirandello, Fellini, Scola, and the Directors of the New Generation, Toronto, 1995. Fellini, Federico, Fellini on Fellini, translated by Isabel Quigley, New York, 1996. Articles: Fellini, Federico, in Cinema Nuovo (Turin), 1 January 1963. Castello, Giulio Cesare, in Cinema (Rome), 31 August 1953. Berger, Rudi, in Filmcritica (Rome), September 1953. Ghelli, Nino, in Bianco e Nero (Rome), October 1953. Koval, Francis, in Films in Review (New York), October 1953. Martin, André, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), May 1954. Benedetti, B., in Cinema Nuovo (Rome), 15 August 1954. Tailleur, Roger, and Bernard Chardère, in Positif (Paris), September- October 1954. Mangini, Cecilia, ‘‘Le Cas Fellini,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), January 1955. Lambert, Gavin, ‘‘The Signs of Predicament,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), January-March 1955. Salachas, Gilbert, in Téléciné (Paris), October-November 1955. Archer, Eugene, in Film Culture (New York), no. 4, 1956. Young, Vernon, in Hudson Review (New York), Autumn 1956. Crowther, Bosley, in New York Times, 24 October 1956. ‘‘Marty—Italian Style,’’ in Newsweek (New York), 12 Novem- ber 1956. Philippe, Pierre, in Cinéma (Paris), February 1958. Bennett, Joseph, ‘‘Italian Film: Failure and Emergence,’’ in Kenyon Review (Gambier, Ohio), autumn 1964. I VITELLONI FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1292 I Vitelloni Sufrin, Mark, in Film Society Review (New York), May 1970. Lefèvre, Raymond, ‘‘Fellini,’’ in Image et Son (Paris), January 1971. Burke, F. M., ‘‘Reason and Unreason in Federico Fellini’s I Vitelloni,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), no. 2, 1980. Italianist (Reading, Berkshire), no. 1, 1981. Martin, Marcel, ‘‘Federico Fellini,’’ in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), January 1984. Sragow, Michael, in American Film, vol. 14, no. 7, May 1989. Prédal, René, ‘‘Les vitelloni, du néoréalisme au cinéma moderne,’’ in Cinemaction (Conde-sur-Noireau), no. 70, January 1994. Schickel, R., ‘‘Send in the Clowns: An Aspect of Fellini,’’ in Film Comment (New York), vol. 30, September/October 1994. Séquences (Haute-Ville), no. 179, July-August 1995. Amengual, Barthélemy, ‘‘Propositions pour un portrait du jeune Fellini en néo-réaliste,’’ in Positif (Paris), no. 413/414, July- August 1995. *** After Lo sceicco bianco, which despite its formal brilliance was a critical and financial failure, Fellini found himself unable to obtain backing for La strada, already in scenario form. Together with scenarists Ennio Flaiano and Tullio Pinelli, he devised the story of the prankish middle-class youths—or vitelloni (meaning literally ‘‘big slabs of veal’’)—that he remembered from his Romagnan boyhood. Having high opinions of their limited talents, these aging provincial good-for-nothings prefer banding together to amuse themselves at the expense of their neighbors in lieu of settling down into responsible lifestyles and the work they consider demeaning. The film focuses on the lives of five buddies, drawn with the profound social observation of a great satirist. Each must come to terms with the inevitable alienation that they face when confronted with their worthlessness and with the bleakness of their futures. Alberto, the saddest of the group, lives with his mother and is supported by his sister. He tries desperately to remain an adolescent for everyone except his sister to whom he acts the commanding brother and man of the family. Against his will, his sister elopes, leaving him to become the breadwinner. Fausto, the handsome Don Juan of the group, is coerced into marrying Moraldo’s sister whom he has gotten pregnant; however, he doesn’t hesitate to abandon his new wife at the movies to pursue the woman in the seat next to him. Fausto loses his job in a religious statuary shop (a typical Fellini touch of VIVRE SA VIEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1293 uncommon satirical depth) after trying to seduce the owner’s wife. Through Alberto and Fausto, Fellini comments on the predatory nature of that society, and of the middle-class in particular. Leopoldo, a romantic dreamer, plays the tortured dramatist to the maid across the courtyard. His hopes shatter when he petitions a fustian travelling actor for help. Pretending to be interested in Leopoldo’s play, the actor makes homosexual advances toward him. Riccardo is the least clearly characterized of the group, perhaps only used to make the group a more convenient size. Moraldo represents an ethical center in the film; while he contributes to the group’s sport, he clearly does not have the avocation. In moments signalled by camera placement, editing, and music, Moraldo merges with the subjective authorial consciousness that will become more direct and forceful in the later Fellini films. He is the only one with any curiosity about life and any courage to break away for good. Moraldo is undoubtedly Fellini. His story was to have been continued in the scripted, but never filmed, Moraldo in città. A similar character gets off the train at the beginning of Roma. Much of the wistfully tragic cadence of the film is derived from a despair behind the merry masks of the vitelloni, a rhetorical figuration actualized in the town’s frenzied carnival celebration. This Dionysian event is the perfect visual and rhythmic representation of misdirected energy, leading to a critique of the grotesque, inebriated alienation and neurotic sexual frustration at the base of the Italian society in the 1950s. The mask motif points to the director’s skill in utilizing Pirandellian themes with pointedness and originality. Alberto’s drag costume and enormous mask, with its features set into a gro- tesque, scream-like demeanor, are indications that farcical anarchy and psychological anguish are never too distant from each other. Like Gramsci, Fellini attributes Italian fascism to these insepara- ble adolescent qualities, and continues to explore this problem in different contexts in his later work. Specifically, Il bidone, a work of less technical polish, stands out as a transmutation of these provincial vitelloni from harmless, middle-class parasites into hostile, ruthless con-men and thieves. I vitelloni was enormously successful, even among critics of the left, and became the director’s first film distributed internationally. —Joel Kanoff VIVRE SA VIE (My Life to Live) France, 1962 Director: Jean-Luc Godard Production: Films de la Pléiade; black and white, 35mm; running time: 85 minutes. Released September 1962, Paris. Filmed 1960 in Paris. Producer: Pierre Braumberger; screenplay: Jean-Luc Godard with additional narrative from Judge Marcel Sacotte’s Où en est la prostitution and Edgar Allen Poe’s ‘‘The Oval Portrait’’; pho- tography: Raoul Coutard; editors: Agnès Guillemot and Lila Lakshmanan; sound: Guy Vilette and Jacques Maumont; sound editor: Lila Lakshmanan; music: Michel Legrand; costume de- signer: Christiane Fage. Cast: Anna Karina (Nana); Sady Rebbot (Raoul); André S. Labarthe (Paul); Guylaine Schlumberger (Yvette); Gérard Hoffmann (The cook); Monique Messine (Elizabeth); Paul Pavel (Journalist); Dimitri Dineff (Dimitri); Peter Kassowitz (Young man); Eric Schlumberger (Luigi); Brice Parain (The philosopher); Henri Attal (Arthur); Gilles Quéant (A man); Odile Geoffrey (Barmaid); Marcel Charton (Police- man); Jack Florency (Bystander); Gisèle Hauchecorne (Concierge); Jean-Luc Godard (Voice). Awards: Venice Film Festival, Special Jury Prize, and the Italian Critics Prize, 1962. Publications Script: Godard, Jean-Luc, Vivre sa vie, in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), October 1962; ‘‘Scenario’’ in Film Culture (New York), Win- ter 1962. Books: Collet, Jean, Jean-Luc Godard, Paris, 1963; New York, 1970. Taylor, John Russell, Cinema Eye, Cinema Ear: Some Key Filmmakers of the 60s, New York, 1964. Roud, Richard, Jean-Luc Godard, New York, 1967. Mussman, Toby, editor, Jean-Luc Godard: A Critical Anthology, New York, 1968. Cameron, Ian, editor, The Films of Jean-Luc Godard, London, 1969. Mancini, Michele, Godard, Rome, 1969. Brown, Royal, editor, Focus on Godard, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1972. Godard on Godard, edited by Tom Milne, London, 1972; as Godard on Godard: Critical Writings, edited by Milne and Jean Narboni, New York, 1986. Farassino, Alberto, Jean-Luc Godard, Florence, 1974. Monaco, James, The New Wave, New York, 1976. MacCabe, Colin, Godard: Images, Sounds, Politics, London, 1980. Walsh, Martin, The Brechtian Aspect of Radical Cinema, Lon- don, 1981. Lefèvre, Raymond, Jean-Luc Godard, Paris, 1983. Bordwell, David, Narration in the Fiction Film, London, 1985. Weis, Elisabeth, and John Belton, Film Sound: Theory and Practice, New York, 1985. Cerisuelo, Marc, Jean-Luc Godard, Paris, 1989. Loshitzky, Yosefa, Radical Faces of Godard and Bertolucci, Detroit, 1995. Dixon, Wheeler Winston, The Films of Jean-Luc Godard, Albany, 1997. Silverman, Kaja, and Harun Farocki, Speaking About Godard, New York, 1998. Sterritt, David, The Films of Jean-Luc Godard: Seeing the Invisible, Cambridge, 1999. VIVRE SA VIE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1294 Articles: Sontag, Susan, in Against Interpretation, New York, 1961. Sarris, Andrew, ‘‘A Movie Is a Movie Is a Movie Is a. . . ,’’ in New York Film Bulletin, no. 5, 1962. Truffaut, Fran?ois, in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), October 1962. Shivas, Mark, in Movie (London), October 1962. Milne, Tom, in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1962. Films and Filming (London), December 1962. Collet, Jean, and others, ‘‘Entretien avec Jean-Luc Godard,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), December 1962. Baker, Peter, in Films and Filming (London), January 1983. Fieschi, Jean-André, ‘‘Godard: Cut-Sequence: Vivre sa Vie,” in Movie (London), January 1963. ‘‘Anna et les paradoxes,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), July-August 1963. Young, Colin, ‘‘Conventional/Unconventional,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Fall 1963. Sarris, Andrew, in Village Voice (New York), 26 September 1963. Carey, Gary, and Marilyn Goldin, ‘‘My Life to Live: Portrait of a Lady,’’ in Seventh Art (New York), Winter 1963. Sontag, Susan, ‘‘Godard,’’ in Partisan Review (New Brunswick, New Jersey), Spring 1968. Crofts, Stephen, ‘‘The Films of Jean-Luc Godard,’’ in Cinema (London), June 1969. Beh, Siew Hwa, in Women and Film, no. 1, 1972. Campbell, M., ‘‘Life Itself: Vivre sa Vie and the Language of Film,’’ in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), no. 3, 1976. Baumgarten, Marjorie, in Cinema Texas Program Notes (Austin), 20 November 1977. Conley, Tom, ‘‘Portrayals of Painting: Translations of Vivre sa Vie’’ in Film Reader (Evanston, Illinois), no. 3, 1978. de Graaff, T., in Skrien (Amsterdam), Winter 1978–79. Brown, R. S., ‘‘Music and Vivre sa Vie,’’ in Quarterly Review of Film Studies (Pleasantville, New York), Summer 1980. Ropars, Marie-Claire, ‘‘The Erratic Alphabet,’’ in Enclitic (Minne- apolis), no. 10–11, 1981. ‘‘Godard Issue’’ of Camera Obscura (Berkeley), Fall 1982. ‘‘Godard Issue’’ of Revue Belge du Cinéma (Brussels), Summer 1986. van der Kooij, F., ‘‘Wo unter den Bildern sind die Klaenge daheim?,’’ in Cinema (Switzerland) (Basel), no. 37, 1991. Landry, G., in 24 Images (Montreal), no. 77, Summer 1995. Castoro Cinema (Milan), no. 176, part 1, March/April 1996. La Rochelle, R., ‘‘Les petites revolutions,’’ in 24 Images (Montreal), no. 83/84, Autumn 1996. Elia, Maurice, ‘‘Vivre sa vie de Jean-Luc Godard,’’ in Séquences (Haute-Ville), no. 192, September-October 1997. Sterritt, David, in The Christian Science Monitor, vol. 89, no. 226, 17 October 1997. *** Jean-Luc Godard’s fourth feature-length film, Vivre sa vie, forms the second shutter of a diptych with A bout de souffle (1959). The latter had rewritten the American studio tradition through the filter of French literature and philosophy. Vivre sa vie goes in the same direction but with sharper visual impact and keen filmic control. Its composition externalizes to an extreme degree many obsessions found in all of Godard’s work. A Brechtian experiment in aesthetic and political distance, it uses the theme of prostitution to bind a number of formal experiments that touch on a variety of problems, including the relation of art and lithography to cinema, the depressing squalor of an all-encompassing zone of tastelessness comprising modern life (hence the film’s allegiance to Baudelaire and to Apollinaire), the breakdown of intimacy and experience as valid measures of morality, the interfilmic mix of allusions saturating single shots and entire sequences, and the break-up of the illusion of perspective, by which words and image form an immensely ambigu- ous hieroglyph of contemporary life, taken from cinema, the back- drop of advertising, billboards, and newspapers. Few of Godard’s films attain the same rigor of rhythm in their play of sound and image, or their formal camera movement, as Vivre sa vie. Raoul Coutard, Godard’s cameraman, insists on keeping a me- dium distance between the lens and Anna Karina, who plays the role of an exemplary, almost sacred—but very common—female who, because of economic circumstances, is forced into prostitution. She becomes a martyr in her own film. In the first sequence, he shoots the backsides of Karina and her husband as they sit apart on barstools in a café and face a mirror on the wall in front of them. The camera pans indifferently to the left and right as the futile expression of their speech shows no ostensible explanation for the dilemma. The failed meeting is conveyed by a camera that cannot reach an intimate rapport with the characters’ faces. Ensuing tableaux have the camera standing fixed for long periods of time (following Nana’s pen, in extreme close-up, as she writes a marginally literate letter of application for employment), or tracing a dolly of 180 degrees from profile to the front of Nana’s face as she stares at her pimp who is indentified with the sightlines of the viewer. She sits in front of a wallpapered vista of Paris, copied from a painting in the Impressionist style, that flattens the heritage of art prevailing throughout the film. Tableaux vivants are seen in Nana’s mimicry of Degas’s absinthe lady seated in a café, Manet’s bar at the Folies-Bergère, Van Gogh’s taverns by night, and Monet’s cityscapes. Like A bout de souffle, Vivre sa vie is filmed in silence (in Parisian streets), with on-location noise (in record shops or in the clatter of cafés), with ruptures of music and silence (melodies being started and stopped without any cues from the image track), with speech detached from the image-track (a voice describing prostitution in a flat docu- mentary style off camera while the shots register hands fumbling for pocket money or latching onto doorknobs), or with uncanny matches (the jukebox plays vivacious notes when Nana presses her body against it in the famous mating dance in the pool hall). The film makes a plastic collage of musical and filmed fragments. Citing Montaigne on the urgency of experience (that is, of the need to draw life from death) at the outset, Godard cuts the story of Nana’s life into 12 stations of sainthood. Nana’s death, shot in front of a ‘‘Café des Studios’’ in a suburban zone, casually depicts the heroine falling to the asphalt between two cars; it also tells of metaphysical stress that sustains all of Godard’s work, from A bout de souffle to Je vous salue, Marie, 25 years later. Vivre sa vie underscores an obsession with mimesis, defined in strict accord with the roots of prostitution, in the ways the film works through the etymology of prostatuere. In its theology of visibility, it makes of prostitution a matter of ‘‘standing forward’’: to reveal oneself to others, to ‘‘come TO VLEMMA TOU ODYSSEAFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1295 into view’’ from anonymity, in a sort of cinematic ecce homo, entails the heroine’s demise. An interview with a philosopher stages Nana as an everywoman who queries Brice Parain (who plays himself) on the relations of words, things, and existence to action. A comic and pathetic register is attained. Godard reaches religious and Marxian undertones as well, confirmed in a remarkable sequence, just prior to the last tableau, when Nana’s new lover, a young man (banal as all the men who figure in his work), reads excerpts from Baudelaire’s translation of Poe’s ‘‘The Oval Portrait.’’ The passage treats of the stakes of doubling (and dubbing) a picture with words, and of the dialectic of the two, by which a narrative is finished at the price of the death of the woman portrayed. ‘‘The Oval Portrait’’ becomes Vivre sa vie en abyme. Godard’s voice actually reads Poe by way of Baudelaire; the young man’s face, covered to eye level by the book, affords no lip- synch: Godard, the male character, Baudelaire, and Poe are all part of the same travesty. Because the quotation is doubled with English subtitles that bear the ‘‘original’’ of Poe, the film reveals its own essence of ventriloquism. The relation of words to image is compli- cated by the same subtitles that offset the illusion of a ‘‘true’’ image or voice. The film is a venturous mix of allusions. Godard cites Dreyer’s close-ups of the martyrdom of Falconetti in shots taken from The Passion of Joan of Arc. Nana sees Dreyer’s film in a Left Bank theater and cries in apparent sympathy for Joan/Falconetti. Already in A bout de souffle Jean Seberg had been aligned with the saint of Dreyer’s film. That after the sequence-filming of The Passion of Joan of Arc Falconetti suffered a nervous breakdown and became a prostitute is well known; that Godard uses the reference to ‘‘script’’ the end of his own marriage to Karina, through allusion to Catherine Hessling in Renoir’s Nana (of 1925), effectively complicates the quotation. It makes the sensuous close-ups of Anna (the anagram of Nana) all the more powerful in the ambivalent rapport of allusion, self-conscious- ness, and film history in Godard’s long autobiography of cinema. —Tom Conley VLAK BEZ VOZNOG REDA (Train without a Timetable) Yugoslavia, 1959 Director: Veljko Bulajic Production: Jadran Film; Totalscope, colour; running time: 120 minutes. Producer: Stjepan Gurudulic; screenplay: Veljko Bulajic, Ivo Braut, Stjepan Perovic, and Elio Petri, based on an idea by Veljko Bulajic; photography: Kreso Grcevic; editor: Blazenka Jenci; art director: Dusko Jericevic; music: Vladimir Kraus-Rajteric. Cast: Olivera Markovic (Ika); Lia-Rho Barberi (Venka); Inge Ilin (Dana); Liljana Vajler (Zeka); Ivica Pajer (Nikolica); Milan Milosevic (Perisa); Stole Arandjelovic (Lovre); Jan Sid (Jole). Publications Articles: Variety (New York), 13 May 1959. Kostelofsky, J., Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Spring 1960. *** During the 1950s foreign directors came to Yugoslavia to make films that they were not able to make in their own countries for cultural or political reasons. In 1959 Veljko Bulajic (one of De Sica’s assistants) made Vlak bez voznog reda (Train without a Timetable), a neo-realistic epic about the transferral of whole villages from the poverty-stricken coastal regions of Dalmatia to the fertile plains of Vojvodina. By far his best film to date, Vlak bez voznog reda was made in the days before Bulajic embarked on a career making big budget international co-productions (usually glorifying the major battles of the Partisan war and the exploits of Comrade Tito). The participants in this great migration travelled in freight cars with their few possessions. These trains travelled very slowly and their frequent stops allowed them to meet new people and undergo hitherto unknown experiences. Thus, the film becomes a picture about the possibilities of a better life for the travelling peasants, and about their desires and aspirations for their new land. A film that explores human dignity, at times harshly realistic and bursting with the bitter mirth and acrid coarseness of the rough, volatile, and high-spirited people of Dalmatia, Vlak bez voznog reda is one of the best films of its time. —Mike Downey TO VLEMMA TOU ODYSSEA (Ulysses’ Gaze) Greece-France-Italy, 1995 Director: Theo Angelopoulos Production: Istitua Lice (Italy), La generale d’images, La Sept Cinéma, and Paradis Films (France), Basic Cinematografica, and Greek National Film Center; color; 35 mm; running time: 177 minutes; language: Greek, Albanian, Macedonian, Romanian, Bulgarian, English, and French. Released in Greece, June 1995, and in the United States, November 1997. Filmed during the Fall of 1994 and the Winter of 1994/95 in an improvised studio near the Belgrade airport; some scenes shot on location in Florina and Thessaloniki, Greece, Mostar, Bosnia, Vukovar, Croatia, Bucharest and Constanca, Romania, and Belgrade, Serbia. TO VLEMMA TOU ODYSSEA FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1296 Producer: Phoebe Economopoulos (executive), Eric Heumann, Giorgio Silvagni; screenplay: Theo Angelopoulos and Tonino Guerra with Petros Markaris; photography: Yorgos Arvanitis with Andreas Sinanos; editor: Yannis Tsitsopoulos; production designer: Miodrag Mile Nikolic, Giorgos Patsas, Yorgos Patsas; sound: Thanassis Arvanitis; Bernard Leroux; costumes: Giorgos Ziakas; original music: Eleni Karaindrou. Cast: Harvey Keitel (A.); Maia Morgenstern (Ulysses’ wife and other female roles); Erland Josephson (Ivo Levi); Thanassis Vengos (taxi driver); Yorgos Michalakopoulos (friend in Belgrade); Dora Volanaki (old woman); and others. Awards: Grand Jury Prize and FIPRESCI Award, Cannes Interna- tional Film Festival, 1995; FIPRESCI Award, European Film Awards, 1995. Publications Books: Horton, Andrew, The Films of Theo Angelopoulos: A Cinema of Contemplation. Princeton, New Jersey, 1997. Horton, Andrew, editor, The Last Modernist: The Films of Theo Angelopoulos. Westport, Connecticut, 1997. Articles: Maslin, Janet, ‘‘Two Films on Strife in Balkans Win Top Prizes at Cannes,’’ in New York Times, 29 May 1995. Stevens, Julie, ‘‘Ulysses’ Gaze,’’ in Empire (London), March 1996. Rosenbaum, Jonathan, ‘‘Ulysses’ Gaze,’’ in Chicago Reader (Chi- cago), 18 October 1996. Portuges, Catherine, ‘‘Ulysses’ Gaze,’’ in American Historical Review (Washington, D.C.), vol. 101, no. 4, October 1996. Maslin, Janet, ‘‘Ulysses’ Gaze,’’ in New York Times, 17 Janu- ary 1997. *** Greek director Theo Angelopoulos, best known for his 1979 The Traveling Players (O Thiassos), has always been preoccupied with the complex issues of Greek history and politics. In the 1990s, he widened his interest and became interested in Balkan-wide issues, which found expressions in his films of the decade—The Suspended Step of the Stork (1991), Ulysses’ Gaze (1995), and the Cannes- winner Eternity and a Day (1998). The characters in these films are all involved in painful, introspective journeys and confront issues of distorted harmony, irrecoverable identities, and fin-de-siècle sadness. The director’s characteristic atmosphere—lonely wandering through a misty landscape—prevails throughout. Angelopoulos daringly claims that universal identity problems lurk within his peculiar Balkan universe, and raises issues of displacement and lost homelands. He endows the idiosyncratic Balkan problems with a universal humanis- tic dimension, far beyond the geopolitical intricacies that dominate the approaches of other Balkan filmmakers. Ulysses’ Gaze is exclu- sively preoccupied with the problems of historical reconstruction and personal remembrance. The film, co-scripted by the legendary Euro- pean screenwriter Tonino Guerra, carries out a nostalgic reconstruc- tion of peaceful and colorful ethnic cohabitation at the Balkan crossroads between Orient and Occident. The narrative of the film breaks away from the linear not only time-wise, but also spatially, providing an ultimately subjective account of a personal experience of history and regionality. The protagonist, a successful American film director named ‘‘A.’’ (Harvey Keitel), has returned to visit his native Greece after 35 years of exile. During his brief sojourn, he hears of several film reels, now missing, shot early in the century by the legendary brothers Miltos and Yannis Manaki, who are considered patriarchs of filmmaking in the Balkan region and who lived all around the Balkans in the first half of the century, mostly in Macedonia, Bulgaria, and Greece, and made films about the region. The memory of happy multicultural co-existence is presumably recorded on the Manaki’s missing reels. A. sets off to search for the footage, and gradually grows obsessed with the belief that tracking it down and restoring it is the key to overcoming the confrontations in the Balkans. In a pensive and melancholy journey, he travels across the bleak Balkans winter, searching not only for the footage but for his own roots as well. The journey takes him on a winding road—from Greece to Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and, finally, to Sarajevo in today’s Bosnia. While some of these places are explored in their present-day dimensions, others figure in the film only as memory sites of distant times and events, now called back into the mind of the protagonist. As well as travel in space, there is travel in time. A.’s personal memories define an episode that develops in his childhood home and spans several years, starting in 1945 and running to the mid-1950s, within a sequence that lasts only a few minutes. Each minute of screen time seems to equal a year, an approach which Angelopoulos used before in his famous Traveling Players. All historical explorations of the mind are referenced to the present, however. The ending point of the journey is besieged Sarajevo, where, among the shelling, A. finally finds the lost footage and the man who is able to give him access to the cherished image— Ivo Levi, the old Jewish film curator who has revealed the secret of the reels (Erland Josephson). The two men have finally found each other in this kingdom of war, and are both relaxed because now, it seems, they have all the time on Earth. They go out for a walk in the foggy but peaceful day, not suspecting that only minutes later Levi will be taken away and shot, without A. being able to react. He cries helplessly. So soon after the ultimate moment of tranquillity with Ivo Levi, he is once again alone and helpless, confronted with the absurdity of death. By the end of the film, A. has found and seen the revered footage. But it does not matter any longer. Whatever may have been on these tapes cannot compensate for the feeling of profound dejection. The film has been about the desire to, and the impossibility of, recognizing one’s own true self. By the time A. reaches what he is searching for, so much has happened and so many illusions are destroyed, that he no longer believes that the secrets of the past hold the key to harmony. Ulysses’ Gaze is a deconstruction of self-perceptions and identity believed to be firmly rooted in space and time. Nothing can be certain VOINA I MIRFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1297 anymore. Even if one is willing to adopt a conditional identity, the choice is easily invalidated. The nostalgia for lost roots is meaning- less, and all that remains is the longing for something that cannot be attained. In the context of this existential pessimism, the Balkan troubles are seen as the problems of the world, as a part of the tiresome recognition of its deterioration. Angelopoulos always preferred to discuss history as lived in personal destinies, and by the time he matured to make Ulysses’ Gaze, he had created the prefect cinematic language that allowed him to talk of an individual experience of history as superseding time and space. The remarkable use of elaborately manipulated long shots enables the narrative to include complex and magnificent subtleties. The mostly hand-held camera of cameraman Yorgos Arvanitis moves very slowly and is often positioned in such a way that it reveals actions taking place in different semantic layers of the screen space. The events lose their objectivity and are constructed through the gaze of the onlooking protagonist. Older historical interpretations intersect with the per- ceived significance of newer ones. Angelopoulos was disappointed when the Golden Palm at Cannes in 1995 went to Emir Kusturica’s Underground rather than to his Ulysses’ Gaze. Nonetheless, he received the Golden Palm for his next Voina i mir film, Eternity and a Day (1998). This later film, however, is nothing more than a compendium of Angelopoulos’s image inventory, and can hardly be considered superior to Ulysses’ Gaze. —Dina Iordanova VOINA I MIR (War and Peace) USSR, 1967 Director: Sergei Bondarchuk Production: Mosfilm; Sovcolor, 35mm, scope; running time: origi- nally 373 minutes (some sources list 507 minutes), and released in two parts, later cut to 170 minutes. Released 1967. Cost: rumored to have been anywhere between 40 and 100 million dollars. LE VOYAGE DANS LA LUNE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1298 Screenplay: Sergei Bondarchuk and Vasily Solovyov; photogra- phy: Anatoly Petritsky, Dmitri Korzhikin and A. Zenyan; produc- tion designer: Mikhail Bogdanov and Gennady Myasnikov; music: Vyacheslav Ovchinnikov. Cast: Ludmilla Savelyeva (Natasha); Sergei Bondarchuk (Pierre); Vyacheslav Tikhonov (Andrei); Anastasia Vertinskaya (Princess Liza); Vasily Lanovoi (Kuragin); Irina Skobotseva (Hélène); Boris Zakhava (Kutuzov); Vladislav Strzhelchik (Napoleon). Awards: Academy award for Best Foreign Film, 1968; New York Film Critics Award, Best Foreign Film, 1968. Publications Books: Khaniutin, Iurii Mironovich, Sergei Bondarchuk, Moscow, 1962. Adler, Renata, A Year in the Dark: Journal of a Film Critic 1968–1969, New York, 1969. Podvig, V.P., Masterskaia Sergeia Bondarchuka, Moscow, 1985. Tiurin, Iurii Petrovich, Serguéi Bondartchouk, Moscow, 1988. Articles: Miller, Edwin, ‘‘A Budding Ballet Dancer Becomes the Greatest Heroine of All Russia,’’ in Seventeen, August 1968. ‘‘Director of the Year,’’ in International Film Guide, London, 1969. Napier, Alan, ‘‘Tolstoy Betrayed,’’ in Film Heritage (Dayton, Ohio), Spring 1969. Zolutossky, Igor, ‘‘War and Peace: A Soviet View,’’ in London Magazine, March 1969. Gillett, John, ‘‘Thinking Big,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Sum- mer 1970. Lind, John, ‘‘The Road to Waterloo,’’ in Focus on Film (London), September-October 1970. ‘‘The Coming of the Russians,’’ in Action (Los Angeles), June 1971. Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), August 1973. Tschertok, S., in Film und Fernsehen (Berlin), April 1975. Gerasimov, S., ‘‘Soviet Cinema: Films, Personalities, Problems,’’ in Soviet Film (Moscow), no. 271, 1979. Kryukov, V., ‘‘Sergei Bondarchuk,’’ in Soviet Film (Moscow), March 1983. Gonzalez Abreu, T., ‘‘Crear es sufrir,’’ in Cine Cubano (Havana), no. 107, 1984. Houdek, J., in Film a Doba (Prague), July 1985. Evtushenko, E., ‘‘Sergei Bondarchuk,’’ in Soviet Film (Moscow), May 1986. ‘‘Serguei Bondartchouk,’’ in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), no. 464, October 1991. Birchenough, T., ‘‘Sergei Bondarchuk,’’ in Variety (New York), vol. 357, 7/13 November 1994. ‘‘Never To Be Forgotten,’’ in Psychotronic Video (Narrowsburg), no. 20, 1995. *** Sergei Bondarchuk’s War and Peace, budgeted at over $100 million, is easily the definitive version of Tolstoy’s masterpiece. In War and Peace, the world’s greatest historical novel, Tolstoy created a panorama of vivid characters who are so realistic they breathe life before the reader’s eyes. ‘‘We strove,’’ Bondarchuk explained, ‘‘with the aid of modern cinematic means, to reproduce Tolstoy’s thoughts, emotions, philosophy, and ideals.’’ As Penelope Gilliatt wrote in the New Yorker, ‘‘Not the smallest blunder of style or proportion was made . . . . ‘‘ Bondarchuk was not the first filmmaker to attempt to translate Tolstoy’s narrative to the screen. In 1915, Vladimir Gardin and Yakov Protazanov directed a ten-reel War and Peace; 41 years later King Vidor made a static, overly simplified Italian-American version with Henry Fonda, Audrey Hepburn, and Mel Ferrer. Bondarchuk’s film is easily the most ambitious. It is uncannily faithful to Tolstoy’s characterizations, and the most spectacular feature ever made in Russia—perhaps also the most successful at the box office. The filmmaker labored on the project for over half a decade. His original cut, released in Russia in four parts, features battle scenes as grand as any ever put on the screen. Cannons were reproduced exactly as they were at the time of the story; paintings and props were borrowed from museums; 158 separate scenes were filmed, utilizing a similar num- ber of locations all over the USSR. There were 272 sets, 6,000 military costumes, 2,000 civilian costumes, 30 starring roles, and 120,000 soldier-extras. Not unexpectedly, the most memorable se- quences are the spectacles: the ball at which Natasha and Andrei are introduced; the burning of Moscow; and specifically, the Battle of Borodino. Ballerina Ludmila Savelyeva is ravishing as Natasha; Bondarchuk himself appears as Pierre. An hour was cut for the American print, which runs 373 minutes. It was also dubbed (unnecessarily) and released in two parts—one would be presented in the afternoon, the other in the evening. Later, it was further cut to 170 minutes. Still War and Peace is enormous in scope. Bondarchuk, a postwar Russian actor whose career behind the camera began during the late 1950s, specialized in epic productions. Waterloo, the follow-up to War and Peace, could almost be consid- ered a sequel. —Rob Edelman LE VOYAGE DANS LA LUNE (A Trip to the Moon) France, 1902 Director: Georges Méliès Production: Star Film Studios (Montreuil, France); black and white, 35mm, silent; running time: 14 minutes, but varying lengths exist; length: about 825 feet. Released 1902, at Méliès’s Théatre Robert Houdin in Paris. Filmed in 1902 in Méliès’s Star Film Studios at Montreuil. Cost: 10,000 francs. Scenario: Georges Méliès; photography: possibly by one or more of Méliès’ regular cameramen who included Leclerc, Michaut, Lallemand, and Astaix. LE VOYAGE DANS LA LUNEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1299 Le voyage dans la lune Cast: Georges Méliès (Barbenfouillis, President of the Astronomer’s Club); Bluette Bernon (Phoebe on the crescent moon); acrobats from the Folies-Bergère (Members of the Selenite Army). Publications Script: Méliès, Georges, Le Voyage dans la lune, in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), November 1984. Books: Sadoul, Georges, An Index to the Creative Work of Georges Méliès, London 1947. Sadoul, Georges, French Film, Paris, 1953. Ford, Charles, Georges Méliès, Brussels, 1959. Bessy, Maurice, and Lo Duca, Georges Méliès, Mage, Paris, 1961. Sadoul, Georges, Georges Méliès, Paris, 1961. Deslandes, Jacques, Le Boulevard du cinéma à l’epoque de Georges Méliès, Paris, 1963. Kyrou, Ado, De Méliès à l’expressionisme: Le Surréalisme au Cinéma, Paris 1963. Ceram, C. W., Archaeology of the Cinema, New York, 1965. Jeanne, Rene, Cinéma 1900, Paris, 1965. Malthête-Méliès, Madeleine, Méliès, l’enchanteur, Paris, 1973 North, Joseph, Early Development of the Motion Picture, New York, 1973. Hammond, Paul, Marvellous Méliès, New York, 1975. Frazer, John, Artificially Arranged Scenes: The Films of Georges Méliès, Boston, 1979. Ellis, Jack C., A History of Film, Englewood Cliffs, New Jer- sey, 1979. Usai, Paolo Cherci, Georges Méliès, Florence, 1983. Jenn, Pierre, Georges Méliès cinéaste: La Montage cinématographique chez Georges Méliès, Paris, 1984. Malthête-Méliès, Madeleine, Méliès et la naissance du spectacle cinématographique, Paris, 1984. Sadoul, Georges, Lumière et Méliès, Paris, 1984. Langlois, Henri, and others, Méliès: Un Homme d’illusions, Paris, 1986. LE VOYAGE DANS LA LUNE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1300 Redi, Riccardo, editor, Verso il centenario: Méliès, Rome, 1987. Malthête, Jacques, Méliès: images et illusions, Paris, 1996. Thompson, Frank T., The Star Film Ranch: Texas’ First Picture Show, Plano, 1996. Articles: Lapierre, Marcel, ‘‘Histoire d’un film: Le Voyage dans la lune,” in Ce Soir (Paris), December 1937. Cavalcanti, Alberto, ‘‘Father of the Fantasy Film,’’ in Listener (London), 2 June 1938. ‘‘Méliès, pére du Cinéma, fils de Jules Verne,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris) no. 10, 1952. Bessy, Maurice, ‘‘Méliès,’’ in Anthologie du cinéma 2, Paris, 1967. Brakhage, Stan, ‘‘George Méliès,’’ in Caterpillar (New York), Spring 1970. Langlois, Henri, ‘‘Georges Méliès, magicien du cinéma,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), January 1971. Helmani, A., in Kino (Warsaw), January 1974. Barnouw, Erik, ‘‘The Magician and the Movies,’’ in American Film (Washington D.C.), April and May 1978. Courant, G., ‘‘Point d’histoire: Méliès: La Fin d’un mythe?,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), May 1979. Quevrain, Anne Marie, ‘‘L’Ideologie de Méliès et son époque,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), September 1979. Veillon, O.-R., in Cinématographe (Paris), January 1981. Quevrain, Anne Marie, ‘‘A la rédecouverte de Méliès: Le Voyage dans la lune,’’ in Cahiers de la Cinémathèque (Perpignan), Autumn 1982. Beylie, Claude, ‘‘Actualité de Georges Méliès,’’ in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), April 1984. Waldekranz, R., in Chaplin (Stockholm), vol. 27, no. 3, 1985. Masson, A., ‘‘Le Cinéma incomparables: Sur Georges Méliès,’’ in Positif (Paris), April 1985. Miller, Ron, ‘‘Silent Space,’’ in Filmfax (Evanston), no. 49, March- April 1995. Ede, Fran?ois, ‘‘De la terre à la lune,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), no. 503, June 1996. Jefferson, Margo, ‘‘Moonstruck Magic by the Grandfather of Film Fantasies,’’ in New York Times, vol. 147, A13 and B7, 15 November 1997. *** Partly inspired by Jules Verne’s early work of science fiction De la terre à la lune (1865) and by H. G. Wells’s prophetic novel The First Men in the Moon (1901), Georges Méliès’s Le voyage dans la lune (1902) is remarkable for its imaginative, and continually divert- ing, narrative development. The serious, didactic purpose of the literary antecedents is ignored to provide an engaging entertainment. By the turn of the century lunar episodes featured regularly in fairground shows and theatrical spectacles, and as early as 1898 Méliès had followed the fashion with short fairy-tale sequences such as La lune à un métre. However, with Le voyage dans la lune—his account of the pioneering journey to the moon undertaken by the intrepid Professor Barbenfouillis and his companions, and of their adventures with the Selenites—he surpassed all previous lunar spec- tacles, creating new standards in film entertainment, and in so doing accelerated the trend towards more sophisticated studio-based pro- ductions. Comprising 30 tableaux using 18 decors, the film is about 14 minutes long, and for its period was both ambitious in conception and lavish in its production values. Méliès was director, producer, set- designer, and leading actor. In his exuberant narrative Méliès successfully mixes traditional stage-craft with his extensive repertory of special effects. The painted backdrops for the Astronomers Club, the industrial landscape with smoke rising from a host of chimneys, and the opulent Palace of the Moon King are magnificent examples of theatrical trompe l’oeil. Although fixed cameras are used throughout, Méliès films from different angles on the same set to create changes of perspective and viewpoint. Transitions between successive tableaux are achieved by overprinting frames, a technique borrowed from magic-lantern shows and already used extensively by the filmmaker in his version of Cendrillon in 1899. Several episodes, such as the launching of the spaceship and the hectic chase across the lunar landscape, have rightly become anthology pieces. Méliès’s growing mastery of spe- cial effects is witnessed in the depiction of the spaceship drawing closer to the moon and landing in the moon’s eye. The simulated forward travelling shot, in which a model of the moon is brought closer to a static camera, had already been exploited in L’homme à la tête de caoutchouc (1902). After this visual joke about the Man in the Moon, the spaceship is seen to land again in a more realistic mode, and in this double presentation Méliès extended traditional narrative conventions. Stop-camera techniques are used to change the passing stars and planets into pretty maidens, and the same trick is used to convert umbrellas into gigantic mushrooms, or to remove Selenites in a puff of smoke. For the return of the spaceship to Earth a series of different scale models was used in a rapid montage sequence, while the scenes of the craft dropping to the ocean floor and the subsequent rescue exploited the resources of an aquarium. As Pierre Jenn’s analysis has shown, Georges Sadoul’s long-acceptd direct equation between tableau and decor does not hold for Le voyage dans la lune. A given tableau may exploit more than one decor, and on occasions one decor may give rise to several tableaux. Made in May 1902 and marketed in August of that year, the film was an immediate success. As with so many of Méliès’s productions, counterfeit copies were soon circulating in America and this finally prompted Méliès to open up a transatlantic office to protect his rights. Capitalising on his success, Méliès extended the space travel genre with Voyage à travers l’impossible (1904), this time recounting a trip to the sun. With its evocative sets Le voyage dans la lune has been frequently cited as seminal to the development of the German expressionist movement, while for its spontaneity and fantasy the film became a reference point for avant-garde filmmakers and surrealists. Bu?uel, for one, acknowledged Le voyage dans la lune as a formative influence, while the films of René Clair and Jacques Prévert owe much to their pioneering compatriot. In Shoot the Moon (1962) the underground director Rudy Burckhardt paid explicit homage to Méliès, while in his film tribute Le grand Méliès (1952), Franju uses footage from Le voyage dans la lune to illustrate the director’s innovative approach to filmmaking and his technical brilliance. —R. F. Cousins VOYAGE TO ITALY See VIAGGIO IN ITALIA VREDENS DAGFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1301 VOZVRASHCHENIYE MAXIMA See THE MAXIM TRILOGY VREDENS DAG (Day of Wrath) Denmark, 1943 Director: Carl Theodor Dreyer Production: Palladium Copenhagen-Tage Nielson; black and white, 35mm; running time: 92 minutes, some sources state 98 minutes; length: about 2675 meters, some sources state 2790 meters. Released 13 November 1943, Copenhagen. Screenplay: Carl Theodor Dreyer, Mogens Skot-Hansen, and Poul Knudsen, from the play Anne Pedersdotter by Hans Wiers-Jenssen; photography: Karl Andersson; editors: Edith Schlüssel and Anne Marie Petersen; sound: Erik Rasmussen; art director: Erik Aaes; music: Poul Schierbeck; costume designers: K. Sandt Jensen and Olga Thomsen, from designs by Lis Fribert; historical consultant: Kaj Uldall. Cast: Thorkild Roose (Absalon); Lisbeth Movin (Anne, his wife); Sigrid Neiiendam (Merete, his mother); Preben Lerdorff Rye (Martin, his son); Anne Svierkier (Herlof’s Marte); Olaf Ussing (Laurentius); Albert H?eber (The Bishop). Publications Script: Dreyer, Carl Theodor, Mogens Skot-Hansen, and Poul Knudsen, Vredens Dag, in Five Films of Carl Theodor Dreyer, Copenhagen, 1964; as Day of Wrath, in Four Screenplays, London, 1970. Books: Neergaard, Ebbe, Carl Theodor Dreyer: A Film Director’s Work, London, 1950. Trolle, B?rge, The Art of Carl Dreyer: An Analysis, Copenha- gen, 1955. Bowser, Eileen, The Films of Carl Dreyer, New York, 1964. Dreyer, Carl Theodor, Om Filmen, Copenhagen, 1964. Monty, Ib, Portrait of Carl Th. Dreyer, Copenhagen, 1965. Dyssegaard, Soren, editor, Carl Th. Dreyer, Danish Film Director, Copenhagen, 1968. Perrin, Claude, Carl Th. Dreyer, Paris, 1969. Sémolué, Jean, Carl Th. Dreyer, Paris, 1970. Milne, Tom, The Cinema of Carl Dreyer, New York, 1971. Ernst, Helge, Dreyer: Carl Th. Dreyer—en Dansk Filmskaber, Copenhagen, 1972. Schrader, Paul, Transcendental Style in Film: Ozu, Bresson, Dreyer, Los Angeles, 1972. Skoller, Donald, editor, Dreyer in Double Reflection, New York, 1973. Nash, Mark, editor, Dreyer, London, 1977. Tone, Pier Giorgio, Carl Theodor Dreyer, Florence, 1978. Bordwell, David, The Films of Carl Theodor Dreyer, Berkeley, 1981. Drouzy, Martin, Carl Th. Dreyer f?dt Nilson, Copenhagen, 1982. Carney, Raymond, Speaking the Language of Desire: The Films of Carl Dreyer, New York, 1989. Jensen, Jytte, editor, The Films of Carl Theodor Dreyer, New York, 1989. Dreyer, Carl Theodor, Dreyer in Double Reflection: Carl Dreyer’s Writings on Film, Cambridge, 1991. Drum, Jean, and Dale D. Drum, My Only Great Passion: The Life and Films of Carl Theodor Dreyer, Lanham, 2000. Articles: Duca, Lo, ‘‘Dreyer à son sommet,’’ in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), no. 4, 1946–47. Manvell, Roger, in Sight and Sound (London), no. 60, 1947. ‘‘Special Issue’’ of Ecran Fran?ais (Paris), 11 November 1947. New York Times, 26 April 1948. Variety (New York), 28 April 1948. Rowland, Richard, ‘‘Carl Dreyer’s World,’’ in Hollywood Quarterly, Fall 1950. Dreyer, Carl Theodor, ‘‘Film Style,’’ in Films in Review (New York), January 1952. Laurent, Frédéric, in Image et Son (Paris), no. 67, 1953. Trolle, B?rge, ‘‘The World of Carl Dreyer,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1955–56. Cinéma (Paris), no. 32, 1958. Luft, Herbert, ‘‘Dreyer,’’ in Films and Filming (London), June 1961. Image et Son (Paris), no. 65, 1963. Filmkritik (Munich), no. 2, 1963. Bond, Kirk, ‘‘The World of Carl Dreyer,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berke- ley), Fall 1965. ‘‘Special Issue’’ of Kosmorama (Copenhagen), June 1968. ‘‘Dreyer Issue’’ of Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), December 1968. ‘‘Dies Irae (Day of Wrath) Issue’’ of Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), February 1970. Vaughan, Dai, ‘‘Carl Dreyer and the Theme of Choice,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1974. Petric, Vlada, ‘‘Dreyer’s Concept of Abstraction,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1975. Gow, Gordon, in Films and Filming (London), no. 8, 1977. De Benedictis, M., ‘‘Dreyer: La regola de pendolo,’’ in Bianco e Nero (Rome), January-February 1979. Devilliers, M., ‘‘Dreyer: La Chair et l’ombre,’’ in Cinématographe (Paris), November 1983. Lardeau, Y., and C. Tesson, ‘‘Dreyer en images,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), December 1983. Coiner, M., ‘‘Dramaturgy and Theme: A Comparison of Day of Wrath and Anne Pedersdotter,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury), vol. 17, no. 2, 1989. VREDENS DAG FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1302 Vredens dag Pipolo, Tony, ‘‘Historical Consciousness in Carl Dreyer’s Day of Wrath,’’ in Persistence of Vision (Maspeth, New York), no. 8, 1990. Aparicio, J., ‘‘Dies Irae,’’ in Nosferatu (San Sebastian), no. 5, January 1991. Masoni, T., ‘‘Carl Theodor Dreyer: l’assoluto e il dubbio,’’ in Cineforum (Bergamo), vol. 34, no. 339, November 1994. Purtell, Tim, in Entertainment Weekly, no. 305, 15 December 1995. *** Eleven years passed between Carl Th. Dreyer’s first sound film, Vampyr, and his second, Vredens dag, his first Danish film in 18 years. Dreyer saw Anne Pedersdotter, the Norwegian play by Hans Wiers-Jenssen on which the film was based, in Copenhagen in 1909, and had always wanted to film this story of a young woman burned as a witch. However, he altered the original drama in various ways. The film takes place in a pastor’s house in the country in 1623. The 21-year-old Anne, the second wife of the elderly vicar, is suffocating in the stern atmosphere of the house and suffering from the tyranny of her mother-in-law. When the pastor’s young son returns, Anne falls in love with him, finally setting free her suppressed feelings. But society strikes back. Anne, whose mother was accused of being a witch, begins to fear that she too is a witch after the pastor dies. Typical of a Dreyer film, Vredens dag is also about the struggle between good and evil. Anne is not only a victim of a hostile and intolerant society, she must also endure the struggle within herself. Vredens dag is an erotic drama about a love triangle played against a background of superstition and Christian mercilessness. In the characters Dreyer has mixed the individual with the universal, show- ing the strong impact of society on the formation of the individual. Whether the reactions of the main characters are based on individual, personal and egotistical motives or are the results of ideas and prejudices of the time is deliberately difficult to ascertain. In this way, Vredens dag is an historical film, trying to capture the spirit of the past. But it is also obvious now what was not clear at the time of the film’s release; the film was also commenting on another dark period of Danish history—the German occupation, the time in which Vredens dag was produced. In addition, the film can also be considered a timeless drama about a human being fighting for her right to self-realization. The film is remarkable for its intense, but quiet acting and its austere visual style, which grew out of the theme. The slow camera VREDENS DAGFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1303 movements, the long travelling shots, the close-ups and medium close-ups, and the beautiful compositions, inspired by 17th-century paintings, serve as a means for Dreyer to recreate the slow pulse of the time. The formal beauty, the contrasts between black and white, the use of horizontal and vertical camera movements, and particularly the rhythm caused the Danish critics to call it formalistic. The film was negatively received in 1943, although there were those who defended it. Similarly, when the film was shown in New York in 1948, it got very mixed reviews. In England, however, where it was shown in 1946, it was praised by the press. Since then, Vredens dag has grown in critical reputation and is now considered one of Dreyer’s masterpieces. —Ib Monty VYBORGSKAYA STORONA See THE MAXIM TRILOGY 1305 W THE WAGES OF FEAR See LE SALAIRE DE LA PEUR WALKABOUT Australia, 1971 Director: Nicolas Roeg Production: Twentieth Century-Fox; Eastmancolor, 35mm; running time: 95 mins. Released 1 July 1971, New York. Filmed in Australia. Producer: Si Litvinoff; executive producer: Max L. Raab; screen- play: Edward Bond, from the novel by James Vance Marshall; photography: Nicolas Roeg; editors: Anthony Gibbs and Alan Patillo; production designer: Brian Eatwell; music: John Barry. Cast: Jenny Agutter (Girl); Lucien John (Brother); David Gumpilil (Aborigine); John Mellon (Father); Peter Carver (No Hoper); John Ilingsworth (Husband). Publications Books: Feineman, Neil, Nicolas Roeg, Boston, 1978. Houston, Beverle, and Marsha Kinder, Self and Cinema: A Transformalist Perspective, New York, 1980. McFarlane, Brian, Australian Cinema 1970–85, London, 1987. Lanza, Joseph, Fragile Geometry: The Films, Philosophy and Misad- ventures of Nicolas Roeg, New York, 1989. Izod, John, Films of Nicolas Roeg: Myth and Mind, New York, 1992. Salwolke, Scott, Nicolas Roeg: Film by Film, Jefferson, 1993. Articles: Filmfacts (New York), no. 14, 1971. Variety (New York), 19 May 1971. Canby, Vincent, in New York Times, 2 July 1971. McGregor, Craig, ‘‘Walkabout: Beautiful But Fake?,’’ in New York Times, 18 July 1971. Nichols, Bill, in Cinema 7, Fall 1971. Millar, Gavin, in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1971–72. Cowie, Peter, in International Film Guide (London), 1972. Gow, Gordon, ‘‘Identity: An Interview with Nicolas Roeg,’’ in Films and Filming (London), January 1972. Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Summer 1973. Milne, Tom, and Penelope Houston, ‘‘Interview with Nicolas Roeg,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1973–74. Kleinhans, Chuck, ‘‘Performance, Walkabout, Don’t Look Now, Nicolas Roeg—Permutations without Profundity,’’ in Jump Cut (Chicago), September-October 1974. Greenway, J., ‘‘Film: No Sex, No Bushman,’’ in National Review (New York), October 1975. Waller, N., ‘‘Nicolas Roeg—A Sense of Wonder,’’ in Film Criticism (Edinboro, Pennsylvania), no. 1, 1976. Kolker, Robert Phillip, ‘‘The Open Texts of Nicolas Roeg,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1977. Boyle, A., ‘‘Two Images of the Aboriginal: Walkabout, the Novel and Film,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), vol.7, no. 1, 1979. Allen, T., in Village Voice (New York), 10 December 1979. Izod J., ‘‘Walkabout: Wasted Journey,’’ in Sight and Sound (Lon- don), Spring 1980. Gomez, Joseph, ‘‘Another Look at Nicolas Roeg,’’ in Film Criticism (Edinboro, Pennsylvania), no. 6, 1981. Johnson, Timothy, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 6, (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey), 1981. Lochen, K., in Filmtidsskrift, vol. 3, no. 4, 1985. Held, L., ‘‘Myth and Archetype in Nicolas Roeg’s Walkabout,’’ in Post Script (Jacksonville, Florida), Spring-Summer 1986. Hickling-Hudson, A., ‘‘White Construction of Black Identity in Australian Films about Aborigines,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), no. 4, 1990. Matloff, J., ‘‘The Video Monitor,’’ in Premiere (Boulder), vol. 10, March 1997. Neumaier, Joe, in Entertainment Weekly, no. 373, 4 April 1997. Parsons, D., ‘‘Lost Highway, Walkabout,’’ in Cinefantastique (Forest Park), vol. 28, no. 12, 1997. Smith, Margaret, in Cinema Papers (Fitzroy), no. 125, June 1998. Macnab, Geoffrey, ‘‘Going Walkabout,’’ in Sight & Sound (London), vol. 9, no. 3, March 1999. *** Whilst exploring the cultural clash between black and white Australia embodied in three children, Nicolas Roeg, in his first solo directorial film, inadvertently perpetuates 1960s Western thought about the death of Aboriginal culture. It was only two years prior to the making of Walkabout that the 1967 Referendum (necessary to make any Constitutional changes) empowered the Australian federal government to legislate on Aboriginal affairs. Suffrage was granted to Aboriginals in 1962, and whilst it is undoubtedly true that they had suffered through the imposition of an imported white culture, it is not true that Aboriginal culture is dying. David Gulpilil, a tribal man from Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory, at 16 years old, was chosen by Roeg to play the lead role in Walkabout. He went on to appear in WALKABOUT FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1306 Walkabout numerous films, television programmes, and dance performances around the world, was awarded the Australia Medal in 1987, yet continues to live in Arnhem Land. As a white Englishman, Roeg cannot escape a European view- point when looking at Australia. Linear reason is eschewed for the qualities embodied by Romanticism, a movement in European art, music, and literature in the late-18th and early-19th centuries, current in England at the time of colonizing Australia. Romanticism was characterized by ‘‘an emphasis on feeling and content rather than order and form, on the sublime, supernatural, and exotic.’’ These things, along with Roeg’s interest in colour, emotion, adventure, and fantasy, reflect the Romantic qualities found in this beautifully photographed film. Roeg’s extensive experience behind the camera is evident here. The film starts with a premise ‘‘explaining’’ what a walkabout is: In Australia when an Aborigine man-child reaches 16, he is sent out into the land. For months he must live from it. Sleep on it. Eat of its fruit and flesh. Stay alive. Even if it means killing his fellow creatures. The Aborigines call it the Walkabout. The construction is reminiscent of an opera plot—inspired by real countries or situations, but actually a total fantasy. I long for an Ed McBain-like disclaimer at the beginning of his novels: Any similarity to real people and places is entirely unintentional. Yet the statement places the audience firmly in a real country. Where is this Australia? The erroneous statement which suggests that walkabout is only done by boys undergoing initiation, reflects the impossibility of white culture being able to really understand Aboriginal culture. An Illus- trated Encyclopedia of Aboriginal Life describes walkabout as being: The English equivalent of an expressive word which describes the nomadic habits of the large number of tribes inhabiting the drier parts of Australia. It was not a compulsive urge but dire necessity which forced them to spend the dry season wandering from one waterhole to another in search of game, vegetable, food, and water. They sometimes established scores of camps and trav- elled hundreds of miles; and it must be remembered that each group included elderly people, pregnant mothers, young children, and babies born on the journey, as well WANDAFURU RAIFUFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1307 as young men and women and full-grown hunters, and that they had to carry all their possessions with them. However, we must accept that film is a construction, and not a document of place. If a statement is presented as fact though, it should be correct. The desire for verisimilitude cannot be satisfied here, in this complex and fantastic film. Three children, the unnamed protagonists, are thrown together as a result of far away colonising history. England needed a solution to overcrowded prisons. In 1788, the first British invaded Australia. British prisoners were deported to the unimaginable other side of the world, peopled by hundreds of distinct Aboriginal nations. Less than 200 years later, an Englishman makes an exploration on film of the friction and interchange between the indigenous and imported cul- tures. It is an account of their long walk together: the white siblings, near victims of a murderous father, are abandoned like the prisoners of the Crown, in a land that they do not understand and that almost kills them. They are saved by an Aboriginal boy who is undergoing his initiation into manhood. He must survive alone in the bush, as one of the conditions of his initiation. Just by being with him, they destroy him. By helping the white children, he breaks tribal law. However grateful they are to their black saviour, they cannot help but kill him, just through contact, just by misunderstanding. The great beauty and indifference of the land unfolds as the children escape from their father. Roeg repeats the motif of animals throughout this film (predating Peter Greenaway) and capitalizes on the brilliant colour and light of the country they travel through. The young brother and older sister’s school clothes are put away, and the vestiges of their culture diminish the further they walk. Eventually their guide paints them in ochres, yet he begins to turn on the transistor radio they have with them. His indigenous knowledge is contrasted with the commanding male radio voice which interrogates the audience with mathematical problems. The white boy responds with enthusiasm. He wants to take his shirt off, as his new friend has no shirt. He wants to give him his, but his sister comments that it would not fit him, and that he should keep it. She cannot help but admire the Aboriginal boy’s ‘‘nakedness,’’ and an adolescent aware- ness of their bodies grows. The further they walk together, the more influenced by each other they become. Their friendship develops outside white society, and outside tribal culture. The use of freeze frame, montage, almost subliminal imagery, combined with the soundtrack and music by John Barry, present a sequence of remembered fragments, like trying to recall a dream. This hauntingly moving film, despite flaws that fix it in the era of its production, allows the audience to ‘‘complete’’ it themselves. Like any successful work of art, the audience participates, freeing them- selves of passivity. The pessimism of the conclusion may be inappropriate to Aus- tralia, and particularly to Aboriginal life today, but perhaps we can see Walkabout as a memorial representation of all those indigenous peoples who have died in the colonising process. The sigh of regret we hear in A. E. Housman’s A Shropshire Lad is spoken over the memory the girl has of the three children swimming in an exquisite waterhole. It looks like Eden before awareness. Into my heart an air that kills From yon far country blows: What are those blue remembered hills, What spires, what farms are those? That is the land of lost content, I see it shining plain, The happy highways where I went And cannot come home again. Finally, we are reminded that we can never go back: change is irreversible, rien ne va plus. —Iris Wakulenko WANDAFURU RAIFU (After Life) Japan, 1999 Director: Hirokazu Kore-eda Production: Engine Film Inc. and TV Man Union; color, 35mm; running time: 118 minutes. Filmed 1998, released 1999. Producers: Yutaka Shigenobu, Masayuki Akieda, and Shiho Sato; screenplay: Hirokazu Kore-eda; photography: Masayoshi Sukita and Yutaka Yamazaki; editor: Hirokazu Kore-eda; art directors: Toshihiro Isomi and Hideo Gunji; music director: Yasuhiro Kasamatsu; sound designer: Osamu Takizawa. Cast: Arata (Takashi Mochizuki); Erika Oda (Shiori Satonaka); Susumu Terajima (Satoru Kawashima); Taketoshi Nait? (Ichiro Watanabe); Tanitakashi Nait? (Takuro Sugie); Hisako Hara (Kiyo Nishimura); Ky?ko Kagawakei; Sadao Abe; Kisuke Shoda; Kazuko Shirakawa; Yusuke Iseya; Sayaka Yoshino; Kotaro Shiga; Natsuo Ishido; Akio Yokoyama; Tomomi Hiraiwa; Yasuhiro Kasamatsu. Awards: Montgolfiere d’Or, Festival des Trois Continents, 1999, FIPRESCI Prize, San Sebastian International Film Festival, Holden Award for Best Script, Torino International Festival of Young Cin- ema, and Best Film, Buenos Aires International Festival of Indepen- dent Cinema, 1999. Publications Articles: Holden, Stephen, ‘‘In Death, a Fond Remembrance of Things Past,’’ in The New York Times, 12 May 1999. Klawans, Stuart, ‘‘Memory Hotel (It’s Haunted),’’ in The Nation, 24 May 1999. Johnson, William, ‘‘Hirokazu Kore-eda: A Japanese Filmmaker and His Use of Memory,’’ in Film Comment (New York), July 1999. *** There are few topics so near to a filmmaker’s heart and soul as that of artistic creation and of the creation of films in particular. After Life, WAVELENGTH FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1308 part parable, part fantasy, is a film about the choices and dilemmas that face filmmakers, who must sift through the human experience to choose which images contain the power to inspire and endure. After Life is the story of a week in the death of a group of twenty- two newly deceased souls. After their various demises, they arrive at a sort of halfway house between the living world and the afterlife, where they are interviewed by ghostly counselors who brief them on the next stage of their journey. To their surprise, they learn that they will spend this week selecting one joyful memory of the life they just left. This memory will be filmed by the crew of counselors and they will be allowed to take only the film of that one memory with them into the afterlife. This motley group contains diverse souls: a teenage girl, a shy old woman, a punked out rebel, a staid war veteran. Each member reacts to this unexpected after-death routine in a different way, and the unfolding of their search for the perfect memory provides the dra- matic thrust of the movie. The tone of After Life is both melancholy and comic. Though its premise is fanciful, director Kore-eda anchors the film firmly in the pedestrian, setting his post-life limbo in what appears to be (and, in fact, is) an abandoned school, with institutional beige walls and dilapidated furniture. Kore-eda’s vision of the after- life is neither mystical nor sentimental, but simply a probing search for the essence of experience. The director of After Life has been obsessed throughout his career with the subject of memory, placing it again and again at the center of his films. Trained as a documentarian, he approached After Life by first conducting hundreds of interviews, putting the film’s central question to his subjects: what memory would you choose from all your life to keep forever? Along with the dramatic story line of the film, Kore-eda intersperses these interviews, giving After Life the feel of an other-worldly documentary. The film, whose title literally translates as ‘‘Wonderful Life,’’ was named for Frank Capra’s 1946 film It’s a Wonderful Life, which also relies on the device of a protagonist revisiting his memories to gain meaning from his life. Unlike most other memory films, however, Kore-eda refuses to use flashbacks to show us the memories of his characters. ‘‘I’ve made it a rule never to show what someone is remembering,’’ he has said ‘‘because you begin to participate in the atrophying of the viewer’s imagination.’’ Instead, Kore-eda uses the film-within-a-film to emphasize the mutable nature of memory. Even our most vivid memories may be limited or embellished by time, desire, and imagination, just as the most faithful film must necessarily alter events by the act of reproduc- ing them. After Life, therefore, acts on many different levels. It is a gently humorous look at the tragedy of unfulfilled life. It is a modern history of Japan seen through the memories of those who lived it. It is a quizzical look at the predicament of the artist who seeks to preserve and illuminate the human condition. In a subtly ironic twist, those who refuse or are unable to choose a memory to film remain on as the filmmakers in the blandly institutional limbo, counseling the newly arrived dead about how to sort through their lives. —Tina Gianoulis WAR AND PEACE See VOINA I MIR THE WAVE See LOS REDES WAVELENGTH USA, 1968 Director: Michael Snow Production: Color, 16mm; running time: 45 minutes. Released January 1968. Filmed during one week of December 1966 in a loft in New York City. Producer: Michael Snow; screenplay and photography: Michael Snow; editor and sound recordist: Michael Snow; music: Tom Wolff. Cast: Hollis Frampton (Man who dies); Joyce Weiland (Woman with bookcase/Woman listening to radio); Amy Taubin (Woman on tele- phone/Woman listening to radio). Awards: 4th International Experimental Film Competition (Knokke, Belgium), Grand Prize, 1968. Publications Books: Youngblood, Gene, Expanded Cinema, New York, 1970. Curtis, David, Experimental Cinema, London, 1971. History of the American Avant-Garde Cinema, New York, 1976. Kubelka, Peter, and others, Une Histoire du cinéma, Paris, 1976. Le Grice, Malcolm, Abstract Film and Beyond, Cambridge, Massa- chusetts, 1977. Sitney, P. Adams, Visionary Film: The American Avant-Garde, New York, 1979. Dompierre, Louise, Collected Writings of Michael Snow, Water- loo, 1994. Shedden, Jim, editor, Presence and Absence: The Films of Michael Snow, 1956–1991, Toronto, 1995. Articles: ‘‘Letter from Michael Snow,’’ in Film Culture (New York), no. 46, 1967. Mekas, Jonas, and P. Adams Sitney, ‘‘Conversation with Michael Snow,’’ in Film Culture (New York), Autumn 1967. Stoller, James, in Village Voice (New York), 11 January and 11 April 1968. Yalkut, Jud, in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Summer 1968. Lamberton, Bob, in Film Culture (New York), October 1968. Snow, Michael, ‘‘Letter,’’ in Film Culture (New York), October 1968. Sitney, P. Adams, ‘‘Avant-Garde Film,’’ in Afterimage (Rochester, New York), Autumn 1970. LE WEEKENDFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1309 Medjuck, Joe, ‘‘The Life and Times by Michael Snow,’’ in Take One (Montreal) January-February 1971. Michelson, Annette, ‘‘Toward Snow,’’ in Artforum (New York), June 1971. Skoller, Donald, ‘‘Aspects of Cinematic Consciousness: Suspense and Presence/Disillusion/Unified Perceptual Response,’’ in Film Comment (New York), September-October 1972. Rosenbaum, J., in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), February 1975. Heath, Stephen, ‘‘Narrative Space,’’ in Screen (London), no. 3, 1976. Michelson, Annette, ‘‘About Snow,’’ in October (Cambridge, Mas- sachusetts), Spring 1979. Goldsmith, Catherine, ‘‘The Complete Films of Michael Snow,’’ in The Gallery (Toronto), March 1981. Wees, W. C., ‘‘Prophesy, Memory, and the Zoom: Michael Snow’s Wavelength Reviewed,’’ in Ciné-Tracts (Montreal), Summer- Fall 1981. Hamlyn, N., ‘‘Seeing Is Believing: Wavelength Reconsidered,’’ in Afterimage (London), Winter 1982–83. Dunovicova, N., ‘‘Focus on Plot: Michael Snow’s Wavelength,’’ in On Film (Los Angeles), Spring 1984. Rabaté, Fran?ois, ‘‘Image, récit énonciation: A propos de Wave- length,’’ in Revue d’Esthetique, no. 6, 1984. Sterritt, David, ‘‘Savoring the Art of Experimental Cinema,’’ in The Christian Science Monitor, vol. 83, no. 163, 18 July 1991. Johnson, K., ‘‘Being and Seeing: Michael Snow,’’ in Art in America, vol. 82, July 1994. *** Michael Snow’s Wavelength established his reputation as a filmmaker and, with the prestige of the winning prize at the 4th International Experimental Film Competition, it quickly became the showpiece of a movement toward monomorphic, minimalist films (often called ‘‘structural films’’). The decisiveness with which Snow staked out a territory for investigation, the simplicity and clarity of the film’s overall gesture, and the intricacy of its details, were factors in the immediate and continuing attention this film has claimed. Wavelength describes a single zoom movement for three quarters of an hour across an almost empty New York loft, resting eventually with the frame of a black-and-white photograph of waves pinned to the wall of the room. Within this pseudo-continuity there are innu- merable changes of color filters, sudden shifts into negative, changes from day to night, occasional super-impositions, and a series of human events of increasing dramatic significance. The events include moving in a bookcase, listening to a song on the radio, a tramp breaking in and collapsing on the floor, and finally a woman entering and upon seeing the body, telephoning for help because she thinks he is dead. The human events are filmed with the direct sound which inter- rupts the steadily increasing sine wave of piercing electronic sound which contributes largely to the uncanniness of the film. The filmmaker dissects the illusion of continuity imposed by zoom, evoking an impressive series of metaphors for memory and death in the process. The opening installation of the bookcase, with its live, unmuffled sound of footsteps mingled with the noises of the street and its commercial traffic, sets the tone of a casual documentary. As we wait for something to happen, that casualness is cancelled by the non- realistic visual and auditory events arranged to emphasize the auton- omy of the camera and sound recorder of the audio-visual stimuli. Gradually we come to realize that even such conventional tools as the radio and the telephone are machines for translating sound waves into electronic traces and back into audible sound. The zoom is a particularly appropriate tool for Snow’s critique, because its movement is virtual, in actuality a relationship between two lenses, the image of an image. In the film’s temporal scheme, that inner mechanism of the lens is echoed by the frame-to-frame relation- ship that suggests either movement or stasis depending upon the nature of the still images. The end of the film dramatizes this when Snow dissolves from one image of the photograph of the wave framed on the wall to a closer shot wholly within the photograph. The dissolve cannot be distinguished from the act of zooming. Finally, he declares the fragility of the image itself by simply changing focus on the photograph so radically that the screen goes white: the very threshold of visibility is inscribed within the lens. Other avant-garde films have dwelled upon the uniqueness of the cinematic images, but none so systematically as Wavelength. —P. Adams Sitney LE WEEKEND (Weekend) France-Italy 1967 Director: Jean-Luc Godard Production: Films Copernic, Comacico, and Lira Films (France) and Ascot-Cinera?d (Rome); Eastmancolor, 35mm; running time: 95 minutes, English version is 103 minutes. Released September 1967, Venice Film Festival. Filmed September-October 1967 around Paris. Screenplay: Jean-Luc Godard; assistant director: Claude Miller; photography: Raoul Coutard; editor: Agnès Guillemot; sound: René Lavert; music: Antoine Duhamel, from Mozart, Piano Sonata, K. 576. Cast: Mireille Darc (Corinne); Jean Yanne (Roland); Jean-Pierre Kalfon (F.L.S.O. Leader); Valérie Lagrange (His companion); Jean- Pierre Léaud (Saint-Just/Man in phone booth); Yves Beneyton (F.L.S.O. member); Paul Gégauff (Pianist); Daniel Pommereulle (Joseph Balsamo); Virginie Vignon (Marie-Madeleine); Yves Alfonso (Tom Thumb); Blandine Jeanson (Emily Bront?/Young woman in farm- yard); Ernest Menzer (Cook); Georges Staquet (Tractor driver); Juliet Berto (Woman in car crash/F.L.S.O. member); Anne Wiazemsky (Woman in farmyard/F.L.S.O. member); Jean Eustache (Hitchhiker); J. C. Guilbert (Tramp). Publications Script: Godard, Jean-Luc, Weekend, Paris, 1968; in Weekend and Wind from the East: Two Films by Jean-Luc Godard, London and New York, 1972. LE WEEKEND FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1310 Books: Mussman, Toby, editor, Jean-Luc Godard: A Critical Anthology, New York, 1968. Cameron, Ian, editor, The Films of Jean-Luc Godard, London, 1969. Mancini, Michele, Godard, Rome, 1969. Roud, Richard, Jean-Luc Godard, 2nd edition, New York, 1970. Goldmann, Annie, Cinéma et societé moderne: Le cinéma de 1968 à 1968: Godard, Antonioni, Resnais, Robbe-Grillet, Paris, 1971. Brown, Royal, editor, Focus on Godard, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1972. Godard on Godard, edited by Tom Milne, London, 1972; as Godard on Godard: Critical Writings, edited by Milne and Jean Narboni, New York, 1986. Farassino, Alberto, Jean-Luc Godard, Florence, 1974. MacBean, James Roy, Film and Revolution, Bloomington, Indi- ana, 1975. Monaco, James, The New Wave, New York, 1976. Braudy, Leo, The World in a Frame, New York, 1977. Houston, Beverle, and Marsha Kinder, Self and Cinema: A Transformalist Perspective, New York, 1980. MacCabe, Colin, Godard: Images, Sounds, Politics, London, 1980. Walsh, Martin, The Brechtian Aspect of Radical Cinema, Lon- don, 1981. Lefèvre, Raymond, Jean-Luc Godard, Paris, 1983. Bordwell, David, Narration in the Fiction Film, London, 1985. Weis, Elisabeth, and John Belton, Film Sound: Theory and Practice, New York, 1985. Cerisuelo, Marc, Jean-Luc Godard, Paris, 1989. Loshitzky, Yosefa, Radical Faces of Godard and Bertolucci, Detroit, 1995. Dixon, Wheeler Winston, The Films of Jean-Luc Godard, Albany, 1997. Silverman, Kaja, and Harun Farocki, Speaking About Godard, New York, 1998. Sterritt, David, The Films of Jean-Luc Godard: Seeing the Invisible, Cambridge, 1999. Articles: Capdenac, Michel, in Lettres Fran?aises (Paris), 9 January 1968. Moskowitz, Gene, in Variety (New York), 10 January 1968. Lefèvre, Raymond, in Image et Son (Paris), February 1968. Salachas, Gilbert, in Téléciné (Paris), February 1968. Collet, Jean, and Jacques Aumont, ‘‘Le Dur Silence des galaxies— Weekend,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma, (Paris), March 1968. Delmas, Jean, ‘‘Le Weekend: Un Utile Exercise qui s’appelle: Chine,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), May 1968. Taddei, Nazereno, in Bianco e Nero (Rome), May-June 1968. Dawson, Jan, in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1968. Powell, Dilys, ‘‘The Manic Side of Godard,’’ in Sunday Times (London), 7 July 1968. Hobson, Harold, in Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 29 July 1968. Millar, Gavin, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), August 1968. Kael, Pauline, in New Yorker, 5 October 1968. Adler, Renata, in New York Times, 27 October 1968. Medjuck, Joe, in Take One (Montreal), no. 11, 1968. Time (New York), November 1968. MacBean, James Roy, ‘‘Godard’s Weekend; or, The Self-Critical Cinema of Cruelty,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1968. Wood, Robin, in Movie (London), Winter 1968. Whitehead, Peter, in Films and Filming (London), February 1969. Henderson, Brian, ‘‘Toward a Non-Bourgeois Camera Style,’’ in Movies and Methods, edited by Bill Nichols, Berkeley, 1976. Dolfi, Glen, in Cinema Texas Program Notes (Austin), 2 May 1978. Fisher, R., ‘‘Weekend Cinematographer Discusses His Style,’’ in Millimeter (New York), April 1979. Nicholls, D., ‘‘Godard’s Weekend: Totem, Taboo, and the Fifth Republic,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1979–80. ‘‘Godard Issue’’ of Camera Obscura (Berkeley), Fall 1982. Lovell, Alan, ‘‘Epic Theater and Counter Cinema,’’ in Jump Cut (Berkeley), April 1983. Goldschmidt, D., and P. Le Guay, interview with Agnes Guillemot, in Cinématographe (Paris), March 1985. Durgnat, Raymond, ‘‘Jean-Luc Godard: His Crucifixion and Resur- rection,’’ in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), September 1985. ‘‘Godard Issue’’ of Revue Belge du Cinéma (Brussels), Summer 1986. Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), no. 437 (supp.), November 1990. Romney, Jonathan, ‘‘Militant Tendency,’’ in Time Out (London), vol. 1099, 11 September 1991. ‘‘Lontano dal Vietnam,’’ in Castoro Cinema (Milan), part 1, no. 176, March/April, 1996. Rosenbaum, Jonathan, ‘‘Godard in the Nineties: An Interview, Argu- ment and Scrapbook,’’ in Film Comment (New York), vol. 34, no. 5, September-October 1998. *** Weekend is perhaps the most problematic film of the modern cinema’s most problematic (if arguably most important) filmmaker. The problem lies partly in the complexity of the issues involved. There are the difficulties of the film itself, difficulties of obscurity in meaning, but also those arising from the nature of its radicalism, plus the wider difficulties concerning the whole 20th-century political and aesthetic debate centered on ‘‘realism’’ vs. ‘‘modernism.’’ The dominant tradition of cinema, since its inception (the Lumière films of 1895), has been ‘‘realist’’ (a better word might be ‘‘illusion- ist’’), based on deceiving the audience into believing they are seeing reality instead of an artificial construct. Even documentary and the newsreel are based on principles of selection and juxtaposition; reality in art can never be unmediated. This illusion of reality can easily become (and without awareness, inevitably becomes) a dis- guise under cover of which the dominant ideology (i.e. bourgeois, patriarchal capitalism) reproduces and reinforces itself: the represen- tation of physical reality becomes the guarantee of a ‘‘truth’’ that is in fact ideological. Hence the first duty of the radical filmmaker is to shatter the dominant modes of representation—to destroy the illusion, to overthrow the tyranny of narrative. In our century, the cinema (with ‘‘reality’’ apparently guaranteed by the camera—‘‘the truth 24 times a second,’’ as Godard remarked in his earlier days, or ‘‘lies 24 times a second,’’ as he subsequently reformulated it) has been the last stronghold of traditional realist art, a tradition long since challenged in literature and painting. Godard’s work has been central to the emergence and development of a modernist cinema, and Weekend is one of the key texts in that development. WEST SIDE STORYFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1311 The fundamental rule of a classical cinema is that everything serves the narrative: settings, characterization, realistic detail, style, presentation, etc. The narrative of Weekend might be linked to a clothesline: it is a necessity for hanging the wash, but what is interesting and important are the garments, linens, etc., that it sus- tains. The rejection of realism/illusionism and narrative dominance is at once achieved by and makes possible (it is difficult here to distinguish cause and effect) a number of strategies. For example: there are references to the film as a film (introductory captions tell us it is ‘‘a film found on the scrap-heap’’ and ‘‘film astray in the cosmos,’’ and the male protagonist complains about the craziness of the movie he’s in); references to other films (Bu?uel’s The Extermi- nating Angel, Johnny Guitar, Saga of Gosta Berling, and Battleship Potemkin—The Searchers are code names on the walkie-talkies while the Renoir and Truffaut references are telescoped in the caption ‘‘Arizona Jules’’); printed captions throughout the film are used as interruptions which are frequently more enigmatic than explanatory; and, finally, Weekend is largely composed of digressions, its plot being capable of summation in a couple of sentences. Other strategies include: the use of direct address to the camera, monologue, and interview (Weekend contains an interesting—and exceptionally distancing—variation on this in the ‘‘Third World’’ section where the black African and Algerian garbage-collectors speak for each other, one staring insolently into the camera while the other, off-screen, speaks his thoughts); the foregrounding of camera-technique, as in the celebrated tracking shot along the seemingly interminable traffic jam where the camera moves steadily, imperturbably, refusing to privilege any incident or detail by linering, as well as the three 360- degree circular tracks around the farmyard during the lecture on a Mozart piano sonata; and, finally, the intrusion into the film of a number of characters superfluous to the narrative, some historical, some fictitious, and in certain cases played by the same actor (St. Just and the young man in the phone-booth, Emily Bront?—dressed as Alice-in-Wonderland—and the pianist/lecturer’s assistant.) Instead of the closed text of classical narrative, in which an omniscient author (the connection of the term to ‘‘authority’’ is important) leads the reader/viewer step by step towards a position of ‘‘knowledge’’ (which corresponds to the imposition of a value- system), we have the open text of modernism. The author (‘‘enuncia- tor’’ has become the preferred term) foregrounds himself, and in a sense discredits himself. The lack of coherent narrative frees the viewer, making him the active explorer of an open-ended network of data, references, statements, and positions. The voices that speak within the film are not structured or ‘‘placed’’ in relation to a domi- nant discourse; we are not told how we must listen to them. So, at least, runs the argument. One can accept it up to a point; certainly, as a challenge to dominant forms and dominant norms, Godard has been salutary and indispensable. Nevertheless, Weekend is a film towards which, as time passes, one feels increasingly less indulgent. When it appeared (after the events of May ‘68, but made before them), it seemed uncannily prescient, its formal, aesthetic, and political anarchism exhilarating and liberating. Yet there were always doubts—an uneasiness, a squeam- ishness, which the film itself seemed to define as ‘‘bourgeois,’’ and scoffed at one for feeling. Clearly in intention it is a film about the brutalization of contemporary capitalist society, but it is also in effect a brutalizing film. This becomes explicit in one of its final statements, where we are told that the horror of the bourgeoisie must be countered with even greater horror. In practice, the results of the theoretical argument outlined here became increasingly ambiguous. The abdica- tion from ‘‘authority’’ can be read as Godard’s somewhat disingenu- ous denial of responsibility, (‘‘I am not making these statements, voices in the film are making them’’—voices which Godard has chosen and permitted to speak). The overthrow of ‘‘realism’’ (the blood is obviously red paint, the film is a film) becomes a means of allowing us to find degradation (especially of women), slaughter and cannibalism funny. One cannot resist the suggestion that Godard is using revolutionary politics as an excuse for indulging a number of very unpleasant fantasies of sexuality and violence. The film constructs a position for the viewer just as surely as any classical narrative (true, that position contains a certain ambivalence, but that is a phenomenon scarcely alien to classical cinema). The presentation, in the final third of the film, of the band of revolutionary guerillas is crucial to this. Godard is careful not to endorse them in any obvious, unequivocal way. Their activities are made to appear largely ridiculous and pointless, unsupported by any coherent body of revolutionary theory. Yet he is plainly fascinated by them; their very emptiness and dehumanization provide the necessary conditions for the fantasies of violence that a constructive radical position could only impede. The attitude found in the later Vent d’Est that could explicitly encourage the placing of bombs in supermarkets and label ‘‘bourgeois’’ any scruples we might feel about this is already fully present in Weekend. Foregrounding the mechanics of cinema and the process of narration by no means guarantees ideological awareness (on the part of either the filmmaker or the spectator): that is just as pernicious a myth as its corollary, that all realist art necessarily reinforces the dominant ideology. —Robin Wood WEST SIDE STORY USA, 1961 Directors: Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins Production: Mirisch Pictures, Seven Arts Productions, Beta Produc- tions; Technicolor, Panavision, 70mm; running time: 152 minutes. Producer: Robert Wise; screenplay: Ernest Lehman; photography: Linwood G. Dunn; editors: Thomas Stanford and Marshall M. Borden; assistant directors: Robert E. Relyea and Jerome M. Siegel; production design: Boris Leven; music: Leonard Bernstein; sound: Gilbert D. Merchant; sound recording: Murray Spivak; choreogra- phy: Jerome Robbins. Cast: Natalie Wood (Maria); Richard Beymer (Tony); George Chakiris (Bernardo); Russ Tamblyn (Riff); Rita Moreno (Anita); Tony Mordente (Action); Tucker Smith (Ice); Simon Oakland (Lieutenant Shrank); WEST SIDE STORY FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1312 West Side Story William Bramley (Officer Krupkey); Ned Glass (Doc); Jose De Vega (Chino); Sue Oaks (Anybody’s); John Astin (Glad Hand); Penny Santon (Madam Lucia); Jay Norman (Pepe); Gus Trikonis (Indio); Robert Trompson (Luis); Eliot Field (Baby John); Larry Roquemore (Rocco); David Winters (A-Rab). Awards: Oscars for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Supporting Actor (George Chakiris), Best Supporting Actress (Rita Moreno), Best Cinematography, Best Score, Best Editing, Best Art Direction, Best Costume Design, and Best Sound, 1961. Publications Books: Kael, Pauline, I Lost It at the Movies, Boston, 1965. McDonald, Dwight, On Movies, New Jersey, 1969. Brode, Douglas, The Films of the Sixties, New Jersey, 1980. Prouty, Howard J., in Magill’s Survey of Cinema-Volume 4, edited by Frank Magill, Englewood, New Jersey, 1980. Staskowski, Andrea, Movie Musicals, Minneapolis, 1992. Garebian, Keith, The Making of West Side Story, Toronto, 1995. Leemann, Sergio, Robert Wise On His Films: From Editing Room to Director’s Chair, Los Angeles, 1995. Thompson, Frank T., Robert Wise: A Bio-Bibliography, Westport, 1995. Articles: Gussow, Mel, ‘‘West Side Story: The Beginnings of Something Great,’’ in The New York Times, vol. 140, H5, 21 October 1990. Kutner, C.J., ‘‘Robert Wise: Part Two: Life at the Top,’’ in Bright Lights (Cincinnati), no. 11, Fall 1993. Sanchez, A.S., ‘‘A Puerto Rican Reading of America,’’ in Jump Cut (Berkeley), no. 39, June 1994. *** The film West Side Story is based on the 1950s Broadway stage play, from an idea inspired by Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. The WHITE HEATFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1313 idea of taking one of the most famous and tragic love stories of all time and translating it to modern America, focusing it around the racial and inner city problems arising at that time (and which still exist today) was a radical one. The Capulet and Montague families are transformed into two street gangs whose members live in the urban ghettos. The Jets (the poor, white local youth) are led by Riff (Russ Tamblyn) who centres his hatred on the local Puerto Ricans who have moved into the area to make a new beginning. The immigrant gang, the Sharks, are led by the charismatic Bernardo (George Chakiris), who still believes in the customs and patriarchy of his old world. Conflict arises not just between the two groups that struggle to live together in this emerging new society, but also within the factions when the conventions and beliefs of the older society are put to the test and are questioned. Thus, Tony (Richard Beymer) is torn between his old solidarity with the Jets, his wish to escape from the ghetto and move on, and his instantaneous love for Maria, a girl from a different culture and race. Similarly, Maria (Natalie Wood) must face the conflict that arises between her loyalty to her family, as epitomized by her brother Bernardo, and her love for Tony. Both Tony and Maria must pay the price for breaking the existing rules of the dominant society—and both Tony and Bernardo are sacrificed in order to establish rules for the new order. Garnering ten Academy Awards, West Side Story is today re- garded as a classic musical. The film boasts an impressive cast, a musical score composed by Leonard Bernstein, and Jerome Robbins’s choreography, which introduced a new kind of dance in musicals. Robert Wise’s clever and often shocking direction brought an imme- diacy and pace rarely seen in musicals. The audience is immediately immersed in the plot from the opening credits when the camera zooms in at great speed on the first shot. However, critic Pauline Kael commented that the use of stereophonic music in the opening se- quence left her ‘‘clutching’’ her head. The racial tension is evident from the beginning when gang members chase a Puerto Rican down the street only to be pursued in turn. Brilliantly choreographed, the energetic routines illustrate the violence and intensity of living on the streets through dance and movement. Most impressive is the fact that Maria is played by Natalie Wood who could neither sing nor dance. Most of the routines in which she is featured compensate for these deficiencies through skillful choreography and a clever use of camera. Rita Moreno is excellent as Anita, Bernardo’s voluptuous and sexy girlfriend, who manages and manipulates her lover very well. The innocent gossipy antics of the Puerto Rican girls, who are alternately excited by and frightened of their new country, are contrasted with the ‘‘political games’’ of their male counterparts. Although for the most part the encounters between the gangs are part of a game to keep them all amused, the fun quickly spirals out of control when the Sharks and Jets plan a final confrontation, which results in Riff’s accidental stabbing by Bernardo, and Bernardo’s subsequent death at Tony’s hands. Tony is the least credible character in the film. He believes that he can leave the Jets and his past behind without any problems. He sees Maria at a dance and instantly falls in love with her, ignoring all of the obvious problems arising from an interracial love match. He seems too soft to belong to a street gang; yet Tony’s loyalty to his friend Riff leads him to kill Bernardo, despite the impact this will have on Maria. Even after this tragic episode Tony croons ‘‘There’s a Place for Us’’ to Maria, a future for them somewhere—but there is nowhere to run. He is killed by Chico, a Shark gang member who is in love with Maria. Only after Tony’s death, when the police arrive and Maria has condemned both gangs for the senseless deaths of Riff, Bernardo, and Tony, do the two gangs finally join together and carry Tony away. The confusion and fear on all of their faces makes children of them once more. In spite of its sadness West Side Story ends on a positive note— with the idea that out of the violence and hatred a better society can be created in which different groups can live together. —A. Pillai WHEN FATHER WAS AWAY ON BUSINESS See OTAC NA SLUZBENOM PUTU WHERE CHIMNEYS ARE SEEN See ENTOTSU NO MIERO BASHO WHITE HEAT USA, 1949 Director: Raoul Walsh Production: Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc.; black and white: 35mm, running time: 114 minutes. Released 2 September 1949. Filmed in Warner Bros. studios; final episode filmed in Torrence, California. Producer: Louis F. Edelman; screenplay: Ivan Goff and Ben Rob- erts, from a story by Virginia Kellogg; photography: Sid Hickox; editor: Owen Marks; sound: Leslie G. Hewitt; art director: Edward Carrere; music: Max Steiner; special effects: Roy Davidson and H. F. Koenekamp; costume designer: Leah Rhodes. Cast: James Cagney (Cody Jarrett); Virginia Mayo (Verna Jarrett); Edmond O’Brien (Hank Fallon/Vic Pardo); Margaret Wycherly (Ma Jarrett); Steve Cochran (Big Ed Somers); John Archer (Phillip Evans); Wally Cassell (Cotton Valetti); Fred Clark (Trader); Ford Rainey (Zuckie Hommell); Fred Coby (Happy Taylor); G. Pat Collins (Reader); Mickey Knox (Het Kohler); Paul Guilfoyle (Roy Parker); Robert Osterloh (Tommy Ryley); Ian MacDonald (Bo Creel); Ray Montgomery (Trent); Marshall Bradford (Chief of Police). WHITE HEAT FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1314 White Heat Publications Script: Goff, Ivan, and Ben Roberts, White Heat, edited by Patrick McGilligan, Madison, Wisconsin, 1984. Books: Marmin, Michel, Raoul Walsh, Paris, 1970. Dickens, Homer, The Films of James Cagney, Secaucus, New Jer- sey, 1972. Bergman, Andrew, James Cagney, New York, 1973. Canham, Kingsley, The Hollywood Professionals, London and New York, 1973. Hardy, Phil, editor, Raoul Walsh, Colchester, Essex, 1974. Walsh, Raoul, Each Man in His Time, New York, 1974. Higham, Charles, Warner Brothers, New York, 1975. Cagney, James, Cagney on Cagney, New York, 1976. Shadoian, Jack, Dreams and Dead Ends: The American Gangster/ Crime Film, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1977. Silver, Alain, and Elizabeth Ward, editors, Film Noir, New York, 1979. Clinch, Minty, Cagney: The Story of His Film Career, London, 1982. Jenkins, Steve, The Death of a Gangster, London, 1982. McGilligan, Patrick, Cagney: The Actor as Auteur, San Diego, 1982. Warren, Doug, James Cagney: The Authorised Biography, London, 1983; revised edition, 1986. Bookbinder, Robert, Classics of the Gangster Film, Secaucus, New Jersey, 1985. Schickel, Richard, James Cagney: A Celebration, London, 1985; New York, 1999. Giuliani, Pierre, Raoul Walsh, Paris, 1986. Dickens, Homer, The Complete Films of James Cagney, Secaucus, 1989. McCabe, John, Cagney, New York, 1997. Articles: Warshow, Robert, ‘‘The Gangster as Tragic Hero,’’ in Partisan Review (New York), February 1948. Variety (New York), 31 August 1949. New York Times, 3 September 1949. WHY WE FIGHTFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1315 New Yorker, 10 September 1949. Tynan, Kenneth, ‘‘Cagney and the Mob,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), May 1951. Miller, Don, ‘‘James Cagney,’’ in Films in Review (New York), August-September 1958. ‘‘Walsh Issue’’ of Présence du Cinéma (Paris), May 1962. ‘‘Walsh Issue’’ of Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), April 1964. Lloyd, R., ‘‘Raoul Walsh,’’ in Brighton Film Review, November and December 1969 and January 1970. Bleys, J. P., ‘‘William Keighley, Raoul Walsh, et le style Warner,’’ in Cahiers de la Cinémathéque (Perpignan), Spring-Summer 1978. Clark, T., ‘‘White Heat: The Old and the New,’’ in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), no. 1, 1979. Benayoun, Robert, in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), 1 October 1979. Mank, Gregory William, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 4, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Conley, Tom, ‘‘Apocalypse Yesterday,’’ in Enclitic (Minneapolis), Fall 1981-Spring 1982. Sklar, Robert, ‘‘L’Acteur en lutte: James Cagney contre Warner Bros.,’’ in Filméchange (Paris), Summer 1983. Peary, Gerald, in American Film, vol. 9, March 1984. Listener (London), 17 May 1984. Villadsen, E., ‘‘Raoul Walsh—en gudben?det fortaeller,’’ in Kosmorama (Copenhagen), May 1985. Osteen, M., ‘‘The Big Secret: Film Noir and Nuclear Fear,’’ in Journal of Popular Film and Television (Washington, D.C.), vol. 22, no. 2, 1994. Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), no. 500, March 1996. Reid’s Film Index (Wyong), no. 23, 1996. Grob, N., ‘‘Die Schwaerze des Schwarz,’’ in Filmbulletin (Winterthur), vol. 39, no. 4, 1997. *** One of the toughest, most hard-bitten crime films of the 1940s, White Heat stands at the crux between the 1930s gangster movie and the post-war film noir. At the center of the film is gang leader Cody Jarrett, a cold-blooded killer who runs his gang of thieves with an iron fist and a blazing pistol. As Jarrett, James Cagney gives one of the most maniacal, yet complex performances of his masterful career, harking back to the tragically ambitious mobster he played in Public Enemy, but adding the noir-ish twist of psychopathy to the character. The white heat of the title refers in part to the debilitating headaches Cody suffers; he describes them as feeling like a buzzsaw in his brain. Jarrett’s migraine attacks and insane rages clearly equate his mental condition and his sociopathic profession; yet the film plays out Cody’s psychosis quite astutely in the determinant relationship of the film—his perversely oedipal attachment to his mother. Although accompanied by his voluptuous (and ultimately duplicitous) bride, Cody ignores her in favour of Ma Jarrett, a hard-nosed old woman who is mentor, advisor and comforter to her only son, and who never leaves his side until he is taken to prison. Significantly, only she seems capable of seeing Cody’s migraines. Ostensibly, it is Edmond O’Brien, as police agent Hank Fallon, who plays the hero of the film, going undercover in prison to gain Jarrett’s confidence and lead him to the gas chamber. Exploiting Jarrett’s psychological weaknesses, Fallon manages to partially fill the emotional void left when Cody finds out his mother has been killed (the scene that provides the film’s emotional peak—upon hearing the news, Jarrett wreaks havoc in a tour-de-force mad rage in the prison mess hall). Curiously, the vulnerability displayed by Jarrett—psychopathic and cold-blooded as he may be—makes the betrayal of his friendship by the bland, emotionless Fallon seem utterly reprehensible, no matter what side of the law he represents. As directed by Raoul Walsh, the most accomplished craftsman working at Warner Brothers, White Heat never succumbs to heavy psychologism, but remains a lean and powerful, unrelentingly fast- paced film—the epitome of classical Hollywood filmmaking. Char- acteristic of Walsh, the film’s mise-en-scène is filled with flourishes of camera movement, cutting and composition seamlessly con- structed so as to avoid the ‘‘artiness’’ of more expressionistic films noir. Such classicism at the service of metaphor is nowhere better demonstrated than in the intercutting of the churning machinery of the prison workshop with close-ups of Jarrett suffering one of his disabling headaches. The sense of locale evoked by Walsh, as atmospheric in this film as in his renowned High Sierra, is impeccable and quite contemporary, making imaginative use of such settings as tourist courts and drive-in movie theaters. The signs of modernity are everywhere (most obviously in the ‘‘scientific’’ surveillance tech- niques used by the police to track Jarrett in his final caper) and add to the sense that the tragic figure of the gangster has outlived his day. It is this sense of a modern world no longer concerned with the individual that finally lends White Heat its most biting, film noir edge, adding a thoroughly chilling level to Jarrett’s self-immolation in the film’s final moments. Perched atop a refinery oil drum, engaged in a hopeless gun battle with the police, and realizing his betrayal by Fallon, Jarrett fires his pistol into the drum, shouting, ‘‘Top of the world, Ma!’’ The white-hot explosion that follows not only marks Jarrett’s ascension to the tragic, but equates his madness with the end of the world, announcing the definitive entry of the crime film into the atomic age. —Ed Lowry WHY WE FIGHT USA, 1943–45 Directors: Frank Capra, Anatole Litvak, and Anthony Veiller Production: Signal Services, US Army (Parts 1–4), Signal Corps Army Pictorial Service (Parts 5–7); black and white, 35mm; running time: Part 1—53 mins.; Part 2—42 mins.; Part 3—58 mins.; Part 4— 54 mins.; Part 5—80 mins.; Part 6—64 mins.; Part 7—70 mins. Part 1 compiled in the 834th Signal Service Photograph Detachment, Dept. of the Interior Building, Washington, D.C.; Parts 2–7 compiled in 20th-Century studio facilities, Hollywood. Parts 1–4 released in 1943, Parts 5 and 6 released in 1944, Part 7 released in 1945. 1. PRELUDE TO WAR Producer: Frank Capra; screenplay: Anthony Veiller and Eric Knight; director: Frank Capra; editor: William Hornbeck; music: Alfred Newman. WHY WE FIGHT FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1316 Why We Fight Cast: Walter Huston (Narrator). 2. THE NAZIS STRIKE Producer: Frank Capra; screenplay: Eric Knight, Anthony Veiller, and Robert Heller; directors: Frank Capra and Anatole Litvak; editor: William Hornbeck; music: Dimitri Tiomkin. Cast: Walter Huston and Anthony Veiller (Narrators). 3. DIVIDE AND CONQUER Producer: Frank Capra; screenplay: Anthony Veiller and Robert Heller; directors: Frank Capra and Anatole Litvak; editor: William Hornbeck; music: Dimitri Tiomkin. 4. THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN Producer: Frank Capra; screenplay: Anthony Veiller; director: Anthony Veiller; editor: William Hornbeck; music: Dimitri Tiomkin. Cast: Walter Huston and Anthony Veiller (Narrators). 5. THE BATTLE OF RUSSIA Producer: Frank Capra; screenplay: Anatole Litvak, Anthony Veiller, and Robert Heller; director: Anatole Litvak; editor: William Hornbeck; music: arranged by Dimitri Tiomkin and selected from Tchaikovsky, Stravinsky, Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Rachmaninoff, and Rimsky Korsakov. Cast: Walter Huston and Anthony Veiller (Narrators). 6. THE BATTLE OF CHINA Producer: Frank Capra; screenplay: Anthony Veiller and Robert Heller; directors: Frank Capra and Anatole Litvak; editor: William Hornbeck; music: Dimitri Tiomkin. Cast: Walter Huston and Anthony Veiller (Narrators). WHY WE FIGHTFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1317 7. WAR COMES TO AMERICA Producer: Frank Capra; screenplay: Anatole Litvak and Anthony Veiller; director: Anatole Litvak; editor: William Hornbeck; music: Dimitri Tiomkin. Cast: Walter Huston and Anthony Veiller (Narrators). Publications Books: Thompson, George Raynor, and others, The Signal Corps: The Test, Washington, D.C., 1957. Leyda, Jay, Films Beget Films, New York, 1964. Thompson, George Raynor, Frank Capra, and others, The Signal Corps: The Outcome, Washington, D.C., 1966. Capra, Frank, Name above the Title, New York, 1971. Barsam, Richard, Nonfiction Film, New York, 1973. Barnouw, Erik, Documentary: A History of the Non-Fiction Film, New York, 1974. Willis, Donald, The Films of Frank Capra, Metuchen, New Jer- sey, 1974. Glatzer, Richard, and John Raeburn, editors, Frank Capra: The Man and His Films, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1975. Poague, Leland, The Cinema of Frank Capra, New York, 1975. Bohn, Thomas, An Historical and Descriptive Analysis of the Why We Fight Series, New York, 1977. McCann, Richard Dyer, The People’s Art, New York, 1977. Bohnenkamp, Dennis, and Sam Grogg, editors, Frank Capra Study Guide, Washington, D.C., 1979. Maland, Charles, Frank Capra, Boston 1980. Zagarrio, Vito, Frank Capra, Florence 1985. Carney, Raymond, American Vision: The Films of Frank Capra, Cambridge, 1986. Wolfe, Charles, Frank Capra: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1987. Ellis, Jack C., The Documentary Idea, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1989. McBride, Joseph, American Madness: The Life of Frank Capra, New York, 1990. Lourdeaux, Lee, Italian and Irish Filmmakers in America: Ford, Capra, Coppola and Scorsese, Springfield, 1993. Gehring, Wes D., Populism and the Capra Legacy, Westport, 1995. Girgus, Sam B., Hollywood Renaissance: The Cinema of Democracy in the Era of Ford, Capra, and Kazan, New York, 1998. Sklar, Robert, and Vito Zagarrio, Frank Capra: Authorship and the Studio System, Philadelphia, 1998. McBride, Joseph, Frank Capra: The Catastrophe of Success, New York, 2000. Articles: Farber, Manny, ‘‘Memorandum to the Makers of Documentary War Movies,’’ in New Republic (New York), 5 October 1942. Nicholson, Harold, ‘‘Battle of Britain,’’ in Spectator (London), 8 October 1943. Agee, James, ‘‘Newsreels and War-Record Films,’’ in Nation (New York), 24 June 1944. Isaacs, Hermine, ‘‘War and Love,’’ in Theatre Arts (New York), May 1945. Jones, Dorothy B., ‘‘Hollywood War Films,’’ in Hollywood Quar- terly, October 1945. Katz, Robert and Nancy, ‘‘Documentary in Transition, Part 1: The United States,’’ in Hollywood Quarterly, Summer 1948. Gallaz, Douglas W., ‘‘Patterns in Wartime Documentaries,’’ in Quarterly of Films, Radio, and Television (Berkeley), Winter 1955. Nolan, Jack Edmund, ‘‘Anatole Litvak,’’ in Films in Review (New York), November 1967. Murphy, William, ‘‘The Method of Why We Fight,’’ in Journal of Popular Culture (Bowling Green, Ohio), Summer 1972. Bailey, G., ‘‘Why We (Should Not) Fight,’’ in Take One (Montreal), September 1975. ‘‘Capra Issue’’ of Film Criticism (Edinboro, Pennsylvania), Win- ter 1981. Basinger, Jeanine, ‘‘America’s Love Affair with Frank Capra,’’ in American Film (Washington, D.C.), March 1982. Springer, C., ‘‘Military Propaganda: Defense Department Films from World War II and Vietnam,’’ in Cultural Critique, no. 3, Spring 1986. Cieutat, Michel, and others, ‘‘The Name Above the Title,’’ in Positif (Paris), no. 317–318, July-August 1987. Denby, David, ‘‘It’s a Wonderful War,’’ in Premiere (Boulder), vol. 3, no. 5, January 1990. American Heritage, vol. 45, no. 8, December 1994. Kock, I. de., ‘‘Frank Capra: Why We Fight,’’ in Film en Televisie + Video (Brussels), no. 456, November 1995. *** The Why We Fight series was a massive effort on the part of the United States government to indoctrinate the millions of young men and women inducted into military service following the American entry into World War II. The making of this series and other large- scale information and education films, as they were called, was planned and supervised by Frank Capra. One of the most popular Hollywood filmmakers of the late 1930s, he had no prior documen- tary experience. Why We Fight was based on the assumption that servicemen would be more willing and able fighters if they knew the events that led up to, and the reasons for our participation in the war. It had to counteract the spirit of isolationism still strong in this country up to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. In this attempt it offered a gigantic historical treatise from a particular, ‘‘liberal’’ point of view—that is to say the New Deal viewpoint of the Democratic administration, prevalent in the country at the time. (There is an irony here in that Capra’s personal politics have always seemed to be conservative Republican, but they rested on a kind of populism that united him with the common effort led by President Franklin Roose- velt.) The historical approach was a frequent one in American documentaries, going back to The Plow that Broke the Plains (1936) and The River (1937). It was scarcely used by the wartime filmmakers of other governments, such as Great Britain or Canada, Germany or the Soviet Union. The series is perhaps most impressive in the scale of its conception and in the skill of its execution. Almost entirely compiled from THE WILD BUNCH FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1318 existing footage including newsreels, Allied and captured enemy records of battle, bits from Hollywood features, and Nazi propaganda films—it presents a vast and coherent panorama through editing and commentary. The first three films—Prelude to War, The Nazis Strike, and Divide and Conquer—cover the period 1918 to 1940. They document Japanese aggression in the Orient, the growing menace of Hitler in Europe, and—above all—the changing American foreign policy and public opinion throughout these years. The Battle of Britain, The Battle of Russia, and The Battle of China cover the efforts of the allies, who were in the war before the Americans and continued to fight alongside them. War Comes to America offered a recapitulation and an even more detailed examination of the tremendous changes in American opinions and attitudes, as well as the conflicting impulses and ideologies that shaped them. Picking up and consolidating the themes of the first three films, it was the last one made but was intended to be shown first. Though the seven films were designed for military personnel, their excellence and dramatic power were recog- nized by the War Department, and some of them were made available for civilian audiences through theatrical exhibition. They were shown to all servicemen; viewing all seven was compulsory before embarka- tion for overseas duty. The chief artistic problem for the makers of the films was one of giving structure to vast amounts of unstructured history. In this respect their work was like the work of Shakespeare in his chronicle plays. Dramatic form was given to each of the seven films, with exposition, mounting action, climax, denouement. They can be broken down into acts, in fact. Divide and Conquer, for example, has five acts, like the classical tragedy. Act I contains exposition: Ger- many has overrun Poland; Britain was now the goal; German strategy is outlined, and the theme of Hitler’s lying treachery sounded. The content of Act II is the successful German campaign against Denmark and Norway. Act III deals with the position of France, the Maginot Line, and French weakness. Act IV comprises the German conquest of Holland and Belgium. Act V is the fall of France. The various participant countries are given character; they become characters, like dramatic personae. In this respect, rather than the Shakespearian histories, this film bears a curious resemblance to Hamlet, with Germany as Claudius, the murderous villain, France as Hamlet, DeGaulle and French North Africa as Horatio, and England as Fortinbras. Here, as in Hamlet, things are not what they seem, with the villain protesting friendship and the tragic hero constricted by an incapacity for action. A considerable variety of visual and audio resources are used in these compiled documentaries—very nearly the full range conceiv- able. Visuals in The Nazis Strike, for instance, include, in addition to newsreel footage, excerpts from the Nazi’s Triumph of the Will, Hitlerjunge Quex, and Baptism of Fire; bits of staged action (the victims of firing squads); still photos, drawings and maps; animated diagrams (animation by the Walt Disney Studio); and printed titles (Hitler’s pronouncements). The sound track includes two narrators (Veiller for the factual, Huston for the emotional), quoted dialogue (Churchill, and an impersonation of Hitler), music (by one of Holly- wood’s best), and sound effects. Dramatic conflict is obtained by painstaking manipulation of the combat footage. The editing conventions of matched action and screen direction are observed. The German attackers always move from right to left. A synthetic assemblage of diverse material is edited into a cause-effect order: German bombers in formation, bombs dropping from planes, explosions in villages, rubble. The result is as if all of this footage had been shot for these films—under Capra’s direction. The maps and animated diagrams give scope to the live-action sequences, clarify and relate random material for formalized patterns consistent with the actual movement involved. In Divide and Con- quer the sequence of refugees on the roads being strafed is especially striking; one reads into the actual what has just been seen in animated representation. In another instance from the same film, the animated arrows representing the armoured Panzer divisions thrust into an outlined Ardennes forest with speed and power. The animation by itself takes on symbolic and rhetorical meaning; again in Divide and Conquer, swastika termites infest the base of a castle, and python-like arrows lock around the British Isles. It must be admitted that, though the Why We Fight series may be greatly admired on technical and aesthetic grounds, there is some convincing evidence that it was not as effective an indoctrination as was hoped for and even thought to be. The problem, the social scientists inferred from their testings, was with the historical ap- proach. It seemed to have the desired effects only on those with the equivalent of some college education; it seemed to be too intellectual for a majority of soldiers tested. As films, though, Why We Fight offer incontrovertible evidence of very great filmmaking skill and a re- markably full and varied use of film technique. —Jack C. Ellis THE WILD BUNCH USA, 1969 Director: Sam Peckinpah Production: Warner Bros. and Seven Arts, Inc.; Technicolor, 33mm, Panavision 70 (US), 70mm, CinemaScope (Europe); running time: 143 minutes (after release, the studio cut 4 scenes reducing running time to 135 minutes). Released 18 June 1969, Los Angeles. Filmed in Torréan, El Rincon del Montero, and El Romeral, Mexico. Producers: Phil Feldman with Roy N. Sickner; screenplay: Walon Green and Sam Peckinpah, from an original story by Walon Green and Roy N. Sickner; photography: Lucien Ballard; editor: Louis Lombardo; sound: Robert Miller; art director: Edward Carrere; music: Jerry Fielding; music supervisor: Sonny Burke; special effects: Bud Hulburd; costume designer: Gordon Dawson. Cast: William Holden (Pike Bishop); Ernest Borgnine (Dutch Engstrom); Robert Ryan (Deke Thornton); Edmond O’Brien (Sykes); Warren Oates (Lyle Gorch); Jaime Sanchez (Angel); Ben Johnson (Tector Gorch); Emilio Fernandez (Mapache); Strother Martin (Cof- fer); L. Q. Jones (T. C.); Albert Dekker (Pat Harrigan); Bo Hopkins (Crazy Lee); Dub Taylor (Major Wainscoat); Jorge Russek (Lieuten- ant Zamorra); Alfonso Arau (Herrera); Chano Urueta (Don José); Sonia Amelio (Teresa); Aurora Clavel (Aurora); Elsa Cardenas (Elsa); Fernando Wagner (German army officer). THE WILD BUNCHFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1319 The Wild Bunch Publications Books: Kitses, Jim, Horizons West, Bloomington, Indiana, 1970. Evans, Max, Sam Peckinpah: Master of Violence, Vermillion, South Dakota, 1972. Caprara, Valerio, Peckinpah, Bologna, 1976. Parish, James Robert, and Michael Pitts, The Great Western Pictures, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1976. McKinney, Dough, Sam Peckinpah, Boston, 1979. Seydoe, Paul, Peckinpah: The Western Films, Urban, Illinois, 1980. Tuska, Jon, editor, Close-Up: The Contemporary Director, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1981. Simmons, Garner, Peckinpah: A Portrait in Montage, Austin, 1982. Thomas, Bob, Golden Boy: The Untold Story of William Holden, New York, 1983. Arnold, Frank, and Ulrich von Berg, Sam Peckinpah: Eine Outlaw in Hollywood, Frankfurt, 1987. Buscombe, Ed, editor, The BFI Companion to the Western, Lon- don, 1988. Fine, Marshall, Bloody Sam: The Life and Films of Sam Peckinpah, New York, 1992. Bliss, Michael, Justified Lives: Morality and Narrative in the Films of Sam Peckinpah, Carbondale, 1993. Bliss, Michael, editor, Doing It Right: The Best Criticism on Sam Peckinpah’s The Wild Bunch, Carbondale, Illinois, 1994. Weddle, David, If They Move, Kill ‘Em: The Life and Times of Sam Peckinpah, New York, 1994. Prince, Stephen, Savage Cinema: Sam Peckinpah and the Rise of Ultraviolent Movies, Austin, 1998. Prince, Stephen, editor, Sam Peckinpah’s The Wild Bunch, Cam- bridge, 1999. Articles: Schrader, Paul, ‘‘Sam Peckinpah Goes to Mexico,’’ in Cinema (Beverly Hills), no. 3, 1969. ‘‘Sam Peckinpah Lets It All Hang Out,’’ in Take One (Montreal), January-February 1969. ‘‘Man and Myth,’’ in Time (New York), 20 June 1969. Gilliatt, Penelope, in New Yorker, 5 July 1969. THE WILD BUNCH FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1320 Kauffmann, Stanley, in New Republic (New York), 19 July 1969. Sarris, Andrew, in Village Voice (New York), 31 July 1969. Clark, Arthur, in Films in Review (New York), August-Septem- ber 1969. Farber, Stephen, ‘‘Peckinpah’s Return: An Interview,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Fall 1969. Milne, Tom, in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1969. Whitehall, Richard, ‘‘Talking with Peckinpah,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1969. ‘‘What the Directors Are Saying,’’ in Action (Los Angeles), Septem- ber-October 1969. Austen, David, in Films and Filming (London), October 1969. Cutts, John, ‘‘Shoot: An Interview with Sam Peckinpah,’’ in Films and Filming (London), October 1969. Sragow, Michael, in Film Society Review (New York), Novem- ber 1969. Brown, Kenneth, in Cineaste (New York), Winter 1969–70. McCarty, John, ‘‘Sam Peckinpah and The Wild Bunch,” in Film Heritage (Dayton, Ohio), Winter 1969–70. Simon, John, ‘‘Violent Idyll,’’ in Film 1969/70, edited by Hollis Alpert and Andrew Sarris, New York, 1970. Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), May 1970. Blum William, ‘‘Towards a Cinema of Cruelty,’’ in Cinema Journal (Evanston, Illinois), Spring 1972. Shaffer, Lawrence, ‘‘The Wild Bunch versus Straw Dogs,” in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1972. ‘‘Peckinpah Issue’’ of Film Heritage (Dayton, Ohio), Winter 1974–75. Pettit, Arthur, ‘‘Nightmare and Nostalgia: The Cinema West of Sam Peckinpah,’’ in Western Humanities Review (Salt Lake City, Utah), Spring 1975. Barbaro, Nick, in Cinema Texas Program Notes (Austin), 8 Septem- ber 1975. Pearson, M., in Jump Cut (Berkeley), August 1978. Meyerson, Harold, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 4, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Simmon, Scott, ‘‘Return of the Badmen,’’ in Journal of Popular Film (Washington, D.C.), Fall 1981. Boyero, C., in Casablanca (Madrid), December 1981. Camy, G., ‘‘Sur le sentier de l’oubli: Sam Peckinpah,’’ in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), April-May 1982. Rentero, J. C., ‘‘Sam Peckinpah: El largo adios,’’ in Casablanca (Madrid), March 1985. Engel, L., ‘‘Space and Enclosure in Cooper and Peckinpah: Regen- eration in the Open Spaces,’’ in Journal of American Culture (Bowling Green, Ohio), no. 2, 1991. Holtsmark, E.B., ‘‘The Katabasis Theme in Modern Cinema,’’ in Bucknell Review, vol. 35, no. 1, 1991. Triggs, J. A., ‘‘The Wild Bunch: Scourges or Ministers?’’ in New Orleans Review, no. 3, 1991. Segaloff, N., ‘‘Greenland,’’ in Film Comment (New York), January- February 1993. Torry, R., ‘‘Therapeutic Narrative: The Wild Bunch, Jaws, and Vietnam,’’ in Velvet Light Trap (Madison, Wisconsin), Spring 1993. Weddle, David, ‘‘Dead Man’s Clothes: The Making of The Wild Bunch,’’ in Film Comment (New York), May-June 1994. Sragow, Michael, ‘‘The Homeric Power of Peckinpah’s Violence,’’ in Atlantic Monthly (Boston), June 1994. Redman, Nick, ‘‘Peckinpah’s Bunch,’’ in DGA Magazine (Los Angeles), vol. 19, no. 4, August-September 1994. Gaydos, Steven, ‘‘Peckinpah’s Wild Vision Restored After 26 Years,’’ in Variety (New York), vol. 358, no. 4, 27 February 1995. Rafferty, T., ‘‘Artist of Death,’’ in New Yorker, vol. 71, 6 March 1995. Brown, G., ‘‘Once Were Westerns,’’ in Village Voice (New York), vol 40, 7 March 1995. Travers, P., in Rolling Stone, no. 703, 9 March 1995. Ansen, D., ‘‘The Return of a Bloody Great Classic,’’ in Newsweek, vol. 125, 13 March 1995. Girard, Martin, in Séquences (Haute-Ville), no. 177, March-April 1995. Simon, J., ‘‘Wilder and Wilder,’’ in National Review, vol. 47, 3 April 1995. Alleva, R., ‘‘Nihilism on Horseback,’’ in Commonweal, vol. 122, 21 April 1995. Higson, Charlie, ‘‘The Shock of the Old,’’ in Sight & Sound (Lon- don), vol. 5, no. 8, August 1995. Seydor, Paul, David Weddle, and Edward Buscombe, ‘‘Sam Peckinpah: Wild Things,’’ in Sight & Sound (London), vol. 5, no. 10, October 1995. Seydor, Paul, ‘‘Facts about Sam,’’ in Sight & Sound (London), vol. 6, no. 9, September 1996. Seydor, Paul, ‘‘Bunch Continued,’’ in Sight & Sound (London), vol. 6, no. 11, November 1996. *** When it was first released, The Wild Bunch became the subject of heated controversy among critics and the public alike due to its extraordinary level of violence. Following close on the heels of Bonnie and Clyde, The Wild Bunch surpassed the slow-motion death balletics of that film by quantum leaps, shocking and/or revolting large numbers of viewers. (At the Kansas City test screening of the 190-minute rough cut, over 30 members of the audience walked out in disgust, some reportedly throwing up in the alley behind the theater.) Twenty years later, in an age inured to graphic screen violence and gore, the violence of The Wild Bunch is still remarkably provocative and disturbing. This is partially because the violence is not gratuitous, as some have claimed, but central to the film’s vision of human experience: it posits a world in which degrees of violence provide the only standards, and violent death the only liberation. If it is a world not predicated entirely on human evil, it is one at least in which there is very little good or hope for change. It seems clear today that what many people object to in Peckinpah’s extravagant depiction of violence in The Wild Bunch is actually his dark view of human nature. Another reason the film’s violence still shocks and scintillates is its rendition by Peckinpah’s stylized, optically jolting montage. Not since Eisenstein has a filmmaker so radically explored the conven- tions of traditional editing form. Much of the action in The Wild Bunch was filmed by as many as six Panavision, Mitchell, and Arriflex cameras running simultaneously at different speeds, each equipped with different lenses, including wide-angle, telephoto, and zoom. Peckinpah and his editor, Louis Lombardo, then created elaborate montage sequences by cutting footage shot in ‘‘real time’’ together with footage shot at varying decelerated speeds—all shot through a variety of lenses, some of which created a unique optical tension by zooming in and out nervously (and, amazingly, without calling attention to themselves) at appropriate moments. The percep- tual impact of rapidly intercutting violent action shot at standard speed with slow-motion footage and a variety of telephoto zooms, in sequences that last as long as seven minutes, is both exhilarating and exhausting. The Wild Bunch is the most optically violent film ever THE WINDFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1321 made, one which relentlessly assaults the senses of its audience with a torrent of violent images to rival and finally exceed Eisenstein’s achievement in ‘‘The Odessa Steps’’ sequence of Potemkin. (In fact, The Wild Bunch contains more individualized cuts than any color film ever made—3,642, in a decade when 600 was standard for the average dramatic feature.) It seems ironic and not a little crazy today that a film so clearly focussed on themes of loyalty, honor, integrity, and heroism could have been reviled in its time for what one major critic called, ‘‘moral idiocy.’’ But that was the late 1960s, when the issues of violence in American society and American foreign policy had become central to virtually every national forum of public opinion. We stood at the end of a decade of political assassinations whose magnitude was unprece- dented in our history, and we were deeply mired in a genocidal war in Vietnam. The My Lai massacre was revealed less than a year after the release of The Wild Bunch, but many Americans already knew what that revelation confirmed: that to fight a war against a popular insurrection is to fight a war against the populace. For many critics The Wild Bunch seemed to be an allegory of our involvement in Vietnam, where outlaws, mercenaries, and federal troops fought to produce the largest civilian ‘‘body count’’ since World War II. Others saw the film more generally as a comment on the level and nature of violence in American life. But nearly everyone saw that it bore some relationship to the major social issues of the times, and, depending on how one felt about those, one’s reaction to the film was enthusiasti- cally positive or vehemently negative—both mistaken responses to a work whose prevailing tenor is moral ambiguity from start to finish. Today it is possible to find a middle ground; for whatever else The Wild Bunch may be (as it is, for example, the greatest western ever made), it is clearly a major work of American art which changed forever the way in which violence would be depicted in American films, as well as permanently restructuring the conventions of its genre. That Peckinpah was unable to equal it later—as with Welles and Citizen Kane—is not testimony to his insufficiency a a film artist but to the extraordinary achievement of The Wild Bunch itself. It is, as Robert Culp remarked on its release, a film ‘‘more quintessentially and bitterly American than any since World War II.’’ Like Kane, The Wild Bunch will remain an enduring work of American art—vast and explosive, vital and violent, with something both very dark and very noble at its soul. —David Cook WILD STRAWBERRIES See SMULTRONST?LLET THE WIND USA, 1928 Director: Victor Sj?str?m Production: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; black and white: 35mm, silent; running time: 73 minutes; length: 6721 feet. Released 23 Novem- ber 1928. The Wind Screenplay: Francis Marion, from the novel by Dorothy Scarbo- rough; titles: John Colton; photography: John Arnold; editor: Conrad Nevrig; production designers: Cedric Gibbons and Edward Withers; costume designer: Andre-ani; assistant director: Harold S. Bucquet. Cast: Lillian Gish (Letty); Lars Hanson (Lige); Montagu Love (Roddy); Dorothy Cummings (Cora); Edward Earle (Beverly); Wil- liam Orlamond (Sourdough); Laon Ramon (Leon Janney); Carmencita Johnson and Billy Kent Schaefer (Cora’s children). Publications Script: Marion, Francis, The Wind, in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), July- August 1984. Books: Paine, Albert Bigelow, Life and Lillian Gish, New York, 1932. Penser, Hans, Seastrom and Stiller in Hollywood, New York, 1969. Gish, Lillian, Dorothy and Lillian Gish, New York, 1973. Parish, James Robert, and Michael Pitts, The Great Western Pictures, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1976. THE WIZARD OF OZ FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1322 Petrie, Graham, Hollywood Destinies: European Directors in Holly- wood 1922–31, London, 1985. Forslund, Bengt, Victor Sj?str?m: His Life and His Work, translated by Peter Cowie with the assistance of Anna-Maija Marttinen and Christer Frunck, New York, 1988. Articles: Photoplay (New York), November 1928. New York Times, 5 November 1928. Film Spectator, 1 June 1929. Vaughan, Dai, ‘‘Victor Sj?str?m and D. W. Griffith,’’ in Film (London), January-February 1958. Turner, Charles L., ‘‘Victor Seastrom,’’ in Films in Review (New York), May-June 1960. Tozzi, Romano, ‘‘Lillian Gish,’’ in Films in Review (New York), December 1962. ‘‘Victor Sj?str?m (Seastrom),’’ in Anthologie du cinéma 1, Paris, 1966. Tibbetts, J. C., ‘‘Vital Geography: Victor Seastrom’s The Wind,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), Summer 1973. Beylie, Claude, and Marcel Martin, ‘‘Sj?str?m, Stiller, et l’Amérique,’’ in Ecran (Paris), September 1978. ‘‘Victor Sj?str?m,’’ in Films and Filming (London), September 1979. Weinberg, Herman, ‘‘Seastrom: The Hollywood Years,’’ in Ameri- can Classic Screen (Shawnee Mission, Kansas), Fall 1979. Jacob, L., in Cinema Novo (Porto), January-February 1981. Listener (London), 20 September 1984. Everson, William K., in Video Review, vol. 12, no. 8, Novem- ber 1991. DeCroix, Rick, and James L. Limbacher, ‘‘In Memory of Lillian Gish (1893–1993),’’ in Journal of Popular Film and Television (Wash- ington, D.C.), vol. 22, no. 2, Summer 1994. Brown, G., ‘‘Deliverance,’’ in Village Voice (New York), vol. 40, 20 June 1995. Tumbleson, Ray, ‘‘Potboiler Emancipation and the Prison of Pure Art: Clarissa, The Wind, and Surviving Rape,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury), vol. 25, no. 3, July 1997. *** The Wind represents a turning point in two of the most important careers in film history, those of Victor Seastrom (the anglicized version of Sj?str?m that appeared in the credits of his American films) and Lillian Gish. The Wind was the last silent film either of them made, and it virtually marked the end of their star status in Holly- wood. Seastrom directed one talkie before returning to Sweden; Gish’s first leading lady vehicle of the sound era, One Romantic Night, was also her last. The Wind belongs to that moment of precious finality when the stylistics and the techniques of cinema, developed to serve narrative without speech, were being discarded because of the exigencies of sound recording. After the success of Warner Brothers, in the late 1920s the major studios rushed to integrate the new technology. The Wind suffered the fate of many of the most important non-sound films made during the period of transition. It was released without the care required by a film of such unusual qualities. It is perhaps a miracle that the film survives at all when we remember that two other MGM films made by Gish at this period and the single film directed by Seastrom, The Divine Woman, are lost. Gish and Seastrom had already collaborated with success on The Scarlet Letter. The Wind is another story of a woman at odds with the community in which she lives. Letty, the genteel Easterner, is alien to the rough manners of a prairie village and a prairie husband. The film expresses this directly, in the dramatization of her disgust when her sister-in-law butchers a side of beef, when her husband tries to kiss her, and when she tries in vain, to prettify their cabin. The Wind also depicts the disintegration of Letty’s mind and spirit in this hostile world. Letty not only acts; she is acted upon by the elements, in particular the sand incessantly blown in the wind. It comes in through the cracks in the door, and she is as helpless to stop its invasion of the physical space as she is helpless to prevent it from driving her mad. The Wind repeatedly tests the body of the actress against the presence of nature. Even in the tacked-on happy ending mandated by the studio—Gish stretching in the doorway, defying the wind and em- bracing her husband—the cinematic body becomes a measure of nature. Left alone during a particularly severe storm, Letty’s anxiety mounts. She is raped by a travelling man and then manages to shoot him. After burying him, she stares through the window, in mounting hysteria, as the sand uncovers his body. This sequence is suggestive of the degree to which director and actress conspire in the creation of images that contain both the exterior world and the interpretation of those images. The camera records nature (abetted, it must be admit- ted, by wind machines). It also frames Gish and her eyes in the window, an interior frame. These framings, without and within, hold characters and place in precise narrative equilibrium. —Charles Affron WINGS OF DESIRE See DER HIMMEL üBER BERLIN THE WIZARD OF OZ USA, 1939 Director: Victor Fleming Production: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures Corp.; Technicolor (opening and closing sequences in black and white), 35mm; running time: 101 minutes. Released 25 August 1939; re-released 1948. Filmed 1938–39 in MGM studios, Culver City, California. Producer: Mervyn LeRoy; screenplay: Noel Langley, Florence Ryerson, and Edgar Allen Woolf, from the novel by L. Frank Baum; uncredited director: King Vidor; photography: Harold Rosson; editor: Blanche Sewell; sound recording director: Douglas Shearer; production designer: Edwin B. Willis; art director: Cedric Gib- bons; music: Harold Arlen; lyrics: E. Y. Harburg; special effects: Arnold Gillespie; costume designer: Adrian; assistant to Mervyn LeRoy: Arthur Freed; makeup: Jack Dawn. Cast: Judy Garland (Dorothy); Ray Bolger (Hunk; the Scarecrow); Bert Lahr (Zeke; the Cowardly Lion); Jack Haley (Hickory; the Tin Woodsman); Billie Burke (Glinda); Margaret Hamilton (Miss Gulch; THE WIZARD OF OZFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1323 The Wizard of Oz the Wicked Witch); Charles Grapewin (Uncle Henry); Clara Blandick (Auntie Em); Pat Walsh (Nikko); Frank Morgan (Professor Marvel; the Wizard); the Singer Midgets (Munchkins). Awards: Oscars for Best Song (‘‘Over the Rainbow’’), Best Original Score, and Special Award for Judy Garland for her ‘‘outstanding performance as a screen juvenile,’’ 1939. Publications Books: Zierold, Norman, The Child Stars, New York, 1965. Baxter, John, Hollywood in the Thirties, New York, 1968. Morella, Joe, and Edward Epstein, Judy: The Films and Career of Judy Garland, New York, 1969. Taylor, John Russell, and Arthur Jackson, The Hollywood Musical, New York, 1971. Juneau, James, Judy Garland, New York, 1974. Finch, Christopher, The Stormy Life of Judy Garland, New York, 1975. Peary, Gerald, and Roger Shatzkin, The Classic American Novel and the Movies, New York, 1977. Hirschhorn, Clive, The Hollywood Musical, New York, 1981. Dyer, Richard, Heavenly Bodies: Film Stars and Society, Lon- don, 1987. Altman, Rick, The American Film Musical, London, 1989. Cox, Stephen, Munchkins Remember ‘‘The Wizard of Oz’’ and Beyond, New York, 1989. Fricke, John, and Jay Scarfone, and William Stillman, The Wizard of Oz: The Official 50th Anniversary Pictorial History, New York, 1989. Harmetz, Aljean, The Making of The Wizard of Oz, London, 1989. Nathanson, Paul, Over the Rainbow: The Wizard of Oz as a Secular Myth of America, Albany, New York, 1991. Rushdie, Salman, The Wizard of Oz, London, 1992. Cox, Stephen, The Munchkins of Oz, Nashville, 1996. Harmetz, Aljean, The Making of the Wizard of Oz: Movie Magic and Studio Power in the Prime of MGM—and the Miracle of Produc- tion #1060, New York, 1998. Morley, Sheridan, and Ruth Leon, Judy Garland: Beyond the Rain- bow, New York, 1999. Clarke, Gerald, Get Happy: The Life of Judy Garland, Thorndike, 2000. Articles: Variety (New York), 16 August 1939. Nugent, Frank S., in New York Times, 18 August 1939. THE WIZARD OF OZ FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1324 New Yorker, 19 August 1939. Green, Ward H., and others, in Photoplay Studies (New York), no. 12, 1939. Greene, Graham, in Spectator (London), 9 February 1940. Rosterman, Robert, ‘‘Judy Garland,’’ in Films in Review (New York), April 1952. McVay, Douglas, ‘‘Judy Garland,’’ in Films and Filming (London), October 1961. Sarris, Andrew, ‘‘Likable but Elusive,’’ in Film Culture (New York), Spring 1963. Reid, John Howard, ‘‘The Man Who Made G.W.T.W.,’’ in Films and Filming (London), March 1967. Reid, John Howard, ‘‘Fleming: The Apprentice Years,’’ in Films and Filming (London), January 1968. Lefèvre, Raymond, in Cinéma (Paris), February 1972. Tessier, Max, in Ecran (Paris), February 1972. Bolger, Ray, ‘‘The Wizard of Oz and the Golden Era of the American Musical Film,’’ in American Cinematographer (Los Angeles), February 1978. ‘‘Following the Yellow Brick Road from the Wonderful Wizard of Oz to The Wiz,’’ in American Cinematographer (Los Angeles), November 1978. De Fornari, O., in Filmcritica (Rome), February 1979. Kahn Atkins, Irene, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 4, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Billman, C., ‘‘I’ve Seen the Movie: Oz Revisited,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), vol. 9, no. 4, 1981. Cinema Novo (Porto), January-February 1981. Hollywood Studio, vol. 17, no. 3, 1984. Soundings, vol. 67, no. 1, 1984. New York Times, 16 March 1984. Carpenter L., ‘‘There’s No Place Like Home: The Wizard of Oz and American Isolationism,’’ in Film and History (Newark, New Jersey), May 1985. Hagen, M., interview with Ray Bolger, in Films and Filming (Lon- don), July 1985. Reid’s Film Index (Wyong), no. 3, 1989. Selcer, R. F., ‘‘Home Sweet Movies,’’ in Journal of Popular Film and Television (Washington, D.C.), no. 2, 1990. Conlon, J., ‘‘Kansas, Oz, and the Function of Art,’’ in Journal of Aesthetic Education (Champaign, Illinois), no. 3, 1990. Lindroth, J., ‘‘Down the Yellow Brick Road: Two Dorothys and the Journey of Initiation in Dream and Nightmare,’’ in Literature/ Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), no. 3, 1990. MacDonnell, F., ‘‘The Emerald City Was the New Deal: E. Y. Harburg and the Wonderful Wizard of Oz,’’ in Journal of Ameri- can Culture (Bowling Green, Ohio), no. 4, 1990. Rushdie, S., ‘‘Out of Kansas,’’ in New Yorker, 11 May 1992. Catsos, G. J. M., ‘‘That Wonderful Witch,’’ in Filmfax (Evanston, Illinois), October-November 1993. Norman, Barry, in Radio Times (London), vol. 280, no. 3655, 29 January 1994. Brantley, Ben, ‘‘Why Oz Is a State of Mind in Gay Life and Drag Shows,’’ in New York Times, 28 June 1994. Duncan, Jody, ‘‘‘They Keep Going and Going’,’’ in Cinefex (River- side), no. 59, September 1994. Caron, André, ‘‘’The Definitive Collector’s Edition of The Wizard of Oz,’’’ in Séquences (Haute-Ville), no. 177, March-April 1995. Roberts, T., in Film Score Monthly (Los Angeles), no. 59/60, July/ August 1995. Parla, P., ‘‘Interview with Harry Monty,’’ in Classic Images (Muscatine), no. 248, February 1996. Flynn, R., ‘‘Imitation Oz: The Sequel as Commodity,’’ in The Lion and the Unicorn, vol. 20, no. 1, 1996. Friedman, B., ‘‘Relinquishing Oz: Every Girl’s Anti-Adventure Story,’’ in Michigan Quarterly Review, vol. 35, no. 1, 1996. Page, Linda Rohrer, ‘‘Wearing the Red Shoes: Dorothy and the Power of the Female Imagination in The Wizard of Oz,’’ in Journal of Popular Film and Television (Washington, D.C.), vol. 23, no. 4, Winter 1996. Rees, R.R., ‘‘Munchkin Memories: Margaret Pellegrini,’’ in Classic Images (Muscatine), no. 266, August 1997. Sullivan, D., in Scarlet Street (Glen Rock), no. 25, 1997. Celeste, R., ‘‘Lost Highway: Unveiling Cinema’s Yellow Brick Road,’’ in CineAction (Toronto), no. 43, 1997. McCarthy, Todd, ‘‘Enhanced Reissue Proves Wizard Still Works Like Magic,’’ in Variety (New York), no. 372, no. 13, 9 Novem- ber 1998. Sragow, Michael, ‘‘A Forgotten Maker of the Unforgettable: A Name Deserving of Credit: Victor Fleming, Creator of Great Films, Favorite of Great Actors,’’ in the New York Times, 15 Novem- ber 1998. *** ‘‘By courtesy of the wizards of Hollywood The Wizard of Oz reached the screen yesterday as a delightful piece of wonderworking which had the youngsters’ eyes shining and brought a quietly amused gleam to the wiser ones,’’ begins Frank Nugent’s review of The Wizard of Oz in The New York Times. Produced and distributed by MGM at a cost of $2.5 million, the film is a tribute to the Hollywood style and system of filmmaking. It was a bit of ‘‘wonderworking’’ indeed, as this fantasy film would forever alter the course of the Hollywood film musical. Begun in 1938, The Wizard of Oz was produced at the apex of the classic Hollywood era, when MGM had at its disposal the foremost technical experts available in Hollywood at that time. It was this standby of talent that made the production of a film like Wizard feasible. To mount such a project today would cost at least $50 million. Ray Bolger (the Scarecrow), then a contract player at MGM, explains: ‘‘Working at MGM during that period was the ultimate in motion picture making, musical or otherwise.’’ Wizard was photographed in a little-used three-strip technicolor process. In this process, three separate strips of black-and-white film were exposed through a prism which segregated the three primary colors. It was an extremely intricate process to handle and required enormous amounts of light to properly expose. While it was the most expensive process available to Hollywood at the time, it yielded an unequaled color quality. The studio chose the three-strip process because it worked out well with black-and-white stock. The framing of Dorothy’s fantasy was processed in black-and-white, heightening the effect of the technicolor journey to Oz. The fact that the three-strip process originated in a black-and-white stock made this easier. For these reasons the production of Wizard occurred entirely indoors on the sound stages of MGM. Because the film was studio- bound, a lot of responsibility fell on the special effects department. Mattes were used extensively to give depth to the Kansas landscape, and a sense of distance to the Land of Oz. Intricate trick photography was employed to allow a bicyclist and a man rowing a boat to float helplessly in a tornado. THE WOMENFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1325 No less important was the MGM art department. It was headed at the time by Cedric Gibbons whose career garnered 11 Academy Awards while at MGM. Elaborate sets were conceived and con- structed in full scale to create Oz, the Wicked Witch’s sanctuary, and the throne room of the Wizard of Oz. Working with the limitations imposed by the tri-color film process, Gibbon’s department had to create a color scheme that the film stock could exploit. The result was a beautiful, color-conscious mise-en-scène. Perhaps most miraculous was the role played by Jack Dawn and the MGM makeup department. It was Dawn’s task to take three non- humans—a scarecrow, a tin man, and a lion—and bring them to life. He had to give them personalities and human characteristics that would evoke an humanity amidst the costumes dictated by their roles. This was done convincingly, resulting in three of the most elaborate makeup/costume designs to date in Hollywood: the costumes did pose certain critical problems for production, however. Bert Lahr’s costume for the Cowardly Lion, for instance, weighed nearly 100 pounds. This, coupled with the intense heat caused by the lighting needed to shoot, made filming for long durations impossible, and the film had to be shot in segments with a day’s shooting often ending before a scene was complete. As a result, before the next day’s shooting could begin, makeup had to be meticulously matched and perfectly recreated to retain consistency. Daily rushes were used to aid this process. While this precision slowed down the production, the commitment to perfection became a trademark of MGM. For their efforts both Jack Dawn and Cedric Gibbons received Academy Award nominations (though Gibbon’s contract insured that his name would appear in the credits of all MGM films regardless of his involvement). This recognition, while falling on individuals, was no less a tribute to the system. It was a recognition of the elaborate collaborative nature of Hollywood filmmaking. Though Wizard remains an elaborate technical achievement for its time, the technology involved has since become obsolete. Perhaps the longterm contribution of the film is the precedent it set for the type of Hollywood musical identified with MGM. Wizard was perhaps the earliest example of what came to be called the ‘‘integrated musical.’’ Traditionally, music in films had been incorporated in a performance setting, establishing logical moments in which to include musical numbers, such as the review films of the thirties, including Golddiggers and Forty-Second Street. In The Wizard of Oz the music became another dimension of the characters’ language, an extension of their personalities and feelings. There is no intrinsic logic in Dorothy’s singing ‘‘Somewhere Over The Rainbow,’’ but it is understood as a viable expression of some inner longing. The film narrative is advanced by musical numbers. Songs often replace dialogue as when the Munchkins pay tribute to Dorothy for killing their nemesis, the Wicked Witch of the East. In Wizard, music isn’t a digression, but instead a fundamental part of the narrative structure. The Wizard of Oz has witnessed more than 20 years of revival on both television and in theaters, remaining widely popular. Interna- tionally, the film has enjoyed wider distribution than any other American film in history—fantasy, musical or otherwise. It would seem that the directness of the film’s message—‘‘There’s no place like home’’—and the sincerity of its presentation is the key. However, beneath the fantasy is one of the most polished and elaborate productions ever mounted in Hollywood. The film remains a re- minder of that as well. —Robert Winning WOMAN IN THE DUNES See SUNA NO ONNA THE WOMEN USA, 1939 Director: George Cukor Production: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; black and white and colour; running time: 132 minutes. Producer: Hunt Stromberg; screenplay: Anita Loos, Jane Murfin, from the original play by Clare Booth Luce; photography: Oliver T. Marsh; editor: Robert J. Kern; art director: Cedric Gibbons; music: Edward Ward, David Snell; sound: Douglas Shearer. Cast: Norma Shearer (Mrs. Mary S. Haines); Joan Crawford (Crystal Allen); Rosalind Russell (Mrs. Sylvia Howard Fowler); Mary Boland (Countess Flora Delave); Paulette Goddard (Miriam Aarons); Joan Fontaine (Mrs. Peggy John Day); Lucille Watson (Mrs. Moorehead); Phyllis Poovah (Mrs. Edith Philip Potter); Florence Nash (Nancy Blake); Virginia Weidler (Little Mary); Ruth Hussey (Miss Watts); Muriel Hutchinson (Jane); Dennie Moore (Olga); Mary Cecil (Mag- gie); Marjorie Main (Lucy); Esther Dale (Ingrid); Hedda Hopper (Dolly Dupuyster); Mildred Shay (Hélène). Publications Books: Carey, Gary, Cukor and Company: The Films of George Cukor and His Collaborators, New York, 1971. Bernadoni, James, George Cukor: A Critical Study and Filmography, Jefferson, North Carolina, 1985. Todd, Janet, Women and Film, New York, 1988. Lambert, Gavin, Norma Shearer: A Life, New York, 1990. McGilligan, Patrick, George Cukor: A Double Life: A Biography of the Gentleman Director, New York, 1992. Levy, Emanuel, George Cukor: Master of Elegance: Hollywood’s Legendary Director and His Stars, New York, 1994. Guiles, Fred Lawrence, Joan Crawford: The Last Word, Thorndike, 1995. Articles: Monthly Film Bulletin (London), December 1939. Finkle, David, and others, Filmograph (London), no. 4, 1973. Bourget, Eithne, ‘‘Couleurs de Femmes de George Cukor,’’ in Positif (Paris), no. 275, January 1984. Rosterman, R. E., in Hollywood Studio Magazine (Studio City), vol. 22, no. 5, 1989. Bibby, Bruce, in Premiere (Boulder), vol. 3, no. 11, July 1990. Arnold, Frank, in EPD Film (Frankfurt), vol. 8, no. 9, Septem- ber 1991. THE WOMEN FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1326 The Women Gretton, V., ‘‘Talk ‘39: Re-Reading George Cukor’s The Women,’’ in CineAction (Toronto), no. 29, Fall 1992. Reid’s Film Index, no. 27, 1996. Pierson, Melissa, in Entertainment Weekly, no. 312, 2 February 1996. Télérama (Paris), no. 2440, 16 October 1996. *** George Cukor’s The Women, a comedy with an unabashedly misogynist premise, occupies a curious position in the work of a Hollywood artist celebrated for directing sympathetic, women- centred narratives. The Women, promoted and critically received as a sophisticated bitch-fest, capitalized as much on the well-publicized professional rivalry between MGM’s leading stars—Joan Crawford, Norma Shearer, and Rosalind Russell—as upon Cukor’s perceived ability to ‘‘handle’’ them. Mary (Shearer), an upper-middle-class beauty, discovers her husband’s affair with a streetsmart shopgirl (Crawford). Mary’s marital troubles are publicly monitored by the women in her life who alternately gossip, scheme, and offer advice, all the while embroiled in their own less-than-successful relationships. Initially The Women seems little more than an annoying, woman- against-woman film. From its notorious opening ‘‘menagerie’’ se- quence to the final shot of a repentant Shearer rushing to surrender herself to domestic bliss, the film vigorously sustains the notion that a ‘‘natural’’ enmity exists between women. Nevertheless, despite the film’s decidedly pre-feminist consciousness, The Women provides moments of pleasure and strong identifications with such powerful, glamorous, and uncompromising star presences as Crawford, Shearer, and Russell, each equal combatants in a dazzling war of words. Paradoxically, the all-female cast of The Women results in the predominance of a masculine ‘‘presence’’ that serves to organize the narrative; absent men are the sole and unquestioned objects of feminine desire in the film’s chaotically comic universe. Yet a subtle tension exists between this silent, monolithic male ‘‘voice’’ and the multitude of feminine voices that appear to have internalized all of its demands. Women offer advice that seems to wholly endorse a system of patriarchal values; yet, while the voice of feminine experience prescribes submissive behaviour, silence, and compromise, the women themselves rarely exhibit any of these ‘‘qualities.’’ In fact, submis- sive behaviour is revealed as little more than a fabulously calculated performance, silence only signals a retreat before a relentless barrage W.R.: MYSTERIJE ORGANIZMAFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1327 of feminine wit, and compromise becomes an aggressive tactic deployed to ensure survival. Despite the unseen male that divides the women from one another, each woman discovers strength and wields power in an ever-shifting series of strictly female alliances; such power is further exercised and regulated as a relentless discourse that operates and intersects at all levels of class, age, and experience. Further, the film’s ‘‘blissful’’ resolution is complicated when romantic love and bourgeois domes- ticity are comically exposed as cynical constructions that afford women their only hope for economic security or social status. Mary rushes to stand by her man, but only after she has shed all of her notions about the ‘‘naturalness’’ of marriage. Peggy’s (Fontaine) ecstatic telephone reconciliation with her controlling husband comes only after she reviews the grim options open to her as a single, pregnant woman. Crystal, the film’s nominal ‘‘bad’’ woman, has much in common with Miriam (Goddard), the tough chorus girl who counsels Mary on sexual tactics and survival. Both Crystal (the leopard) and Miriam (the fox) exist outside the domesticated menagerie associated with the other women. The showdown between the ‘‘good’’ and the ‘‘bad’’ women is evenly matched, with Mary’s patrician superiority losing the first round to Crystal’s streetwise cool. Mary eventually triumphs, yet Crystal’s defeat is temporary at best, and she delivers the final, cutting word. While voices in The Women may be pitched to suggest the incoherent chattering of animals, words are, in fact, wielded with deadly efficiency and precision. Anita Loos, who completed the final version of the screenplay with Jane Murfin, claimed: ‘‘It’s always been men who find The Women offensive’’ (see Gary Carey’s Anita Loos: A Biography). Loos’ comment underscores the way in which women’s ability to master and deploy language can provoke fear and resentment in men, a theme in other Cukor films such as Born Yesterday (1950) and My Fair Lady (1964). The Women ‘‘naturalizes’’ the inequities of the power struggle that exists between men and women, yet it also recognizes the economic powerplay that exists between women. The Women reflects a sympathy for the shopgirls, servants, and beauticians who are as actively engaged in the exchange of information as are their privi- leged, female employers. Further, the working-class women that populate the film’s upper-middle-class setting include black women who are not only subject to the whims of the rich but who are also engaged in economic struggles with other white working-class women. Women’s experiences become dramas that the characters literally perform for one another; women re-enact seduction scenes, quarrels, and private conversations in loving detail to rapt audiences. Women recount their life stories, exchange confidences, and inspect each other to the point of obsessiveness. While the absent male is often invoked, each woman remains entirely focused on other women. In fact, The Women’s dark and horrific inverse can be found in Cukor’s later film, Gaslight (1944), which dramatizes the deterioration of a woman kept in isolation. If the explicit project of The Women is to present the ‘‘truth’’ about women’s relationships with one another, the film indirectly dramatizes the potential power of feminine alli- ances (even if, in the end, the enmity between these articulate, tough, and glamorous women diffuses any threat they might pose to male power). Far from being passive receptacles or glamorous, fetishized ob- jects that simply reflect male desire or anxiety, these women are continually at work shoring up, reinscribing, or controlling their positions as objects of desire. Mary’s mother explains to her daughter that women have the ability to reinvent themselves while men can only see a new self ‘‘reflected in some woman’s eyes.’’ Indeed, women exercise power using the options available to them, reinventing themselves through fantasy or fashion. Even if the issues of feminine desire and sexuality remain themselves buried, they nonetheless invariably re-emerge in a torrential flood of language. Sidney’s Beauty Salon becomes a site not only for women to talk, but to watch other women. The ‘‘Jungle Red’’ nail polish that circulates within this enclosed female community acquires meaning and significance, not merely as a violent and fetishized image, but as a glamorous extension that empowers women to move further away from the domestic enclosure inhabited by Mary and Peggy, and closer to the dangerous, untamed sexuality of Crystal, whose gaze, when trained upon the masculine subject, is reported to have the illuminat- ing power of a ‘‘searchlight.’’ Indeed, women scrutinize each other, eye to eye, under the magnifying glasses at the beauty salon, and Sylvia (Russell) actually wears a suit emblazoned with applique eyes. In the end, Crystal turns her ‘‘searchlight’’ eyes upon Mary, in a gesture of defiance that threatens, if only momentarily, the passivity which defines the domestic concerns of the narrative. While Cukor’s film remains disappointing for its overt endorsement of patriarchal values, pleasure is nonetheless generated by powerful women who are as obsessed with looking as they are with speaking. —Viveca Gretton WOMEN ON THE VERGE OF A NERVOUS BREAKDOWN See MUJERES AL BORDE DE UN ATAQUE DE NERVIOS THE WORD See ORDET THE WORLD OF APU See THE APU TRILOGY W.R.: MYSTERIJE ORGANIZMA (W.R.: Mysteries of the Organism) Yugoslavia, 1971 Director: Dusan Makavejev Production: Neoplanta Film and Telepool; color, 35mm. Released 1971. Screenplay: Dusan Makavejev; photography: Pega Popovic and Aleksander Perkovíc. W.R.: MYSTERIJE ORGANIZMA FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1328 W.R.: Mysterije Organizma Cast: Milena Dravíc (Milena); Jagoder Kaloper (Jagoder); Zoran Radmilovíc (Radmilovíc); Vica Vidovic (Vladimir Ilyich); Miodrag Andríc (Soldier); Tuli Kupferberg (Guerilla soldier in New York City); Jackie Curtis; Betty Dodson; Nancy Godfrey. Awards: Luis Bu?uel Prize, Cannes Film Festival, 1971. Publications Script: Makavejev, Dusan, W.R.: Mysteries of the Organism. A Cinematic Testament to the Life and Teachings of Wilhelm Reich, New York, 1972. Books: Taylor, John, Directors and Directions, New York, 1975. Callow, Simon, Shooting the Actor, Or, The Choreography of Confu- sion, with Dusan Makavejev, London, 1990, 1991. Articles: Bienstock, David, ‘‘Why Did He Do That to Wm. Reich?,’’ in New York Times, 7 November 1971. Sarris, Andrew, Village Voice (New York), 11 November 1971. MacBean, J. R., and E. Callenbach, ‘‘Fight Power with Spontaneity and Humor: An Interview with Dusan Makavejev,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1971–72. Mellen, Joan, in Cineaste (New York), Winter 1971–72. Tirnanic, B., in Ekran (Ljubljana), no. 92–93, 1972. Weightman, J., in Ekran (Ljubljana), no. 94–95, 1972. MacBean, J. R., ‘‘Sex Politics: Wilhelm Reich, World Revolution, and Makavejev’s WR,’’ in Film Quarterly, (Berkeley), Spring 1972. Gow, Gordon, in Films and Filming (London), May 1972. Weiner, B., in Take One (Montreal), June 1972. Bonitzer, P., in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), July-August 1972. Becker, L., in Film Journal (New York), September 1972. Braucourt, G., ‘‘Entretien avec Dusan Makavejev,’’ in Ecran (Paris), September-October 1972. Cervoni, A., ‘‘Entretien avec Dusan Makavejev,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), September-October 1972. WRITTEN ON THE WINDFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1329 Lefèvre, Raymond, ‘‘Une Affaire du coeur,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), September-October 1972. Tournes, A., ‘‘Deux cinéastes yougoslaves,’’ in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), September-October 1972. Schiller, H., in Filmrutan (Stockholm), no. 3, 1973. Webster, O., ‘‘The Success and Failure of WR,’’ in Lumière (Mel- bourne), May 1973. Thomsen, C. B., ‘‘Let’s Put Life Back in Political Life: An Interview with Dusan Makavejev,’’ in Cineaste (New York), no. 2, 1974. Walsh, M., in Monogram (London), no. 5, 1974. Santamaria, J. V. G., in Contracampo (Madrid), June-July 1981. ‘‘Yugoslavia’s Makavejev: Distilling Entertainment from Politics,’’ in World Press Review, vol. 29, June 1982. Young, Deborah, ‘‘Yugoslavian Director Makavejev Says His Pix ‘American in Feel,’’’ in Variety (New York), vol. 332, no. 13, 19 October 1988. ‘‘W.R.: Misterije Organizma Section’’ in Filmkultura (Budapest), no. 2, 1990. Pitman, Randy, in Library Journal, vol. 115, no. 7, 15 April 1990. Kenny, Glenn, in Video Review, vol. 11, no. 1, April 1990. Hoberman, J., ‘‘Socialist Realism: From Stalin to Sots,’’ in Artforum, vol. 32, November 1993. Cernenko, Miron, ‘‘Big Mak: ili tragedija s celoveceskin licom,’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), no. 1, January 1994. Hoberman, J., ‘‘Big Mak Attack,’’ in Village Voice (New York), vol. 40, 4 April 1995. *** Dusan Makavejev’s W.R.: Mysteries of the Organism opens with the statement; ‘‘This film is in part a personal response to the life and teachings of Dr. Wilhelm Reich (1897–1957).’’ Part documentary, part narrative fiction, part examination of contemporary American sexual mores, and part condemnation of the legacy of Stalin in the Eastern Block, W.R. uses the career of Wilhelm Reich as a spring- board from which to tackle the still burning issue of the relationship of political oppression to sexual repression. Both a colleague of Sigmund Freud and a member of the German Communist Party in the 1920s, Reich was one of the first psychoanalysts to attempt to show the importance of the relationship between the individual psyche and the material relations of production. For Reich, sexual repression was one of the by-products of class oppression, sexual liberation one of the goals of a revolutionary struggle. After organizing a group called SEXPOL to further develop his ideas of radical psychotherapy, Reich was thrown out of the Communist Party for advocating the ideas of Freud and kicked out of German psycho- analytic circles for being a Marxist. Fleeing Hitler, Reich immigrated to the United States in 1934; he set up a clinic in a small town in Maine. In 1956, he was arrested for quackery, his books burned; he died in a federal prison in 1957. After moving to the United States, Reich renounced his earlier Marxist theories and often boasted of voting for Eisenhower. Interest- ingly, in W.R., Makavejev focuses on this Reich—the later, American Reich—and on the development of his therapy techniques in the United States and Britain (outside a socialist context). Most of the first part of the film examines this Reich—through interviews with his relatives, his American neighbours, his students, even his barber— and the state of American sexual mores after Reich, but before the Sexual Revolution. An editor of Screw magazine conducts business in the buff and then has his penis plastercasted. Jackie Curtis discusses her sex change and the romantic difficulties it created as Pepsi ads blare over the radio. Tuli Kupferberg engages in guerilla street theater, roaming New York and fondling his toy M-16 like a giant phallus. New York shows signs of sexual emancipation, but it is commercialized. It supports rather than contradicts American capital- ism and militarism; it bears no resemblance to Reich’s notion of ‘‘worker democracy.’’ The last half of W.R., a fictional allegory, takes place in Yugo- slavia—a country which is presented as a land caught between Stalin and the U.S. dollar, where ‘‘Marx Factor’’ rules. A young worker, Milena, calls for the end of sexual repression in post-revolutionary Yugoslav society. However, after breaking off her relationship with the worker next door, Milena can only make up sermons on the value of free love, while her roommate puts the theory into practice by exuberantly screwing a member of the army home on leave. At a performance of the Soviet Ice Capades, Milena sees and falls in love with Vladimir Ilyich, a handsome young skating star. (Of course, this is a self-conscious reference to Lenin, whose real name was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. In the film, Vladimir Ilyich even recites a number of Lenin’s more famous sayings verbatim.) Milena seduces Vladimir Ilyich, but unable to deal with the liberating force of his orgasm, Vladimir Ilyich goes mad and decapitates Milena with his iceskate. In the morgue, Milena’s severed head analyzes the problem: ‘‘Vladimir is a man of noble impetuousness, a man of high ambition, of immense energy. He’s romantic, ascetic, a genuine Red Fascist Comrades! Even now I’m not ashamed of my Communist past!’’ The film ends with a photograph of Reich’s smiling face. W.R. was the last film Makavejev made in Yugoslavia. After it was banned there, Makavejev was effectively excluded from the Yugoslav film industry. Also, although W.R. won the Luis Bu?uel prize at Cannes in 1971, the film never received a large theatrical release in the United States, its distribution limited in some areas to pornography cinemas where it was billed as a ‘‘sex film.’’ —Gina Marchetti WRITTEN ON THE WIND USA, 1956 Director: Douglas Sirk Production: Universal Pictures; Technicolor, 35mm; running time: 99 minutes. Released 1956. Filmed November 1955-January 1956. Producer: Albert Zugsmith; screenplay: George Zuckerman, from the novel by Robert Wilder; photography: Russell Metty; editor: Russell Schoengarth; art directors: Alexander Golitzen, Robert Clatworthy, Russell A. Gausman, and Julia Heron; music: Frank Skinner and Joseph Gershenson; special effects: Clifford Stine; costume designer: Bill Thomas. Cast: Rock Hudson (Mitch Wayne); Lauren Bacall (Lucy Moore Hadley); Robert Stack (Kyle Hadley); Dorothy Malone (Marylee Hadley); Robert Keith (Jasper Hadley); Grant Williams (Biff Miley); Harry Shannon (Hoak Wayne); Robert J. Wilke (Dan Willis); Edward Platt (Dr. Cochran); John Latch (Roy Carter); Joseph Cranby (R. J. Courtney); Roy Glenn (Sam); Maide Norman (Bertha). WRITTEN ON THE WIND FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1330 Written on the Wind Awards: Oscar for Best Supporting Actress (Malone), 1956. Publications Books: Halliday, Jon, Sirk on Sirk, London, 1971; New York, 1972. Bourget, Jean-Loup, Douglas Sirk, Paris, 1984. Althen, Michael, Rock Hudson: Seine Filme, sein leben, Munich, 1986. Hudson, Rock and Sara Davidson, Rock Hudson: His Story, Lon- don, 1986. Quirk, Lawrence J., Lauren Bacall: Her Films and Career, Secaucus, New Jersey, 1986. Gledhill, Christine, editor, Home Is Where the Heart Is: Studies in Melodrama and the Woman’s Film, London, 1987. L?ufer, Elisabeth, Skeptiker des Lichts: Douglas Sirk und seine Filme, Frankfurt, 1987. Fischer, Lucy, editor, Imitation of Life: Douglas Sirk, Director, New Brunswick, 1991. Parker, John, Five for Hollywood, Secaucus, 1991. Scott Royce, Brenda, Lauren Bacall: A Bio-Bibliography, Westport, 1992. Scott Royce, Brenda, Rock Hudson: A Bio-Bibliography, Westport, 1995. Articles: Marcorelles, Louis, ‘‘Le Film gratuit,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), March 1957. Hagen, Ray, ‘‘Lauren Bacall,’’ in Films in Review (New York), April 1964. Brion, Patrick, and Dominique Rabourdin, ‘‘Biofilmographie de Douglas Sirk,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), April 1967. Comolli, Jean-Louis, ‘‘L’Aveugle et le miroir; ou, L’Impossible Cinéma de Douglas Sirk,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), April 1967. Daney, Serge, and Jean Louis Noames, ‘‘Entretien avec Douglas Sirk,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), April 1967. Halliday, Jon, ‘‘Sirk on Sirk,’’ in Cinema One (London), no. 18, 1971. ‘‘Sirk Issue’’ of Screen (London), Summer 1971. Bourget, E., and J. L. Bourget, ‘‘Sur Douglas Sirk,’’ in Positif (Paris), April and September 1972. WRITTEN ON THE WINDFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1331 Willemen, Paul, ‘‘Towards an Analysis of the Sirkian System,’’ in Screen (London), Winter 1972–73. Stern, M., ‘‘Patterns of Power and Potency, Repression and Vio- lence,’’ in Velvet Light Trap (Madison, Wisconsin), Fall 1976. Mulvey, Laura, ‘‘Douglas Sirk and Melodrama,’’ in Australian Journal of Screen Theory (Kensington, New South Wales), no. 3, 1977. Mulvey, Laura, ‘‘Notes on Sirk and Melodrama,’’ in Movie (Lon- don), Winter 1977–78. Honickel, T., ‘‘Idol der Münchner Filmstudenten: Douglas Sirk weider in der HFF,’’ in Film und Ton (Munich), February 1979. Place, Janey, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 4, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Orr, Christopher, ‘‘Closure and Containment: Marylee Hadley in Written on the Wind,’’ in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), vol. 4, no. 2, 1980. Interim, L., in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), November 1981. Schmittze, A., in Cinématographe (Paris), December 1981. Courant, G., in Cinéma (Paris), January 1982. Wegner, H., ‘‘Melodrama as Tragic Rondo: Douglas Sirk’s Written on the Wind,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Mary- land), July 1982. Tobin, Yann, in Positif (Paris), September 1982. Orr, Christopher, ‘‘Written on the Wind and the Ideology of Adapta- tion,’’ in Film Criticism (Meadville, Pennsylvania), Spring 1985. Klinger, B., ‘‘Much Ado about Excess: Genre, Mise-en-Scène and the Woman in Written on the Wind,’’ in Wide Angle (Baltimore), no. 4, 1989. Bibby, Bruce, in Premiere (Boulder), vol. 3, no. 11, July 1990. Babington, B., and P. Evans, ‘‘All That Heaven Allowed,’’ in Movie (London), Winter 1990. Reid’s Film Index, no. 7, 1991. Graham, Don, in Texas Monthly, vol. 19, no. 7, 1991. Kennedy, Harlan, in American Film, vol. 17, no. 1, January-Febru- ary 1992. Walker, M., ‘‘While the City Sleeps,’’ in Cineaction (Toronto), Fall 1992. Mulvey, Laura, in Sight & Sound (London), vol. 8, no. 2, Febru- ary 1998. *** The story of the oil-wealthy Hadley children can be seen as the archetype for decades of melodrama to follow: The abject alcoholic Kyle and his trampy bleach-blonde sister Marylee are beautiful, filled with implacable longing and despair, and drive great cars. The stage is set for a sordid wedding of eros and thanatos by Universal’s ‘‘Stair- way of the Stars,’’ which sits grandly in the centre of the Hadley mansion. (The ‘‘stairway’’ is alleged to have a 30-year screen history and is seen later in Hitchcock’s Marnie, 1964.) The story of Kyle’s doomed-to-fail marriage to sensible Lucy Moore is complicated by much gun-waving, bar-brawling and, clothing-changing, as well as Marylee’s lusty passion for her brother’s best friend, nature-boy Mitch Wayne (who experiences feelings of a purer sort for Lucy). Written on the Wind opened to a New York Times (1957) review that characterized the actors’ performances as ‘‘absurd’’ and criti- cized the plot, where ‘‘nothing really happens’’ and the central character as ‘‘sloppy, self-pitying, and a bore.’’ But in the years that have elapsed since its premier, it is precisely these characteristics that have transformed the film into a critical darling. The rise of director Sirk’s reputation as an author, the influence on film theory of German dramatist Bertolt Brecht’s ideas, and the appropriation of psychoa- nalysis by film scholars have made Written on the Wind a central text for feminist and genre critics. There is no firm consensus on the film’s status as a powerful critique of patriarchal capitalism, but few would dispute its canonization as an enduring camp classic that solicits both laughter and tears—often in the same moments. Hard-working city girl Lucy marries Kyle after he reveals his troubled lineage and self-loathing on an airplane ride above ‘‘the big poker table.’’ (‘‘Down there I’m a guy with too many chips. Throw’em up in the air and a few end up on my shoulders.’’) But the gun that Lucy finds under his pillow on their honeymoon is much smaller than the double-barrel shotgun Mitch totes around. ‘‘Let’s call it a weak- ness,’’ suggests Doctor Cochran when Kyle inquires about his lack of success in producing a Hadley heir, and his sense of his failed masculinity increases exponentially. Meanwhile, Marylee engages in various stunts to capture Mitch’s attention (among other things), all of them unsuccessful but highly entertaining to watch (especially in the light of queer readings of Rock Hudson’s performance). Marylee gives her long-suffering father a heart attack when police find her in a motel room tryst with a gas station attendant and, in perhaps the most cinematic patricide Holly- wood ever produced, she dances wildly in her room as he plummets down 48 stairs to his death. These two plot trajectories converge when Lucy becomes preg- nant and Kyle, thick in the drunken haze into which he descends after learning of his ‘‘weakness,’’ suspects that it is Mitch’s baby. Kyle hits Lucy and causes her to miscarry. This incurs the wrath of Mitch, whose shoulders seem even wider than Joan Crawford’s when he bellows her line from Mildred Pierce (1945), ‘‘Get out before I kill you!’’ Unfortunately for Mitch, this crack in his otherwise stoic veneer is key to implicating him in Kyle’s subsequent death. Marylee’s first and final act of ‘‘goodness,’’ revealing Mitch’s innocence at his murder trial, leaves Mitch free to go away with Lucy and leaves Marylee alone, sitting behind her father’s desk in a drab grey suit, caressing a miniature oil derrick. Early critical interest in Douglas Sirk focused on his expressive mis-en-scène: the affective use of decor and costuming, dramatic framing and lightning, and links to painting and music. These are all clearly significant elements in Written on the Wind, where a highly authentic recreation of the ‘‘21 Club’’ is juxtaposed with ridiculous rear-projections and back-drops, and characters are surrounded by eerily coloured walls and mirrored surfaces. But discussion beyond these arenas was minimal until almost ten years after Sirk’s last Hollywood film (Imitation of Life, 1959). An increased enthusiasm for his films (particularly the Universal melodramas, c. 1954–59) was fuelled by new ideas about understanding contradiction-riddled Hol- lywood films as ripping themselves apart at the seams: blatantly artificial acting, garish stylization and implausible plot lines became the hallmark of a self-conscious, subversive cinema. Such a reading of Written on the Wind was encouraged by Sirk himself, who worked with Brecht in the German theatre and believed in his principles (hinging on the idea of audience distanciation which results in detached intellectual analysis rather than emotional catharsis). An eloquent expositor of the theories behind his films, discussing his intentions in an age where authorship mattered, Sirk drew a meticu- lous road map by which the convoluted paths of his films could be followed and understood in a politically progressive way. But regardless of Sirk’s intellectual predilections, the man who is reported to have once said, ‘‘Cinema is blood, tears, violence, hate, WUTAI JIEMEI FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1332 death, and love’’ was never one to make an academic film. At the end of Written on the Wind, we are left with the memory of Kyle’s voice as he wraps his arms around his knees and cries, ‘‘I don’t even love myself,’’ and the images of amber liquor thrown against a mirror, the black bow of a funeral wreath as it blows across an empty driveway, and Marylee’s diaphanous pink negligee swirling about her sun- tanned legs. German filmmaker Rainer Werner Fassbinder writes, ‘‘For Doug- las Sirk, madness is a sign of hope, I think.’’ If Fassbinder was right, then the true tragedy of Written on the Wind lies not in its characters’ excesses, but in their apparent ‘‘normalization.’’ Mitch and Lucy may ‘‘escape’’ from the Hadley household, but it is at the expense of the only people who ever really knew what was wrong with it. —Stephanie Savage WUTAI JIEMEI (Two Stage Sisters) China, 1964 Director: Xie Jin Production: Tianma Film Studio, Shanghai; color; running time: 114 minutes; length: 10,223 feet. Released 1964. Production manager: Ding Li; screenplay: Lin Gu, Xu Jin, and Xie Jin; photography: Zhou Daming; editor: Zhang Liqun; sound recordist: Zhu Weigang; art director: Ge Schicheng; stage sce- nery: Xu Yunlong; music: Huang Zhun; music director: Chen Chuanxi. Cast: Xie Fang (Chunhua); Cao Yindi (Yuehong); Feng Ji (Xing); Gao Yuansheng (Jiang Bo); Shen Fengjuan (Xino Xiang); Xu Caigen (Jin Shui); Shangguan Yunzhu (Shang Shuihua); Ma Ji (Qian Dukui); Luo Zhengyi (Yu Guiqing); Wu Baifang (Little Chunhua); Li Wei (Manager Tang); Deng Nan (A’xin); Shen Hao (Mrs. Shen); Dong Lin (Ni); Ding Ran (Pan). Publications Books: Leyda, Jay, Dianying: An Account of Films and the Film Audience in China, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1972. L?sel, J?rg, Die politische Funktion des Spielfilms in der Volksrepublic China zwischen 1949 und 1965, Munich, 1980. Rayns, Tony, and Scott Meek, Electric Shadows: 45 Years of Chinese Cinema, London, 1980. Bergeron, Regis, Le Cinéma chinois 1949–1983, 3 vols., Paris, 1983–84. Jenkins, Alan, and Cathy Grant, A Teaching Guide to the Films of the People’s Republic of China, Oxford, 1984. Berry, Chris, editor, Perspectives on Chinese Cinema, Ithaca, New York, 1985. Quiquemelle, Marie-Claire, and Jean-Loup Passek, editors, Le Cinéma chinois, Paris, 1985. Armes, Roy, Third World Filmmaking and the West, Berkeley, 1987. Clark, Paul, Chinese Cinema: Culture and Politics since 1949, Cambridge, 1987. Semsel, George Stephen, editor, Chinese Film: The State of the Art in the People’s Republic, New York, 1987. Articles: China’s Screen, no. 2, 1981. Variety (New York), 22 April 1981. Wiley, Derek, in Films and Filming (London), November 1981. Jenkins, Steve, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), November 1981. Blanchet, C., in Cinéma (Paris), January 1985. Ostria, V., in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), January 1985. Tessier, Max, in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), February 1985. Marchetti, Gina, ‘‘The Blossoming of a Revolutionary Aesthetic,’’ in Jump Cut (Berkeley), no. 34, March 1989. *** When Xie Jin made Two Stage Sisters in 1964, it marked the culmination of a certain aesthetic thrust within post-1949 Chinese cinema. At this time, Xie Jin already had a reputation for making films with strong female protagonists and clearly revolutionary themes, including Woman Basketball Player #5 (1957) and The Women’s Red Army Detachment (1961). As a part of the first generation of filmmakers to come of age after the Revolution, Xie embarked on his career at a time when the new People’s Republic of China was searching for its own identity outside as well as within the cinematic world. Blending elements of Hollywood melodrama, Soviet socialist realism, pre-war Chinese critical realism, and folk opera traditions, Two Stage Sisters can be looked at as an answer (particularly after the Sino-Soviet split in the late 1950s) to what a peculiarly Chinese socialist film should look like. Using the lives of women in an all-female Shaoxing opera troupe to represent the changes the Revolution brought, Xie Jin, working from an original script (unusual in an industry which still bases most of its productions on well-known literary works), also used the setting as a way of exploring the tremendous aesthetic, cultural, and social changes that gripped modern China. Covering the years 1935 through 1950, Two Stage Sisters focuses on the lives of two very different women. One, Chunhua (Xie Fang), is a young widow who runs away from her in-laws and finds sanctuary in the world of Shaoxing opera. The other, Yuehong (Cao Tindi), is born into that world. Both suffer the hardships of the life of itinerant performers. However, when they find themselves in Shanghai, Chunhua throws herself into her career and eventually into revolutionary politics, while Yuehong chooses a romance with their prosperous and ruthless theatrical manager. After 1949, both return to the countryside— Chunhua with a travelling Communist theatrical troupe and Yuehong to eke out a living after being abandoned by her husband. The film ends with the sisters’ reunion; however, the fate of Yuehong remains somewhat uncertain despite the films generally optimistic resolution. In spite of the extremely positive view of revolutionary change the film puts forward, Two Stage Sisters was suppressed during the Cultural Revolution and only really came to the screen in the late 1970s. The reasons behind this range from the personal displeasure of Jiang Qing (Madame Mao—then in power as head of ‘‘The Gang of Four’’) with one of the advisors on the film to its condemnation as WUTAI JIEMEIFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1333 Wutai jiemei ‘‘bourgeois’’ for incorporating characters which were neither ‘‘good’’ nor ‘‘bad’’ vis-à-vis the Revolution (e.g., Yuehong) and thus opening the text to ambiguous readings. Unfortunately, looking at Two Stage Sisters as some sort of veiled statement against either Mao or the Revolution misses the point. The film really must be taken as a contribution to the construction of socialist film aesthetics in China, even though it represents a very different path than that taken by Madame Mao in her support for the highly stylized ‘‘model opera.’’ Two Stage Sisters represents an eclectic aesthetic that blends the critical vigor of the ‘‘golden era’’ of left-wing filmmaking of 1930s Shanghai with the ‘‘revolutionary romanticism’’ of the arts that developed in Yenan, where the Chinese Communist Party had a strong- hold during World War II. Like many earlier Shanghai films, Two Stage Sisters has a Hollywood flavor. After all, it deals with the occasionally glamorous world of the opera stage and the lives of its charismatic stars. Also, like its Shanghai predecessors, the film has a critical realist’s eye for the gritty details of urban life. From Yenan, however, Two Stage Sisters takes its heroic elevation of ordinary people through the revolutionary process, its interest in folk life and folk aesthetics, and an often ethereal, fairytale-like quality which comes from a blend of these folk roots with political idealism. To all this, the sobriety of the historical moment, an interest in looking at the nature of class oppression, feudal gender relations, nationalism, and the Japanese occupation within a dialectical framework grounds Two Stage Sisters within the tradition of its better known Soviet cinematic cousins. Its sweep from the poor villages of Zhejiang province to the grandeur of the Shanghai opera stage puts it within a tradition of epic socialist dramas made in other post-revolutionary societies. However, Two Stage Sisters seems to add up to more than the sum of its aesthetic parts. Perhaps this is due to the elaborate mirror structure of the film which uses the world of the stage as an aesthetic reflection of the changes taking place in the lives of the film’s characters. The Shaoxing opera stage, for example, represents an inverse reflection of the feudal world of the countryside. Whereas the stage features stories of warrior heroines and romances between beautiful ladies and young scholars, the actual conditions the ac- tresses live in show a world of poverty, oppression, and constant humiliation at the hands of men. In Shanghai, Two Stage Sisters shows a different kind of opera emerging. Based on the work of the radical author Lu Xun, this new opera goes outside the realm of highly stylized heroines and the fantasy of romance to deal with the poor and the homeless. Decidedly WUTAI JIEMEI FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1334 anti-romantic, it features the gritty, everyday world of contemporary Chinese life. Lastly, Two Stage Sisters features opera after the Revolution with a snippet from The White-Haired Girl, perhaps the best-known revolutionary play to emerge from Yenan. It has the folkloric roots of Shaoxing and the critical sensibilities of Lu Xun blended together within a fantasy which features an everyday woman who becomes a revolutionary heroine. All three of these aesthetic traditions are self-consciously repre- sented in Two Stage Sisters. They serve as markers of historical change. They also allow the viewer a certain ironic distance from the drama to stand back and place the film’s fiction within a broader political and cultural context. However, more than simply document- ing aesthetic and social changes by incorporating these opera allu- sions, Two Stage Sisters chronicles its own roots, giving the viewer a rare glimpse of the history behind Chinese film aesthetics of the mid-1960s. It is as a document of this unique Chinese socialist cinematic sensibility that Two Stage Sisters is particularly important to an understanding of Chinese film culture as well as socialist cinema aesthetics in general. —Gina Marchetti 1335 X XALA Senegal, 1975 Director: Ousmane Sembène Production: Domirev; 35mm; running time: 90 minutes. Released 1975. Filmed in Africa. Director of production: Paulin Soumanou Vieyra; screenplay: Ousmane Sembène; photography: Georges Caristan; editor: Flor- ence Eymon; sound: El Hadji Mbow; music: El Hadji Mbow. Cast: Tierno Seye; Donta Seck; Younouss Seye; Senn Samb; Fatim Diange; Myriam Niang; Markhouredia Seck; Babou Faye. Publications Script: Sembène, Ousmane, Xala, Paris, 1973; Westport, Connecticut, 1976. Books: Martin, Angela, editor, African Films: The Context of Production, London, 1982. Moore, Carrie Dailey, Evolution of an African Artist: Social Realism in the Works of Ousmane Sembène, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1984. Pfaff, Fran?oise, The Cinema of Ousmane Sembène, Westport, Con- necticut, 1984. Armes, Roy, Third World Filmmaking and the West, Berkeley, 1987. Peters, Jonathan A., Ousmane Sembène: Contemporary Griot, Boul- der, 1987. Pines, Jim, and Paul Willemen, editors, Questions of Third Cinema, London, 1989. Gadjigo, Samba, and others, editors, Ousmane Sembène: Dialogues with Critics and Writers, Amherst, 1993. Petty, Sheila, editor, A Call to Action: The Films of Ousmane Sembène, Westport, 1996. Articles: Cheriaa, T., ‘‘Problématique du cinéaste africain: L’Artist et la révolution,’’ in Cinéma Quebec (Montreal), August 1974. Dagneau, G., in Image et Son (Paris), April 1976. Ghali, N., ‘‘Ousmane Sembène,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), April 1976, and Cinématographe (Paris), April 1976. Jouvet, P., in Cinématographe (Paris), April-May 1976. Mruklik, B., in Kino (Warsaw), February 1976. Dubroux, D., in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), May 1976. Bosseno, C., in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), October 1976. Coleman, J., in New Statesman (London), 5 November 1976. Dewey, L., in Film (London), December 1976. Forbes, Jill, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), December 1976. Csala, K., in Filmkultura (Budapest), July-August 1977. Van Wert, William, ‘‘Ideology in the Third World Cinema: A Study of Ousmane Sembène and Glauber Rocha,’’ in Quarterly Review of Film Studies (Pleasantville, New York), Spring 1979. ‘‘Ousmane Sembène,’’ in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), 1 June 1979. Bosseno, C., interview with Ousmane Sembène, in Image et Son (Paris), September 1979. Fischer, Lucy, ‘‘Xala: A Study in Black Humor,’’ in Millenium (New York), Fall-Winter 1980–81. Landy, M., and others, ‘‘Ousmane Sembène’s Films,’’ in Jump Cut (Berkeley), July 1982. Film Library Quarterly (New York), vol. 6, no. 4, 1983. Landy, M., ‘‘Political Allegory and ‘Engaged Cinema’: Sembène’s Xala,’’ in Cinema Journal (Champaign, Illinois), Spring 1984. Pfaff, Fran?oise, and others, in Jump Cut: Hollywood, Politics, and Counter-Cinema, edited by Peter Steven, Toronto, Ontario, 1985. Turvey, G., ‘‘Xala and the Curse of Neocolonialism,’’ in Screen (London), May-August 1985. Listener (London), 25 February 1988. ‘‘Sembène Ousmane: Poet of the African Cinema,’’ in UNESCO Courier, January 1990. Atkinson, M., ‘‘Ousmane Sembène,’’ in Film Comment (New York), July-August 1993. Mowitt, John, ‘‘Sembène Ousmane’s Xala: Postcoloniality and For- eign Film,’’ in Camera Obscura (Bloomington), no. 31, January- May 1993. Mulvey, Laura, ‘‘Ousmane Sembène (1974): The Carapace that Failed,’’ in Camera Obscura (Bloomington), no. 31, January- May 1993. Atkinson, Michael, ‘‘Ousmane Sembène: ‘We Are No Longer in the Era of Prophets,’’’ in Film Comment (New York), vol. 29, July/ August 1993. *** Ousmane Sembène’s Xala is the fourth major film by one of black Africa’s most important directors. Based on Sembène’s novel of the same title, Xala demonstrates his ongoing social, political, and cultural concerns. Sembène had previously attacked the relatively easy targets of European racism (Black Girl), African bureaucracy (The Money Order), and past colonialism (Lords of the Sky), but here he denounces the neo-colonial deformities resulting from the collabo- ration of European businessmen and African elite. Sembène structures his film around the concept of xala—in Wolof, a state of temporary sexual impotence. The protagonist, El XALA FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1336 Xala Hadji, is a polygamous Senegalese businessman who becomes af- flicted with xala on the occasion of taking his third wife. In search of a cure, he visits various witchdoctors, who take his money but fail to cure him. At the same time, he suffers reverses in business, is accused of embezzlement, and ejected from the Chamber of Commerce. In the end, he discovers that the xala resulted from a curse sent by a Dakar beggar whose land El Hadji had expropriated. The protagonist finally recovers his manhood by submitting to the beggar’s demands that he strip and be spat upon; the film ends with a freeze-frame of his spittle- covered body. On a psychological level, xala functions as a truth-teller. El Hadji has taken a third wife purely for reasons of sexism and conspicuous consumption. ‘‘Every polygamous man,’’ his daughter tells him, ‘‘is a liar,’’ and although his mouth can lie, his penis cannot. The xala, on one level, constitutes the revenge of the women in the film; on another, it is the revenge of the oppressed classes of Senegal, represented by the beggars who have been defrauded by the new African bourgeoisie. On still another level, the xala symbolizes the political and economic impotence of the many newly established independent countries. El Hadji, with his Europeanized habits and tastes, encapsulates the conditions of neo-colonialism, in which an African elite takes over the positions formerly occupied by the colonizers. Sembène portrays this elite as a kind of caricature of the European bourgeoisie. In the pre-credit sequence, we see them throw out the Europeans and take over the Chamber of Commerce. While their public speeches are in Wolof and their dress African, they speak French among themselves and reveal European suits underneath their African garb. (Continuing indirect European domination is under- lined by the immediate return of the same Europeans as ‘‘advisors.’’) The Senegalese businessmen slavishly adore all that is European. They pour imported mineral water into the radiators of the Mercedes, and one complains that he no longer visits Spain because there are ‘‘too many blacks.’’ The elite, in other words, have absorbed Euro- pean racism and paradoxically turned it against themselves. At the same time, the film reminds us of the presence of the uncorrupted poor who look in on the ostentatious wedding celebration, and linger in the streets outside El Hadji’s office. By spitting on El Hadji, they express the anger of the oppressed against the leaders who have betrayed their hopes. Yet the symbolic purging of the spittle will lead, it is implied, to the end of impotence and a kind of rebirth, for El Hadji and for his country. XIAO CHENG ZHI CHUNFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1337 Sembène masterfully deploys a diversity of narrative and aesthetic strategies in Xala. At times, his approach is allegorical, as in the satirical scene involving the African take-over of the Chamber of Commerce, a moment clearly evoking the historical juncture of formal independence. Each of the key women in the film has an allegorical dimension in that each represents a different stage of African history. Awa, with her traditional clothes and manners, represents the pre-colonial African woman. Omui, with her wigs, sunglasses, and low-cut dress, represents the colonized woman who imitates European fashions. El Hadji’s daughter Rama, finally, repre- sents an ideal synthesis of Africa and Europe. She speaks Wolof but studies French; she rides a moped, practical and inexpensive. She is culturally proud and politically aware, but she can also appreciate Charlie Chaplin, whose poster decorates her wall. Sembène’s achievement is that he has made an accessible political film, which speaks honestly to the problems of post-independent Africa, while skillfully orchestrating realism, humor, satire, and allegory. —Ella Shochat XIAO CHENG ZHI CHUN (Spring in a Small City) China, 1948 Director: Fei Mu Production: Wenhua Film Company, Shanghai, 35mm; running time: 85 minutes. Released September, 1948. Producer: none credited; screenplay: Li Tianji; photography: Li Shengwei; music: Huang Yijun; set designer: Chi Ning; editors: Xu Ming and Wei Shunbao. Cast: Wei Wei (Zhou Yuwen); Shi Yu (Dai Liyan); Li Wei (Zhang Zhichen); Zhang Hongmei (Dai Xiu); Cui Chaoming (Old Huang). Publications Book: Clark, Paul, Chinese Cinema, Culture and Politics Since 1949, New York, 1987. Articles: Sek Kei, ‘‘The Journey of Desires,’’ in Hong Kong International Film Festival Catalogue: A Study of Hong Kong Cinema in the Seven- ties (Hong Kong), 1984. Variety (New York), 9 April 1986. *** Like most Chinese films regarded in the West as art-house successes, Spring in a Small City is grounded in a popular genre—in this case, the wenyi movie. ‘‘Wenyi’’ is the term Chinese critics use to refer to the melodrama, and is abbreviated from the Chinese words for literature (wenxue) and art (yishu), the nearest Chinese equivalents to signify melos and drama. ‘‘Wenyi’’ therefore denotes a genre that is more ‘‘cultured’’ and cerebral (as opposed to a genre that is martial and action-oriented), biased towards women, and hosting a cast of highly literate characters. Films roughly classified as family soap operas or, more usually, love stories, fall within the realm of wenyi melodramas. Perhaps the prime characteristic of the wenyi melo- drama in the love story category is the romantic triangle—the classic situation of a woman caught between her husband and lover. In Spring in a Small City, Zhou Yuwen (Wei Wei) is the married female protagonist who has been nursing a sick husband, Dai Liyan (Shi Yu), for most of their marriage. One day, Dai’s best friend, Zhang Zhichen (Li Wei) turns up in their dilapidated mansion, bombed during the war. Coincidentally, Zhichen happens to be Yuwen’s former lover. During Zhichen’s stay, Yuwen attempts to rekindle their affair. An extraordinary seduction scene takes place in which Yuwen wavers between libertarian abandonment and consci- entious adherence to her personal obligations to custom and duty. As she seduces Zhichen, Yuwen intermittently covers her face with a silk scarf—an action that reveals her moral dilemma: should she leave her husband or see through her duties as a wife? The silk scarf seems to imply a tone of light-hearted coquetry but is in fact, a fitting symbol for the psychological fragility of Yuwen and the delicate caution with which she approaches her dilemma. Spring in a Small City can be seen as the acme of the wenyi movie because its high artistic and stylistic achievement has elevated the theme of the romantic triangle into classic heights. It offers a lasting model of wenyi movies that has as its centre a woman of repressed desires poised to make certain choices—whether to take the plunge (to fulfill her desires) or to pull back from the brink. The aesthetic and psychological momentum of the film makes clear that Yuwen’s choice is not a simple one. The choice is between instinct (love) and institution (marriage), personal motivation and tradition. Should she leave her husband, she discards all that is implied by tradition (repression and mental agony along with the sense of duty, loyalty, and security). Although her choice in the end to stay with her husband is determined by events (the husband attempts suicide and is saved by Zhichen, who is a doctor), it is as if tradition has proven to be too innate a factor to be easily discarded—it is something, in fact, that could have pre-determined the outcome. Tradition, in the form of an ethical conservatism, is the lynchpin of the movie. All the characters are bound by such a tradition. Director Fei Mu works on the Confucian maxim of ‘‘desire bound by ethics’’ (fahu qing, zhihu li: literally, to express emotion or desire, to stop at the point of ethics). His style is completely refined by this maxim. He punctuates his scenes with subtle reminders of musical and poetic rhythm; his sets are spare but filled with reminders of a once opulently endowed manor-house; and Yuwen’s narrative, which carries the psychological weight of the whole film, is never overloaded—it complements the poetic intensity of her desires and illustrates the ethical limits of her role as a Chinese woman and wife. The inherent conservatism of the tradition theme, with its humani- tarian, moral-ethical considerations, has never come out so succinctly in the wenyi genre or even tackled with such aesthetic conviction in the history of Chinese cinema (one film that comes close is Fei Mu’s own earlier classic Filial Piety/Tian Lun, made in 1935—a wenyi film of another order, dealing with the family as the highest of Confucian institutions). It is perhaps this factor that has put the film in cold XIAO CHENG ZHI CHUN FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1338 storage in Mainland China all these years. Fei Mu’s aesthetic style was dismissed in Cheng Jihua’s standard History of the Development of Chinese Cinema as ‘‘playing up the decadent emotions of a declin- ing bourgeois class’’ (translation is author’s own). In addition, the tone and mood of the film (exacerbated by its post- war setting amidst ruins and featuring a sick husband whose bleak outlook on life leads his wife to contemplate an affair with his friend, her ex-lover) was seen as too negative for the period just when the Communist Party was on the verge of victory in the Civil War. The film’s critical fortunes revived slightly with the opening up of China in the late ‘70s; it was shown for the first time outside of China in Hong Kong in 1983 and exerted an influence on films such as Stanley Kwan’s Rouge/Yanzhi Kou (1989). But it is only now in the 1990s that this masterpiece is beginning to be exposed to the world beyond China and Hong Kong. —Stephen Teo 1339 Y YAABA Burkina Faso, 1989 Director: Idrissa Ouedraogo Production: Arcadia Films (Paris), Les Films de l’Avenir (Ouagadougou), and Thelma Film (Zürich); color, 35mm; running time: 90 minutes; length: 2465 meters (Sweden). Released 1989; filmed in Tougouzagué Village, Burkina Faso. Producers: Freddy Dena?s, Michael David, Pierre-Alain Meier, and Idrissa Ouedraogo; screenplay: Idrissa Ouedraogo; assistant direc- tors: Paul Zoumbara and Isma?l Ouedraogo; photography: Matthias K?lin; editor: Loredana Cristelli; music: Francis Bebey; sound: Jean-Paul Mugel; sound mixer: Dominique Dalmasso; costumes: Marian Sidibé. Cast: Fatimata Sanga (Yaaba); Noufou Ouedraogo (Bila); Roukietou Barry (Nopoko); Adama Ouedraogo (Kougri); Amadé Touré (Tibo); Sibidou Ouedraogo (Poko); Adamé Sidibé (Razougou); Rasmane Ouedraogo (Noaga); Kinda Moumouni (Finse); Assita Ouedraogo (Koudi); Zenabou Ouedraogo (Pegda); Ousmane Sawadogo (Tibo). Awards: FIPRESCI Award, Cannes Film Festival, 1989; Gold Award, Tokyo International Film Festival, 1989. Publications Books: Diawara, Manthia, African Cinema: Politics & Culture, Blooming- ton, Indiana, 1992. Barlet, Olivier, Les cinémas d’Afrique noire: Le regard en question, Paris, 1996. Articles: Bernard, Jean-Jacques, review in Première (Paris), August 1989. Vartanian, Isabelle, review in Studio (Paris), August 1989. Cardullo, Bert, ‘‘Rites of Passage,’’ in The Hudson Review (New York), vol. 44, 1991. *** Yaaba first brought international recognition to Idrissa Ouedraogo, winning the International Critics Prize at the Cannes Film Festival, the Special Jury Prize at FESPACO, and the Sakura Gold Prize at the Tokyo International Film Festival. Yaaba is indeed one of the finest African films. A beautifully filmed morality tale of superstition and intelligence, it touchingly conveys the humanity of its characters and offers a message of tolerance. And it is one of the few African films to have achieved a measure of commercial distribution: in France it sold close to 300,000 seats. Yaaba distinguishes itself from Western films set in Africa by a whole set of characteristics that make it a distinctly African film: characters, setting, pacing, language, music, and last, but certainly not least, finance. Yaaba takes us to an all-African context where we come to know a wide range of distinctly drawn characters. The film focuses on people and their interactions rather than the setting. The camera allows us to see the beauty in their faces. Yaaba is set in the Sahel, which holds no particular attractions or excitement: the fauna is limited; we never get to see any game; the desert does not threaten rapid death, even if droughts are a recurring calamity; nor are there any dangers lurking in the dark. In stark contrast to Western films, Yaaba follows a slow peasant mode: Ouedraogo takes his time with long scenes, the camera leisurely pans the wide open landscape, following the slow progress of characters dwarfed by the vast expanse, e.g. Sana on her way to the healer. In this respect Yaaba follows a pattern established by Gaston Kaboré in Wend Kuuni, the pioneering attempt to ‘‘Africanize’’ film language by unfolding at a measured pace consonant with the time-honored customs and seasonal rhythms of African village life. All speech in Yaaba is in Moré, the language of the Mossi villagers it portrays. Indeed, if viewers are so inclined, they can learn some Moré as they keep counting with Bila and Nopoko, the two children, playing their games; they can pick up a greeting, and perhaps a couple of insults too; they will certainly remember that yaaba means grandmother. The music in Yaaba is credited to Francis Bebey, a well-known writer, poet, and composer-performer from Cameroon. It is used sparingly. Gentle music accompanies the inteludes when long shots take in the countryside. A faster rhythm conveys drama as in the prelude to the fight of the boys and during the burial of Sana. Like all African films, Yaaba is a low-budget production: it cost 6 million francs, about one million dollars. Though many African films suffer from shortcomings that can be traced to financial constraints, Idrissa Ouedraogo managed to produce a first rate film. He accom- plished this feat by taking on the roles of both writer and director, by shooting the film in Tougouzagué, a village a few miles from his birth place, and by recruiting villagers and his relatives to act—and getting them to act naturally. Yaaba was a low-budget production, but it nevertheless required financing from overseas sponsors—like most African films produced outside Nigeria and South Africa. In this case financial support came from France, Switzerland, and Germany. Whatever Ouedraogo’s preferred audience, this sponsorship presumably determined that the film should aim to reach a Western audience. Anybody familiar with village life in Africa wonders whether presenting Bila and Nopoko as YANZHI KOU FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1340 single children is intended to obviate the difficulty for Western viewers of distinguishing them from their siblings; whether it is all that common for Mossi peasant women to have the final say like Bila’s mother; whether the drunkard-wife-lover triangle is more the classic French film scenario than Mossi village reality. The close-ups of the lovers may be seen to play to Western expectations, the parsimonious dialogue complemented by body language—gestures, laughter, raspberries—serving to limit tiresome sub-titles. Ouedraogo has explained that ‘‘Yaaba is based on tales of my childhood and on that kind of bedtime story-telling we hear just before falling asleep.’’ And indeed, the film portrays a village out of history. Nothing takes the viewer to pre-colonial times, nor is there any indication of a colonial presence. But if the action is contempo- rary, the village appears altogether isolated. There is no trace of government, taxes, schools, or clinics. Market relations do not reach beyond a big tree within walking distance where a few people gather with local products, even though coins are common: the diviner demands them, the beggar collects them, the children wager them. And in Burkina Faso, where at any one time about ten percent of the population work outside the country on a temporary basis, there is no indication that any migrant ever returned to this village, no trace of anything he might have sent, or brought, or be using now, no transistor radio, not even a single t-shirt. Yaaba portrays a village such as would be hard to find in Africa today—or anywhere else for that matter. An ordinary village that time forgot is unlikely to hold much interest for African audiences. Rather, a film of an African village supposedly isolated since times immemorial seeks to reach a Western audience that is interested in such a different culture, but wants to be diverted rather than be reminded of the West’s role in slavery and colonialism, of the West’s continued dominance in the contemporary world, of the manifold problems plaguing contemporary Africa. Western viewers may appreciate their good luck of not living in village poverty, but in Yaaba that poverty is taken for granted, its causes not at issue. We see the barren landscape of the Sahel, but people have food reserves to share when a family’s granary burns down. Sana is destitute because she has been marginalized, not because of a general state of poverty. The only incident of illness is the consequence of a fight among children. Nopoko, Bila, and Sana are beautifully drawn—and their very status, two children and an old destitute woman, invite the patronizing Western gaze: Western view- ers are encouraged to strike, once again, a posture of patronizing benevolence vis-à-vis Africans. The parallels between Yaaba and Pather Panchali, Satyajit Ray’s classic portrayal of village life in India, are striking. Both films share a sense of serenity as they linger at length on natural scenery. And both avoid the trap of romanticizing village life. Instead they contrast the quarrels of adults with the complicity between a marginalized old woman and two children. In each film the link between old and young is broken when a child touches the seated woman and discovers that she is dead. Unlike Yaaba, Pather Panchali does situate its story historically, but the conflicts of the day, land ownership and taxation, are barely alluded to, caste never at issue. The isolation of the village in Yaaba leaves aside complex social, political, and historical issues. Instead the plot turns on superstition and human foibles. Western audiences are unlikely to connect Sana’s marginal position to her status as an orphan. Rather, they are encouraged, once again, to assign superstition to the Other while taking their own supposed rationality for granted and forgetting how ready we are to blame others for our misfortunes. There is barely a hint that the village in a way killed Sana: we saw her exposed to the rain, and we know that, with her hut burned down, she had no place to dry herself. The constancy of the two friendships—between the two children, and between Bila and Sana—assures us that we are witness- ing a society in harmony but for superstition and personal failings. The occasional quarrels between Bila and Nopoko dissipate quickly with a joke and a smile: they make us anticipate their lovers’ quarrels to come in just a few years’ time. And the tension created between Bila’s parents by his mother’s affirmative role is contained by her humor and his father’s acquiescence. If Yaaba fails to convey the full reality of contemporary African villages, it shares with most African films a realism in plot that distinguishes it from much Western film production. This realism is particularly striking in the ending, which gives us neither happy end nor great drama: the lovers elope, Sana dies quietly in her sleep, and Ouedraogo keeps us at a distance as he compresses much of her burial in a long shot. The woman who saved Nopoko’s life has remained an outcast, Noaga has been abandoned by his wife, and the camera lingers on the children who run into the distance and, we may presume, a better future. Yaaba is an African production, altogether different from Western films situated in Africa, even as it reaches out to Western audiences. Ouedraogo went on to become the most important African filmmaker since Ousmane Sembène in terms of the quantity of his production—he has directed seven feature films to date—as well as the appeal of his films. Two years after Yaaba, Kini and Nopoko appear as lovers in Ouedraogo’s A Karim na Sala (1991). Tila?, released in 1990, dramatizes a legend explicitly set in the precolonial past. Ouedraogo’s film, Kini and Adams, released in 1997, once again tells a story of friendship. But it is a very different story. From the constancy of the friendship between two children and an old woman in a village that time forgot, Ouedraogo takes us to two men struggling to realize their aspirations in a world that is constantly changing—even out in the ‘‘bush.’’ Now the endurance of friendship, however profound, is no longer assured. —Josef Gugler YANZHI KOU (Rouge) Hong Kong, 1987 Director: Stanley Kwan Production: Golden Way Films, A Golden Harvest presentation; colour, 35mm; running time: 96 minutes. Released January 1988. Executive producer: Leonard Ho; producer: Jackie Chan; screen- play: Li Bihua, Qiu-Dai Anping, based on the novel by Li Bihua; photography: Bill Wong; editor: Peter Cheung; lighting: Lin YANZHI KOUFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1341 Yanzhi kou Shaorong; assistant directors: Paul Cheung, Cub Chin; art direc- tor: Piao Ruomo, Horace Ma; music: Michael Lai; sound editing: Deng Shaolin; sound recording: Zhou Shaolong; costumes: Wen Fenglan. Cast: Anita Mui (Fleur); Leslie Cheung (Chan Chen Pang); Alex Man (Yuen); Emily Chu (Ah Chor); Irene Wan (Suk-Yin); Patrick Tse (Fleur’s rich customer); Wang Fu (Seventh Master); Tan Qianhong (Chan’s father); Zhu Ruitang (Chan’s mother). Publications Articles: Variety (New York), 24 February 1988. Jousse, T., ‘‘L’obscure objet du désir,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), December 1989. Rayns, T., ‘‘Love unto Waste,’’ in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), February 1990. Stanbrook, A., in Films and Filming (London), no. 420, Octo- ber 1989. Kwan, Stanley, ‘‘Carrying the Past Lightly,’’ in Cinemaya (New Delhi), Spring 1993. Chow, R., ‘‘Un souvernir d’amour,’’ in Cinemas (Paris), Spring 1993. Eng, D.L., ‘‘Love at Last Site: Waiting for Oedipus in Stanley Kwan’s Rouge,’’ in Camera Obscura (Bloomington), no. 32, September/January 1993/1994. Abbas, A., ‘‘The New Hong Kong Cinema and the Deja Disparu,’’ in Discourse (Detroit), vol. 16, no. 3, Spring 1994. Atkinson, M., ‘‘Songs of Crushed Love,’’ in Film Comment (New York), vol. 32, May/June 1996. Stringer, J., ‘‘’Centre Stage’: Reconstructing the Bio-pic,’’ in CineAction (Toronto), no. 42, 1997. *** There are seemingly mutually contradictory strands that run through Rouge. It is a deep, serious romance with a somewhat frivolous veneer (the romance being set in a gaudy, high-class brothel). It is also a ghost story, set in the modern environment of YAWAR MALLKU FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1342 Hong Kong, that evokes virtually none of the gothic suspense or special effects that are associated with the genre since it is, at the same time, a love story of the wenyi melodrama genre. It is eerily nostalgic, recreating the rich textures and atmosphere of a 1930s Hong Kong brothel and contrasting these with scenes of modern Hong Kong, vastly changed and still in transition. That the movie comes across as an atypical Hong Kong production is a comment in itself. It differs from the normal run of Hong Kong movies that stress action and an easy facility with modern gadgets, fashions, and values. The film brings out the starkness of these contradictions and pin- points an irony, by deliberately placing its narrative in the past and the present. In present Hong Kong, a thoroughly modern city, there is little or no trace of the past. Yet Rouge evokes a past through its tale of the ghost Fleur (Anita Mui), a high-class prostitute of the old world who reappears in modern Hong Kong to search for her lover, the dilettantish Twelfth Master Chan (Leslie Cheung). Fleur hardly recognises the city, and it is only with the help of a reporter and his girlfriend that she is able finally to locate Twelfth Master, who was supposed to have died with her in a suicide pact (having waited a day in the nether world—a cycle of fifty years on earth—Fleur decides to return to earth to look for him). Through Fleur’s links with the past and a lifestyle that is now lost, the modern couple realises that Hong Kong has a history and tradition to call its own. But that history and tradition is marked by loss and betrayal, signified by Twelfth Master’s failure to die with Fleur. Twelfth Master has become a lonely old man, subsisting on work as an extra in a film studio, thus reinforcing the suggestion that he is living in a private world of make-believe. The modern city of Hong Kong is of no relevance to Twelfth Master. At the same time, the couple that helps Fleur begin to question their contemporary values and the changes which have overcome their city. Thus, Rouge transcends its contradictory strands by signalling the desire of modern Hong Kong citizens for self-reflection and the sight of things beyond their preoccupation with hi-tech modernity and all things glossy and new. On this basis, Rouge is a rare achievement. Stanley Kwan’s direction adds a graceful, stylish dimension. His third film, Rouge represents the director’s breakthrough movie not only in the assured handling of generic elements (not to mention the various contradictory strands of the narrative), but also in the depic- tion of his central character, Fleur. Kwan had acquired a reputation as a woman’s director, but his characterisation of Fleur as the cultured artist-prostitute puts him in a special group of filmmakers who combine social grace with impressionistic creations of memorable female characters. One thinks of Renoir, Truffaut, and Von Sternberg, but perhaps the most important aesthetic influence is Fei Mu (with a particular reference to Fei’s masterpiece, Spring in a Small City), whose mastery of the wenyi genre is invoked by Kwan not only through the stylish use of the camera and the mise-en-scéne, but also through use of a female character as the beguiling epicentre of the plot. In addition, Fleur is a character stemming from the fenghua xueyue vein of popular Chinese culture. Fenghua xueyue (literally, wind, flower, snow, moon: the term is usually abbreviated to fengyue) denotes a literary genre of light, frivolous subject matter. In cinema, it usually denotes a genre of soft-core entertainment. Rouge inherits the legacy of fengyue literature (and movies) depicting the brothels of old China and, in particular, Shanghai during its development as a treaty port in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Fleur is the Hong Kong Cantonese variation of the classic Shanghai sing-song girl: the exquisite details of behaviour and mannerisms of these old-world prostitutes are captured by Stanley Kwan. He wins the hearts of his audience with Fleur’s highly refined style and melancholy as she searches for her lost lover—and longs for the old world in the concrete background of a hopelessly urbanized Hong Kong. —Stephen Teo YAWAR MALLKU (Blood of the Condor) Bolivia, 1969 Director: Jorge Sanjinés Production: Grupo Ukamau (Bolivia); black and white, 35mm; running time: 74 minutes. Released 1969. Producer: Ricardo Rada; screenplay: Oscar Soria and Jorge Sanjinés; photography: Antonio Eguino; music: Alberto Villalpando, Alfredo Dominquez, Gregorio Yana, and Ignacio Quispo. Cast: Marcelino Yanahuaya (Ignacio); Benedicta Mendoza Huanca (Paulina); Vicente Salinas (Sixto); also featuring the people of the Kanta rural community. Yawar Mallku YEELENFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1343 Publications Book: Mesa, Carlos D., and others, Cine Boliviano: Del realizador al critico, La Paz, 1979. Articles: ‘‘A Talk with Jorge Sanjinés,’’ in Cineaste (New York), Winter 1970–71. ‘‘Ukamau and Yawar Mallku: An Interview with Jorge Sanjinés,’’ in Afterimage (London), Summer 1971. Wilson, David, ‘‘Aspects of Latin American Political Cinema,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1972. Apon, A., in Skrien (Amsterdam), November 1972. Tarratt, Margaret, in Films and Filming (London), June 1973. Ferrero, A., in Cineforum (Bergamo, Italy), December 1973. Alemanno, R., in Cinema Nuovo (Turin), May-August 1975. Cardenas, F., and F. J. Lombardi, ‘‘Breve encuentro con Antonio Eguino,’’ in Hablemos de Cine (Lima), vol. 13, no. 69, 1977–78. Campbell, Leon G., and Carlos Cortes, ‘‘Film as Revolutionary Weapon: A Jorge Sanjinés Retrospective,’’ in History Teacher, May 1979. Ledgard, M., ‘‘Jorge Sanjinés: El cine urgente,’’ in Hablemos de Cine (Lima), June 1981. Gervais, G., ‘‘Faire du cinéma un instrument de liberation,’’ in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), March 1982. Sanjinés, Jorge, ‘‘Nuestro principal destinatario,’’ in Cine Cubano (Havana), no. 105, 1983. Hess, John, ‘‘Neo-Realism and New Latin American Cinema: Bicycle Thieves and Blood of the Condor,’’ in John King, Ana M. Lopez, and Manuel Alvarado, editors, Mediating Two Worlds: Cinematic Encounters in the Americas, London, 1993. *** The Bolivian fiction feature Yawar Mallku is one of the most famous examples of Latin American militant cinema. Like most of these American militant films, this one was made on a modest budget in spite of major obstacles. Bolivia has no significant filmmaking traditions or facilities. Mules had to be used to transport the filmmakers and their equipment to a high and remote Indian community where parts of the film were shot. The Quechua-speaking Indians of this Andean community were initially hostile to the filmmakers until a coca-leaf divination ritual confirmed the filmmakers’ good intentions. It is in cultural and ideological terms that Yawar Mallku is most important. This controversial film is a powerful and thorough attack on United States imperialism. In the film, members of a Progress Corps (read Peace Corps) working, ironically, in an obstetric clinic, surgically sterilize unsuspecting Indian women. Jorge Sanjinés, aware of Bolivia’s historic underpopulation and high infant mortality rate, had been deeply disturbed by media reports that the U.S. Peace Corps operated in such a fashion in his country. Though U.S. officials denied such activities, the film created a furore and, in the opinion of Sanjinés, was a major factor in the expulsion of the Peace Corps from Bolivia in 1971. In Yawar Mallku, U.S. imperialism is not depicted solely as an attempt to biologically eliminate an ‘‘inferior’’ race, but also as a more subtle yet all-pervasive force. The theme of cultural imperial- ism is amply illustrated: the rock music played in the clinic (in contrast to the indigenous flute music), the American-style clothes donated to the Indians (in contrast to the traditional, hand-woven garb), the pin-ups in the house of the Indian who has migrated to La Paz. Linguistic imperialism is exemplified in a sequence in which an upper-class Bolivian mother addresses her children in English, a lan- guage commonly used by the upper classes but generally not available for study by the Indians. Sanjinés emphasizes the ties of Bolivia’s ruling classes to U.S. imperialism in a banquet sequence where leading Bolivian doctors and their U.S. counterparts fail to supply the blood that a wounded Indian needs to survive. For Sanjinés, U.S. imperialism is literally and figuratively robbing Bolivian Indians of their blood—their right to life according to their own traditions and customs. Yawar Mallku also paints an unforgettable portrait of a common figure in modern Bolivia—the rural Indian migrant (Sixto) who seeks his fortune in the metropolis of La Paz. Sixto attempts to change his cultural identity by speaking Spanish, wearing Western-style clothes, and denying his Indian roots. Nevertheless, he remains a member of a subordinant class and as such he is ‘‘kept in his place’’—begging for blood for his brother, waiting outside the club, riding in the back of the truck. At the end of the film, Sixto has adopted Indian clothing and is returning to his rural community. The final freeze-frame of upraised rifles suggests that the Indians of the traditional rural communities must unite in the armed defense of their lives and culture. The Bolivian government, allegedly at the insistence of U.S. officials, initially banned Yawar Mallku. After 24 hours, however, the ban was lifted due to public pressure generated by widespread protests and demonstrations. Because of its socially significant na- tional themes and its controversial nature, Yawar Mallku became immensely popular with Bolivians. Critics continue to regard the film as a leading example of Latin American militant cinema. —Dennis West YEELEN (The Light) Mali, 1987 Director: Souleymane Cissé Production: Les Films Cissé, in association with Atriascop and Midas, with assistance from the government of Mali, the Burkino Faso Ministry of Information and Culture, the French Ministry of Culture, CNC, UTA, WDR Television; in color; running time: 106 minutes, English version 104 minutes; length: 9,401 feet. Released 1987. Producer: Souleymane Cissé; screenplay: Souleymane Cissé; pho- tography: Jean-No?l Ferragut; editors: Dounamba Conulibaly, Andree Davanture, Marie-Catherine Miqueau, Jenny Frenck, Seipati N’Xumalo; sound: Daniel Olivier, Michel Mellier; art director: Kossa Mody Keita; music: Michel Portal, Salif Keita. Cast: Issiaka Kane (Nianankoro); Aoua Sangare (Attu); Niamanto Sanogo (Soma); Balla Moussa Keita (Peul King); Soumba Traore YEELEN FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1344 Yeelen (Nianankoro’s Mother); Ismaila Sarr (Djigui); Youssouf Tenin Cissé (Attu’s Son); Koke Sangare (Komo Chief). Publications Book: Pines, Jim, and Paul Willemen, editors, Questions of Third Cinema, London, 1989. Articles: Braunschweig, Stéphane, and Antoine de Baecque, ‘‘Pionnier en son pays: Entretien avec Souleymane Cissé,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), March 1986. Variety (New York), 13 May 1987. Roud, Richard, in Guardian (London), 21 May 1987. Tesson, Charles, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), June 1987. James, Caryn, in The New York Times, vol. 137, C37, 8 October 1987. Positif (Paris), December 1987. Adair, Gilbert, in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1988. Walters, Margaret, in Listener (London), 20 October 1988. French, Philip, in Observer (London), 23 October 1988. Solanka, Adeola, ‘‘Sands of the Time,’’ in Guardian (London), 27 October 1988. Leahy, James, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), November 1988. Johnston, Sheila, ‘‘Tales of a Painful Initiation,’’ in Independent (London), 25 November 1988. Witte, K., ‘‘Blickvermeidung und Blickschaerfung,’’ in Filmbulletin (Winterthur, Switzerland), no. 5, 1989. Diawara, M., ‘‘African Cinema Today,’’ in Framework (London), no. 37, 1989. Stein, Elliot, ‘‘The Bloody and the Brightest,’’ in Village Voice (New York), 18 April 1989. Chiacchiari, F., in Cineforum (Bergamo), June 1989. Gadjigo, S., ‘‘Africa through African Eyes,’’ in Research in African Literatures (Columbus, Ohio), no. 4, 1992. Cunneen, Joseph, in National Catholic Reporter, vol. 29, no. 29, 21 May 1993. Gentile, P., ‘‘In the Midst of Secrets: Souleymane Cisse’s Yeelen,’’ in Iris (Iowa City), no. 18, Spring 1995. LES YEUX SANS VISAGEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1345 Lalanne, Jean-Marc, and Frédéric Strauss, ‘‘Terre et mère: Entretien avec Souleymane Cissé,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), no. 492, June 1995. MacRae, S.H., ‘‘Yeelen: A Political Fable of the Komo Blacksmith/ Sorcerers,’’ in Research in African Literatures (Columbus, Ohio), vol. 26, no. 3, 1995. ‘‘Special Issue on Yeelen,’’ in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), no. 476, November 1998. *** Yeelen has provided the West with one of its all too rare glimpses of African cinema. Made in Mali, it is the fourth full-length feature to have been directed by Souleymane Cissé, who studied at the VGIK film school in Moscow under Mark Donskoi. Den Muso (1975) was the first feature to be shot in Mali in the Bambara tongue and concerned the plight of child-mothers; Baara (1978) looked at the problems of the peasantry and the growing working class; Finye (1982) focussed on student unrest. After making Finye Cissé said, ‘‘I hope in the future to be able to make films in which the ancient depths of African culture will surge up again. To this end, I spend my time visiting old men who tell me stories of the past, true or mythical. A cinema imitating that of America or Europe will be in vain. We must immerse ourselves in our own sources.’’ In Yeelen Cissé has drawn on just such traditional sources in creating a narrative which describes in stark and elemental detail (images of light, water, earth, and fire abound in the film) Nianankoro’s epic quest. He is a young African from Bambara pursued by his vengeful father, Somo, who has devastating magic powers that he often uses for evil purposes. Aided by his mother, Nianankoro sets out both to avoid his father and to seek help elsewhere. On his journey, dogged by his father, he manages to come to the aid of a rival tribe which is being attacked. Using magic powers of his own, Nianankoro repels the would-be invaders and the grateful king allows him to ‘‘acquire’’ the king’s own wife, Attu, as a gift for his labours. She subsequently becomes pregnant, and the young couple finally reach the home of Nianankoro’s uncle, Djigui. Nianankoro explains to Djigui that his father turned against him because he wanted to use his magic powers for the common good. The film ends with a confrontation between father and son in which they are both destroyed by a blinding light. Attu arrives with her young son, gathers two fetish objects left behind by the men in their deadly struggle, then walks away with the child. For many Western critics the film was perceived in classic psychoanalytic terms as an Oedipal drama, a conflict between father and son for control over power and knowledge (indeed Nianankoro’s ‘‘marriage’’ to the king’s wife draws a parallel with Oedipus’s marriage to his own mother). This appraisal, comforting and familiar though it is, has not met with the approval of the Africans themselves who regard psychoanalysis as incompatible with their own cultures, nor does it do any justice to what, after all, is the major quality of the film—its extraordinary mythic dimension. As Cissé himself says, ‘‘For every individual imagination is personal, intuitive. For me imagination is planetary, cosmic.’’ The cosmic is effortlessly repre- sented by many different aspects of the film: the grandeur of the landscape, an immensity of sky, a searing relentless sun, the Great Tree in each village scene under which counsel is taken, a sense of timelessness in the unfolding of the narrative, and the characters themselves, who have a universal resonance in the dignity and ardour of their endeavours. The symbology, too, apparent in the use of a magic eye which is to be found both in the wing of K?ré, sceptre of the initiates, and in Somo’s magic pestle, seizes the imagination in a direct and compelling manner. Yeelen is a profound evocation of a belief system which is founded on magic. As Cissé says, ‘‘In Africa we are all believers in magic. But for Africans, this magic is a part of the everyday experience. What is thrown into relief is not magic; it is knowledge and the power of knowledge. People who ignore this will not be able to understand the film.’’ —Sylvia Paskin YELLOW EARTH See HUANG TUDI LES YEUX SANS VISAGE (Eyes Without a Face) France-Italy, 1959 Director: Georges Franju Production: Champs-Elysées/Lux; black and white; running time: 90 minutes, some sources say 88 minutes; length: 7,885 feet. Released 1959. Producer: Jules Borkon; screenplay: Georges Franju, Jean Redon, Claude Sautet, Boileau and Narcejac, from the novel by Redon; photography: Eugen Schüfftan; editor: Gilbert Natot; sound: Antoine Archimbaud; art director: Auguste Capelier; special effects: Assola, Georges Klein; music: Maurice Jarre. Cast: Pierre Brasseur (Professor Génessier); Alida Valli (Louise); Edith Scob (Christiane); Fran?ois Guérin (Jacques); Juliette Mayniel (Edna Gruber); Béatrice Altariba (Paulette); Alexandre Rignault (Inspector Parot); René Genin (Bereaved father). Publications Script: Franju, Georges, and others, Les Yeux sans visages, in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), June 1977. Books: Durgnat, Raymond, Franju, Berkeley, 1968. Vialle, Gabriel, Georges Franju, Paris, 1968. Benichou, P. J. B., Horreur et epouvante, Paris, 1977. Grant, Barry Keith, editor, Planks of Reason: Essays on the Horror Film, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1984. LES YEUX SANS VISAGE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1346 Les yeux sans visage Articles: La Technique Cinématographique (Paris), no. 196, 1959. Lebovits, Jean-Marc, and Francis Tranchant, ‘‘Entretien avec Georges Franju,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), March 1959. Vérité, J. M., in Cinéma (Paris), July 1959. Variety (New York), 26 August 1959. Truffaut, Fran?ois, ‘‘Entretien avec Georges Franju,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), November 1959. Dyer, Peter John, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), March 1960. Delahaye, Michel, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), April 1960. Vas, Robert, in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1960. Oms, Marcel, in Positif (Paris), May 1960. Tailleur, Roger, ‘‘Pour un portrait,’’ in Prèsence du Cinéma (Paris), June 1960. Callenbach, Ernest, in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Summer 1962. Ajame, Pierre, ‘‘Georges Franju; ou, La Terreur comme un des beaux-arts,’’ in Nouvelles Littéraires (Paris), 30 January 1964. MacLochlainn, A., ‘‘The Films of Luis Bu?uel and Georges Franju,’’ in Film Journal (New York), Summer 1971. Gow, Gordon, ‘‘Franju,’’ in Films and Filming (London), August 1971. Wood, Robin, ‘‘Terrible Buildings: The World of Georges Franju,’’ in Film Comment (New York), November-December 1973. Milne, Tom, ‘‘Georges Franju: The Haunted Void,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1975. Badder, D. J., ‘‘Georges Franju,’’ in Film Dope (London), April 1979. Conrad, Randall, ‘‘Mystery and Melodrama: A Conversation with Georges Franju,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), vol. 35, 10 March 1982. Revault d’Allonnes, Fabrice, in Cinéma (Paris), 24 September 1986. Chevrie, Marc, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), November 1986. Klein, Andy, in Los Angeles Magazine, vol. 33, no. 9, Septem- ber 1988. Svehla, G.J., ‘‘Revisiting The Horror Chamber of Dr. Faustus,’’’ in Midnight Marquee (Baltimore), no. 38, Spring 1989. Peyras, P., ‘‘Si tes yeux t’offensent, arrache-less!’’ in Focales, no. 1, 1992. Peyras, P., ‘‘Que cache le cadre de Bazin?’’ in Focales, no. 2, 1993. Brownlie, T., ‘‘Eyes Without a Face (Les yeux sans visage),’’ in Film (London), vol. 4, no. 3, 1995. Sinclair, Iain, ‘‘Homeopathic Horror,’’ in Sight & Sound (London), vol. 5, no. 4, April 1995. YOJIMBOFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1347 Télérama (Paris), no. 2371, 21 June 1995. Brown, G., ‘‘The Looking Glass,’’ in Village Voice (New York), vol. 40, 21 November 1995. ‘‘Franju Classic Gets New Facelift,’’ in Video Watchdog (Cincin- nati), no. 31, 1996. *** ‘‘When I shot Les Yeux sans visage,’’ Georges Franju recalled, ‘‘I was told: ‘No sacrilege because of the Spanish market, no nudes because of the Italian market, no blood because of the French market and no martyrised animals because of the English market.’ And I was supposed to be making a horror film!’’ Coming to the horror genre after co-founding the Cinémathèque Fran?aise, a varied career as a documentarist (Le Sang des bêtes, Le Grand Méliès), and the production of a single feature (La Tête contre les murs), Franju was bringing an unusually high-toned sensibility to a field at that time being revitalized by the new blood poured into old myths by Hammer Films in Britain and Roger Corman in the United States. However, for all his poetic approach, Les Yeux san visage is a triumphantly disreputable movie, closely allied to the Sadeian strain exemplified in Britain by Circus of Horrors (with which it shares a fascination with disfigurement and plastic surgery) and the misanthropic gimmickry of William Castle, whose The Tingler and The House on Haunted Hill are still undervalued for their lunatic originality. The storyline is deliberately rooted in the pulp tradition: a mad scientist, Dr. Génessier, kidnaps runaway girls for use in his diaboli- cal experiments. Guilt-ridden because he is responsible for the disfigurement of his daughter Christiane, Génessier peels the faces of his victims and tries to graft their beautiful faces onto the girl’s ruined features. And Franju is not above the usual flaws of the genre: he is very obviously not interested in the scenes of police investigation required to keep the plot moving, and he hurries through the mundane side of the story to get back to the bizarre ménage of the Génessier household, where Christiane prowls the dark corridors in a long raincoat and an eerily blank mask, her active eyes the only sign of life. Pierre Brasseur’s smug scientist is a memorable monster, more plumply self-satisfied than Bela Lugosi or Boris Karloff, mistreating the vicious dogs who finally tear him to pieces, or presiding imperi- ously over surgical flayings which are depicted with all the dispas- sionate bloodiness of an unflinching documentary. But the most radical departure from the generic norm is the role assigned to Alida Valli—perhaps a development of the Simone Signoret character in Les Diaboliques, also written by the Boileau-Narcejac team—who plays the scientist’s devoted assistant. No hunchbacked Igor figure, Louise is an ambiguously sexual predator who prowls the streets of Paris in a 2CV—the car’s appearance given a sinister significance by Maurice Jarre’s impertinent waltz—searching for the young girls her master needs for his doomed attempts at redemption. Les Yeux is a cruel but tender film, with Edith Scob’s extraordinar- ily delicate performance as Christiane constantly reminding us that Génessier, however deranged, is sincerely acting out of love. The gothic trappings of the mystery-plotted first half, during which Génessier’s house is lent an almost Cocteau-like life of its own by Eugen Schüfftan’s outstanding photography, give way to a surgical cool as we follow the apparent success and ultimate disintegration of Christiane’s latest facial graft. Here, the poignancy of the inevitable regression to monstrosity is as powerfully expressed as it is in such related science-fictional narratives as Frankenstein, The Island of Lost Souls, and Charly. Les Yeux was to remain Franju’s best film, the one instance of harmony found between pulp poetry and art cinema. Although derivative of many earlier horrors, in particular Riccardo Freda’s I vampiri, it even crystallized a certain sub-genre that became the province of maverick European horror filmmakers, as can be seen by the echoes in Jesus Franco’s Gritos en la noche and Robert Hartford-Davis’s Corruption. Franju takes a scalpel to genre cinema, piercing the conventionality of too many horror movies, and produces a personal, evocative nightmare fully worthy of comparison with its equally disturbing, equally Sadeian contemporary, Michael Powell’s Peeping Tom. —Kim Newman YOJIMBO Japan, 1961 Director: Akira Kurosawa Production: Toho, in association with Kurosawa Films; black and white, Tohoscope; running time: 110 minutes. Executive producers: Tomoyuki Tanaka, Ryuzo Kikushima; screen- play: Ryuzo Kikushima, Akira Kurosawa; photography: Kazuo Miyagawa; art director: Yoshiro Mikami; lighting: Choshiro Ishii; music: Masaru Sato; sound: Hisashi Shimonaga. Cast: Toshiro Mifune (Sanjuro Kuwabatake); Eijiro Tono (Gonji); Seizaburo Kawazu (Seibei); Isuzu Yamada (Orin); Hiroshi Tachikawa (Yoichiro); Susumu Fukita (Honma); Kyu Sazanka (Ushitora); Daisuke Kato (Inokichi); Tatsuya Nakadai (Unosuke); Kamatari Fujiwara (Tazaemon); Takashi Shimura (Tokuemon); Atushi Watanabe (Coffin maker). Publications: Books: Kael, Pauline, I Lost it at the Movies, New York, 1965. Richie, Donald, The Films of Akira Kurosawa, Berkeley, 1970. Richie, Donald, Japanese Cinema, New York, 1971, 1996. Burch, N., To the Distant Observer: Form and Meaning in the Japanese Cinema, 1979. Desser, D., The Samourai Films of Akira Kurosawa, 1983. Buehrer, Beverly Bare, Japanese Films, London 1990. Chang, Kevin K.W., editor, Kurosawa: Perceptions on Life: An Anthology of Essays, Honolulu, 1991. Prince, Stephen, The Warrior’s Camera: The Cinema of Akira Kurosawa, Princeton, 1991; revised and expanded edition, 1999. Goodwin, James, Akira Kurosawa and Intertextual Cinema, Balti- more, 1994. YOJIMBO FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1348 Yojimbo Goodwin, James, editor, Perspectives on Akira Kurosawa, New York, 1994. Yoshimoto, Mitsuhiro, Kurosawa: Film Studies and Japanese Cin- ema, Durham, 2000. Articles: Variety (New York), 30 August 1961. Gillett, J., Monthly Film Bulletin (London), July 1970. Gow, G., Films and Filming (London), August 1970. McDonald, Keiko I., ‘‘Swordsmanship and Gamesmanship: Kurosawa’s historical milieu in Yojimbo,” in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), no. 3, 1980. Peary, Gerald, in American Film, vol. 14, no. 6, April 1989. Tesson, C., ‘‘L’homme enrage,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), no. 440, February 1991. Carty, Brad, in Wilson Library Bulletin, vol. 67, no. 4, Decem- ber 1992. Felperin, Leslie, ‘‘John Sayles Walking Alone,’’ in Sight & Sound (London), vol. 6, no. 9, September 1996. Charity, Tom, ‘‘Hill’s Angel,’’ in Time Out (London), no. 1362, 24 September 1996. Boxoffice (Chicago), vol. 132, September 1996. Filipski, Kevin, ‘‘Return of the Samurai: Two Akira Kurosawa Originals,’’ in The New York Times, AR30, 24 October 1999. *** Yojimbo is possibly Akira Kurosawa’s best-known film in the West, a samurai sword-fighting movie that, though entirely Japanese, still resonates nicely for Americans used to their own period gun- fighting film genre, the western, the ‘‘grammar’’ of which Kurosawa learned from John Ford, just as Sergio Leone and Clint Eastwood in turn learned from Yojimbo. As is typical of much of Kurosawa’s canon, Yojimbo involves ironies and tensions in its use of its genre, a mark of this great filmmaker’s innovative approach to conventional materials. Here, the central figure of the samurai, involved with the town and yet distant from it, becomes a metaphor for anyone torn between active opposition to evil and the far safer course of staying on the sidelines. YOUNG MR. LINCOLNFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1349 According to Donald Ritchie in The Films of Akira Kurosawa (1970), Kurosawa consciously set out to deal with the problem of choice when ‘‘both sides are equally bad.’’ Toshiro Mifune plays Sanjuro Kawabatake, a ronin, a masterless samurai who happens on a dreary small town evenly divided between a silk merchant and a sake merchant, Tazaemon and Tokuemon. As their echoing names suggest, there is little from which to choose between these two worthies, the feud having reached the point at which hope for sensible compromise has been overwhelmed by mindless hatred. It is 1860, and in his wanderings as an unattached ronin Sanjuro has seen this pattern repeated all too often as the old social order of the Tokugawa Shogunate has broken down and the feuding upstarts of the merchant class have taken over. He plays the two sides against each other, first hiring out as yojimbo or bodyguard to the silk merchant, then switching sides when the sake merchant’s younger brother Urosuke appears with the only firearm in the district, a revolver. However, Sanjuro’s bedrock sympathy is for the few beleaguered innocent citizens caught up in the chaos of conflict. Gonji (Eijiro Tono), a humble saki seller with whom Sanjuro stays, reflects the basic decency and outrage of the city’s ordinary citizenry, who have helplessly watched their town being taken over by ruffians and their neighbours greedily seeking to profit from it (like the busy coffin maker next door), but who bravely dare to further Sanjuro’s efforts. Sanjuro, competent, sure, cynical and worldwise, is set against Unosuke, a ruthless, cruel, and ambitious sadist who places his trust in a weapon from the West, a technological trump card; ultimately Sanjuro brings him down with a humble villager’s knife. Sanjuro’s involvement with one side and the other is both whimsi- cal and practical: it is a way of passing time while amusing himself and earning a bowl of rice. Throughout, there is a comic counterpoint between Mifune’s patented samurai swagger and the small humaniz- ing touches he brings to the role: his shrugs, scratches, chin-rubs, and grunts, his chewed-on toothpick. For the two camps in the village, only total victory will serve; for Sanjuro, victory is surviving another day and moving on in his journey. He cleverly manipulates the hatreds and hopes of both sides but is almost undone by a simple act of human kindness. After he slaughters the jailers of a poor farmer’s enslaved wife, who was abducted by the sake dealer’s party, Sanjuro threatens to kill his protégés if they are too grateful (‘‘Shut up—I hate grateful people’’), and, ironically, their intercepted letter of thanks brings Sanjuro an horrific beating. Ultimately, however, he over- comes near impossible adversity and odds to kill all the combatants; arms and innards fly when with masterful swordsmanship Sanjuro demonstrates the difference between skilled samurai and hired thug. At the end, like Shane, Yojimbo leaves the town to its own devices, peaceful but decimated, its silk burned, its sake spilled: ‘‘Now it will be quiet in this town.’’ Several elements raise this story above its tawdry characters and plot into a profound commentary on human passion, greed, and folly. Mifune’s Sanjuro is a brilliant character, a supremely confident samurai übermensch who figuratively and literally looks down on the grovelling and bickering villagers. He is above them morally because, in ways that encompass both Zen and existential thought, he under- stands the meaninglessness of material gain and the total folly of their grasping for temporal advantage. Two early scenes establish the vanity of human wishes and Sanjuro’s submission to the unseen forces that rule us: in one, a dog trots happily down the village street, a human hand in his mouth; in another, Sanjuro chooses his direction by throwing a stick in the air at a crossroads. In a dog-eat-man world, only fools squabble over who owns the gutters. Also, Yojimbo is a model of efficient cinematic storytelling. The filmic exposition captures visually the claustrophobic closeness of village life and the local reign of terror as Sanjuro eats rice and observes the plotting of the sake lord out of one window and that of the silk lord out of another. Later, the camera-eye is that of the battered Sanjuro, inside a coffin, watching with approval the blood- letting his shifting allegiance has precipitated. Miyagawa’s telephoto lenses visually compact and intensify the sword-fighting scenes: the disorganized bloodlust of cowardly bullies versus the cool efficiency of the samurai. Symmetrical framing, shots at right angles, carefully orchestrated ballet-like action, and inspired synchronizing of music and movement make for an artistically stylized whole, not quite Kabuki, but mythic in resonance. As Ritchie points out, the combina- tion of a ‘‘cheerfully anarchistic philosophy . . . presented with a stylistic unity’’ results in a satisfying whole. Ultimately, Yojimbo glorifies the individual who is willing to take on organized monopolies. Its black humour, bleak realism, and brutal violence are offset by the image of a lone individual, competent, aloof, who sympathizes with the ordinary townsfolk, restores order and rights wrong at heavy cost, and then moves on. —Andrew and Gina Macdonald YOU ONLY LOVE ONCE See SAMO JEDNOM SE LJUBI THE YOUNG AND THE DAMNED See LOS OLVIDADOS THE YOUNG AND THE PASSIONATE See I VITELLONI YOUNG MR. LINCOLN USA, 1939 Director: John Ford Production: Twentieth Century-Fox; black and white, 35mm; run- ning time: 100 minutes. Released 1939. Filmed in Fox studios. Producers: Darryl F. Zanuck with Kenneth MacGowan; screenplay: Lamar Trotti; photography: Arthur Miller; editor: Walter Thomp- son; sound: Eugene Grossman and Roger Heman; art directors: Richard Day and Mark-Lee Kirk; music: Alfred Newman; costume designer: Royer. Cast: Henry Fonda (Abraham Lincoln); Alice Brady (Abagail Clay); Marjorie Weaver (Mary Todd); Arleen Whelan (Hannah Clay); Eddie Collins (Efe); Pauline Moore (Ann Rutledge); Richard Cromwell (Matt Clay); Donald Meek (John Felder); Judith Dickens (Carrie YOUNG MR. LINCOLN FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1350 Young Mr. Lincoln Sue); Eddie Quillan (Adam Clay); Spencer Charters (Judge Herbert A. Bell); Ward Bond (Palmer Cass); Milburn Stone (Stephen A. Douglas); Cliff Clark (Sheriff Billings); Steven Randall (Juror); Charles Tanner (Ninian Edwards); Francis Ford (Frank Ford); Fred Kohler Jr. (Scrub White); Kay Linaker (Mrs. Edwards); Russell Simpson (Woolridge); Clarence Hummel Wilson (Dr. Mason); Edwin Maxwell (John T. Stuart); Robert Homans (Mr. Clay); Charles Halton (Hawthorne); Jack Kelly (Matt Clay, as a boy); Dickie Jones (Adam Clay, as a boy); Harry Tyler (Barber). Publications Books: Wooten, W. P., An Index to the Films of John Ford, London, 1948. Mitry, Jean, John Ford, Paris, 1954. Haudiquet, Philippe, John Ford, Paris, 1966. Bogdanovich, Peter, John Ford, Berkeley, 1968; revised edition, 1978. Springer, John, The Fondas: The Films and Careers of Henry, Jane, and Peter Fonda, New York, 1970. Baxter, John, The Cinema of John Ford, New York, 1971. McBride, Joseph, and Michael Wilmington, John Ford, London, 1975. Sarris, Andrew, The John Ford Movie Mystery, London, 1976. Ford, Dan, Pappy: The Life of John Ford, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1979. Sinclair, Andrew, John Ford, New York, 1979. Fonda, Henry, and Howard Teichmann, Fonda: My Life, New York, 1981. Anderson, Lindsay, About John Ford, London, 1981. Caughie, John, editor, Theories of Authorship: A Reader, Lon- don, 1981. Schatz, Thomas, Hollywood Genres: Formulas, Filmmaking, and the Studio System, New York, 1981. Eisenstein, Sergei, Film Essay and a Lecture, edited by Jay Leyda, Princeton, 1982. Goldstein, Norm, Henry Fonda: His Life and Work, London, 1982. Thomas, Tony, The Films of Henry Fonda, Secaucus, New Jer- sey, 1983. Cole, Gerald, and Wes Farrell, The Fondas, London, 1984. Roberts, Allen, and Max Goldstein, Henry Fonda: A Biography, Jefferson, North Carolina, 1984. YOUNG MR. LINCOLNFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1351 Reed, Joseph W., Three American Originals: John Ford, William Faulkner, Charles Ives, Middletown, Connecticut, 1984. Norman, Barry, The Film Greats, London, 1985. Gallagher, Tag, John Ford: The Man and His Films, Berkeley, 1986. Stowell, Peter, John Ford, Boston, 1986. Buscombe, Ed, editor, BFI Companion to the Western, London, 1988. Lourdeaux, Lee, Italian and Irish Filmmakers in America: Ford, Capra, Coppola and Scorsese, Springfield, 1990; 1993. Sweeney, Kevin, Henry Fonda: A Bio-Bibliography, New York, 1992. Davis, Ronald L., John Ford: Hollywood’s Old Master, Norman, 1997. Girus, Sam B., Hollywood Renaissance: The Cinema of Democracy in the Era of Ford, Capra, and Kazan, New York, 1998. Levy, Bill, John Ford: A Bio-Bibliography, Westport, 1998. Eyman, Scott, Print the Legend: The Life and Times of John Ford, New York, 1999. Articles: Herzberg, Max J., ‘‘A Guide to the Study of the Historical Photoplay Young Mr. Lincoln,’’ in Photoplay Studies (New York), no. 9, 1939. New York Times, 31 May 1939. Variety (New York), 7 June 1939. New Yorker, 10 June 1939. Greene, Graham, in Spectator (London), 22 September 1939. Johnson, Albert, ‘‘The 10th Muse in San Francisco,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1955. Hill, Derek, ‘‘Press Conference,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1957. Smith, Maynard T., ‘‘Lamar Trotti,’’ in Films in Review (New York), August-September 1958. Springer, John, ‘‘Henry Fonda,’’ in Films in Review (New York), November 1960. McVay, Douglas, ‘‘The Five Worlds of John Ford,’’ in Films and Filming (London), June 1962. McBride, Joseph, and Michael Wilmington, in Film Heritage (Day- ton, Ohio), Summer 1971. ‘‘Ford Special Issue’’ of Velvet Light Trap (Madison, Wisconsin), August 1971. ‘‘Ford’s Stock Company Issue’’ of Filmkritik (Munich), January 1972. Gieure, R., ‘‘Une ‘Reprise’ ciné-club: Young Mr. Lincoln de John Ford,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), March 1972. ‘‘John Ford’s Young Mr. Lincoln: A Collective Text by the Editors of Cahiers du Cinéma,’’ in Screen (London), Autumn 1972. Wollen, Peter, ‘‘Afterword,’’ in Screen (London), Autumn 1972. Mairal, J. C., ‘‘Notes sur deux films Hollywoodiens,’’ in Image et Son (Paris), no. 269, 1973. Mate, Ken, ‘‘How Green Was Your Valley Then, John Ford,’’ in Velvet Light Trap (Madison, Wisconsin), vol. 8, 1973. Brewster, Ben, ‘‘Notes on the Text: ‘John Ford’s Young Mr. Lincoln by the Editors of Cahiers du Cinéma,’’’ in Screen (London), Autumn 1973. Henderson, Brian, ‘‘Critique of Cine-Structuralism,’’ in Film Quar- terly (Berkeley), Winter 1973–74. ‘‘Young Mr. Lincoln Issue’’ of Filmkritik (Munich), February 1974. Abel, R., ‘‘Paradigmatic Structures in Young Mr. Lincoln,’’ in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), no. 4, 1978. Place, J. A., in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), no. 4, 1978. Abramson, R., and R. Thompson, ‘‘Young Mr. Lincoln Reconsidered: An Essay on the Theory and Practice of Film Criticism,’’ in Ciné- Tracts (Montreal), Fall 1978. ‘‘Young Mr. Lincoln de John Ford,’’ in Skrien (Amsterdam), Winter 1978–79. Browne, Nick, ‘‘The Spectator of American Symbolic Forms: Re- Reading John Ford’s Young Mr. Lincoln,’’ in Film Reader (Evans- ton, Illinois), no. 4, 1979. Place, Janey, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema, 4, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Kinder, Marsha, ‘‘The Image of Patriarchal Power in Young Mr. Lincoln and Ivan the Terrible Part 1,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berke- ley), Winter 1985–86. Oms, Marcel, ‘‘Lincoln et Guillaume Tell sur l’autel de la patrie,’’ in Cahiers de la Cinémathèque (Perpignan), no. 45, 1986. Goodman, Walter, in The New York Times, vol. 138, H32, 18 September 1988. Andrew, D., ‘‘Revolution and the Ordinary: Renoir’s La Marseillaise,’’ in Yale Journal of Critcism, vol. 4, no. 1, 1990. Carty, Brad, in Wilson Library Bulletin, vol. 64, no. 9, May 1990. Darby, W., ‘‘Musical Links to Young Mr. Lincoln, My Darling Clementine, and The Man Who Shot Liberty Valence,’’ in Cinema Journal (Austin), vol. 31, no. 1, Fall 1991. Rother, R., ‘‘Sentiment und Kalkuel—John Ford,’’ in Filmwaerts (Hannover), Summer 1991. *** Young Mr. Lincoln was one of three John Ford films, all among his finest, to be released in 1939. Each was noteworthy for a number of reasons, and each introduced to the director’s work a particular aspect that would become identified with the thematic concerns of the rest of his career. Stagecoach, for example, was his first film with John Wayne and his first use of Arizona’s spectacular Monument Valley as a locale. Both would become Ford institutions in succeeding years. Drums Along the Mohawk, the earliest of his histories, in terms of its internal chronology, also marked the beginning of an examination of the American past that would occupy much of the rest of his life. Young Mr. Lincoln was Ford’s first film with Henry Fonda, another actor with a very definite function within the director’s films. Through careful crafting of Fonda’s character and the script, Ford created for the actor a persona that embodied the traditional qualities of American idealism and a liberal attitude toward the development of the absolutes of civilization. Though this persona was continued in other Ford-Fonda collaborations until 1948 when the actor returned to the New York stage, it was initially employed to elevate the story of Lincoln’s early years to the level of a national myth, a myth consistent with the director’s own philosophy. In Drums Across the Mohawk, the Fonda persona’s aspirations toward civilization are inherent in his yearning for land and a home. When he loses his home, much of his personal stability and self- reliance vanishes with it, and the structure of his family life hovers near fragmentation. In Young Mr. Lincoln, however, the idea of civilization is represented by the broadest concept of the law—one that is indicated by Lincoln’s statement in the trial scene. His profession that ‘‘I may not know much about the law, but I know what is right!’’ has less to do with a court of justice than it does with Ford’s idea of a higher law. The future president is presented by the film as a proponent of God’s law, which Ford relates through a number of scenes, as being intertwined with concepts of family, the future and nature itself. One scene, in which Lincoln is sitting by a river studying Blackstone’s Commentaries and is interrupted by Ann Rutledge who wants to talk about the future, ties all of these ideas together as does YOUNG MR. LINCOLN FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1352 his monologue at her grave when he invokes her memory (as well as that of his deceased mother) to aid in his decision to become a lawyer. The entire trial sequence, in fact, casts Lincoln in the role of a defender of the American family, attempting to keep it intact. The use of the poem, ‘‘Nancy Hanks,’’ at the beginning of the film establishes for the viewer a consciousness of the historical Lincoln while, at the same time, serving notice that the function of art is not simply a retelling of history but a rewriting as well. Therefore, the story that follows utilizes the audience’s already mythical assump- tions concerning the historical personage as one element in Ford’s creation of the new myth. The character is removed from its historical context, its useful qualities extracted and merged with those of the carefully constructed Fonda persona to be employed for Ford’s own purposes. So striking was the merger of the Fonda and Lincoln qualities that, for many years, the film was heralded solely for the youthful exuberance of Fonda’s performance. Now, however, the film is appreciated for its classic craftsmanship and as an exposition of the mythmaking process in America. —Stephen L. Hanson YUNOST MAXIMA See THE MAXIM TRILOGY 1353 Z Z France-Algeria, 1968 Director: Constantin Costa-Gavras Production: Reggane Films (Algeria) and O.N.C.I.C. (France); EastmanColor (print by Technicolor), 35mm; running time: 123 minutes, American version: 127 minutes, Canadian version: 152 minutes, West German version: 145 minutes; length: 3472 meters. Released February 1969, Paris. Filmed in Algiers. Producers: Jacques Perrin and Hamed Rachedi with Eric Schlumberger and Philippe d’Argila; screenplay: Constantin Costa-Gavras and Jorge Semprun, from the novel by Vassilis Vassilikos; photography: Raoul Coutard; editor: Fran?ois Bonnot; sound: Michèle Boehm; art director: Jacques d’Ovidio; music: Mikis Theodorakis. Cast: Yves Montand (The Deputy Z); Jean-Louis Trintignant (The Magistrate); Jacques Perrin (The Journalist); Fran?ois Pértier (The Public Prosecutor); Irene Papas (Hélène); Georges Géret (Nick); Charles Denner (Manuel); Bernard Fresson (Matt); Jean Bouise (Pirou); Jean-Pierre Miquel (Pierre); Renato Salvatori (Yago); Mar- cel Bozzufi (Vago); Julien Guiomar (Colonel); Pierre Dux (General); Guy Mairess (Dumas); Magail No?l (Nick’s sister); Clotilde Joano (Shoula); Maurice Baquet (Bald man); Jean Dasté (Coste); Gérard Darrieu (Baron); José Artur (Newspaper editor); Van Doude (Hospi- tal director); Eva Simonet (Niki); Hassan Hassani (General’s chauf- feur); Gabriel Jabbour (Bozzini); Jean-Fran?ois Gobbi (Jimmy the boxer); Andrée Tainsy (Nick’s other); Steve Gadler (English photog- rapher); Bob de Bragelonne (Undersecretary of State). Awards: Cannes Film Festival, Best Actor (Trintignant), 1969; Oscars for Best Foreign Film and Film Editing, 1969; New York Film Critics Awards, Best Motion Picture and Best Direction, 1969. Publications Script: Costa-Gavras, Constantin, and Jorge Semprun, Z; ou, L’Anatomie d’un assassinal politique, in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), October 1969. Book: Michalczyk, John, Costa-Gavras: The Political Fiction Film, Phila- delphia, 1984. Articles: Kostolefsky, Joseph, in Take One (Montreal), March-April 1969. Georgakas, Dan, and Gary Crowdus, ‘‘Costa-Gavras Talks,’’ in Take One (Montreal), July-August 1969. Esnault, Philippe, ‘‘Cinéma et politique,’’ in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), October 1969. Georgakas, Dan, and Gary Crowdus, ‘‘Costa-Gavras Talks about Z,’’ in Cineaste (New York), Winter 1969–70. Loewinger, Lawrence, in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1969–70. Georgakas, Dan, in Film Society Review (New York), Decem- ber 1969. Gow, Gordon, in Films and Filming (London), December 1969. Sarris, Andrew, in Village Voice (New York), 11 December 1969. Kael, Pauline, in New Yorker, 13 December 1969. Derain, Aline, in Films in Review (New York), January 1970. Costa-Gavras, Constantin, ‘‘Pointing Out the Problems,’’ in Films and Filming (London), June 1970. Haskell, Molly, ‘‘Jean-Louis Trintignant,’’ in Show (Los Angeles), 20 August 1970. ‘‘An Interview with Costa-Gavras and Jorge Semprun,’’ in Film Society Review (New York), January 1971. Mellen, Joan, ‘‘Fascism in the Contemporary Cinema,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Summer 1971. Hennebelle, G., ‘‘Z Movies; or, What Hath Costa-Gavras Wrought,’’ in Cineaste (New York), no. 2, 1974. Marty, A., ‘‘In contresens idéologique sur l’oeuvre de Costa-Gavras,’’ in Image et Son (Paris), December 1977. Camy, G., ‘‘Costa-Gavras: Un certain cinéma politique,’’ in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), November 1983. Johnston, Sheila, ‘‘Costa-Gavras,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1984. Poulle, F., ‘‘Le cinéma politique de grande audience, autopsie d’un prototype: Z,’’ in Cinemaction (Conde-sur-Noireau), no. 35, Novem- ber 1985. Serceau, Daniel, ‘‘La trilogie,’’ in Cinemaction (Conde-sur-Noireau), no. 35, November 1985. Dreifus, Claudia, ‘‘Constantin Costa-Gavras: Politics at the Box Office,’’ in The Progressive, vol. 52, no. 9, September 1988. Castiel, E., in Séquences (Haute-Ville), no. 189/190, March/June 1997. *** On 22 May 1963, after speaking at an anti-nuclear rally in Salonika, the charismatic Greek deputy Grigoris Lambrakis was clubbed to death in the street. The conservative government described the event as ‘‘an unfortunate traffic accident,’’ but following protests from the opposition leader, George Papandreou, a young examining magistrate was appointed to investigate the incident. Contrary to Z FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1354 Z government expectations the magistrate refused to be manipulated and the intended cover-up became an embarrassing revelation: Lambrakis had been murdered by an extreme right-wing organization sanctioned by the authorities. Key witnesses began to disappear, and the deepening scandal eventually brought down the Karamanlis government. The Centre Left under George Papandreou came to office, but the king discharged his government, and on 21 April 1967 the military seized power. The examining magistrate was relieved of his responsibilities and strict censorship imposed. These chilling facts form the basis for Costa-Gavras’s gripping political thriller Z. His narrative came not directly from the investiga- tion, but from the novel by Vassilis Vassilikos, a Lambrakis follower, who had been given access to the evidence during the brief period of Centre Left rule. Published in 1966, the novel ends with the trial of the conspirators, but Costa-Gavras, benefiting from historical hindsight, extends his version to include the military coup. For his adaptation, Costa-Gavras sought the collaboration of Jorge Semprun who had previously worked with Resnais on La guerre est finie. The flashbacks providing background to the protagonists or exposing government manipulation, are characteristic of Semprun’s organizing strategies. To produce a taut, fast-moving film narrative, the filmmaker discarded the novel’s philosophical and reflective passages and reduced the range of characters, so that the journalist/ photographer, for example, is a composite of several reporters. The dialogue has also been pared down, though some contemporary allusions to the May 1968 events in Paris have been added. Casting posed few problems since left-wing activists like Yves Montand were more than keen to participate. His engaging perform- ance as Z is matched by that of Irene Papas as his tearful Hélène; Jean- Louis Trintignant lends a steely authority to the magistrate’s role. Financing the production, however, proved difficult: United Artists, for one, fearing retaliation, declined to back the project. Eventually the Algerian authorities, eager to add stature to their embryonic film industry, provided both finance and locations. Although the film contains no explicit topographical references, visual clues such as barely disguised portraits of the Greek royal family, the insignia of Olympian airways, and the Fix brand of beer indicate Greece as the setting, while the distinctive music of Mikis Theodorakis seals this identification. A challenging screen statement invites the viewer to associate the film’s action with contemporary events: ‘‘Any similarity to actual events or persons living or dead is not coincidental. It is intentional.’’ ZANGIKU MONOGATARIFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1355 With the subtitle ‘‘Anatomy of a Political Assassination,’’ the film exploits the investigative thriller format with more than a hint of melodrama. The characters, starkly differentiated, border on carica- tures. The fascist elements have few physical or moral virtues: they are fat, ugly, or bald, and count pederasts amongst their numbers. Members of the humanitarian left, epitomized in Yves Montand, are attractive, warm-hearted, sensitive, and dignified to the point that Lawrence Loewinger termed them ‘‘cardboard saints.’’ Political arguments are equally simplified and the foregrounding of dramatic situations leaves little room for objectivity. If derisive music accom- panies the grotesque comic-opera officials as they parade before the magistrate, for the idolized Z the theme is resonant and emotionally charged, while tragic tones prepare the arrival of his widow Hélène. Camerawork, too, points up the message with telescopic close-ups for the long-awaited arrival of the deputy’s plane, while blurred subjec- tive shots after the clubbing reinforce the emotional participation. Similarly close-ups, alternating with all-embracing longshots, draw the viewer into the physical violence of the mob behaviour, and satirically emphatic zoom shots pick out the medal-bedecked chests of the corrupt generals. Such rhetorical devices effectively preclude a reflective approach: the persuasive presentation carries the viewer forward eager to unravel the web of deceit and obfuscation. Central to the film’s narrative strategy is the editing process. Each witness will give a subjective account of events, set against a narrative flashback, to provide a further piece in the jigsaw. As false witnesses parrot their prepared statements, betraying themselves by the too- often repeated phrase ‘‘supple and ferocious like a tiger,’’ there is a revealing disjuncture between speaker and image. Again, parallel editing juxtaposes the sentiments of the peace rally with the mob violence outside. Finally, repeated flashbacks of the murdered deputy create a sense of his immanence, thus providing a visual metaphor for the meaning of the Greek word ‘‘Z’’: ‘‘he still lives.’’ —R. F. Cousins ZANGIKU MONOGATARI (Story of the Late Chrysanthemums) Japan, 1939 Director: Kenji Mizoguchi Production: Shochiku; black and white, 35mm; running time: 143 minutes. Producer: Nobutaro Shirai; screenplay: Yoshikata Yoda and Matsutaro Kawaguchi, from the original theatrical adaptation by Sanichi Iwaya of an original story by Shofu Muramatsu; photogra- phy: Shigeto Miki and Yozo Fuji; editor: Koshi Kawahigashi; art director: Hiroshi Mizutani; music: Senji Ito and Shiro Fukai; chore- ography: Otowa; costumes: Seizo Yamaguchi and Yoshizaburo Okumura; sound: Ryuichi Shikita and Fumizo Sugimoto. Cast: Shotaro Hanayagi (Kikonosuke Onoe); Kakuko Mori (Otoku); Kokichi Takada (Fukusuke Nakamura); Gonjuro Kawararaki (Kikugoro Zangiku monogatari Onoe V); Yoko Umemura (Osato); Tokusaburo Arashi (Shikan Nakamura); Kinnosuke Takamatsu (Matsusuke Onoe); Benkei Shiganoya (Genshun Motosuke); Ryotaro Kawanami (Dayu Eijyu). Publications Books: Mesnil, Michel, Mizoguchi Kenji, Paris, 1965. Serceau, Daniel, Mizoguchi: De la revolte aux songes, Paris, 1983. McDonald, Keiko, Mizoguchi, Boston, 1984. Kirihara, Donald, Patterns of Time: Mizoguchi and the 1930s, Madi- son, Wisconsin, 1992. O’Grady, Gerald, editor, Mizoguchi the Master, Ontario, 1996. Tomasi, Dario, Kenji Mizoguchi, Milan, 1998. Articles: Pym, J., Monthly Film Bulletin (London), April 1981. Mellen, Joan, ‘‘Japanese Film’s ‘Truest Creator,’’’ in The New York Times, vol. 130, section 2, D23, 17 May 1981. Tessier, M., ‘‘Contes des chrysanthemes,’’ in Image et Son (Paris), June 1981. Cuel, F., Cinematographe (Paris), July 1981. Bergala, A., ‘‘Japon, tour, decor,’’ in Cahiers du Cinema (Paris), September 1981. Carbonnier, A., Cinema (Paris), September 1981. ZASEDA FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1356 Legrand, G., ‘‘Lumiere, rituel, l’amour,’’ in Positif (Paris), Febru- ary 1982. Bullot, E., ‘‘La gifle et le sanglot,’’ in Vertigo (Paris), no. 14, 1996. Burdeau, Emmanuel, and others, ‘‘Mizoguchi Encore,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), no. 504, July-August 1996. Lopate, Philip, ‘‘A Master Who Could Create Poems for the Eye,’’ in The New York Times, 15 September 1996. *** Although Zangiku monogatari is one of the greatest achievements of its director Mizoguchi Kenji (to follow the Japanese custom of placing family name first) non-Japanese audiences, and even many contemporary Japanese, may be puzzled and alienated by its very title, let alone by its theme of the triumph of family duty over personal love and its loving recreations of a vanished period in Japanese history and a decreasingly popular traditional art form. (The film is rendered even less accessible by the fact that many prints of it are defective or incomplete.) Yet making the intellectual and emotional effort to understand and enjoy it is rewarding, for what seems at first to be a stiff and formal drama is really a subtle and unforgettable exercise in subverting traditional values. Zangiku may be variously translated as ‘‘late/last/remaining chrysan- themum(s)’’; monogatari means ‘‘tale’’ or ‘‘story.’’ Onoe Kikunosuke, whose personal name contains the word for ‘‘chrysanthemum’’ and whose family mon (badge) is that flower, is the adopted son of a Kabuki star. He is first seen on stage—in Tokyo in 1885—giving what aficionados would see was a bad performance; he prefers not to study his parts, until the maid Otoku tells him to. She is fired by his mother, but Kiku announces his wish to marry her and leaves home when his father, who now has a natural son to succeed him anyway, refuses to permit their union. The lovers reunite in Osaka, where Kiku has joined a relative’s theatre company. They then travel with yet another group until 1890, when it falls apart and Otoku visits Nagoya to plead with Kiku’s father, who is performing there. Kiku is invited back into the family but Otoku agrees to stay away (without his knowledge). Many years later, when the family theatre group is performing in Osaka, Kiku is permitted to visit Otoku there, finding her on her deathbed. The film closes with her death and his appear- ance in a parade on the Yodo river, scenes which are intercut to maximise the contrast between her failure and isolation and his success and acceptance. Summarised in this way Zangiku monogatari may seem to be a fairly routine melodrama, in which issues are raised in order to be neatly resolved. Perhaps the stage play from which it was derived fitted such a description. If so, Mizoguchi transforms it, using all the cinematic resources at his disposal in the endeavour to bring the story to life, to make Kiku, Otoku, and the others plausible as human beings rather than symbols or puppets—and to insert his own characteristi- cally understated but powerful sense of the fragility and ambiguity of human feelings into the narrative. The principal technical means that Mizoguchi uses to intensify the varying moods of the film is to shoot the ‘‘real’’ scenes and the three Kabuki excerpts in contrasting ways. The former are shot in long takes, with speakers’ faces often in shadow or turned away while the camera pans and tracks to show different perspectives and the presence of third parties, as when Kiku’s father remains in the room (offscreen) as a silent but intimidating witness to a discussion of Otoku between Kiku and his mother. The latter are presented in short takes that concentrate on Kiku to the exclusion of other actors and also disregard the convention of filming stage action as if from a realistic audience perspective. The cumulative effect of this contrast is to emphasise the artificiality of the stage performance, its distance from the confusions and complications of real life, and therefore to heighten the illusion that we are overhearing conversations among real people, about real concerns, in the offstage scenes. These real concerns, as in several other films directed by Mizoguchi, include the question of the position of women in society. Although Zangiku monogatari is unusual among his films for having a male central character, its dramatic and moral weight is actually placed upon the fate of Otoku. In doing so Mizoguchi indicates a respect for the audience’s ability to work things out for themselves, implicit in the distinctive camera technique described above. Unlike conven- tional melodramas, Zangiku monogatari never forces a single ethical message on its viewers. Because it seemed to endorse the subordina- tion of women proclaimed by the official ideology of the Japanese government of the day, the film received a prize from the Ministry of Education in 1940. Yet the film also contains, in Otoku’s character, a portrait of a strong and independent woman making her own choices; in Kiku’s, a depiction of good intentions stifled and diverted by family pressure; and, in their respective fates, an implicit protest against the distorting effects of systematic subordination on women and men alike. Aside from its story, its initially unfamiliar but eventually impres- sive visual style, and its ambiguous and thought-provoking moral concerns, Zangiku monogatari offers other pleasures, which grow with each year that passes since its initial release, and with Japan’s steady development away from the society that it represents and now commemorates. Otoku and Kiku’s first long conversation is punctu- ated by the traditional cries of street vendors, few of whom remain in contemporary Japan; the details of the family home and the attic room in which Otoku dies are as evocative as (say) shots of prewar New York, London or Berlin can be for anyone who knows those cities today; and such scenes as the Kabuki excerpts and the closing procession have become valuable records of a rich cultural tradition. In thus functioning on several levels at once—as an absorbing drama, a classic demonstration of film technique, a provocation to serious thought and complex feeling, and a record of a receding past— Zangiku monogatari transcends its origins as a filmed play, and its status as a specifically Japanese film, to stand as a classic of world cinema. —Patrick Heenan ZASEDA (The Ambush) Yugoslavia, 1969 Director: Zivojin Pavlovic Production: Filmska Raedna Zajednica; running time: 78 minutes. Screenplay: Zivojin Pavlovic, from his short story ‘‘Pavolvic’s Legends’’ and another, ‘‘Po Treci Put,’’ by Antonije Isakovic; photography: Milorad Jaksic-Fando; editor: Olga Skirigin; art director: Dragolub Ivkov; music: Archival. ZEMLYAFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1357 Cast: Ivica Vivodic (Ivo); Milena Dravic (Milica); Severin Bijelic (Bunny); Slobodan Aligrudic (Jetic). Awards: Golden Lion, Venice, 1969. Publications Article: Variety (New York), 1969. *** The Ambush is the fifth feature film by Zivojin Pavlovic. When it appeared in 1969 it became one of the most controversial films of the Yugoslav Black Cinema. Pavlovic, who is also well known in Yugoslavia for his tightly written neo-realistic prose, based this film, which focuses on the gap between the ideals of the Socialist revolu- tion at the end of World War II and the often brutal reality of the Stalinist period, on one of his own stories and another by Antonije Isakovic. It is a harsh view of the political and social climate in Yugoslavia after the war. The hero participates in a killing during the Revolution—but is then killed himself. Pavlovic has forged his subject matter from raw material supplied by the first Yugoslav writer to call attention to the darker side of Tito’s Partisan movement. Released but never distributed at home until very recently, the film was highly praised from the very beginning by those few Yugo-critics who managed to see it for both the purity of Pavlovic’s style and the honesty of his subject matter. The film won the Golden Lion in Venice in 1969. Pavlovic’s influence on Yugoslav cinema has been profound. In a 1983 survey of ninety Yugoslav film critics, for instance, Pavlovic and Aleksander Petrovic were the only directors with three films listed among the top twenty Yugoslav films ever made. A graduate of the Academy of Applied Arts and Sciences in Belgrade in 1959, Pavlovic began his career as an amateur filmmaker. He made his feature debut in 1962, scripting and directing one part of a three part omnibus film Kapi, Vode, Ratnici (Raindrops Water Warriors). His story of an ex-con who returns home to find no one wishes to help him, foreshadowed Pavlovic’s unswerving interest in outsiders living on the margins of society. —Mike Downey ZEMLYA (Earth) USSR, 1930 Director: Alexander Dovzhenko Production: VUFKU (Kiev); black and white, 35mm, silent; length: 1704 meters, 6 reels. Released 8 April 1930, Kiev. Filmed April- November 1929 in Poltava. Screenplay: Alexander Dovzhenko; photography: Danilo Demutsky; art director: Vasily Krichevsky; music for performance: Leonid Revutsky; assistant directors: Julia (Ioulya) Solntseva and Lazar Bodyk. Cast: Stepon Shkurat (Opanas Trubenko); Semen Svashenko (Vasilly, the son); Nikola Nademsky (Grandfather Semen); Yelena Maximova (Natalka, Vasilly’s fiancée); I. Franko (Arkhip Belokon, a Kulak); P. Masokha (Khoma); V. Mikhailov (Father Gerasim, the priest); P. Petrik (Kravchina-Chuprina, the Komsomol Secretary); Julia Solntseva (Vasilly’s sister). Publications Script: Dovzhenko, Alexander, La Terre (in Russian, English, and French), Moscow, 1965; also published in Mother: A Film by V. I. Pudovkin and Earth: A Film by Alexander Dovzhenko, New York, 1973. Books: Rotha, Paul, Celluloid: The Film Today, London, 1931. Leyda, Jay, Kino: A History of the Russian and Soviet Film, New York, 1942; revised edition, London, 1960. Leyda, Jay, An Index to the Creative Work of Alexander Dovjenko, London, 1947. Martin, Marcel, Panorama du cinéma sovietique, Paris, 1960. Rachuk, Igor, Poetika Dovzhenko, Moscow, 1964. Schnitzer, Luda and Jean Schnitzer, Dovjenko, Paris, 1966. Mariamov, Alexander, Alexandre Dovzhenko, Moscow, 1968. Oms, Marcel, Alexandre Dovjenko, Lyons, 1968. Yourenev, R., Alexander Dovzhenko, Moscow, 1968. Amengual, Barthélemy, Alexander Dovzjenko, Paris, 1970. Carynnyk, Marco, editor, Alexander Dovzhenko: The Poet as Filmmaker, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1973. Garbicz, Adam, and Jacek Klinowski, editors, Cinema, The Magic Vehicle: A Guide to Its Achievement: Journey One: The Cinema Through 1949, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1975. Marshall, Herbert, Masters of the Soviet Cinema: Crippled Creative Biographies, London, 1983. Kepley, Vance, In the Service of the State: The Cinema of Alexander Dovzhenko, Madison, Wisconsin, 1986. Articles: ‘‘Interview with Dovjenko,’’ in Close-Up (London), no. 4, 1930. Sadoul, Georges, ‘‘Interview de A. Dovjenko,’’ in Lettres Fran?aises (Paris), 1956. Montagu, Ivor, ‘‘Dovzhenko—Poet of Eternal Life,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), 1957. ‘‘Special Issue’’ of Film (Venice), August 1957. Dovzhenko, Alexander, ‘‘Autobiography,’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Mos- cow), no. 5, 1958. ZEMLYA FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1358 Zemlya Shibuk, Charles, ‘‘The Films of Alexander Dovzhenko,’’ in New York Film Bulletin, no. 11–14, 1961. Capdenac, Michel, ‘‘Julia Solntseva et la terre ukrainienne,’’ in Lettres Fran?aises (Paris), 25 May 1961. Kelman, Ken, in Film Culture (New York), Winter 1963–64. ‘‘Alexander Dovzhenko,’’ in Anthologie du cinéma 1, Paris, 1966. Kael, Pauline, in Kiss Kiss Bang Bang, Boston, 1968. Frejlih, S., ‘‘Ein Epos unserer Epoche,’’ in Film und Fernsehen (Berlin), August 1974. ‘‘Dovzhenko Issue’’ of Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), September 1974. Pym, John, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), February 1980. Burns, P. E., ‘‘Cultural Revolution, Collectivization, and Soviet Cinema,’’ in Film and History (Newark, New Jersey), Decem- ber 1981. Mayne, J., ‘‘Soviet Film Montage and the Woman Question,’’ in Camera Obscura (Bloomington), no. 19, January 1989. Margolit, E., ‘‘Zemlja, SSSR (1930),’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), no. 12, December 1990. Kepley, V., Jr., ‘‘Dovzhenko and Montage: Issues of Style and Narration in the Silent Films,’’ in Journal of Ukrainian Studies, vol. 19, no. 1, 1994. Williams, B., ‘‘A Mirror of the Cinema: Poetic Discourse and Autotelic Aesthetics in Dovzhenko’s Earth,’’ in Journal of Ukrain- ian Studies, vol. 19, no. 1, 1994. Trimbac, S., ‘‘Pocva I sud’ba,’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), no. 12, December 1994. *** Earth is a tribute to life in the Ukraine, the birthplace of its creator, Alexander Dovzhenko. The film’s star is essentially the Ukrainian village in which the story is set: it is not necessarily a tale of Russian farmers and kulaks but a visual poem about life and the calm acceptance of death. Earth’s scenario is virtually lacking in plot: in fact, one of its themes—the triumph of modern farm equipment over a primitive methodology—is similar to that of Sergei Eisenstein’s Old and New. Youthful peasants in the community join together to purchase a trac- tor, to efficiently operate their farms. Vasilly, head of the village committee, reaps corn with the assistance of the machine, women fasten together the stalks cut from the earth, a threshing machine toils in the fields, and the peasants produce an abundant harvest. The ZERKALOFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1359 town’s kulaks (or, well-to-do landowners who profited from the sweat of the poorer farmers; as a class they opposed Soviet politics and collectivization of the land) are intimidated by this show of unity. At the end of a workday, young lovers stare at the sunset, and animals peacefully graze in the meadows. Vasilly, who had earlier plowed beyond the boundaries of a kulak’s farm, strolls home in the moon- light and is shot by a kulak. His father grieves over the corpse, but will not allow a traditional Christian burial. Instead, the villagers carry Vasilly in an open bier, through the fields. His murderer runs into the cemetery, blurts out that he is the peasant’s killer, and dances amid the graves in a weak imitation of Vasilly’s movements before the moment of his death. But the killer is ignored. A rain—tears from the sky— falls and shines on the crops. The clouds disappear, and the sun glistens and dries the earth. This short synopsis does not effectively describe the film’s content and impact on the viewer. Dovzhenko lyrically captures what the earth—the soil and the life-sustaining crops it produces—means to human beings. The earth must be lovingly nurtured so that corn and wheat may be reaped and mouths may be fed. (Dovzhenko shot the film on the rich terrain of his beloved Ukraine.) Most significantly, the film is at once a celebration of life and an acknowledgement of the inevitability of life’s end. Dovzhenko’s images, all in meticulously composed shots, are unforgettable: in the film’s prologue a dying man (the grandfather of Vasilly, a character patterned after the filmmaker’s grandfather), serene as he approaches his end, happily pierces an apple with his teeth; Vasilly ecstatically dances in the summer moonlight, kicking up dust and feeling every moment of his life before it is abruptly ended by a bullet; apple tree branches brush over the face of Vasilly’s corpse in the funeral caravan. In sequence after sequence, Dovzhenko brings together the two ultimate but contrast- ing realities: life and death. Death is not a gloomy, depressing finality, but a necessary and logical occurrence. If babies are to be born and the world replenished with the hopes, desires and energy of youth, some must vacate the earth and allow them time and space. Similarly, the earth must yield its crops so that it may again commence the cycle necessary to feed and nourish the hungry. Earth is clearly not apolitical. Lewis Jacobs described it as a ‘‘rhapsody of victory for a new society.’’ Dovzhenko himself explained, ‘‘I conceived Earth as a film that would herald the beginning of a new life in the villages.’’ But, in its day, the film was quite controversial. Some Soviet critics were quick to condemn it as politically incorrect because the lyricism overrides the storyline. In addition, it focuses on a universal, philosophical theme; it does not just merely detail specific events and struggles relating to the Revolu- tion. A particularly pointed article in Izvestia entitled ‘‘The Philoso- phers,’’ by Demyan Bedny (the pseudonym for Yefim Pridvorov, considered a major proletarian poet of the 1920s), resulted in the editing of several sequences, including the scene where the tractor’s radiator boils over and is cooled by the collective urine of the peasants, and another depicting Vasilly’s betrothed, naked and crazed with grief, mourning his death. ‘‘I was so stunned by (Bedny’s) attack,’’ Dovzhenko wrote, ‘‘so ashamed to be seen in public, that I literally aged and turned gray overnight. It was a real emotional trauma for me. At first I wanted to die.’’ After Earth premiered in Russia, Dovzhenko brought the film to Paris and Berlin, and under the title Soil, it opened in New York during the fall of 1930. The negative of Earth was destroyed by the Germans during World War II, but a copy of the original release print fortunately survived. Earth created a sensation outside the Soviet Union. Its simple im- agery influenced other directors, particularly documentary filmmakers in England and the United States. Today, it is Dovzhenko’s most famous film, and one of the great achievements of world cinema. —Rob Edelman ZENDEGI EDAME DARAD See And Life Goes On ZERKALO (Mirror) USSR, 1974 Director: Andrei Tarkovsky Production: Mosfilm; color, 35mm; running time: 106 minutes. Producer: E. Waisberg; screenplay: Andrei Tarkovsky, Aleksandr Misharin; photography: Georgi Rerberg; editor: L. Feiginova; assistant directors: L. Tarkovskaya, V. Karchenko, M. Chugunova; music: Eduard Artemiev, J. S. Bach, Giovanni Battista Pergolese, Henry Purcell; costumes: N. Fomina; sound: Semyon Litvinov. Cast: Margarita Terekhova (Alexei’s mother/Natalia); Philip Yankovsky (Alexei, aged 15); Ignat Daniltsev (Ignat/Alexei, aged 12); Oleg Yankovsky (Father); Nikolai Grinko (Man at printing shop); Alla Demidova (Lisa); Yuri Nazarov (Military instructor). Publications Books: Le Fanu, Mark, The Cinema of Andrej Tarkovsky, London 1987. Gauthier, Guy, Andrej Tarkovsky, Paris, 1988. Turovskaya, Maya, Tarkovsky: Cinema as Poetry, London 1989. Turovskaya, Maya, About Andrei Tarkovsky, Moscow, 1990. Tarkovsky, Andrei, Time within Time: The Diaries 1970–1986, Calcutta, 1991. Green, Peter, Andrei Tarkovsky: The Winding Quest, Hampshire, 1993. Johnson, Vida T., and Graham Petrie, Films of Andrei Tarkovsky: A Visual Fugue, Bloomington, 1994. Articles: Marshall, H., Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1976. Variety (New York), 2 February 1977. ZERKALO FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1360 Edelmann, F., Lumiere du Cinema (Paris), January-February 1978. Fieschi, J., and D. Maillet, Cinematographe (Paris), February 1978. Cros, J., Image et Son (Paris), March 1978. Delmas, J., ‘‘Tarkovsky declavelise,’’ in Jeune Cinema (Paris), March 1978. Grant, J., Cinema (Paris), March 1978. Jweancolas, J. P., Positif (Paris), May 1978. Adair, G., Monthly Film Bulletin (London), March 1980. Strick P., Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1980. Ward, M., ‘‘The Idea that Torments and Exhausts,’’ in Stills (Lon- don), Spring 1981. Dempsey, M., ‘‘Lost Harmony: Tarkovsky’s The Mirror and The Stalker,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), vol. 35, no. 1, Fall 1981. Amiel, Vincent, ‘‘Mon fils, ou l’avenir de ma mémoire,’’ in Positif (Paris), no. 324, February 1988. Petric, Vlada, ‘‘Tarkovsky’s Dream Imagery,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), vol. 43, no. 2, Winter 1989–90. Wiese, I., ‘‘Andrej Tarkovskij,’’ in Z Filmtidsskrift (Oslo), no. 1, 1996. Wright, Alan, ‘‘A Wrinkle in Time: The Child, Memory, and The Mirror,’’ in Wide Angle (Baltimore), vol. 18, no. 1, January 1996. Graffy, Julian, Layla Alexander Garrett, and Bérénice Reynaud, ‘‘Tarkovsky,’’ in Sight & Sound (London), vol. 7, no. 1, Janu- ary 1997. Reynaud, B., ‘‘Tarkovsky: Seeing is Believing,’’ in Sight & Sound (London), vol. 7, January 1997. *** At a press conference in 1975, Andrei Tarkovsky asserted that Mirror ‘‘is no more than a straightforward, simple story’’ which ‘‘doesn’t have to be made any more understandable’’; yet it has acquired an intimidating reputation for inaccessibility and self- indulgence. All the incidents are taken from his own or his relatives’ lives, three members of his family can be seen or heard in it and there are several dream sequences; but why should anyone who is not a Tarkovsky be interested in them? As for the occasional extracts from documentary footage, notably of Soviet troops in the Second World War, are they anything more than disconnected bits of history, especially now that the Soviet Union is as dead and gone as the Holy Roman Empire? Yet Mirror does go on impressing those who see it through and can resonate in the mind long afterwards, whether through specific images or as an atmosphere, a sense of dream and memory coming together. Perhaps the best way into it is through another of Tarkovsky’s remarks at that press conference, his invita- tion to ‘‘look, learn, use the life shown here as an example.’’ Looking and learning do not require a Ph.D. in Tarkovsky Studies. Even a child can do all three—which is another clue to Tarkovsky, for whom children seem to have represented idealism (as in Ivan’s Childhood), inventiveness (as in Andrei Rublev), and other qualities which adult life may distort or erode. Mirror begins with a boy in a city apartment watching a television demonstration of hypnosis; a young woman stands in a field at twilight, smoking a cigarette and waiting for someone, though not for the soldier who passes by; her son plays with a cat while a voice reads a poem which refers to a ‘‘domain . . . beyond the mirror’’ (in Kitty Hunter-Blair’s translation). These first few minutes suggest that two separate periods of time are being depicted and that the ‘‘mirror’’ of the title—as in Lewis Carroll’s story Through the Looking Glass or Jean Cocteau’s film Orphée—is a gateway between two worlds. The suggestion (not so much mysticism as truism) is confirmed later on, when the same woman is reflected in a real mirror that shows her to be much older. This is in fact Tarkovsky’s mother, the boy in what we learn is the 1930s represents Tarkovsky, the voice on the soundtrack is that of his father (the poet Arseny Tarkovsky) and the 1970s boy is his son. But these purely personal facts actually matter much less than they would in a more mainstream, linear narrative, precisely because of the intercutting between story (private memories) and newsreel (public memories), reality and dreams, children and adults. The connections among these elements are made clearer rather than more obscure by Tarkovsky’s careful alternation of colour, sepia tinting and black and white, as well as by the slow pace of every scene. Thus the almost always absent father (in the 1930s), seen returning at last in soldier’s uniform, is linked to footage of the Soviet army slogging through marshland and to a comic scene of military training disrupted by the instructor’s incompetence and the boys’ distractedness. The almost always present mother is recalled by her resemblance to a woman in a painting by Leonardo da Vinci, seen in the 1970s. Both of these lonely people are reflected by shots of Spanish refugees living in Moscow and, perhaps, by contrast with the crowds hailing Mao Tse- tung in shots of China. Again, the early log cabin, isolated between fields and woods, is paralleled by the later Moscow apartment, another refuge from human and climatic coldness. The dissolving of the everyday barriers among these phenomena culminates in the dream sequences, each grounded by being shown to be inside the mind of the boy in the 1930s. He sees water cascading through the room and down the walls after watching his mother wash her hair; the house burns in dreams after burning in reality; he imagines his mother floating away from her bed while he is waiting anxiously for her to emerge from a doctor’s surgery; the wind moves across the meadow as his father would if he were to come back. Tarkovsky’s meditative approach, his presentation of a broad range of loosely connected images and events in a variety of cine- matic formats, actually frees audiences from the need for too many footnotes or translations. Mirror tells us something of what it was like to live in the Soviet Union in Stalin’s 1930s and Brezhnev’s 1970s but it also evokes as much recognition as surprise, for even viewers who know nothing of Tarkovsky’s life, Soviet history or, for that matter, the paintings which he ‘‘quotes’’ in some scenes, know as much as he did about nostalgia, dreaming and other forms of longing, and about comparing and contrasting what is, and what was, with what might have been. In Mirror Tarkovsky opens up his world—arguably more success- fully than in his later films, which are less autobiographical but also more tightly bound to an increasingly explicit and unsubtle religiosity— just as, in the film, his son opens a book of Leonardo’s paintings, inviting readings that will differ from viewer to viewer, and indeed (given the film’s main themes) at different times in any viewer’s life. Orson Welles, whom Tarkovsky greatly admired, once said that a film is ‘‘a ribbon of dreams.’’ Mirror is an example of the many ways in which filmmakers and audiences together can transform private dreams into shared visions. —Patrick Heenan PICTURE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 1367 The editors wish to thank the copyright holders of the photographs included in this volume and the permissions managers of many book and magazine publishing companies for assisting us in securing reproduction rights. We are also grateful to the staffs of the Detroit Public Library, the Library of Congress, the University of Detroit Mercy Library, Wayne State University Purdy/Kresge Library Complex, and the University of Michigan Libraries for making their resources available to us. Every effort has been made to trace copyright, but if omissions have been made, please bring them to the attention of the editors. The following is a list of the copyright holders who have granted us permission to reproduce material in the International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers as well as from where said resources were received: AP/Wide World Photos. Blade Runner; Casablanca; Chinatown; City Lights/Associated Press/United Artists; Double Indemnity; Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned To Stop Worrying And Love The Bomb; Modern Times; A Streetcar Named Desire. Archive Photos, Inc. Apocalypse Now; Blue Velvet; Close Encounters of the Third Kind/Fotos International; Easy Rider/Fotos International; GoodFellas; High Noon; Midnight Cowboy; Psycho; Public Enemy/Warner Bros.; Rear Window; The Silence of the Lambs/Ken Regan/Fotos International. CORBIS. Great Expectations/Springer/Bettmann; Lolita; The Maltese Falcon/Bettmann. All remaining images were provided courtesy of the Kobal Collection. NOTES ON ADVISERS AND CONTRIBUTORS 1371 AFFRON, Charles. Essayist. Professor of French, New York Uni- versity, since 1965. Author of Star Acting: Gish, Garbo, Davis, 1977; Cinema and Sentiment, 1982; Divine Garbo, 1985; and Fellini’s 8?, 1987. General editor of Rutgers Films in Print Series. Essays: The Best Years of Our Lives; It’s a Wonderful Life; The Little Foxes; Ninotchka; Le Quai des brumes; The Red Shoes; A Star Is Born; The Wind. AFFRON, Mirella Jona. Essayist. Professor, Program in Cinema Studies, since 1985, and dean of Humanities and Social Sciences, since 1987 at College of Staten Island, City University of New York. Former member of the executive council, Society for Cinema Studies. Essays: The Southerner; La Terra trema; Umberto D. AMBROGIO, Anthony. Essayist. Procedures analyst, Maccabees Life Insurance. Film and composition instructor, Wayne State Uni- versity, Detroit, 1975–85. Contributor to Film Criticism and Pukka Af?atus, and to Erotic Universe (ed. D. Palumbo, 1986). Essays: Dracula (1931); Paths of Glory. ANDREW, Dudley. Adviser and Essayist. Angelo Bertocci Profes- sor of Critical Studies and director of the Institute for Cinema and Culture at the University of Iowa (joined faculty in 1969). Author of Major Film Theories, 1976; André Bazin, 1978; Kenji Mizoguchi: A Guide to References and Resources (co-author), 1981; Concepts in Film Theory, 1984; and Film in the Aura of Art, 1984. Essays: A propos de Nice; La Bataille du rail; Les Dames du Bois de Boulogne; Le Diable au corps; Les Jeux interdits; Journal d’un curé de campagne; Jules et Jim; Le Million; Pépé le Moko; Saikaku ichidai onna; Tirez sur le pianiste. ARMES, Roy. Essayist. Reader in ?lm and television at the Middlesex Polytechnic, London. Author of French Cinema since 1946, 1966, 1970; The Cinema of Alain Resnais, 1968; French Film, 1970; Patterns of Realism, 1972, 1983; Film and Reality, 1974; The Ambiguous Image, 1976; A Critical History of British Cinema, 1978; The Films of Alain Robbe-Grillet, 1981; French Cinema, 1985; Third World Filmmaking and the West, 1987; On Video, 1988; and Studies in Arab and African Film, 1991. Essays: L’Argent; La Belle et la bête; Le Chagrin et la pitié; Charulata; Chronique des années de braise; Les Diaboliques; Farrebique; La Femme du boulanger; Feu Mathias Pascal; Napoléon; Le Sang d’un poète; Les Vampires. BARDARSKY, Dimitar. Essayist. With the Short Films Depart- ment, Bulgarian Cinematography, So?a, since 1982. With the Pro- gramming and Publications Department, Bulgarian National Film Archive So?a, 1978–81. Contributor to and editor of the biographical section, In the World of Cinema, 3 volumes, 1982–83. Essays: Koziyat rog; Sterne. BARNOUW, Erik. Adviser and essayist. Professor emeritus of dramatic arts, Columbia University. Author of Indian Film, 1963; A History of Broadcasting in the United States, 1966; Documentary: A History of the Non?ction Film, 1974; Tube of Plenty: The Evolution of American Television, 1975; The Sponsor: Notes on a Modern Poten- tate, 1978; The Magician and the Cinema, 1981; House with a Past, 1992; and Media Marathon: A Twentieth Century Memoir, 1996. Editor in chief, International Encyclopedia of Communications, 1989. Writer, director, and producer of ?lms. Essay: Kino-pravda. BASINGER, Jeanine. Adviser and essayist. Professor of ?lm, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, since 1969. Trustee, American Film Institute, National Center for Film and Video Preser- vation. Member of advisory board, Foundation for Independent Video and Film. Author of Working with Kazan, 1973; Shirley Temple, 1975; Gene Kelly, 1976; Lana Turner, 1977; Anthony Mann: A Critical Analysis, 1979; The World War II Combat Book: Anatomy of a Genre, 1986; The ‘‘It’s a Wonderful Life’’ Book, 1986; and numerous articles. Essays: An American in Paris; The Devil is a Woman; Sullivan’s Travels. BAXTER, John. Essayist. Novelist, screenwriter, television pro- ducer, and ?lm historian. Visiting lecturer, Hollins College, Virginia, 1974–75; broadcaster with BBC Radio and Television, 1976–91. Editor of two anthologies of science ?ction; author of six novels, various screenplays for documentary ?lms and features, and works of ?lm criticism: Hollywood in the Thirties, 1968; The Australian Cinema, 1970; The Gangster Film, 1970; Science Fiction in the Cinema, 1970; The Cinema of John Ford, 1971; The Cinema of Josef von Sternberg, 1971; Hollywood in the Sixties, 1972; An Appalling Talent: Ken Russell, 1973; Sixty Years of Hollywood, 1973; Stunt, 1974; The Hollywood Exiles, 1976; King Vidor, 1976; The Video Handbook (with Brian Norris), 1982; Filmstruck, 1989; Fellini, 1993; and Bu?uel, 1994. Essays: Accattone; Balada o soldate; Der blaue Engel; Casablanca; Chronique d’un été; The Crowd; Dirty Harry; Et . . . Dieu créa la femme; The Grapes of Wrath; The Last Wave. BECK, Sandra L. Essayist. Technical assistant, Museum of Modern Art Film Study Center and Film Circulation Department, New York City. Essays: Fr?ken Julie; K?rkalen; Pickpocket. BERGAN, Ronald. Adviser. Regular contributor, The Guardian (London); consultant and writer for several TV documentaries; lectured on literature, theatre, and ?lm during ten years in France; author of numerous books on the cinema, including biographies of the Coen Brothers, Sergei Eisenstein, Jean Renoir, Anthony Perkins, and Dustin Hoffman, as well as The United Artists Story and The Great Theatres of London. BOCK, Audie. Essayist. Freelance author and lecturer; visiting lecturer posts held at Harvard, Yale, University of California, and other institutions, 1975–83; assistant producer of the international version of Kurosawa’s Kagemusha, 1980. Author of Japanese Film Directors, 1978 and Mikio Naruse: un maitre du cinema japonais, 1983; translator of Something Like an Autobiography, by Kurosawa, 1982. Essay: Ai no corrida. BODEEN, DeWitt. Essayist. Screenwriter and ?lm critic. Author of screenplays, Cat People, 1942; Seventh Victim, 1943; Curse of the Cat People, 1944; The Yellow Canary, 1944; The Enchanted Cottage, 1945; Night Song, 1947; I Remember Mama, 1948; Mrs. Mike, 1949; and Billy Budd, 1962; author of also numerous teleplays, 1950–68. Author of ?lm criticism/history, Ladies of the Footlights; The Films of Cecil B.DeMille; Chevalier; From Hollywood; and More From Hollywood; novel, 13 Castle Walk; editor of Who Wrote the Movie and What Else Did He Write?. Died 1988. Essays: Camille; City Lights; Les Enfants du paradis; Greed; Henry V (1944); Viridiana. BOWERS, Ronald. Essayist. Financial editor, E. F. Hutton and Company, since 1982. Editor, Films in Review, 1979–81. Author of The MGM Stock Company, with James Robert Parish, 1973; and The Selznick Players, 1976. Essays: Le Carrosse d’or; Le Crime de Monsieur Lange; G?sta Berlings Saga; Lola; The Magni?cent NOTES ON ADVISERS AND CONTRIBUTORS FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1372 Ambersons; Miracolo a Milano; Los Olvidados; Orphée; Sciuscia; La Strada; Il Vangelo secondo Matteo. BOWLES, Stephen E. Essayist. Associate professor of ?lm, Univer- sity of Miami, since 1976. Author of An Approach to Film Study, 1974; Index to Critical Film Reviews British and American Film Periodicals 1930–1971, 3 volumes, 1974–75; Sidney Lumet: Refer- ences and Resources, 1979; and Index to Critical Film Reviews: Supplement 1, 1971–1976, 1983; associate editor of The Film Book Bibliography 1940–1975, 1979. Essays: Blow-Up; On the Water- front; Shane. BRASHINSKY, Michael. Essayist. Instructor in ?lm studies at the School of Visual Arts, New York City; author of ?lm column for The Westsider. Author of The Zero Hour: Glasnost and Soviet Cinema in Transition; and editor of Russian Critics on the Cinema of Glasnost (both with Andrew Horton). Essays: Dekalog; Igla; Last Tango in Paris; Siberiade. BROPHY, Stephen. Essayist. Freelance writer and ?lm critic, Boston, Massachusetts. Essay: Todo Sobre Mi Madre. BURTON, Julianne. Essayist. Associate professor, Merrill College and member of the Board of Studies in Literature, University of California at Santa Cruz, since 1982 (assistant professor, 1974–82). Author of more than 40 publications on the Latin American cinema. Essay: Tire dié. CAMPBELL, John. Adviser. Publisher, Moving Pictures Interna- tional; managing director, Pilgrim Films. CAMPER, Fred. Essayist. Independent ?lmmaker and writer and lecturer on ?lm since 1965. Has taught at various American colleges and universities. Essays: Kiss Me Deadly; Shoah; Unsere Afrikareise. CHENG, Scarlet. Essayist. Senior contributing editor of Asian Art News magazine. Organizer, ?lm series and seminar ‘‘The Fifth Generation of Chinese Filmmakers,’’ Freer Gallery of Art, Washing- ton D.C. Contributor many articles on ?lm, visual arts, and books to Washington Post, International Herald Tribune, Asian Wall Street Journal, The World and I, Belles Lettres Review of Books, and many others. Essays: Ahfei zheng zhuan; Ba wang bie ji; Daoma zei; Odeur de la papaye verte; Qiu Ju da Guansi. CHRISTENSEN, Julie A. Essayist. Associate Professor, Depart- ment of Modern and Classical Languages, George Mason University; specializes in Russian and Georgian cinema, literature, and language. Essay: Soy Cuba. CIMENT, Michel. Essayist. Associate professor in American Stud- ies, University of Paris. Member of the editorial board, Positif, Paris. Author of Erich von Stroheim, 1967; Kazan by Kazan, 1973; Le Dossier Rosi, 1976; Le Livre de Losey, 1979; Kubrick, 1980; Les Conquérants d’un nouveau monde (collected essays), 1981; Schatzberg, de la photo au cinema (co-author), 1982; Portrait of a 60% Perfect Man: Billy Wilder (co-author), 1980; Elia Kazan: An Outsider, 1982; All about Mankiewicz, 1983; Boorman, 1985; Francesco Rosi: Chronique d’un ?lm annoncé, 1987; and Passport pour Hollywood (collected interviews), 1987. Essays: Foolish Wives; Lolita. COLE, Lewis. Adviser. Professor of Screenwriting, Columbia Uni- versity, co-founder Meditteranean Film Institute, Chair of Film Division, Columbia University, 1996–2000. Television critic, Nation Magazine, 1994–1997. Author of A Loose Game, 1978; Dream Team, 1982; Never Too Young to Die, 1990; This Side of Glory, 1996. Also author of numerous screenplays and articles. CONLEY, Tom. Essayist. Professor of French and comparative literature, Harvard University; former professor, University of Min- nesota. Former editor, Enclitic. Author of Su realismo: lectura de Bunuel, Las Hurdas, 1988; and The Writing of Film, 1990. Contribu- tor to Theater Journal, MLN, Hors Cadre, Revue des Lettres Modernes, and Litterature. Essays: High Sierra; The Killers; The Lady from Shanghai; Touch of Evil; Vivre sa vie. COOK, David A. Essayist. Professor and director of ?lm studies, Emory University, since 1985. Author of A History of Narrative Film, 1981, 2nd ed., 1990. Essays: Teni zabytykh predkov; The Wild Bunch. COOK, Samantha. Essayist. Freelance editor and researcher, Lon- don. Editor of 1989 Women’s Film List; and contributor to Neglected Audiences, 1990. Essay: Dance, Girl, Dance. COUSINS, R. F. Essayist. Lecturer in French, University of Birm- ingham. Author of Zola’s Therese Raquin, 1990; and contributor to University Vision and Literature/Film Quarterly. Executive member of British Universities Film and Video Council. Essays: L’Arroseur arrosé; La Bête humaine; Le Boucher; Le Voyage dans la lune; Z. CRIPPS, Thomas. Essayist. Professor of history and coordinator of the graduate program in popular culture, Morgan State University, Baltimore, since 1961. Producer-writer, Westinghouse Broadcasting, 1968–72. Author of Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Film 1900–1942, 1977, and Black Film as Genre, 1978; editor of The Green Pastures, 1979. Essay: Der Ewige Jude. CROWDUS, Gary. Adviser. Founder and Editor-in-Chief, Cineaste magazine; editor of A Political Companion to American Film, Lake View Press. DASSANOWSKY, Robert von. Adviser and essayist. Associate Professor of Languages and Cultures, Director, Film Studies, and Head of German Studies, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs; Vice President, Austrian American Film Association; actor, televi- sion writer and independent ?lm producer; author of Phantom Empires: The Novels of Alexander Lernet-Holenia, 1996; and Cin- ema: From Vienna to Hollywood and Back, forthcoming; contribut- ing editor, ‘‘Austria’s Hollywood/Hollywood’s Austria,’’ special issue of Filmkunst, 1997; contributing editor, Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, 2000. Essays: Casino Royale, M?rchen vom Glück, Tie?and. DAVIAU, Gertraud Steiner. Essayist. Lecturer at the Universities of Vienna and Klagenfurt, Austria; visiting scholar, University of California, Riverside, and University of California, Los Angeles; civil servant, Austrian Federal Chancellery/ Federal Press Service, Austria; working on a research project and screenplay for the docu- mentary Austria’s Hollywood—Hollywood’s Austria; author of Die Heimat-Macher. Kino in ?sterreich 1946–1966, 1987; Filmbook Austria, 2nd edition, 1997; and Traumfabrik Rosenhügel (The Dream Factory of Rosenhügel), 1997. Essays: 38, Der Engel mit der Posaune, Sodom und Gomorrha. DEANE, Pamala S. Essayist. Independent writer and media histo- rian; M.A. in Radio/TV/Film, University of Maryland, College Park; author of ?ction and screenplays for documentary programming. Essay: Fresa y Chocolate. NOTES ON ADVISERS AND CONTRIBUTORSFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1373 DE ROMERO, Sara Corben. Essayist. Assistant press of?cer and production manager for British television. Instructor at private uni- versity. Worked for BBC news crews in Mexico. Produced charity viedos. Essays: Alsino y el Condor; El Chacal de Nahueltoro. DERRY, Charles. Essayist. Ph.D. in Film, Northwestern University. Coordinator of Film Studies, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, from 1978. Author of Dark Dreams: A Psychological History of the Modern Horror Film, 1977. Co-author, with Jack Ellis and Sharon Kern, of the reference work The Film Book Bibliography: 1940–1975, 1979. Director of the short ?lms Cerebral Accident and Joan Craw- ford Died for Your Sins. Fiction has appeared in Reclaiming the Heartland: Gay and Lesbian Voices from the Midwest, 1996. Essays: The Birds; La Femme in?dèle; Le Salaire de la peur. DIXON, Wheeler Winston. Essayist. Director, ?lm studies pro- gram, University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Filmmaker and author of The ‘‘B’’ Directors: A Biographical Directory, 1985; The Cinematic Vision of F. Scott Fitzgerald, 1986; and Terence Fisher: The Critical Reception, 1990. Contributor to Films in Review, Literature/Film Quarterly, and Post Script. Essay: Dracula (1958). DORAISWAMY, Rashmi. Essayist. Freelance writer. Essay: Meghe dhaka tara. DOWNEY, Mike. Adviser and essayist. Director and associate publisher, Moving Pictures International, London; ?lm critic and producer. Essays: Budjenje pacova; Nesto izmedju; Samo jednom se ljubi; Skuplijaci perja; Vlak bez voznog reda; Zaseda. DUNAGAN, Clyde Kelly. Essayist. Instructor in mathematics, Uni- versity of Wisconsin Center, Sheboygan. Essays: Bronenosets Potemkin; Gone With the Wind; M*A*S*H. DUNBAR, Robert. Essayist. Freelance ?lm critic and historian; held various visiting professorships and lectureships, since 1975. Worked for Gainsborough and Gaumont-British Studios, 1933–38, 1948–49; director of public and cultural relations, British Embassy, Moscow, 1944–47; general manager, Imperadio Pictures, 1949–51; indepen- dent producer of feature ?lms and documentaries, 1952–63; chair- man, London School of Film Technique, 1963–74. Died 1988. Essays: Maxim Trilogy; Putyovka v zhizn; Turksib. DURGNAT, Raymond. Essayist. Visiting professor of ?lm, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio. Author of numerous publications on ?lm, including Durgnat on Film, 1975; co-author, King Vidor- American, 1988; and Michael Powell and the English Genius, 1990. Essays: Cléo de cinq à sept; Nieuwe Gronden. DURIE, John. Adviser. Managing director, Strategic Film Marketing. EDELMAN, Rob. Essayist. Author of Great Baseball Films, 1994; and Baseball on the Web, 1998. Co-author of Angela Lansbury: A Life on Stage and Screen, 1996; The John Travolta Scrapbook, 1997; and Meet the Mertzes, 1999. Contributing editor of Leonard Maltin’s Movie & Video Guide; Leonard Maltin’s Movie Encyclopedia; and Leonard Maltin’s Family Film Guide. Director of programming of Home Film Festival. Contributor to The Political Companion to American Film, Women Filmmakers & Their Films, Total Baseball, The Total Baseball Catalog, International Film Guide, and The Whole Film Sourcebook. Film critic/commentator, WAMC (North- east) Public Radio. Lecturer, University at Albany. Former ?lm critic/ columnist, New Haven Register and Gazette Newspapers. Former adjunct instructor, The School of Visual Arts, Iona College, Sacred Heart University. Essays: L’America; Un Coeur en hiver; Die Dreigroschenoper; La Haine; Hana-Bi; Hoop Dreams; J’accuse; Jana Aranya; Ju Dou; Lan fengzheng; Mat; The Naked City; On the Town; Once Upon a Time in America; One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest; Outomlionnye solntsem; Variété Voina i mir; Zemlya. EHRLICH, Jane. Essayist. Instructor in German and Scandinavian ?lm at Washington University, 1972–74, and University of Califor- nia, Los Angeles, 1976–77. Author of columns published in Arts Editor, Knave, Forum, Ludus, Active Life, Everywoman, and London Traveletter. Contributor to numerous periodicals, including Harpers & Queen, She Movie Scene, Spare Rib, Irish Post, Good Housekeep- ing, Period Living, Relax, and For Him. Founder of freelance company, The Editorial Board. Contributor to Annual Obituary. Essays: Mr. Smith Goes to Washington; Olympia; Ordet; Vampyr. ELLIS, Jack C. Adviser and essayist. Professor of ?lm and former chair of the Department of Radio/Television/Film at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. Also taught at UCLA, New York University, and the University of Texas at Austin. Author of A History of Film, 1979; John Grierson: A Guide to References and Resources, 1986; and The Documentary Idea, 1989. Founding member and past president of Society for Cinema Studies, editor of its journal, Cinema Journal, 1976–1982. Essays: Drifters; Fires Were Started; Man of Aran; The March of Time; Rien que les heures; Why We Fight. ELSNER-SOMMER, Gretchen. Essayist. Film critic and director of Foreign Images distribution company. Formerly associate editor of Jump Cut. Essays: Die Ehe der Maria Braun; M?dchen in Uniform. ERENS, Patricia. Essayist. Professor, Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois, since 1977. Author of Akira Kurosawa A Guide to References and Resources, 1979; and The Jew in American Cinema, 1984; editor of Sexual Stratagems: The World of Women in Film, 1979. Essays: Biruma no tategoto; Film d’amore e d’anarchia; Hadaka no shima; O slavnosti a hostech; Suna no onna. ERSKINE, Thomas L. Essayist. Professor of English, Salisbury State University, Maryland. Co-founding editor of Literature/Film Quarterly. Chairman, ?lm division, Modern Language Association. Essays: Five Easy Pieces; Klute. ESTRIN, Mark W. Essayist. Professor of English and ?lm studies, Rhode Island College, Providence, since 1966. Has published widely on ?lm, dramatic literature, and theatre. Author of books including Conversations with Eugene O’Neill, 1990, and Critical Essays on Lillian Hellman, 1989. Essay: Notorious. FALICOV, Tamara L. Essayist. Assistant Professor, Department of Theatre and Film and Latin American Studies, University of Kansas; teaches courses in Latin American ?lm; author of articles in academic journals such as Studies in Latin American Popular Culture and Media, Culture, and Society. Essay: Central do Brasil. FALLER, Greg S. Essayist. Professor, Department of Electronic Media & Film, Towson University, Towson, Maryland, since 1986; Assistant/Associate editor of The International Dictionary of Films & Filmmakers, ?rst edition, vols. 3, 4, and 5, and Journal of Film & Video, 1985–87; advisor, The International Dictionary of Films & Filmmakers, second and third editions. Essays: Anticipation of the Night; 42nd Street; If. . . ; Little Caesar; Singin’ in the Rain. NOTES ON ADVISERS AND CONTRIBUTORS FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1374 FARNSWORTH, Rodney. Essayist. Ph.D., Indiana University, 1980. Associate professor of comparative studies, Indiana Universi- ty-Purdue University, Fort Wayne. Has published internationally in scholarly publications, including Literature/Film Quarterly. Essays: India Song; Ivan Grozny; Sunrise. FEINSTEIN, Howard. Essayist. Film editor, The Village Voice, New York. Essay: Konyets Sankt-Peterburga. FELLEMAN, Susan. Adviser and essayist. Assistant Professor of Cinema Studies, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale; author of Botticelli in Hollywood: The Films of Albert Lewin (1997) and many articles on art and ?lm. Essay: The Picture of Dorian Gray. FERN, Annette. Essayist. Librarian, freelance arts critic, and re- searcher. Essays: Duck Soup; A Night at the Opera. FRENCH, Warren. Essayist. Freelance writer. Essays: The Birth of a Nation; Philadelphia; A Streetcar Named Desire. FULKS, Barry A. Essayist. Assistant professor of history, Univer- sity of Pittsburgh, since 1983. Author of various articles on the German cinema. Essay: Berlin: Die Sinfonie der Grossstadt. GEORGAKAS, Dan. Essayist. Instructor in ?lm courses at New York University and Queens College of the City University of New York. Organizer of ?lm programs for community groups. Co-author of In Focus: A Guide to Using Filmsy; and Solidarity Forevery (based on the documentary The Wobbliesy). Co-editor of The Cineaste Interviews. Member of editorial board of Cineaste, since 1969. Contributor of ?lm criticism to numerous publications. Essay: Mal- colm X. GIANOULIS, Tina. Essayist. Freelance writer; contributor to St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, 1999; Gay and Lesbian Literature, 1997; www. mystories.com, daytime drama website, 1997–98; Common Lives, Lesbian Lives, Sinister Wisdom, and others. Essays: Red Sorghum, Wandafuru Raifu. GIBSON, Ben. Adviser. Head of production, British Film Institute, since 1990. Partner in Metro Pictures (formerly The Other Cinema), 1981–87. Writer on cinema for numerous magazines. Co-editor of Framework ?lm magazine. Co-founder of the London International Festival of Theatre. Member of executive committee, European Film Distribution Of?ce. Member of advisory board, Merseyside Film Fund. Producer or executive producer of features, including Out of Order, 1987; Silent Scream, 1990; Young Soul Rebels, 1991; The Long Day Closes, 1992; Anchoress, 1992; Wittgenstein, 1993; Lon- don, 1994; Don’t Get Me Started, 1994; Loaded, 1994; Three Steps to Heaven, 1995; and Madagascar Skin, 1995. GILLESPIE, Jill. Essayist. Doctoral candidate, Department of Ger- man Studies, Cornell University. Essays: Deutschland im Herbst; Marat/Sade. GLAESSNER, Verina. Essayist. Freelance critic and lecturer, Lon- don. Contributor to Sight and Sound. Essay: Huang tudi. GLANCY, H. M. Essayist. Graduate student in ?lm studies, Univer- sity of East Anglia. Essay: Mrs. Miniver. GLUR, Beat. Adviser. Freelance ?lm and music critic for newspa- pers and magazines in Switzerland and Germany. Festival adviser for Locarno Film Festival and Cinemusic in Gstaad. Swiss correspondent for Moving Pictures and Blickpunkt: Film. Member of Cultural Commission of Suissimage; member of board of Swiss ?lmcritics organisation, Fipresci. GOLOVSKOY, Val. Essayist. Graduated from the Institute of Cinematography in Moscow; editor and ?lm critic in the Publishing House Iskusstvo (Art), Iskusstvo kino (Cinema Art), and Sovetskij Ekran (Soviet Screen) magazine; has taught in several U.S. universi- ties since 1981; author of Behind the Soviet Screen, 1986. Essay: Istoria Asi Kliachinoi kotoraia lubila da nie vyshla zamuzh. GOMERY, Douglas. Essayist. Professor, Department of Radio/ Television/Film, University of Maryland, and senior researcher, Media Studies Project, Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars, Washington, D.C. Author of High Sierra: Screenplay and Analysis, 1979; co-author, Film History: Theory and Practice, 1985; The Hollywood Studio System, 1986; The Will Hays Papers, 1987; co- author, American Media, 1989; and Movie History: A Survey, 1991. Essays: L’Age d’or; Apocalypse Now; The Band Wagon; Jaws; Johnny Guitar; The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance; My Darling Clementine; Tokyo monogatari. GOMEZ, Joseph A. Essayist. Lecturer in ?lm studies, North Caro- lina State University. Contributor to Literature/Film Quarterly. Es- say: Meg ker a nep. GRETTON, Viveca. Essayist. Screenwriter in Toronto. Regular contributor to CineAction. M.A. in ?lm studies, York University. Essay: The Women. GRLIC, Rajko. Adviser. Eminent scholar, School of Film, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, since 1993; visiting professor, Tisch School of the Arts, New York University, 1992–93; professor of ?lm directing, The Academy of Dramatic Arts, Zagreb, Croatia, 1972–74, 1989–91. Director and screenwriter of numerous ?lms, including: Pass (short), 1966; If It Kills Me, 1974; Bravo Maestro, 1978; You Love Only Once, 1981; In the Jaws of Life, 1985; Three for Happiness, 1987; That Summer of White Roses, 1989; and Charuga, 1991. Producer of ?lms, including: Consecration (short), 1990; and Virdzina, 1991. GUGLER, Josef. Essayist. Professor of Sociology, University of Connecticut; author of several books, including Cities, Poverty, and Development: Urbanization in the Third World, 1992; editor, Cities in the Developing World: Issues, Theory, and Policy, 1997; contribu- tor of essays on ?lm to African Studies Review and other periodicals. Essays: Kongi’s Harvest; Udju Azul di Yonta; Yaaba. HANSON, Patricia King. Essayist. Executive editor, American Film Institute, Los Angeles, since 1983. Film critic, Screen Interna- tional, since 1986. Associate editor, Salem Press, 1978–83. Editor, American Film Institute Catalog of Feature Films 1911–1920 and 1931–1940. Co-editor of Film Review Index, vols. I and II, 1986–87; and Sourcebook for the Performing Arts, 1988; executive editor of Meet Frank Capra, 1990. Essays: All the King’s Men; Kaos; A Matter of Life and Death; Top Hat. HANSON, Stephen L. Essayist. Humanities bibliographer, Univer- sity of Southern California, Los Angeles, since 1969. Associate editor, Salem ?lm critic, Screen International, since 1986. Associate editor, Salem Press, 1978–83. Co-editor of Film Review Index, vols. I and II, 1986–87, and co-editor of Sourcebook for the Performing Arts, 1988. Essays: Arsenal; East of Eden; Freaks; Madame de . . . ; Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov; NOTES ON ADVISERS AND CONTRIBUTORSFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1375 Novyi Vavilon; 8?; Potomok Chingis-Khan; Public Enemy; Roma, città aperta; Young Mr. Lincoln. HARRIS, Ann. Essayist. Doctoral student in cinema studies, New York University. Essays: Im Lauf der Zeit; Die M?rder sind unter uns; Salvatore Giuliano. HECK-RABI, Louise. Essayist. Freelance writer. Public and special librarian, 1955–70. Author of Women Filmmakers: A Critical Recep- tion, 1983. Died 1995. Essay: La Coquille et le clergyman. HEENAN, Patrick. Essayist. Lecturer in European history and politics at Kobe Institute; English teacher and adviser at schools in Osaka, Marugame, Kagawa-ken, and Tokyo, 1981–85. Researcher and writer for International Directory of Company Histories, 1990–91; The International Dictionary of Historic Places, since 1993; Encarta, since 1994; and Great Illustrated Encyclopedia, since 1995. Essays: Bab el hadid; Narayama bushi-ko; Zangiku monogatari; Zerkalo. HENRY, Catherine. Essayist. Director of college publications, University of Chicago, since 1980. Essays: The African Queen; M; Orfeu Negro. HIGSON, Andrew. Essayist. Lecturer in ?lm studies, University of East Anglia. On the editorial board of Screen. Author of Cinema, 1988; and numerous articles on British Cinema. Essays: The Blue Lamp; Gregory’s Girl; Saturday Night and Sunday Morning; Tom Jones. HILL, John. Essayist. Senior lecturer in media studies, University of Ulster. Author of Sex, Class and Realism: British Cinema 1956–63, 1986; and co-author, Cinema and Ireland, 1987. Essays: A Hard Day’s Night; Odd Man Out. HIRANO, Kyoko. Essayist. Film program coordinator, Japan Soci- ety, New York, since 1986. Editor, Cinéma Gras, Tokyo, 1977–79; and contributor to Cineaste and Theater Craft. Essays: Entotsu no mieru basho; Jujiro; Koshikei; Samma no aji; Shonen. HOLDSTEIN, Deborah H. Essayist. Assistant professor of English, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, since 1980. Essays: Black- mail; Easy Rider; The 39 Steps. HOPEWELL, John. Adviser. Film critic; bureau chief in Spain, Moving Pictures International. HORTON, Andrew. Adviser and essayist. Professor of ?lm, screenwriting, and literature at Loyola University in New Orleans. Author of numerous books, including The Zero Hour: Glasnost and Soviet Cinema in Transition (with Michael Brashinsky); Comedy/ Cinema/Theory, Writing the Character Centered Screenplay; and The Films of George Roy Hill. Screenwriter of Something in Between, 1985; and Virgina, 1991. Member of editorial board of numerous ?lm journals; series editor for ‘‘Film Handbooks’’ series, for Cambridge University Press. Essays: Dom za vesanje; Thelma and Louise; O Thiasos. HUTCHINGS, Peter. Essayist. Lecturer in ?lm studies, Department of Historical and Critical Studies, Newcastle Polytechnic. Essays: Dead of Night; The Masque of the Red Death; Repulsion. IORDANOVA, Dina. Essayist. Contributing editor, BFI’s Compan- ion to Eastern European and Russian Cinema; works in the ?eld of Balkan cinema and transnational ?lm. Essays: Angi Vera; Journey of Hope; Underground; To Vlemma Tou Odyssea. JAMES, Nick. Essayist. Freelance writer. Essay: Guling jie shaonian sha ren shijian. JOHNSON, Timothy. Essayist. Freelance writer, Los Angeles, since 1978. Editor and co-compiler, Crime Fiction Criticism: An Annotated Bibliography, 1981; author of Celluloid Egghead: Hollywood’s Por- trayal of the Intellectual, 1984. Essay: Jigokumon. KAMINSKY, Stuart M. Essayist. Professor of ?lm, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. Author of Don Siegel, Director, 1973; Clint Eastwood, 1974; American Film Genres, 1977; John Huston, Maker of Magic, 1978; Coop: The Life and Legend of Gary Cooper, 1980; co-author, Basic Filmmaking, 1981; and American Television Genres, 1985; co-author (with Mark Walker) of Writing for Televi- sion, 1988. Editor of Ingmar Bergman: Essays in Criticism, 1975. Also a novelist: works include Murder on the Yellow Brick Road, 1978; He Done Her Wrong, 1983; A Cold Red Sunrise, 1988; Buried Caesars, 1989; and Blood and Rubles, 1996. Essays: Il Buono, il brutto, il cattivo; High Noon; Invasion of the Body Snatchers; The Maltese Falcon; The Treasure of the Sierra Madre. KANOFF, Joel E. Essayist. Lecturer in the visual arts, Princeton University, New Jersey, since 1983. Essays: Ladri di biciclette; Ossessione; I Vitelloni. KARANOVI?, Srdjan. Adviser. Professor of ?lm, Wesleyan Uni- versity, Middletown, Connecticut. KARNEY, Robyn. Adviser. London-based freelance writer, critic, and editor specializing in ?lm subjects; editor-in-chief of The Chroni- cle of the Cinema, 1995, 1998; co-author, The Faber Foreign Film Guide, 1993; author of A Star Danced: The Life of Audrey Hepburn, 1995; A Singular Man: Burt Lancaster, 1998; and numerous other publications. KEHR, Dave. Essayist. Film critic, Chicago Tribune, since 1986. Essays: Playtime; Shichinin no samurai; Les Vacances de Monsieur Hulot. KEMP, Philip. Adviser and essayist. London-based freelance re- viewer and ?lm historian; contributor to Sight and Sound, Variety, and Film Comment. Author of Lethal Innocence: The Cinema of Alexander Mackendrick, 1991; and of a forthcoming biography of Michael Balcon. Essays: Aranyer din Ratri; The Asphalt Jungle; Casque d’or; The Conversation; The Dead; Du Ri?? chez les hommes; Fargo; He Liu; Le Jour se lève; Kind Hearts and Coronets; Korol Lir; Kwaidan; The Lavender Hill Mob; The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp; Lone Star; Ningen no joken; Ride the High Country; La Ronde; Seppuku; Shakespeare in Love; Sommarnattens leende; Souf?e au coeur; Thérèse Desqueyroux; Trainspotting; Trouble in Paradise. KHANNA, Satti. Adviser and essayist. Research associate, Center for South and Southeast Asia Studies, University of California, Berkeley, since 1976. Author of Indian Cinema and Indian Life, 1980. Essays: The Apu Trilogy; Do bigha zamin. KINSEY, Tammy. Essayist. Assistant Professor of Film, University of Toledo, Ohio, since 1997; made her ?rst ?lm at the age of eight; M.F.A. in Filmmaking, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1996. Essay: Garam Hawa. NOTES ON ADVISERS AND CONTRIBUTORS FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1376 KOVáCS, Katherine Singer. Essayist. Assistant professor, Depart- ment of comparative literature, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. Editor, Humanities in Society; member of the executive committee, The Quarterly Review of Film Studies. Author of Le Reve et la Vie: A Theatrical Experiment by Gustave Flaubert, 1981. Died 1989. Essays: Muerte de un ciclista; El Verdugo. KUPFERBERG, Audrey E. Essayist. Film historian, appraiser, and archivist. Co-author of Angela Lansbury: A Life on Stage and Screen, 1996; The John Travolta Scrapbook, 1997; and Meet the Mertzes, 1999. Lecturer, University at Albany. Contributing editor of Leonard Maltin’s Family Film Guide. Contributor to Women Filmmakers & Their Films and The Whole Film Sourcebook. Film consultant to the Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum at Bowdoin College. Former direc- tor, Yale University Film Study Center. Former assistant director, the National Center for Film and Video Preservation at the American Film Institute. Former project director, the American Film Institute Catalog. Essays: Cyrano de Bergerac; Flaming Creatures; Once Upon a Time in America. LAMONTAGNE, Monique. Essayist. Research and writer for In- ternational Directory of Company Histories, 1990–91; International Dictionary of Historic Places, since 1993; Encarta, since 1994. Part- time researcher and language adviser for publications on international economics. Essays: 1900 (Novecento); Otac na sluzbenom putu. LANZA, Joseph. Essayist. Freelance writer. Author of Fragile Geometry: The Films Philosophy and Misadventures of Nicolas Roeg, 1989. Contributor to Christopher Street, ReSearch, and High Times. Essays: The Bride of Frankenstein; Frankenstein. LARSEN, Susan K. Adviser. Assistant Professor of Russian Litera- ture, University of California, San Diego. Author of Reading and Writing Girlhood in Late Imperial Russia, forthcoming; and many articles on Russian ?lm and popular culture. Former chair of the Working Group on Cinema and Television in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. LEAB, Daniel. Essayist. Film critic and historian, New York City. Essays: Cross?re; I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang. LEE, Sharon. Essayist. Formerly public information director, Wis- consin Arts Board, Madison. Essays: Chelovek s kinoapparatom; Le Joli Mai. LIMBACHER, James L. Essayist. Audio-visual librarian, Dear- born, Michigan Department of Libraries, 1955–83; national presi- dent, American Federation of Film Societies, 1962–65; and Educa- tional Film Library Association, 1966–70; host of television series Shadows on the Wall and The Screening Room. Author of Four Aspects of the Film, 1968; Film Music: From Violins to Video, 1974; Haven’t I Seen You Somewhere Before, 1979; Sexuality in World Cinema, 1983; and Feature Films on 8mm, 16mm, and Video, 7 editions. Essay: The Informer. LIPPE, Richard. Essayist. Lecturer in ?lm at Atkinson College, York University, Ontario. On the editorial board of CineAction and contributor to Movie. Essays: All That Heaven Allows; The Apart- ment; Breakfast at Tiffany’s; The Mis?ts. LOCKHART, Kimball. Essayist. Member of the faculty, Depart- ment of Romance Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. Founding editor, Enclitic, 1977–80. Member editorial board, Diacritics, Cornell University, since 1978. Essay: Professione: Reporter. LORENZ, Janet E. Essayist. Associate editor and ?lm critic Z Channel magazine, since 1984. Assistant supervisor, University of Southern California Cinema Research Library, Los Angeles, 1979–82; and ?lm critic, SelecTV Magazine, 1980–84. Essays: La Battaglia di Algeri; The Last Picture Show; Morte a Venezia; The Thin Man. LOVELL, Glenn. Essayist. Recent National Arts Journalism Fel- low; ?lm critic, San Jose Mercury News and Knight-Ridder Newspa- pers; teaches ?lm history and esthetics at universities throughout the Bay Area, and does weekly ?lm commentary for KGO-radio in San Francisco; contributed articles on ?lm to the Los Angeles Times, Variety, Washington Post, and other papers; contributor to Tender Comrades: A Backstory of the Hollywood Blacklist, 1997. Essay: Detour. LOWRY, Ed. Essayist. Formerly assistant professor of ?lm studies, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. Contributor to various ?lm periodicals. Died 1987. Essays: Angst essen Seele auf; Chelsea Girls; Scorpio Rising; The Searchers; The Sweet Smell of Success; White Heat. MacCANN, Richard Dyer. Essayist. Professor of ?lm, University of Iowa, Iowa City, 1970–1986, emeritus professor, since 1986. Editor, Cinema Journal, 1967–76. Author of Hollywood in Transition, 1962; The People’s Films: A Political History of U.S. Government Motion Pictures, 1973; The First Tycoons, 1987; and The First Film Makers, 1989. Editor of Film and Society, 1964; Film: A Montage of Theories, 1966; The New Film Index, 1975; and Cinema Examined, 1982. Essay: The River. MACDONALD, Andrew. Essayist. Associate professor of English at Loyola University, New Orleans. Ph.D. in English from the University of Texas at Austin. Co-author of text for bi-lingual writing students, Mastering Writing Essentials; has written on popular cul- ture concerns. Author of book on Howard Fast. Essays: Das Boot; Moskva slezam ne verit; Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios; Picnic at Hanging Rock; Unforgiven; Yojimbo. MACDONALD, Gina. Essayist. Ph.D. in English from the Univer- sity of Texas at Austin. Co-author of text for bi-lingual writing students, Mastering Writing Essentials; contributor of numerous articles and dictionary/encyclopedia entries about detective ?ction, popular ?ction, popular culture, and ?lm to various presses. Has written two books for Greenwood Press on James Clavell and on Robert Ludlum. Essays: Das Boot; Moskva slezam ne verit; Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios; Picnic at Hanging Rock; Unforgiven; Yojimbo. MACNAB, G. C. Essayist. Freelance writer, researcher, and ?lmmaker, London. Author of J. Arthur Rank and the British Film Industry, 1993. Essays: Andrei Rublev; Distant Voices, Still Lives; Offret. MANCINI, Elaine. Essayist. Has taught ?lm at the College of Staten Island, and at St. John’s University, New York. Author of The Free Years of the Italian Film Industry, 1930–1935, 1981; Struggles of the Italian Film Industry during Fascism, 1930–1935, 1985; and Luchino Visconti: A Guide to References and Resources, 1986. Essays: L’Albero degli zoccoli; I Pugni in tasca; Rocco e i suoi fratelli. NOTES ON ADVISERS AND CONTRIBUTORSFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1377 MANVELL, Roger. Essayist. University professor and professor of ?lm, Boston University. Director, British Film Academy, London, 1947–59, and a governor and head of the Department of Film History, London Film School, until 1974; Bingham Professor of the Humani- ties, University of Louisville, 1973. Editor, Penguin Film Review, 1946–49, and the Pelican annual The Cinema, 1950–52; associate editor, New Humanist, 1968–75; and member of the board of direc- tors, Rationalist Press, London, since 1966; editor-in-chief, Interna- tional Encyclopedia of Film, 1972. Vice-chairman, National Panel of Film Festivals, British Council, London, 1976–78. Author of Film, 1944; The Animated Film, 1954; The Film and the Public, 1955; On the Air, 1955; The Technique of Film Music, 1957, 1976; The Technique of Film Animation, with John Halas, 1959; The Living Screen, 1961; Design in Motion, with John Halas, 1962; What Is a Film?, 1965; New Cinema in Europe, 1966; This Age of Communica- tion, 1967; New Cinema in U.S.A., 1968; New Cinema in Britain, 1969; Art Movement, 1970; The German Cinema, with Heinrich Fraenkel, 1971; Shakespeare and the Film, 1971; Films and the Second World War, 1975; Love Goddesses of the Movies, 1975; Theatre and Film, 1979; Art and Animation: Halas and Batchelor, 1940–1980; Ingmar Bergman, 1980; also author of novels, biogra- phies of theatrical personalities, and of personalities of the Third Reich. Died 1987. Essays: Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testa- ment des Dr. Mabuse; Det Sjunde inseglet; Smultronst?llet; Tystnaden. MARCHETTI, Gina. Essayist. Associate professor, University of Maryland, College Park. Author of Romance and the ‘‘Yellow Peril’’: Race, Sex, and Discursive Strategies in Hollywood Fiction, 1993. Staff editor of Jump Cut. Essays: W.R.: Mysterije Organizma; Wutai jiemei. MAST, Gerald. Essayist. Formerly professor of English and general studies in the humanities, University of Chicago. Member of the faculty, Richmond College, New York, 1967–78. Author of A Short History of the Movies, 1971, 3rd edition 1981; The Comic Mind: Comedy and the Movies, 1974, 1979; Film/Cinema/Movie: A Theory of Experience, 1977, 1982; and Howard Hawks, Storyteller, 1982; editor, with Marshall Cohen, of Film Theory and Criticism: Introduc- tory Readings, 1974, 1979; editor of The Movies in Our Midst: Documents in the Cultural History of Film in America, 1982. Died 1987. Essays: The Gold Rush; The Great Dictator; The Kid; Red River; Scarface: The Shame of a Nation. McCAFFREY, Donald W. Essayist. Professor of English, Univer- sity of North Dakota, Grand Forks, since 1960. Author of Four Great Comedians: Chaplin, Lloyd, Keaton, and Langdon, 1968; The Golden Age of Sound Comedy: Comic Films and Comedians of the Thirties, 1973; and Three Classic Silent Film Comedies of Harold Lloyd, 1976. Editor of Focus on Chaplin, 1971. Essay: The Music Box. McCARTY, John. Essayist. Supervising writer and co-director of The Fearmakers: Screen Masters of Suspense and Terror, a video documentary series based on his 1994 book of the same name; author of numerous books on ?lm, including Splatter Movies: Breaking the Last Taboo of the Screen, 1984; The Modern Horror Film: 50 Contemporary Classics, 1990; John McCarty’s Of?cial Splatter Movie Guide, Vols. 1 and 2, 1989, 1992; and Hollywood Gangland, 1993. Essays: The Big Parade; Blade Runner; Chinatown; Double Indemnity; Faces; The Godfather Trilogy; Heavenly Creatures; Howards End; Lawrence of Arabia; The Night of the Hunter; North by Northwest; The Player; Pulp Fiction; Das Tagebuch einer Verlorenen; Tampopo. McCLUSKEY, Audrey T. Adviser. Director of the Black Film Center/Archive and associate professor of Afro-American Studies, Indiana University-Bloomington; specializes in education, gender, and cultural studies; co-editor, with Elaine M. Smith, Mary McLeod Bethune: Building a Better World, 2000. McELHANEY, Joe. Essayist. Freelance ?lm critic, New York. Essay: Mean Streets. MERHAUT, Vacláv. Essayist. Film historian and member of staff, Film Archives of Czechoslovakia, Prague. Author of Actors and Actresses of the Italian Cinema; co-author (with Karel Caslavsky) of Hvezdy Ceskeho Filmu, 1995. Essays: Noz w wodzie; Valahol Europaban. MERRITT, Russell. Essayist. Professor, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Essays: Broken Blossoms; Intolerance. MICHAELS, Lloyd. Essayist. Professor of English and chairman of the English Department, Allegheny College, Meadville, Pennsylva- nia. Editor, Film Criticism, since 1977. Author of Elia Kazan: A Guide to References and Resources, 1985. Essay: La Dentellière. MILICIA, Joseph. Essayist. Professor of English, University of Wisconsin, Sheboygan; writes about ?lm and literature for such periodicals as Multicultural Review and The New York Review of Science Fiction. Essays: L’Année dernière &agrave Marienbad; Babettes Gaestebud; Der Himmel Uber Berlin; Diva; The General; Le Mépris. MILLER, Norman. Essayist. Library administrator and freelance writer, London. Author of Toontown: A Study of the Hollywood Cartoon; and contributor to FSM and Marxism Today. Essay: Twelve Angry Men. MONTY, Ib. Adviser and essayist. Director of Det Danske Film museum, Copenhagen, since 1960. Literary and ?lm critic for the newspaper Morgenavisen Jyllands-Posten, since 1958. Editor-in- chief of the ?lm periodical Kosmorama, 1960–67; member, Danish Film Council, 1965–69. Author of Leonardo da Vinci, 1953; editor, with Morten Piil, Se-det er ?lm I-iii (anthology of articles on ?lm), 1964–66; and TV-Broadcasts on Films and Filmmakers, 1972. Es- says: Der var engang en krig; Gertrud; La Passion de Jeanne d’Arc; Sult; Vredens dag. MORRIS, Gary. Adviser. Editor and publisher, Bright Lights ?lm journal, formerly print, now online as brightlights?lm.com. Author of Roger Corman, 1985. Regular ?lm critic for Bay Area Reporter and San Francisco Weekly and author of numerous articles for various American and Italian newspapers, magazines, ?lm festival catalogs, and online journals. MOTT, Donald R. Essayist. Professor, academic dean, and coordi- nator of communications/public relations, Huron Yniversity Tokyo, Tokyo, since 1994. Associate professor at colleges and universities, including Western Kentucky University, Xavier University of New Orleans, and Butler University. Author of Steven Spielberg, 1986. Film and video review editor, Southern Quarterly, 1987–94. Con- tributor of articles and reviews to numerous publications. Publisher and co-editor of Metairie magazine. Essays: Midnight Express; Schindler’s List. NOTES ON ADVISERS AND CONTRIBUTORS FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1378 MRAZ, John. Essayist. Researcher in graphic history, Center for Historical Research on the Labor Movement, University of Puebla, Mexico, since 1984. Visiting professor of history, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1988. Coordinator of graphic history, Center for the Historical Study of the Mexican Labor Movement, 1982–83. Contributor to Jump Cut. Essays: De cierta manera; La Hora de los hornos; Memorias del subdesarrollo; La Primera carga al machete; Los Redes; Retrato de Teresa. MURPHY, Robert. Essayist. Lecturer in ?lm studies at Shef?eld City Polytechnic. Author of Realism and Tinsel, 1989; and Sixties British Cinema, 1992. Essays: Great Expectations; Victim. MURPHY, William T. Essayist. Chief, Motion Picture, Sound and Video Branch, National Archives, Washington, D.C., since 1976. Author of Robert Flaherty: A Guide to References and Resources, 1978. Essays: Louisiana Story; Nanook of the North. NARDUCY, Ray. Essayist. Film critic and historian, Chicago. Essays: The Adventures of Robin Hood; From Here to Eternity. NASTAV, Dennis. Essayist. Critic and documentary ?lmmaker. Essay: Lola Montès. NEWMAN, Kim. Essayist. Freelance writer and broadcaster. Author of Nightmare Movies, 1988. Contributor to Monthly Film Bulletin, Sight and Sound, and City Limits; and ?lm critic for Box Of?ce on Channel 4, London. Also a writer of ?ction. Essays: The Big Heat; Blue Velvet; Eraserhead; Espiritu de la colmena; Gilda; Mildred Pierce; The Rocky Horror Picture Show; The Texas Chainsaw Massacre; Les Yeux sans visage. NISSEN, Dan. Adviser and essayist. Deputy Curator, 1988–1998; Head of Department Archive & Cinematheque, since 1998; Danish Film Institute. Teacher of ?lm and literature, 1978–88; ?lm critic for the daily newspaper Information, since 1976; editor of the ?lm periodical Kosmorama, since 1988; contributor to several books and dictionaries on ?lm. Essays: Breaking the Waves; Festen; Idioterne; My Name is Joe; Smoke. OBALIL, Linda J. Essayist. Assistant, Special Effects Unit, Dream- scape, Bruce Cohn Curtis Productions/Bella Productions, since 1983. Essays: Gycklarnas afton; King Kong; Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs; Steamboat Willie. O’LEARY, Liam. Essayist. Film viewer, Radio Tele?s Eireann, Dublin, 1966–86. Director, Liam O’Leary Film Archives, Dublin, since 1976. Producer, Abbey Theatre, 1944. Director of the Film History Cycle at the National Film Theatre, London, and Acquisitions Of?cer, National Film Archive, London, 1953–66; co-founder, 1936, and honorary secretary, 1936–44, Irish Film Society. Director of the ?lms, Our Country, 1948; Mr. Careless, 1950; and Portrait of Dublin, 1951. Author of Invitation to the Film, 1945; The Silent Cinema, 1965; Rex Ingram, Master of the Silent Cinema, 1980; and Cinema Ireland, 1896–1950, 1990. Died 1992. Essays: A nous la liberté; Brief Encounter; Cabiria; Un Chapeau de paille d’Italie; Erotikon; Fièvre; The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse; Herr Arnes Pengar; Kameradschaft; La Kermesse héroique; Die Nibelungen; Proshchanie; Schatten. ORMAN, Tom. Essayist. Instructor in Department of English, University of Toronto. Regular contributor to CineAction. Essay: GoodFellas. OTTER, Kelly. Essayist. Teacher and administrator, New York University. Doctoral candidate in arts and humanities. Essays: Chapayev; Kommisar; Malenkaya Vera. PALMER, R. Barton. Essayist. Calhoun Lemon Professor of Litera- ture and Director of the South Carolina Film Institute, Clemson University; books include Hollywood’s Dark Cinema, Perspectives on Film Noir, and Joseph Mankiewicz: A Bibliographical and Criti- cal Study. Essays: Black Sunday; The Deer Hunter; Gojira; Der Letze Mann. PASKIN, Sylvia. Essayist. Freelance ?lm critic, London. Contribu- tor to Monthly Film Bulletin. Essays: Cria cuervos . . . ; The Draughts- man’s Contract; Judex; My Brilliant Career; Yeelen. PATTERSON, Hannah. Essayist. Freelance ?lm critic; part-time Research and Editorial Assistant, Wall?ower Press. Essay: Funny Games. PE?A, Richard. Essayist. Director, New York Film Festival. For- merly director, Film Centre at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. Essay: Fukushu suru wa ware ni ari. PERCIVAL, Kris. Essayist. Freelance writer. Essays: Letyat zhuravli; Les Nuits fauves. PETLEY, Julian. Adviser and essayist. Freelance writer and critic, London. Contributor to Monthly Film Bulletin and Sight and Sound, and to All Our Yesterdays: 90 Years of British Cinema, 1986; and The BFI Companion to the Western, 1988. Essays: Der Amerikanische freund; Belle de jour; Die Bleierne Zeit; La Caduta degli dei; C’est arrivé près de chez vous; Cristo si e fermato a Eboli; Csillagosok, katonák; Il Gattopardo; Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat; Idi i smotri; The Lost Weekend; Mona Lisa; Raging Bull; A Room with a View; Le Samourai; Sans Soleil; The Servant; The Spanish Earth; Stromboli. PETRIE, Duncan. Essaysist. Research of?cer at the British Film Institute, London. Author of Creativity and Constraint in the British Film Industry, 1991. Essays: Black Narcissus; The Douglas Trilogy. PHILLIPS, Gene D., S.J. Essayist. Professor of English, Loyola University, Chicago, since 1970. Contributing editor, Literature/Film Quarterly, since 1977. Author of several books, including Heming- way and Film, 1980; George Cukor, 1982; Alfred Hitchcock, 1984; Fiction, Film, and F. Scott Fitzgerald, 1986; Fiction, Film, and Faulkner, 1988; Major Film Directors of the American and British Cinema, 1990; and Conrad and Cinema, 1995. Essays: Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb; Midnight Cowboy; Strangers on a Train; 2001: A Space Odyssey. PICKARD, Christopher. Adviser. Latin American bureau chief, Moving Pictures International. Author of Rio: The Insider’s Guide and Sao Paolo: The Insider’s Guide. Editor of Riohfe, Brazil Travel Update. PILLAI, A. Essayist. Screenwriter and journalist. Essays: All about Eve; Cabaret; Laura; The Piano; A Place in the Sun; Triumph des Willens; West Side Story. PILOWSKY, Marion. Essayist. Head of acquisitions for cable movie channels, Showtime and Encore. Head of programme planning for Bravo Television, London. Currently completing M.A. in ?lm and television studies at the University of Westminster. Essays: Bad- lands; Spoorloos. NOTES ON ADVISERS AND CONTRIBUTORSFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1379 POAGUE, Leland. Essayist. Professor of English, Iowa State Uni- versity, Ames, since 1978. Author of The Cinema of Frank Capra: An Approach to Film Comedy, 1975; The Cinema of Ernst Lubitsch: The Hollywood Films, 1978; Howard Hawks, 1982; and co-author, Film Criticism: A Counter Theory, 1982. Co-editor of A Hitchcock Reader, 1986. Essays: Bonnie and Clyde; Chimes at Midnight; Citizen Kane; Fury; Out of the Past; Psycho; Les Quatre cents coups; They Live By Night; The Third Man. POLAN, Dana B. Adviser. Professor of Critical Studies, School of Cinema-TV, University of Southern California. Author of Pulp Fiction (BFI Modern Classics), In a Lonely Place (BFI Film Clas- sics), two other books, and numerous essays on ?lm and cultural studies; former president of the Society for Cinema Studies. Essay: Cat People. PORTON, Richard. Essayist. Graduate student in ?lm studies, New York University. Essays: Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000; Lucia. RABINOVITZ, Lauren. Essayist. Associate professor of American studies and communication studies, University of Iowa, since 1986. Essays: Adam’s Rib; Bringing Up Baby; Gertie the Dinosaur; His Girl Friday; It Happened One Night; Meshes of the Afternoon; Nashville; Now Voyager; The Philadelphia Story. RACHEVA, Maria. Essayist. Selector of ?lms for the International Film Festival, Munich, since 1983. Teacher of ?lm history, High School for Cinema, So?a, Bulgaria, 1974–81; editor of the cultural review, Westermanns Monatschefte, Munich, 1981–82. Author of Presentday Bulgarian Cinema, 1970; Nowa fala i nowa powiesc, 1974; Der bulgarische Film, with Klaus Eder, 1977; Andrzej Wajda, with Klaus Eder, 1980; Neostariavashti ?lmi, 1981; and Kino: For and Against, 1986. Essays: Czlowiek z marmuru; Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle; Matka Joanna od aniolow. RAJADHYAKSHA, Ashish. Essayist. Freelance writer. Essays: Akaler sandhane; Bhumika; Duvidha; Elippathayam; Kaagaz ke phool. RANVAUD, Don. Adviser. Producer of ?lms. RAYNS, Tony. Adviser. Film critic for Chinese and Japanese cinema. REYNOLDS, Herbert. Essayist. Historian and project coordinator, Museum of Modern Art Department of Art, New York City, since 1981; Consultant, American Federation of Arts Film Program, since 1982. Member, Curatorial Staff of Film Archive, George Eastman House, Rochester, New York, 1976–81. Essay: Mephisto. ROBSON, Arthur G. Essayist. Professor and chairman, Department of Classics, and professor of comparative literature, Beloit College, Wisconsin, since 1966. Editor of Latin: Our Living Heritage, Book III, 1964; author of Euripides’ ‘‘Electra’’: An Interpretive Commen- tary, forthcoming; and author, with Rodney Farnsworth, of Alexandre Alexeieff and Claire Parker: The Artistry of Animation, forthcoming. Essay: Une Nuit sur le Mont Chauve. ROMNEY, Jonathan. Essayist. Deputy ?lm critic, The Guardian; and regular contributor to New Statesman and Society, and Sight and Sound. Co-editor of Celluloid Jukebox: Popular Music and the Movies since the 1950s. Essays: Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris; Trois Couleurs. ROUTLEDGE, Chris. Essayist. Freelance writer and lecturer in literature and ?lm; published essays on detective ?ction, popular culture, and poetics; eo-editor of Mystery in Children’s Literature, forthcoming. Essays: Becky Sharp; C’era una volta il west; Gun Crazy; JFK; Secrets and Lies; The Star Wars Saga. RUBINSTEIN, Elliot. Essayist. Coordinator of the Program in Cinema Studies, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, since 1968. Author of Filmguide to ‘‘The General,’’ 1973. Died 1988. Essay: She Done Him Wrong. SAELI, Marie. Essayist. Adjunct faculty in English and the Humani- ties, Triton Community College, River Grove, Illinois, since 1983. Free-lance ?lm reviewer. Essays: Alexander Nevsky; Oktiabr. SALVAGE, Barbara. Essayist. Researcher, Circulating Film Cata- logue Project, Museum of Modern Art, New York, since 1982. Essays: Die Büchse der Pandora; Stachka. SAVAGE, Stephanie. Essayist. Instructor at University of Iowa. Ph.D. candidate at University of Iowa. Awarded 1996 Seashore Fellowship in the Humanities. Contributor to Film History and No Angels: Women Who Commit Violence. Essay: Written on the Wind. SCHADE, Curtis. Essayist. Director of Admissions, Westover School, Connecticut. Essay: La Noire de. . . . SCHILD, Susana. Essayist. Journalist specializing in movies; ?lm critic for Jornal do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, for twenty years. Director of Cinemateca of the Museum of Modern Art of Rio de Janeiro, since 1993. Essays: Bye Bye Brasil; O Cangaceiro; Deus e o diabo na terra do sol; Dona Flor e seus dois maridos; Limite; Pixote a lei do mais fraco; Vidas secas. SCHNEIDER, Steven. Essayist. Ph.D. student in Philosophy at Harvard University, and in Cinema Studies at New York University; has written on horror ?lms for Post Script, CineAction, Paradoxa, and Other Voices; contributed to Drive-In Horrors, Violated Bodies: Extreme Film, Horror Film Reader, and Autogedden; editing a collection of essays on psychoanalysis and the horror ?lm, entitled Freud’s Worst Nightmares. Essays: The Blair Witch Project; The Matrix; Shaft; Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song. SCHUTH, H. Wayne. Essayist. Professor of drama and communica- tions, University of New Orleans. Author of Mike Nichols, 1978. Editor of ‘‘Louisiana and Film’’ issue, Southern Quarterly, Fall 1984. Member of the board of trustees of the University Film and Video Foundation. Essays: Giant; The Graduate. SELIG, Michael. Essayist. Assistant professor, University of Ver- mont, since 1983. Contributor to Film Reader, Jump-Cut, and Journal of Popular Film and Television. Essay: Salt of the Earth. SELLARS, Lee. Essayist. Worked with technical department of the National Film Theatre and Museum of the Moving Image, London. President of the Australian Theatrical and Amusement Employees Association, 1986–89. Essays: Die Blechtrommel; Dawandeh. SHIELDS, Paul. Adviser. Director of The Box Of?ce, a London- based ?lm and TV consultancy with clients including Bravo. SHOCHAT, Ella. Essayist. Freelance writer, New York. Essay: Xala. NOTES ON ADVISERS AND CONTRIBUTORS FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1380 SICKELS, Robert. Essayist. Assistant Professor of Film, English Department, Whitman College, Washington; teaches a wide variety of ?lm courses; has published articles and reviews in Film & History, Popular Culture Review, Journal of Popular Culture, and on H-NET; Film and Television Review Editor, Film & History. Essays: Ameri- can Beauty; Do the Right Thing; L.A. Con?dential. SIEGLOHR, Ulrike. Essayist. Film lecturer and writer, London. Essay: Hitler: Ein Film aus Deutschland. SILET, Charles L. P. Essayist. Professor of English, Iowa State University, Ames, since 1979. Author of Lindsay Anderson: A Guide to References and Resources, 1979. Contributor to Quarterly Review of Film, Film Heritage, and Magill’s Cinema Annual. Essays: The Lady Vanishes; Letter from an Unknown Woman; Paisà; Une Partie de campagne; Le Procès. SIMMON, Scott. Essayist. Film programmer, Mary Pickford Thea- tre, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., since 1983. Contributor to Film Comment, Journal of Popular Film and Video, and Literature/ Film Quarterly; and co-author of King Vidor—American, 1989. Essays: Hallelujah; Vertigo. SITNEY, P. Adams. Essayist. Lecturer, Princeton University. For- merly Director of Library and Publications, Anthology Film Archives. Author of Film Culture Reader, 1970; Visionary Film, 1974; The Avant-Garde Film, 1978; Modernist Montage: The Obscurity of Vision in Cinema and Literature, 1990; and Visual Crises in Italian Cinema, 1995. Essays: Amor de perdic?o; La dolce vita; L’Eclisse; Fanny och Alexander; Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles; Menilmontant; La Notte; Persona; Rear Window; Viskningar och rop; Wavelength. ?KVORECKY, Josef. Essayist. Professor of English and ?lm, University of Toronto, Canada, since 1969. Author of All the Bright Young Men and Women: A Personal History of the Czech Cinema, 1972; and Jiri Menzel and the History of ‘‘Closely Watched Trains,’’ 1982. Works as novelist include Miss Silver’s Past, 1975; The Bass Saxophone, 1977; The Engineer of Human Souls, 1984; and The Miracle Game, 1990. Essay: Jud Süss. SLIDE, Anthony. Essayist. Freelance writer. Associate ?lm archivist, American Film Institute, 1972–75; resident ?lm historian, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, 1975–80. Author and editor of more than 50 books on the history of popular entertainment, including The Films of D. W. Grif?th, 1975; The American Film Industry: A Historical Dictionary, 1986; Nitrate Won’t Wait: A History of Film Preservation in the United States, 1992; and The Encyclopedia of Vaudeville, 1994. Also editor of the Scarecrow Press ‘‘Filmmakers Series,’’ and a documentary ?lmmaker. Essays: All Quiet on the Western Front; The Jazz Singer; The Phantom of the Opera; The Private Life of Henry VIII. SMALL, Edward S. Essayist. Director of ?lm studies, University of Missouri, Columbia, since 1983. Executive vice president, University Film and Video Association, 1983–86. Author of Direct Theory: Experimental Film/Video as Major Genre, 1994. Essay: Le Ballet mécanique. SMOODIN Eric. Essayist. Doctoral candidate, ?lm studies, Univer- sity of California at Los Angeles. Contributor to Film Studies Annual and Journal of the University Film and Video Association. Essays: Sherlock, Jr.; Sunset Boulevard. SNYDER, Thomas. Essayist. Freelance writer, Chicago. Reviewer for Video Movie Magazine, Chicago. Essays: Close Encounters of the Third Kind; Raiders of the Lost Ark; The Star Wars Saga. STARR, Cecile. Essayist. Freelance writer, lecturer, and ?lmmaker. Film reviewer, The Saturday Review, New York, 1949–59. Author of Discovering the Movies, 1977; and, with Robert Russett, Experimen- tal Animation, 1976. Essays: The Land; Song of Ceylon. STRICK, Philip. Essayist. Freelance critic and lecturer, London, and deputy chairman, FIPRESCI. Formerly head of ?lm distribution, British Film Institute. Author of Science Fiction Movies and Great Movie Actresses. Contributor to Films and Filming, Monthly Film Bulletin, and Film Review. Essays: Brazil; A Clockwork Orange. SULLIVAN, Bob. Essayist. Writer; received a Bachelor of Arts in Creative Writing from Purdue University and attended the University of Southern California graduate ?lm school; postgraduate work at The Actors and Directors Lab under Jack Garfein; formerly ?lm reviewer for the Los Angeles Free Press; author of the B-movie sci-? classic Clonus; contributor, St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. Essay: Exotica. TAVERNETTI, Susan. Essayist. Instructor of Film, De Anza Col- lege, Cupertino, California; ?lm reviewer and writer, Palo Alto Weekly, since 1988; co-author, with Margo Kasdan, of The Critical Eye: An Introduction to Looking at Movies, 1998; author of ‘‘Native Americans in a Revisionist Western: Little Big Man’’ in Hollywood’s Indian: The Portrayal of the Native American in Film, 1997. Essay: Ta’m e Guilass. TEO, Stephen. Essayist. Film critic, journalist, and writer. Program- mer for Yamagata International Documentary Film Festival, 1989, 1991. Author of Hong Kong Cinema. English editor of annual catalogues specialising in studies on Hong Kong cinema, Hong Kong International Film Festival. Contributor, editor, and translator of articles to numerous periodicals. Essays: Dahong denglong gaogao gua; Haizi wang; Xiao cheng zhi chun; Yanzhi kou. THOMAS, Nicholas. Adviser. Editor of second editon, Films, Direc- tors, Actors and Actresses volumes of International Dictionary of Film and Filmmakers. Publications of?cer, British Film Insti- tute, London. TOMASULO, Frank P. Adviser. Professor of Film, Georgia State University; editor, Journal of Film and Video, 1992–97; and Cinema Journal, 1998–2003; author of over 50 scholarly articles and 100 conference papers. TOMLINSON, Doug. Essayist. Associate professor of ?lm studies, Montclair State College, New Jersey. Principal researcher for Voices of Film Experience, edited by Jay Leyda, 1977; editor of Actors on Acting for the Screen, 1994. Died 1992. Essays: American Graf?ti; Annie Hall; The Big Sleep; Un Condamné à mort s’est échappé; Entr’acte; In a Lonely Place; Manhattan; Modern Times; Rebel Without a Cause; Room at the Top; Some Like It Hot. TSAO, Leonardo Garcia. Adviser. Editor of Dicine, the longest- running ?lm magazine in Mexico; ?lm critic for Mexico City newspapers, including Unomásuno, La Jornada, and El Nacional, since 1977; contributor of articles to Film Comment, Sight and Sound, Variety, Moving Pictures, Cine, and Imágenes, among other periodi- cals. Author of books on Orson Welles, Fran?ois Truffaut, Andrei NOTES ON ADVISERS AND CONTRIBUTORSFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1381 Tarkovski, and Sam Peckinpah, as well as a book of interviews with Mexican director Felipe Cazals; author of screenplay for feature ?lm Intimidad (Intimacy), directed by Dana Rotberg. Member of FIPRESCI jury. Teacher of ?lm courses at the Centro de Capacitación Cinematográ?ca and the Universidad Iberoamericana. Creator of TV programs of ?lm criticism in Mexico City. TSIANTIS, Lee. Essayist. Publicist, Twentieth Century Fox, Atlanta, Georgia. Taught ?lm history at University of South Carolina, 1976–78. Research assistant, PBS series Cinematic Eye. Essay: Der Student von Prag. TUDOR, Andrew. Essayist. Head of the Department of Sociology, University of York. Author of Theories of Film: Image and In?uence and Monsters and Mad Scientists. Essays: L’Avventura; Deliver- ance; Hustler; Peeping Tom. TYRKUS, Michael J. Essayist. Independent ?lmmaker, author, and editor. Co-writer and director of over a dozen short ?lms. Writer and editor specializing in biographical and critical reference sources in literature and the cinema. Contributor to numerous references, includ- ing Twentieth-Century Young Adult Writers. Editor of Gay & Lesbian Biography and co-editor of Outstanding Lives: Pro?les of Lesbians and Gay Men. In-house project editor and contributor to the St. James Film Directors Encyclopedia, edited by Andrew Sarris; in-house project editor of the St. James Women Filmmakers Encyclopedia. Co- founder of Lamb-Kiss Productions and founder of CityScene Films. Essays: Dead Ringers; Titanic. URGOSIKOVá, B. Essayist. Film historian. Head of Department of Film History and Cataloguing, Národní ?lmovyarchiv Praha. Author of A Famous Era of the Swedish Cinema, 1969; Rudolph Valentino, 1970; History of Science Fiction Films, 1973, 1982; Remakes, 1977; and Czech Fiction Films, 1995. Essays: Alphaville; Eroica; Kanal; Lásky jedné plavovlásky; Metropolis; Obchod na korze; Ostre sledované vlaky; Popiol i diament; Staré pověsti cěské; Things to Come. VALDEZ, Ralph Anthony. Essayist. Freelance ?lm, music, and art critic for periodicals, including Metro Times, and Orbit. Host of ?lm, music, and art discussion and interview radio program, WDET, Detroit, Michigan. Essay: Rosemary’s Baby. VASUDEVAN, Aruna. Adviser. Editor of Cinemaya: The Asian Film Quarterly. Head of FIPRESCI, India. VASUDEVAN, Ravi. Essayist. Free-lance ?lm critic. Former ?lm critic of The Sunday Observer, Delhi. Essays: Awara; Bharat Mata; Salaam Bombay!. VINCENDEAU, Ginette. Essayist. Lecturer in ?lm studies at the University of Warwick. Co-editor of French Film: Texts and Con- texts, 1989. Essay: The Marius Trilogy. WAKULENKO, Iris. Essayist. Freelance writer. Received Bachelor of Visual Arts from Sydney College of the Arts. Essay: Walkabout. WEES, William C. Essayist. Professor Emeritus, McGill University, Montreal. Editor, Canadian Journal of Film Studies. Author of Light Moving in Time: Studies in the Visual Aesthetics of Avant-Garde Film, 1992; and Recycled Images: The Art and Politics of Found Footage Films, 1993. Essay: Dog Star Man. WELLS, Paul. Essayist. Freelance writer. Essays: Baron Prasil; Life Is Sweet; Passport to Pimlico. WELSH, James Michael. Essayist. Associate professor of English, Salisbury State University. Editor, Literature/Film Quarterly. Author of His Majesty the American: The Films of Douglas Fairbanks, Sr., 1977; Abel Gance, 1978; and Peter Watkins: A Guide to References and Resources, 1986. Essay: Fantasia. WEST, Dennis. Essayist. Associate professor, University of Idaho, Moscow, since 1981. Director, Indiana University Film Studies Program, 1976–77. Contributor on Latin American and Spanish cinema to such journals as Latin American Research Review, Cineaste, New Scholar, and others. Essays: Ant?nio das Mortes; La Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas; Os Fuzis; El Otro Francisco; Yawar Mallku. WHITE, M. B. Essayist. Assistant professor, Department of Radio- TV-Film, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, since 1982. Contributor to Enclitic, Purdue Film Studies Annual, and other periodicals. Essays: A bout de souf?e; Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes; Un Chien andalou; Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach; Hiroshima mon amour; Das Kabinett des Dr. Caligari; Pirosmani; Zéro de conduite. WILLIAMS, Daniel. Essayist. Film critic and lecturer, London. Essays: My Beautiful Laundrette; Paris, Texas. WINNING, Robert. Essayist. Author and ?lm scholar, Pittsburgh. Essays: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde; Ran; The Wizard of Oz. WOOD, Robin. Essayist. Retired; taught Film Studies at Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada, University of Warwick, England, and York University, Toronto, Canada; author of twelve books on ?lm, most recently Hollywood from Vietnam to Reagan, Hitchcock’s Films Revisited, and Sexual Politics and Narrative Film, all published by Columbia University Press, and a monograph on The Wings of the Dove for the British Film Institute; editor of, and regular contributor to, CineAction magazine. Essays: Akasen chitai; And Life Goes On; L’Atalante; Banshun; Boudu sauvé des eaux; Le Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie; City of Sadness; Il Conformista; Days of Heaven; E.T.—The Extraterrestrial; Il Fiore delle mille e una notte; La Grande illusion; Higanbana; Ikiru; The Lady Eve; Meet Me in St. Louis; Naniwa ereji; Nosferatu (1922); Nuit et brouillard; Rashomon; Règle du jeu; Reservoir Dogs; Rio Bravo; Le Sang des bêtes; Sansho dayu; The Scarlet Empress; The Silence of the Lambs; Taxi Driver; Ugetsu monogatari; Viaggio in Italia; Le Weekend. YOUNGBLOOD, Denise J. Essayist. Professor of History, University of Vermont; specialist in Russian silent cinema and the Soviet historical ?lm; has published extensively on these subjects, including The Magic Mirror: Moviemaking in Russia, 1908-1918, 1999; Movies for the Masses: Popular Cinema and Soviet Society in the 1920s, 1992; and Soviet Cinema in the Silent Era, 1918-1935, 1985, 1991. Essays: Pokaianie; Tretia Meshchanskaia. LIST OF FILMS BY DIRECTOR 1385 Tengiz Abuladze Pokaianie Chantal Akerman Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles Robert Aldrich Kiss Me Deadly Alexander Alexeieff Nuit sur le Mont Chauve Marc Allégret Marius Trilogy Woody Allen Annie Hall Manhattan Pedro Almodóvar Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios Todo Sobre Mi Madre Robert Altman M*A*S*H Nashville The Player Gianni Amelio L’America Lindsay Anderson If... Métodi Andonov Koziyat rog Theodoros Angelopoulos O Thiasos Vlemma Tou Odyssea Kenneth Anger Scorpio Rising Michelangelo Antonioni L’Avventura Blow-Up L’Eclisse La Notte Professione: Reporter Gillian Armstrong My Brilliant Career Dorothy Arzner Dance, Girl, Dance Alexander Askoldov Kommisar Claude Autant-Lara Le Diable au corps Gabriel Axel Babettes Gaestebud Hector Babenco Pixote a lei do mais fraco Lloyd Bacon 42nd Street Juan Antonio Bardem Muerte de un Ciclista Bruno Barreto Dona Flor e seus dois maridos Jacques Becker Casque d’or Jean-Jacques Beineix Diva Marco Bellocchio I Pugni in tasca Rémy Belvaux C’est arrivé près de chez vous Shyam Benegal Bhumika Ingmar Bergman Fanny och Alexander Gycklarnas afton Persona Sjunde inseglet Smultronst?llet Sommarnattens leende Tystnaden Viskningar och rop Bernardo Bertolucci 1900 (Novecento) Il Conformista Last Tango in Paris Herbert J. Biberman Salt of the Earth Fernando Birri Tire dié Peter Bogdanovich The Last Picture Show Sergei Bondarchuk Voina i mir André Bonzel C’est arrivé près de chez vous John Boorman Deliverance Danny Boyle Trainspotting Stan Brakhage Anticipation of the Night Dog Star Man Robert Bresson Un Condamné à mort s’est échappé Les Dames du Bois de Boulogne Journal d’un curé de campagne Pickpocket Peter Brook Marat/Sade Tod Browning Dracula (1931) Freaks Clyde Bruckman The General Alf Brustellin Deutschland im Herbst Veljko Bulajic Vlak bez voznog reda Luis Bu?uel L’Age d’or Belle de jour Le Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie Un Chien andalou Los Olvidados Viridiana James Cameron Titanic Jane Campion The Piano Marcel Camus Orfeu Negro Frank Capra It Happened One Night It’s a Wonderful Life Mr. Smith Goes to Washington Why We Fight Henning Carlsen Sult Marcel Carné Les Enfants du paradis Le Jour se lève Quai des brumes John Cassavetes Faces Alberto Cavalcanti Dead of Night Rien que les heures Claude Chabrol Boucher La Femme in?dèle Youssef Chahine Bab el hadid Charles Chaplin City Lights The Gold Rush The Great Dictator The Kid Modern Times Chen Kaige Ba wang bie ji Haizi wang Huang tudi Grigori Chukhrai Balada o soldate LIST OF FILMS BY DIRECTOR FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1386 Michael Cimino The Deer Hunter Souleymane Cissé Yeelen René Clair A nous la liberté Un Chapeau de paille d’Italie Entr’acte Le Million Jack Clayton Room at the Top René Clément La Bataille du rail Jeux interdits Hans Peter Cloos Deutschland im Herbst Henri-Georges Clouzot Les Diaboliques Le Salaire de la peur Jean Cocteau La Belle et la bête Orphée Le Sang d’un poete Joel Coen Fargo Cyril Collard Les Nuits fauves Merian C. Cooper King Kong Francis Ford Coppola Apocalypse Now The Conversation The Godfather Trilogy Roger Corman The Masque of the Red Death Henry Cornelius Passport to Pimlico Constantin Costa-Gavras Z Charles Crichton Dead of Night The Lavender Hill Mob David Cronenberg Dead Ringers Alan Crosland The Jazz Singer George Cukor Adam’s Rib Camille The Philadelphia Story A Star Is Born The Women Michael Curtiz The Adventures of Robin Hood Casablanca Mildred Pierce Sodom und Gomorrha Jules Dassin Du Ri?? chez les hommes The Naked City Terence Davies Distant Voices, Still Lives Ossie Davis Kongi’s Harvest Basil Dearden The Blue Lamp Dead of Night Victim Arthur de Glahs M?rchen vom Glück Louis Delluc Fièvre Jonathan Demme Philadelphia The Silence of the Lambs Manoel de Oliveira Amor de perdic?o Maya Deren Meshes of the Afternoon Louis de Rochemont The March of Time Vittorio de Sica Ladri di biciclette Miracolo a Milano Sciuscia Umberto D Carlos Diegues Bye Bye Brasil Walt Disney Steamboat Willie Edward Dmytryk Cross?re Stanley Donen On the Town Singin’ in the Rain Nelson Pereira dos Santos Vidas secas Bill Douglas The Douglas Trilogy Alexander Dovzhenko Arsenal Zemlya Carl Theodor Dreyer Gertrud La Passion de Jeanne d’Arc Ordet Vampyr Vredens dag Germaine Dulac La Coquille et le clergyman E. A. Dupont Variété Marguerite Duras India Song Guru Dutt Kaagaz ke phool Julien Duvivier Pépé le Moko Clint Eastwood Unforgiven Blake Edwards Breakfast at Tiffany’s Atom Egoyan Exotica Sergei Eisenstein Alexander Nevsky Bronenosets Potemkin Ivan Grozny Oktiabr Stachka Nikolai Ekk Putyovka v zhizn Victor Erice Espiritu de la colmena Rainer Werner Fassbinder Angst essen Seele auf Deutschland im Herbst Ehe der Maria Braun Lola Federico Fellini 8? La dolce vita La strada I Vitelloni Louis Feuillade Judex Les Vampires Jacques Feyder La Kermesse héroique Terence Fisher Dracula (1958) Frances H. Flaherty The Land Robert Flaherty The Land Louisiana Story Man of Aran Nanook of the North LIST OF FILMS BY DIRECTORFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1387 Victor Fleming Gone with the Wind The Wizard of Oz John Ford The Grapes of Wrath The Informer The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance My Darling Clementine The Searchers Young Mr. Lincoln Milo? Forman Lásky jedné plavovlásky One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest Bill Forsyth Gregory’s Girl Piero Fosco Cabiria Bob Fosse Cabaret Georges Franju Le Sang des bêtes Thérèse Desqueyroux Les Yeux sans visage John Frankenheimer Black Sunday Stephen Frears My Beautiful Laundrette Carl Froelich M?dchen in Uniform Pál Gábor Angi Vera Abel Gance J’accuse Napoléon Luis García Berlanga El Verdugo Ritwik Ghatak Meghe dhaka tara Terry Gilliam Brazil Sergio Giral Otro Francisco Wolfgang Glück 38 - Auch das war Wien Jean-Luc Godard A bout de souf?e Alphaville Le Mépris Vivre sa vie Le Weekend Flora Gomes Udju Azul di Yonta Manuel Octavio Gómez La Primera carga al machete Sara Gómez De cierta manera Emilio Gómez Muriel Los Redes Adoor Gopalakrishnan Elippathayam Claude Goretta La Dentellière Heinosuke Gosho Entotsu no mieru basho Joe Grant Fantasia Peter Greenaway The Draughtsman’s Contract John Grierson Drifters D. W. Grif?th The Birth of a Nation Broken Blossoms Intolerance Rajko Grlic Samo jednom se ljubi Ruy Guerra Os Fuzis Val Guest Casino Royale Tomás Gutiérrez Alea Fresa y Chocolate Memorias del subdesarrollo Patricio Guzmán La Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas Robert Hamer Dead of Night Kind Hearts and Coronets David Hand Snow White Michael Haneke Funny Games Curtis Hanson L.A. Con?dential Karl Hartl Der Engel mit der Posaune Howard Hawks The Big Sleep Bringing Up Baby His Girl Friday Red River Rio Bravo Scarface: The Shame of a Nation Werner Herzog Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle Fritz Hippler Der Ewige Jude Alfred Hitchcock The 39 Steps The Birds Blackmail The Lady Vanishes North by Northwest Notorious Psycho Rear Window Strangers on a Train Vertigo Ishir? Honda Gojira Tobe Hooper The Texas Chainsaw Massacre Dennis Hopper Easy Rider Hou Hsiao-Hsien City of Sadness Ken Hughes Casino Royale John Huston The African Queen The Asphalt Jungle Casino Royale The Dead The Maltese Falcon The Mis?ts The Treasure of the Sierra Madre Kon Ichikawa Biruma no tategoto Shohei Imamura Fukushu suru wa ware ni ari Narayama bushi-ko Rex Ingram The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Juzo Itami Tampopo Joris Ivens Nieuwe Gronden The Spanish Earth James Ivory Howards End A Room with a View Peter Jackson Heavenly Creatures Steve James Hoop Dreams LIST OF FILMS BY DIRECTOR FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1388 Miklós Jancsó Csillagosok, katonák Meg ker a nep Humphrey Jennings Fires Were Started Neil Jordan Mona Lisa Rupert Julian The Phantom of the Opera Ján Kadár Obchod na korze Mikhail Kalatozov Letyat zhuravli Soy Cuba Raj Kapoor Awara Srdjan Karanovic Nesto izmedju Mathieu Kassovitz Haine Mani Kaul Duvidha Jerzy Kawalerowicz Matka Joanna od aniolow Elia Kazan East of Eden On the Waterfront A Streetcar Named Desire Buster Keaton The General Sherlock, Jr. William Keighley The Adventures of Robin Hood Gene Kelly On the Town Singin’ in the Rain Irvin Kershner Star Wars Michael Kertész Sodom und Gomorrha Mehboob Khan Bharat Mata Abbas Kiarostami And Life Goes On Ta’m E Guilass Krzysztof Kie?lowski Dekalog Trois Couleurs Teinosuke Kinugasa Jigokumon Jujiro Dimitri Kirsanoff Menilmontant Takeshi Kitano Hana-Bi Palle Kjaerulff-Schmidt Der var engang en krig Elem Klimov Idi i smotri Proshchanie Elmar Klos Obchod na korze Alexander Kluge Deutschland im Herbst Masaki Kobayashi Kwaidan Ningen no joken Seppuku Xavier Koller Journey of Hope Andrei Konchalovsky Istoria Asi Kliachinoi kotoraia lubila da nie vyshla zamuzh Alexander Korda The Marius Trilogy The Private Life of Henry VIII Hirokazu Kore-eda Wandafuru Raifu Grigori Kozintsev Korol Lir The Maxim Trilogy Novyi Vavilon Peter Kubelka Unsere Afrikareise Stanley Kubrick A Clockwork Orange Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb Lolita Paths of Glory 2001: A Space Odyssey Lev Kuleshov Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov Akira Kurosawa Ikiru Ran Rashomon Shichinin no samurai Yojimbo Emir Kusturica Dom za vesanje Otac na sluzbenom putu Underground Stanley Kwan Yanzhi kou Mohammed Lakhdar Hamina Chronique des années de braise Fritz Lang The Big Heat Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse Fury M Metropolis Die Nibelungen Claude Lanzmann Shoah Charles Laughton The Night of the Hunter David Lean Brief Encounter Great Expectations Lawrence of Arabia Spike Lee Do the Right Thing Malcolm X Fernand Léger Le Ballet mécanique Mike Leigh Life Is Sweet Secrets and Lies Sergio Leone Il Buono, il brutto, il cattivo C’era una volta il west Once Upon a Time in America Mervyn LeRoy I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang Little Caesar Richard Lester A Hard Day’s Night Albert Lewin The Picture of Dorian Gray Joseph H. Lewis Gun Crazy Marcel L’Herbier L’ Argent Feu Mathias Pascal Victor Lima Barreto Cangaceiro Miguel Littin Alsino y el Condor Chacal de Nahueltoro Anatole Litvak Why We Fight Ken Loach My Name Is Joe LIST OF FILMS BY DIRECTORFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1389 Pare Lorentz The River Joseph Losey The Servant Ernst Lubitsch Ninotchka Trouble in Paradise George Lucas American Graf?ti Star Wars Sidney Lumet Twelve Angry Men Louis Lumière L’Arroseur arrosé David Lynch Blue Velvet Eraserhead Alexander Mackendrick The Sweet Smell of Success John Madden Shakespeare in Love Maximiliana Mainka Deutschland im Herbst Beate Mainka-Jellinghaus Deutschland im Herbst Dusan Makavejev W.R.: Mysterije Organizma Terrence Malick Badlands Days of Heaven Louis Malle Souf?e au coeur Rouben Mamoulian Becky Sharp Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Joseph L. Mankiewicz All about Eve Chris Marker Le Joli Mai Sans Soleil Richard Marquand Star Wars Leo McCarey Duck Soup Winsor McCay Gertie the Dinosaur Joseph McGrath Casino Royale Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la lune Jean-Pierre Melville Le Samourai Sam Mendes American Beauty Vladimir Menshov Moskva slezam ne verit Ji?í Menzel Ostre sledované vlaky William Cameron Menzies Things to Come Nikita Mikhalkov Outomlionnye solntsem Andrei Mikhalkov-Konchalovsky Siberiade Lewis Milestone All Quiet on the Western Front Vincente Minnelli An American in Paris The Band Wagon Meet Me in St. Louis Kenji Mizoguchi Akasen chitai Naniwa ereji Saikaku ichidai onna Sansho dayu Ugetsu monogatari Zangiku monogatari Edgar Morin Chronique d’un été Terrell O. Morse Gojira Fei Mu Xiao cheng zhi chun Andrzej Munk Eroica F. W. Murnau Der Letze Mann Nosferatu (1922) Sunrise Daniel Myrick The Blair Witch Project Amir Naderi Dawandeh Mira Nair Salaam Bombay Jan Němec O slavnosti a hostech Mike Nichols The Graduate Rashid Nugmanov Igla Laurence Olivier Henry V Ermanno Olmi Albero degli zoccoli Marcel Ophüls La Chagrin et la pitié Max Ophüls Letter from an Unknown Woman Lola Montès Madame de ... La Ronde Nagisa Oshima Ai no corrida Koshikei Shonen Idrissa Ouedraogo Yaaba Yasujiro Ozu Banshun Higanbana Samma no aji Tokyo monogatari G. W. Pabst Die Büchse der Pandora Die Dreigroschenoper Kameradschaft Das Tagebuch einer Verlorenen Marcel Pagnol La Femme du boulanger The Marius Trilogy Alan J. Pakula Klute Sergei Paradzhanov Teni zabytykh predkov Alan Parker Midnight Express Claire Parker Nuit sur le Mont Chauve Gordon Parks Shaft Robert Parrish Casino Royale James Parrott The Music Box Pier Paolo Pasolini Accattone Il Fiore delle mille e una notte Il Vangelo secondo Matteo Giovanni Pastrone Cabiria Zivojin Pavlovic Budjenje pacova Zaseda Sam Peckinpah Ride the High Country LIST OF FILMS BY DIRECTOR FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1390 The Wild Bunch Mario Peixoto Limite Arthur Penn Bonnie and Clyde Wolfgang Petersen Das Boot Alexsandar Petrovic Skuplijaci perja Vasili Pichul Malenkaya Vera Beno?t Poelvoorde C’est arrivé près de chez vous Roman Polanski Chinatown Noz w wodzie Repulsion Rosemary’s Baby Gillo Pontecorvo Battaglia di Algeri Michael Powell Black Narcissus The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp A Matter of Life and Death Peeping Tom The Red Shoes Otto Preminger Laura Emeric Pressburger Black Narcissus The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp A Matter of Life and Death The Red Shoes Vsevolod Pudovkin Konyets Sankt-Peterburga Mat Potomok Chingis-Khan Géza Radványi Valahol Europaban Bob Rafelson Five Easy Pieces Jean-Paul Rappeneau Cyrano de Bergerac Irving Rapper Now Voyager Nicholas Ray In a Lonely Place Johnny Guitar Rebel without a Cause They Live by Night Satyajit Ray The Apu Trilogy Aranyer din Ratri Charulata Jana Aranya Carol Reed Odd Man Out The Third Man Karel Reisz Saturday Night and Sunday Morning Edgar Reitz Deutschland im Herbst Die Heimat; Zweite Heimat Jean Renoir La Bête humaine Boudu sauvé des eaux Le Carrosse d’or Le Crime de Monsieur Lange La Grande illusion Une Partie de campagne Règle du jeu The Southerner Alain Resnais L’Année dernière à Marienbad Hiroshima mon amour Nuit et brouillard Tony Richardson Tom Jones Leni Riefenstahl Olympia Tie?and Triumph des Willens Jacques Rivette Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris Jerome Robbins West Side Story Arthur Robison Schatten Glauber Rocha Ant?nio das Mortes Deus e o diabo na terra do sol Nicolas Roeg Walkabout Abram Room Tretia Meshchanskaia Francesco Rosi Cristo si e fermato a Eboli Salvatore Giuliano Roberto Rossellini Paisà Roma, città aperta Stromboli Viaggio in Italia Robert Rossen All the King’s Men The Hustler Jean Rouch Chronique d’un été Georges Rouquier Farrebique Bimal Roy Do bigha zamin Katja Rupé Deutschland im Herbst Walter Ruttmann Berlin: Die Sinfonie der Grossstadt Stellan Rye Der Student von Prag Leontine Sagan M?dchen in Uniform Walter Salles Central do Brasil Eduardo Sánchez The Blair Witch Project Mark Sandrich Top Hat Jorge Sanjinés Yawar Mallku M.S. Sathyu Garam Hawa Carlos Saura Cria Cuervos ... Claude Sautet Un Coeur en hiver John Sayles Lone Star John Schlesinger Midnight Cowboy Volker Schl?ndorff Die Blechtrommel Deutschland im Herbst Ernest B. Schoedsack King Kong Peter Schubert Deutschland im Herbst Martin Scorsese GoodFellas Mean Streets Raging Bull Taxi Driver Ridley Scott Blade Runner Thelma and Louise Ousmane Sembène Noire de . . . Xala Mrinal Sen Akaler sandhane LIST OF FILMS BY DIRECTORFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1391 Jim Sharman Rocky Horror Picture Show Ben Sharpsteen Fantasia Georgy Shengelaya Pirosmani Lowell Sherman She Done Him Wrong Kaneto Shindo Hadaka no shima Don Siegel Dirty Harry Invasion of the Body Snatchers Bernhard Sinkel Deutschland im Herbst Robert Siodmak The Killers Douglas Sirk All That Heaven Allows Written on the Wind Alf Sj?berg Fr?ken Julie Victor Sj?str?m K?rkalen The Wind George Sluizer Spoorloos Jack Smith Flaming Creatures Michael Snow Wavelength Fernando E. Solanas Hora de los hornos Humberto Solás Lucia Steven Spielberg Close Encounters of the Third Kind E.T.--The Extraterrestrial Jaws Raiders of the Lost Ark Schindler’s List Wolfgang Staudte Die M?rder sind unter uns George Stevens Giant A Place in the Sun Shane Mauritz Stiller Erotikon G?sta Berlings Saga Herr Arnes Pengar Oliver Stone JFK Jean-Marie Straub Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach Preston Sturges The Lady Eve Sullivan’s Travels Hans-Jürgen Syberberg Hitler: Ein Film aus Deutschland István Szabó Mephisto Juan Carlos Tabio Fresa y Chocolate Alain Tanner Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000 Quentin Tarantino Pulp Fiction Reservoir Dogs Andrei Tarkovsky Andrei Rublev Offret Zerkalo Jacques Tati Playtime Les Vacances de Monsieur Hulot Paolo Taviani Kaos Vittorio Taviani Kaos Hiroshi Teshigahara Suna no onna Tian Zhuangzhuang Daoma zei Lan fengzheng Jacques Tourneur Cat People Out of the Past Tran Anh Hung L’Odeur de la papaye verte Leonid Trauberg The Maxim Trilogy Novyi Vavilon Ji?í Trnka Staré povesti ceské Fran?ois Truffaut Jules et Jim Quatre cents coups Tirez sur le pianiste Tsai Ming-liang He Liu Victor Turin Turksib Edgar G. Ulmer Detour Roger Vadim Et ... Dieu créa la femme W. S. Van Dyke The Thin Man Melvin Van Peebles Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song Agnès Varda Cléo de cinq à sept Georgi Vasiliev Chapayev Sergei Vasiliev Chapayev Pastor Vega Retrato de Teresa Anthony Veiller Why We Fight Harlan Veit Jud Süss Dziga Vertov Chelovek s kinoapparatom Kino-Pravda Charles Vidor Gilda King Vidor The Big Parade The Crowd Hallelujah Jean Vigo A propos de Nice Atalante Zéro de conduite Thomas Vinterberg Festen Luchino Visconti La Caduta degli dei Il Gattopardo Morte a Venezia Ossessione Rocco e i suoi fratelli La Terra trema Josef von Sternberg Der Blaue Engel The Devil Is a Woman The Scarlet Empress Erich von Stroheim Foolish Wives Greed Lars von Trier Breaking the Waves Idioterne Margarethe von Trotta Die Bleierne Zeit LIST OF FILMS BY DIRECTOR FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1392 Andy Wachowski The Matrix Larry Wachowski The Matrix Andrzej Wajda Czlowiek z marmuru Kanal Popiol i diament Raoul Walsh High Sierra White Heat Wayne Wang Smoke Andy Warhol Chelsea Girls Peter Weir The Last Wave Picnic at Hanging Rock Orson Welles Chimes at Midnight Citizen Kane The Lady from Shanghai The Magni?cent Ambersons Le Procès A Touch of Evil William Wellman The Public Enemy Wim Wenders Der Amerikanische freund Der Himmel Uber Berlin Im Lauf der Zeit Paris, Texas Lina Wertmüller Film d’amore e d’anarchia James Whale The Bride of Frankenstein Frankenstein Robert Wiene Das Kabinett des Dr. Caligari Billy Wilder The Apartment Double Indemnity The Lost Weekend Some Like It Hot Sunset Boulevard Robert Wise West Side Story Konrad Wolf Sterne Wong Kai-Wai Ahfei zheng zhuan Sam Wood A Night at the Opera Basil Wright Song of Ceylon William Wyler The Best Years of Our Lives The Little Foxes Mrs. Miniver Xie Jin Wutai jiemei Edward Yang Guling jie shaonian sha ren shijian Yang Fengliang Ju Dou Karel Zeman Baron Prasil Zhang Yimou Dahong denglong gaogao gua Ju Dou Qiu Ju da Guansi Red Sorghum Fred Zinnemann From Here to Eternity High Noon Los Redes GEOGRAPHIC INDEX 1395 Algeria Chronique des années de braise Z Argentina Hora de los hornos Tire dié Australia The Last Wave My Brilliant Career The Piano Picnic at Hanging Rock Walkabout Austria 38 - Auch das war Wien Engel mit der Posaune Funny Games M?rchen vom Glück Sodom und Gomorrha Tie?and Unsere Afrikareise Belgium C’est arrivé près de chez vous Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles Bolivia Yawar Mallku Brazil Ant?nio das Mortes Bye Bye Brasil O Cangaceiro Central do Brasil Deus e o diabo na terra do sol Dona Flor e seus dois maridos Os Fuzis Limite Orfeu Negro Pixote a lei do mais fraco Vidas secas Bulgaria Koziyat rog Sterne Burkina Faso Yaaba Canada Dead Ringers Exotica Nanook of the North Chile La Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas Chacal de Nahueltoro China Ba wang bie ji Dahong denglong gaogao gua Daoma zei Haizi wang Huang tudi Ju Dou Lan fengzheng Qiu Ju da Guansi Red Sorghum Wutai jiemei Xiao cheng zhi chun Cuba De cierta manera Fresa y Chocolate Lucia Memorias del subdesarrollo El Otro Francisco La Primera carga al machete Retrato de Teresa Soy Cuba Czechoslovakia Baron Prasil Lásky jedné plavovlásky O slavnosti a hostech Obchod na korze Ostre sledované vlaky Staré povesti ceské Denmark Babettes Gaestebud Breaking the Waves Cristo si e fermato a Eboli Festen Gertrud Idioterne Ordet Sult Vredens dag Egypt Bab el hadid France A bout de souf?e A nous la liberté A propos de Nice L’Age d’or Alphaville L’Année dernière à Marienbad L’Argent L’Arroseur arrosé Atalante Le Ballet mécanique La Bataille du rail Belle de jour La Belle et la bête La Bête humaine Die Blechtrommel Le Boucher Boudu sauvé des eaux Le Carrosse d’or Casque d’or Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris Le Chagrin et la pitié Un Chapeau de paille d’Italie Le Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie Un Chien andalou Chronique d’un été Un Coeur en hiver Un Condamné à mort s’est échappé La Coquille et le clergyman Le Crime de Monsieur Lange Cyrano de Bergerac Les Dames du Bois de Boulogne La Dentellière Le Diable au corps Les Diaboliques Diva La dolce vita Du Ri?? chez les hommes L’Eclisse Les Enfants du paradis Entr’acte Et ... Dieu créa la femme Farrebique La Femme du boulanger La Femme in?dèle Feu Mathias Pascal Fièvre IlFiore delle mille e una notte IlGattopardo La Grande illusion Haine Hiroshima mon amour India Song Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles Jeux interdits Le Joli Mai Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000 Le Jour se lève Journal d’un curé de campagne J’accuse Judex Jules et Jim La Kermesse héroique Last Tango in Paris Lola Montès Mépris Madame de ... The Marius Trilogy Menilmontant Le Million Napoléon Noire de . . . La Notte Nuit et brouillard Nuit sur le Mont Chauve Les Nuits fauves L’Odeur de la papaye verte Offret Orphée 8? GEOGRAPHIC INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1396 Une Partie de campagne La Passion de Jeanne d’Arc Pépé le Moko Pickpocket Playtime Le Procès Professione: Reporter Quai des brumes Les Quatre cents coups Règle du jeu Rien que les heures Rocco e i suoi fratelli La Ronde Salaam Bombay Le Salaire de la peur Le Samourai Le Sang des bêtes Le Sang d’un poete Sans Soleil Shoah Souf?e au coeur Spoorloos Thérèse Desqueyroux Tirez sur le pianiste Todo Sobre Mi Madre Trois Couleurs Les Vacances de Monsieur Hulot Les Vampires Vampyr Il Vangelo secondo Matteo Viaggio in Italia I Vitelloni Vivre sa vie Le Voyage dans la lune Le Weekend Yeux sans visage Z Zéro de conduite Germany Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes Der Amerikanische freund Angst essen Seele auf Berlin: Die Sinfonie der Grossstadt Der Blaue Engel Die Blechtrommel Die Bleierne Zeit Das Boot Die Büchse der Pandora Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach Il Conformista The Dead La Dentellière Deutschland im Herbst Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse Die Dreigroschenoper Ehe der Maria Braun Der Ewige Jude Die Heimat; Zweite Heimat Der Himmel Uber Berlin Hitler: Ein Film aus Deutschland Im Lauf der Zeit Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle Jud Süss Das Kabinett des Dr. Caligari Kameradschaft Der Letze Mann Lola Lola Montès M M?dchen in Uniform Mephisto Metropolis Die M?rder sind unter uns Die Nibelungen Nosferatu (1922) Olympia Paris, Texas Schatten Der Student von Prag Das Tagebuch einer Verlorenen Tie?and Triumph des Willens Variété Greece O Thiasos Vlemma Tou Odyssea Guinea-Bissau Udju Azul di Yonta Hong Kong Ahfei zheng zhuan Ba wang bie ji Dahong denglong gaogao gua Lan fengzheng Qiu Ju da Guansi Yanzhi kou Hungary Angi Vera Csillagosok, katonák Meg ker a nep Mephisto Valahol Europaban India Akaler sandhane Apu Trilogy Aranyer din Ratri Awara Bharat Mata Bhumika Charulata Do bigha zamin Duvidha Elippathayam Garam Hawa Jana Aranya Kaagaz ke phool Meghe dhaka tara Salaam Bombay Iran And Life Goes On Dawandeh Ta’m E Guilass Italy Accattone L’Albero degli zoccoli L’America L’Avventura La Battaglia di Algeri Il Buono, il brutto, il cattivo Cabiria La Caduta degli dei C’era una volta il west Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach Il Conformista Cristo si e fermato a Eboli La dolce vita L’Eclisse Film d’amore e d’anarchia IlFiore delle mille e una notte IlGattopardo Kaos Ladri di biciclette Last Tango in Paris Miracolo a Milano Morte a Venezia La Notte 1900 (Novecento) Ossessione 8? Paisà Professione: Reporter I Pugni in tasca Rocco e i suoi fratelli Roma, città aperta Salvatore Giuliano Sciuscia La strada Stromboli La terra trema Umberto D Il Vangelo secondo Matteo El Verdugo Viaggio in Italia I Vitelloni Japan Ai no corrida Akasen chitai Banshun Biruma no tategoto Entotsu no mieru basho Fukushu suru wa ware ni ari Gojira Hadaka no shima Hana-Bi Higanbana Ikiru Jigokumon GEOGRAPHIC INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1397 Jujiro Koshikei Kwaidan Naniwa ereji Narayama bushi-ko Ningen no joken Ran Rashomon Saikaku ichidai onna Samma no aji Sansho dayu Seppuku Shichinin no samurai Shonen Suna no onna Tampopo Tokyo monogatari Ugetsu monogatari Wandafuru Raifu Yojimbo Zangiku monogatari Mali Yeelen Mexico Los Olvidados Los Redes Viridiana Netherlands Nieuwe Gronden Spoorloos New Zealand Heavenly Creatures Nicaragua Alsino y el Condor Nigeria Kongi’s Harvest Norway Der var engang en krig Poland Czlowiek z marmuru Dekalog Eroica Kanal Matka Joanna od aniolow Noz w wodzie Popiol i diament Trois Couleurs Portugal Amor de perdic?o Russia Outomlionnye solntsem Senegal Noire de . . . Xala Spain Chimes at Midnight Cria Cuervos ... Espiritu de la colmena Muerte de un Ciclista Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios Professione: Reporter Todo Sobre Mi Madre El Verdugo Viridiana Sweden Erotikon Fanny och Alexander Fr?ken Julie G?sta Berlings Saga Gycklarnas afton Herr Arnes Pengar K?rkalen Offret Persona Sjunde inseglet Smultronst?llet Sommarnattens leende Tystnaden Viskningar och rop Switzerland La Dentellière Journey of Hope Taiwan City of Sadness Guling jie shaonian sha ren shijian He Liu Turkey Journey of Hope United Kingdom Black Narcissus Blackmail The Blue Lamp Brazil Brief Encounter Casino Royale A Clockwork Orange The Dead Dead of Night Distant Voices, Still Lives The Douglas Trilogy Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb Dracula (1958) The Draughtsman’s Contract Drifters Fires Were Started Great Expectations Gregory’s Girl A Hard Day’s Night Henry V Howards End If... Kind Hearts and Coronets The Lady Vanishes The Lavender Hill Mob Lawrence of Arabia Life Is Sweet The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp Lolita Man of Aran Marat/Sade The Masque of the Red Death A Matter of Life and Death Midnight Express Mona Lisa My Beautiful Laundrette My Name Is Joe Odd Man Out Passport to Pimlico Peeping Tom The Private Life of Henry VIII The Red Shoes Repulsion Room at the Top A Room with a View Saturday Night and Sunday Morning Secrets and Lies The Servant Song of Ceylon Things to Come The Third Man The 39 Steps Tom Jones Trainspotting 2001: A Space Odyssey Victim United States Adam’s Rib The Adventures of Robin Hood The African Queen All Quiet on the Western Front All That Heaven Allows All about Eve All the King’s Men American Beauty American Graf?ti American in Paris Annie Hall Anticipation of the Night The Apartment Apocalypse Now The Asphalt Jungle Badlands The Band Wagon Becky Sharp The Best Years of Our Lives The Big Heat The Big Parade The Big Sleep The Birds Birth of a Nation Black Sunday Blade Runner GEOGRAPHIC INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1398 The Blair Witch Project Blow-Up Blue Velvet Bonnie and Clyde Breakfast at Tiffany’s The Bride of Frankenstein Bringing Up Baby Broken Blossoms Cabaret Camille Casablanca Cat People C’era una volta il west Chelsea Girls Chinatown Citizen Kane City Lights Close Encounters of the Third Kind The Conversation Cross?re The Crowd Dance, Girl, Dance Days of Heaven The Dead The Deer Hunter Deliverance Detour The Devil Is a Woman Dirty Harry Do the Right Thing Dog Star Man Double Indemnity Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Dracula (1931) Die Dreigroschenoper Duck Soup E.T.--The Extraterrestrial East of Eden Easy Rider Eraserhead Faces Fantasia Fargo Five Easy Pieces Flaming Creatures Foolish Wives 42nd Street The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Frankenstein Freaks From Here to Eternity Fury The General Gertie the Dinosaur Giant Gilda The Godfather Trilogy The Gold Rush Gone with the Wind GoodFellas The Graduate The Grapes of Wrath The Great Dictator Greed Gun Crazy Hallelujah High Noon High Sierra His Girl Friday Hoop Dreams The Hustler I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang In a Lonely Place Informer Intolerance Invasion of the Body Snatchers It Happened One Night It’s a Wonderful Life JFK Jaws The Jazz Singer Johnny Guitar The Kid The Killers King Kong Kiss Me Deadly Klute L.A. Con?dential The Lady Eve The Lady from Shanghai The Land The Last Picture Show Laura Letter from an Unknown Woman Little Caesar The Little Foxes Lone Star The Lost Weekend Louisiana Story M*A*S*H The Magni?cent Ambersons Malcolm X The Maltese Falcon The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance Manhattan The March of Time The Matrix Mean Streets Meet Me in St. Louis Meshes of the Afternoon Midnight Cowboy Mildred Pierce The Mis?ts Mr. Smith Goes to Washington Mrs. Miniver Modern Times The Music Box My Darling Clementine The Naked City Nashville A Night at the Opera The Night of the Hunter Ninotchka North by Northwest Notorious Now Voyager On the Town On the Waterfront Once Upon a Time in America One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest Out of the Past Paths of Glory The Phantom of the Opera Philadelphia The Philadelphia Story The Picture of Dorian Gray A Place in the Sun The Player Psycho The Public Enemy Pulp Fiction Raging Bull Raiders of the Lost Ark Rear Window Rebel without a Cause Red River Reservoir Dogs Ride the High Country Rio Bravo The River The Rocky Horror Picture Show Rosemary’s Baby Salt of the Earth Scarface: The Shame of a Nation The Scarlet Empress Schindler’s List Scorpio Rising The Searchers Shaft Shakespeare in Love Shane She Done Him Wrong Sherlock, Jr. The Silence of the Lambs Singin’ in the Rain Smoke Snow White Some Like It Hot The Southerner The Spanish Earth A Star Is Born Star Wars Steamboat Willie Strangers on a Train A Streetcar Named Desire Sullivan’s Travels Sunrise Sunset Boulevard The Sweet Smell of Success Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song GEOGRAPHIC INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1399 Taxi Driver The Texas Chainsaw Massacre Thelma and Louise They Live by Night The Thin Man Titanic Top Hat Touch of Evil The Treasure of the Sierra Madre Trouble in Paradise Twelve Angry Men 2001: A Space Odyssey Unforgiven Vertigo Wavelength West Side Story White Heat Why We Fight The Wild Bunch The Wind The Wizard of Oz The Women Written on the Wind Young Mr. Lincoln USSR Alexander Nevsky Andrei Rublev Arsenal Balada o soldate Bronenosets Potemkin Chapayev Chelovek s kinoapparatom Csillagosok, katonák Idi i smotri Igla Istoria Asi Kliachinoi kotoraia lubila da nie vyshla zamuzh Ivan Grozny Kino-Pravda Kommisar Konyets Sankt-Peterburga Korol Lir Letyat zhuravli Malenkaya Vera Mat Maxim Trilogy Moskva slezam ne verit Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov Novyi Vavilon Oktiabr Pirosmani Pokaianie Potomok Chingis-Khan Proshchanie Putyovka v zhizn Siberiade Soy Cuba Stachka Teni zabytykh predkov Tretia Meshchanskaia Turksib Voina i mir Zemlya Zerkalo Yugoslavia Budjenje pacova Dom za vesanje Nesto izmedju Otac na sluzbenom putu Samo jednom se ljubi Skuplijaci perja Underground Vlak bez voznog reda W.R.: Mysterije Organizma Zaseda NAME INDEX 1403 The following list of names cites all individuals listed in the Films volume of this series. The ?lm title(s) in parentheses following the name refer the reader to the appropriate entry or entries where full information is given. A (Soy Cuba) Aaes, Erik (Ordet; Sult; Vredens dag) Aalberg, John (It’s a Wonderful Life) Aardal, Edwin (Fantasia) Aaronson, David (Once Upon a Time in America) Aaronson, N. (Potomok Chingis-Khan) Aas, Olaf (K?rkalen) Abachidzé, David (Pirosmani) Abar-Baranovskaya, Mayya (Csillagosok, katonák) Abbas, Ahmad (Awara) Abbasi, Ali Akbar (Ta’m E Guilass) Abbot, Dianne (Taxi Driver) Abbott, George (All Quiet on the Western Front) Abbott, Len (Masque of the Red Death) Abbou, Bernard (Quatre cents coups) Abdulla, Ali (Fiore delle mille e una notte) Abe, Kazuo (Ikiru) Abe, Kobo (Suna no onna) Abe, Tetsuo (Shonen) Abe, Toru (Ningen no joken; Tokyo monogatari) Abel, Alfred (Argent; Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse; Metropolis) Abel, David (Top Hat) Abel, Gustav (M?rchen vom Glück) Abel, Walter (Dance, Girl, Dance; Fury) Aberlé, Viola (Fanny och Alexander) Abernathy, Lewis (Titanic) Ablanalp, Armand (Last Tango in Paris) Abou el-Ela, Kamal (Bab el hadid) Abrahamsen, Arne (Gertrud) Abrahamsson, Bo (Kongi’s Harvest) Abrego, Olga (Haine) Abrikosov, Alexander (Alexander Nevsky) Abril, Jean-Phillipe (Odeur de la papaye verte) Abuladze, Ketevan (Pokaianie) Abuladze, Tengiz (Pokaianie) Achard, Marcel (Entr’acte; Madame de ...) Acheson, Jams (Brazil) Achrekar, M. R. (Awara; Kaagaz ke phool) Achternbusch, Herbert (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Ackerman, Jack (Faces) Ackland, Noreen (Peeping Tom) Ackland-Snow, Brian (Room with a View) Adachi, Masao (Koshikei) Adair, Jan (Clockwork Orange) Adalbert Schlettow, Hans (Nibelungen) Adam, Alfred (Kermesse héroique) Adam, Ken (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Adam, Ronald (Lavender Hill Mob) Adamek, Witold (Dekalog) Adamovich, Ales (Idi i smotri) Adams, Brooke (Days of Heaven) Adams, Bruce (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Adams, Claire (Big Parade) Adams, Dorothy (Laura) Adams, Edgar (All Quiet on the Western Front) Adams, Edie (Apartment) Adams, Ernie (Little Caesar) Adams, Jason (My Beautiful Laundrette) Adams, Jonathan (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Adams, Margaret (Brazil) Adams, Martin (Brazil) Adams, Nick (Rebel Without a Cause) Adams, Stanley (North by Northwest) Adams, Terry (Laura) Addams, Dawn (Singin’ in the Rain) Addams, James (Avventura) Addison, John (Tom Jones) Addobbati, Giuseppe (Conformista) Addy, Wesley (Kiss Me Deadly) Adelugba, Dapo (Kongi’s Harvest) Adeniji, Tunde (Kongi’s Harvest) Aderemi, Ayo (Kongi’s Harvest) Ades, Dany (Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes) Adib, Gibrail Abdel Hay (Bab el hadid) Adler, Buddy (From Here to Eternity) Adler, Jay (Sweet Smell of Success) Adler, Lou (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Adler, Stanis?aw (Eroica; Kanal; Popiol i diament) Adler, Tony (American Beauty) Adolphson, Kristina (Fanny och Alexander) Adomaitis, Regimantas (Korol Lir) Adorée, Renée (Big Parade) Adorf, Mario (Blechtrommel; Deutschland im Herbst; Lola) Adrian Camille; Philadelphia Story; Wizard of Oz) Adrian, Max (Henry V) Adzovic, Ljubica (Dom za vesanje) Afakrimi, Hassen (And Life Goes On) Agadzhanova-Shutko, Nina (Bronenosets Potemkin) Agamben, Giorgio (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Agee, Arthur ‘‘Bo’’ (Hoop Dreams) Agee, James (African Queen; Night of the Hunter) Agee, Joe ‘‘Sweetie’’ (Hoop Dreams) Agee, Sheila (Hoop Dreams) Agee, Tomika (Hoop Dreams) ?gesen, Hanne (Ordet) Agha, Jalal (Garam Hawa) Agnelli, Irene (Pugni in tasca) Agosti, Silvano (Pugni in tasca) Agostini, Philippe (Dames du Bois de Boulogne; Du Ri?? chez les hommes; Jour se lève) Agostino, Bruno (8?) Agranovich, Mikhail (Pokaianie) Aguayo, José F. (Viridiana) Aguirre, Isadora (Alsino y el Condor) Agustus, Michael (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Agutter, Jenny (Walkabout) Ahamadi, Ali Tabee (Ta’m E Guilass) Ahlstedt, B?rje (Fanny och Alexander) Ahmad, Maher (GoodFellas) Ahmed, Khada Dad (And Life Goes On) Ahrn, Hans-Eric (Babettes Gaestebud) Aiello, Danny (Do the Right Thing; Once Upon a Time in America) Aim, Pierre (Haine) Aimée, Anouk (8?; Dolce vita) Aimone Marsan, Guido (Notte) Aimos Quai des brumes) Ainslee, Marian (Foolish Wives; Hallelujah) Aitken, Spottiswoode (Birth of a Nation; Intolerance) Akbari, Alirfa (And Life Goes On) Akbas, Erdinc (Journey of Hope) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1404 Aked, Muriel (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Akerman, Chantal (Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles) Akhvlediani, Erlom (Pirosmani) Aki, Takejo (Narayama bushi-ko) Akins, Claude (Rio Bravo) Akins, Zoe (Camille) Akinwunmi, Fadeke (Kongi’s Harvest) Akitsu, Yu (Shichinin no samurai) Akst, Albert (Band Wagon; Meet Me in St. Louis) Akutagawa, Hiroshi (Entotsu no mieru basho) Akutagawa, Ryunosuke (Rashomon) Akutagawa, Yasushi (Entotsu no mieru basho; Jigokumon) Al-Baroudi, Hassan (Bab el hadid) al-Zahiry, Fouad (Bab el hadid) Alabiso, Eugenio (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Aladar, Laszlo (Top Hat; Trouble in Paradise) Alandh, Lissi (Fr?ken Julie; Tystnaden) Alarcon, Enrique (Muerte de un Ciclista) Alarcon, Luis (Chacal de Nahueltoro) Albani Barbieri, Alberto (Umberto D) Alberni, Luis (Lady Eve) Albers, Hans (Blaue Engel) Albert, Mercedes (Muerte de un Ciclista) Albertazzi, Giorgio (Année dernière à Marienbad) Alberti, Fritz (Metropolis; Nibelungen, Die) Alberti, Guido (8?; Verdugo, El) Albertson, Frank (Fury; Psycho) Alberty, Karl Otto(Caduta degli dei) Albinoni (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Albinus, Jens (Idioterne) Albray, Maurice (Femme in?dèle) Albright, Ivan Le Lorraine (Picture of Dorian Gray) Alcaide, Cris (Big Heat) Alcaine, Jose Luis (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios) Alcoriza, Luis (Olvidados) Alcorn, Olive Ann (Phantom of the Opera) Alcott, John (2001: A Space Odyssey; Clockwork Orange) Alcover, Pierre (Argent) Alda, Rutanya (Deer Hunter) Alden, Mary (Birth of a Nation) Alderette, Clorinda (Salt of the Earth) Aldo, G. R. (Miracolo a Milano; Terra trema; Umberto D) Aldred, John (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Aldrich, Robert (Kiss Me Deadly) Aldrich, Libbey, J. (Greed) Aldridge, Kitty (Room with a View) Aldridge, Michael (Chimes at Midnight) Alegny, Christian (Conformista; Fiore delle mille e una notte) Alejandro, Julio (Viridiana) Alekan, Henri (Bataille du rail; Belle et la bête; Der Himmel Uber Berlin) Aleksic, Mija (Skuplijaci perja) Alen, Gene (Star Is Born) Alencar, Leonard (Vidas secas) Alenius, Inga (Fanny och Alexander) Alentova, Vera (Moskva slezam ne verit) Alerme, André (Kermesse héroique) Alexander, Ben (All Quiet on the Western Front) Alexander, Jeff (Singin’ in the Rain) Alexander, Katherine (Dance, Girl, Dance; Now Voyager) Alexander, Phoebe (Conversation) Alexander, Richard (All Quiet on the Western Front) Alexandrov (Chapeau de paille d’Italie) Alexandrov, G. (Stachka) Alexandrov, Grigori (Bronenosets Potemkin; Stachka) Alexeieff, Alexander (Nuit sur le Mont Chauve) Alexeyev-Negreba, Alexander (Malenkaya Vera) Alexwithrov, Grigori (Oktiabr) Alfaro, Lilia (Alsino y el Condor) Alfonso, Yves (Weekend) Algar, James (Fantasia; Snow White) Algeier, Sepp (Tagebuch einer Verlorenen) Ali, Amir Reza Zendeh (Ta’m E Guilass) Alicata, Mario (Ossessione) Alidoost, Iraj (Ta’m E Guilass) Aligrudic, Slobodan (Otac na sluzbenom putu; Zaseda) Alison, Joan (Casablanca) Allan, Deedee (Hustler) Allan, Elizabeth (Camille) Allan, Michael (Dead of Night) Alland, William (Citizen Kane) Allauddin (Awara) Allegret, Catherine (Last Tango in Paris) Allégret, Marc (Marius Trilogy) Allegret, Yves (Partie de campagne) Allen, C. J. (Foolish Wives) Allen, Corey (Rebel Without a Cause) Allen, Dede (Bonnie and Clyde) Allen, Harry (Night at the Opera) Allen, Irvine (Lolita) Allen, Jay (Cabaret) Allen, John (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Allen, John Edward (Blade Runner) Allen, Karen (Raiders of the Lost Ark) Allen, Robert (Marat/Sade) Allen, Woody (Annie Hall; Casino Royale; Manhattan) Allende, Beatriz (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Alleva, Danilo (Accattone) Allgeier, Sepp (Triumph des Willens) Allgood, Sara (Blackmail) Alliata, Francesco (Carrosse d’or) Allibert, Louis (Million) Allin, Alex (Coquille et le clergyman) Allister, Claude (Private Life of Henry VIII) Allo, Ernie (Scorpio Rising) Allum, Bernard (Brazil) Allwin, Pernilla (Fanny och Alexander) Allwyn, Astrid (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Almeida, Laurindo (Star Is Born) Almendros, Nestor (Days of Heaven) Almgren, Kristian (Fanny och Alexander) Almirante Manzini, Italia (Cabiria) Almodóvar, Agustín (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios; Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Almodóvar, Pedro (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios; Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Alocca, Antonio (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli) Alonso, Chelo (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Alonso, Emilio (Muerte de un Ciclista) Alonzo, John (Close Encounters of the Third Kind) Alonzo, John A. (Black Sunday; Chinatown) Alper, Bud (Blade Runner) Alper, Murray (Maltese Falcon; Strangers on a Train) Alsner, Robert (Casablanca) Alstein, Van (Foolish Wives) Altamura, Elio (Room with a View) Altan, Cris Tullio (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) Altariba, Béatrice (Yeux sans visage) Alterio, Héctor (Cria Cuervos ...) Altieri, Elena (Carrosse d’or; Ladri di biciclette) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1405 Altman, Kate (Paris, Texas) Altman, Robert (M*A*S*H; Nashville; Player) Altman, Stephen (Player) Alton, John (American in Paris) Alvarado, Don (Devil Is a Woman) Alvarez, Angel (Verdugo, El) Alves, Joe (Close Encounters of the Third Kind) Alves, Vern (Star Is Born) Alvi, Abrar (Kaagaz ke phool) Alvise (Bab el hadid) Alwyn, William (Fires Were Started; Odd Man Out) Amagula, Nandjiwarra (Last Wave) Amagula, Walter (Last Wave) Amann, Walter (Funny Games) Amarante, Cassio (Central do Brasil) Amato, Giuseppe (Dolce vita) Amato, Nicolas (Règle du jeu) Amatsu, Shichisaburo (Seppuku) Ambler, Buster (Servant) Amelio, Gianni (America) Amelio, Sonia (Wild Bunch) Amer, Nicolas (Draughtsman’s Contract) Ames, Leon (Meet Me in St. Louis) Ames, Michael (Now Voyager) Ames, Preston (American in Paris; Band Wagon) Amezcua, Javier (Olvidados) Am?theatrof, Daniele (Big Heat; Letter from an Unknown Woman) Amidei, Sergio (Paisà; Roma, città aperta; Sciuscia; Stromboli) Amies, Hardy (2001: A Space Odyssey) Amini, Nasrolah (Ta’m E Guilass) Aminoff, Marianne (Fanny och Alexander) Amiot, Paul (Napoléon) Amis, Suzy (Titanic) Amos, Johnny (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Ancillai, Fausto (Kaos) Ancillai, Franco (Professione: Reporter) Anc?ne (Ossessione) Andam, F. D. (M?dchen in Uniform) Anderberg, Berto (Sjunde inseglet) Anders, Glenn (Lady from Shanghai) Anders, Günther (Engel mit der Posaune) Anders, Luana (Easy Rider) Andersen, Arild (Journey of Hope) Andersen, Bj?rn (Morte a Venezia) Anderson, David (Gregory’s Girl) Anderson, Eddie (Gone With the Wind) Anderson, Edward (They Live by Night) Anderson, Erville (Scarlet Empress) Anderson, Evald (Tystnaden) Anderson, George (Sullivan’s Travels) Anderson, Glenn E. (Letter from an Unknown Woman) Anderson, Hayley (My Brilliant Career) Anderson, James H. (Dance, Girl, Dance) Anderson, John (Psycho; Ride the High Country) Anderson, Judith (Laura) Anderson, Kenneth (Fantasia; Snow White) Anderson, Lindsay (If...; Obchod na korze) Anderson, Mary (Gone With the Wind) Anderson, Maxwell (All Quiet on the Western Front) Anderson, Milo (Adventures of Robin Hood) Anderson, Mona (Fanny och Alexander) Anderson, Philip W. (Giant) Anderson, Richard (Paths of Glory) Anderson, Richard L.(Raiders of the Lost Ark) Anderson, Roland (Breakfast at Tiffany’s) Anderson, Sharon (Fargo) Andersson, Bibi (Babettes Gaestebud; Persona; Sjunde inseglet; Smultronst?llet; Sommarnattens leende) Andersson, Evald (Persona; Sjunde inseglet) Andersson, Gerd (Fanny och Alexander) Andersson, Harriet (Fanny och Alexander; Gycklarnas afton; Sommarnattens leende; Viskningar och rop) Andersson, Karl (Vredens dag) Andonov, Métodi (Koziyat rog) Andonova, Nevena (Koziyat rog) Andrae, Manfred (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) André, Carole (Morte a Venezia) Andre, Jean (Et ... Dieu créa la femme) André, Marcel (Belle et la bête) Andre-ani (Wind) Andreasen, Kirsten (Ordet) Andree, Yvonne (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Andreev, Mithen (Koziyat rog) Andrei, Damir (Dead Ringers) Andréi, Frédéric (Diva) Andreiev, Andrei (Büchse der Pandora) Andreitchenko, Nathalia (Siberiade) Andren, Jean (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Andres Lopez, Angel de (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios) Andress, Ursula (Casino Royale) Andrews, Bill (Lolita) Andrews, Dana (Best Years of Our Lives; Laura) Andrews, Dell (All Quiet on the Western Front) Andrews, Steve (My Brilliant Career) Andreyor, Yvette (Judex) Andríc, Miodrag (W.R.: Mysterije Organizma) Andriot, Lucien (Southerner) Andriot, Poupee (All Quiet on the Western Front) Andrzejewski, Jerzy (Popiol i diament) Andzhaparidze, Veriko (Pokaianie) Angel, Heather (Informer) Angel, Mike (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Angelino, Jorge (Fresa y Chocolate) Angelopoulos, Theodoros (Thiasos, O; Vlemma Tou Odyssea) Angelov, Ivan (Koziyat rog) Angelucci, Umberto (Fiore delle mille e una notte) Anger, Kenneth (Scorpio Rising) Angwin, Neil (Last Wave; My Brilliant Career) Annabella (Million) Annenkov, Georges (Lola Montès; Ronde) Annichiarico, Vito (Roma, città aperta) Anping, Qiu-Dai (Yanzhi kou) Anreus, Idalia (Primera carga al machete) Ansari, Ahmad (Ta’m E Guilass) Ansarian, Alireza (Ta’m E Guilass) Anscombe, Tony (Draughtsman’s Contract; Gregory’s Girl) Ansel, Hy (Annie Hall) Anspach, Susan (Five Easy Pieces) Antgelopoulos, Theodorous (O Thiasos) Antheil, George (Ballet mécanique; In a Lonely Place) Anthony, Alfred (Salaam Bombay) Anthony, Walter (All Quiet on the Western Front) Antonio de la Guerra, José (Chimes at Midnight) Antonioni, Michelangelo (Avventura; Blow-Up; Eclisse; Notte; Professione: Reporter) Antonov, Alexander (Bronenosets Potemkin; Stachka) Antonucci, Vittorio (Ladri di biciclette) Antonutti, Omero (Kaos) Antropova, A. (Putyovka v zhizn) Anwar, Tariq (American Beauty) Aoki, Machiko (Ai no corrida) Aoki, Yoshio (Seppuku) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1406 Aomatsu, Akira (Higanbana) Aono, Hirayoshi (Ikiru) Aoyama, Sugisaku (Ugetsu monogatari) Apfelbaum, Mrs. (Shoah) Apicella, Antonio (Morte a Venezia) Ara, Esmeralda (America) Araki, Shinobu (Sansho dayu) Arandjelovic, Stole (Vlak bez voznog reda) Arashi, Tokusaburo (Zangiku monogatari) Arata, Ubaldo (Roma, città aperta) Aratama, Michiyo (Kwaidan; Ningen no joken) Arau, Alfonso (Wild Bunch) Arauz, Efrain (Olvidados) Arcalli, Franco (1900 [Novecento]; Conformista; Last Tango in Paris; Once Upon a Time in America; Professione: Reporter) Archaimbaud, Antoine (Pépé le Moko; Quai des brumes) Archer, Ernest (2001: A Space Odyssey) Archer, John (White Heat) Archibald, Dawn (Mona Lisa; My Beautiful Laundrette) Archibald, Stephen (Douglas Trilogy) Archimbaud, Antoine (Pickpocket; Yeux sans visage) Archival (Zaseda) Archuletta, Beulah (Searchers) Ardani (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Arden, Eve (Mildred Pierce) Arden, Jane (Jazz Singer) Arduini, Gianni (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli) Aréhn, Nils (K?rkalen) Arensma, John Datu (Red River) Arft, Axel (Der Himmel Uber Berlin) Argent (Dirty Harry) Argento, Dario (C’era una volta il west) Argyle, Pearl (Things to Come) Ari (Chelsea Girls) Ari, Carina (Erotikon) Arikawa, Teisho (Gojira) Arima, Ineko (Higanbana; Ningen no joken) Aris, Ben ( If...) Arkell, Marie-Monique (Journal d’un curé de campagne) Arkhipova, Nina (Outomlionnye solntsem) Arkin, David (Nashville) Arlen, Harold (Star Is Born; Wizard of Oz) Arletty (Enfants du paradis; Jour se lève) Arlin, Georg (Viskningar och rop) Arma, Jacques (Passion de Jeanne d’Arc) Armetta, Henry (Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Armstrong, Gillian (My Brilliant Career) Armstrong, John (Private Life of Henry VIII; Things to Come) Armstrong, R. G. (Ride the High Country) Armstrong, Robert (King Kong) Armstrong, Samuel (Fantasia; Snow White) Arnac, Béatrice (Lola Montès) Arnaud, Georges (Salaire de la peur) Arnell, Richard (Land) Arnheim, Gus (Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Arniaud, Régine (Nuits fauves) Arno, Nelly (Third Man) Arno, Siegfried (Büchse der Pandora) Arnold, Edward (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Arnold, Gertrud (Nibelungen) Arnold, Henry (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Arnold, John (Big Parade; Wind) Arnold, Norman (Blackmail) Arnold, Victor (Shaft) Arnold, Wilfred C. (Blackmail) Arnold, William (L.A. Con?dential) Arnoux, Jean-Marie (Femme in?dèle) Arnova, Alba (Miracolo a Milano) Aro, Vic (Taxi Driver) Arocha, Iván (De cierta manera) Aron, E?m (Turksib) Aronin, Vladimir (Outomlionnye solntsem) Aronovich, Ricardo (Fuzis; Souf?e au coeur) Aronson, Gustaf (Herr Arnes Pengar) Arquette, Rosanna (Pulp Fiction) Arriaga, Antonio (Treasure of the Sierra Madre) Arrighi, Luciana (Howards End; My Brilliant Career) Arroy, Jean (Napoléon) Arsky, Nikolai (Alexander Nevsky) Artaud, Antonin (Argent; Coquille et le clergyman; Dreigroschenoper; Napoléon; Passion de Jeanne d’Arc) Artemiev, Eduard (Outomlionnye solntsem; Siberiade; Zerkalo) Artenfels, Rainer V. (Hitler: Ein Film aus Deutschland) Arthur, Jean (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington; Shane) Arthur, Robert (Big Heat) Arthuys, Philippe (Chronique des années de braise) Artigas, Liorens (Age d’or) Artur, José (Z) Artyomov (Proshchanie) Arulogun, Gboyega (Kongi’s Harvest) Arundell, Dennis (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Arvanitis, Giorgos (O Thiasos) Arvanitis, Thanassis (Vlemma Tou Odyssea) Arvanitis, Yorgos (Vlemma Tou Odyssea) Ary, Helio (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Arya, Ishan (Garam Hawa) Arzner, Dorothy (Dance, Girl, Dance) Asaka, Shinpachiro (Naniwa ereji) Aseyev, Nikolai (Bronenosets Potemkin; Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov) Ashbourne, Lorraine (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Ashcroft, Peggy (39 Steps) Ashdown, Nadene (Star Is Born) Ashelbe, Detective (Pépé le Moko) Asher, Jack (Dracula 1958) Asher, Jane (Masque of the Red Death) Asherson, Renée (Henry V) Ashikawa, Makoto (Hana-Bi) Ashton, Sylvia (Greed) Ashton-Grif?ths, Roger (Brazil) Asins-Arbo, Miguel (Verdugo) Askari, Sepideh (Ta’m E Guilass) Askew, Campbell (Howards End) Askew, Luke (Easy Rider) Askoldov, Alexander (Kommisar) Askwith, Robin (If...) Aslanian, Jacques (Tirez sur le pianiste) Asmussen, Peter (Breaking the Waves) Asnar, Nathalie (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) Asner, Ed (JFK) Asp, Anna (Fanny och Alexander; Offret) Aspegren, Chuck (Deer Hunter) Assmann, Marliese (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Asso, P. (Marius Trilogy) Assola (Yeux sans visage) Astaire, Fred (Band Wagon; Top Hat) Asti, Adriana (Accattone) Astin, John (West Side Story) Astor, Gertrude (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Astor, Mary (Maltese Falcon; Meet Me in St. Louis) Astrologo, Paci?co (Sciuscia) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1407 Ates, Roscoe (Freaks; King Kong; Sullivan’s Travels) Athanasiou, Gerica (Coquille et le clergyman) Atkins, Robert (Matter of Life and Death) Atkinson, Adrienne (Gregory’s Girl) Atkinson, Jim (Deliverance) Atkinson, Rosalind (Tom Jones) Atsuta, Yuhara (Tokyo monogatari) Atsuta, Yushun (Higanbana; Samma no aji) Attal, Frédéric (Nuits fauves) Attal, Henri (Femme in?dèle; Vivre sa vie) Attenberger, Karl (Triumph des Willens) Attenborough, Richard (Matter of Life and Death) Atterburg, Kurt (Erotikon) Atterbury, Malcolm (Birds; Rio Bravo) Attuita, Yuhara (Banshun) Atwater, Edith (Sweet Smell of Success) Atwell, Roy (Snow White) Atwill, Lionel (Devil Is a Woman) Auberjonois, René (M*A*S*H) Aubouy, Bernard (Shoah) Auclair, Michel (Belle et la bête) Auder, Viva (Paris, Texas) Audley, Maxine (Peeping Tom) Audran, Stéphane (Babettes Gaestebud; Boucher; Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie; Femme in?dèle) Audry, Colette (Bataille du rail) Audsley, Mick (Douglas Trilogy; My Beautiful Laundrette) Auer, Gabriel (Salaam Bombay) Auffray, Patrick (Quatre cents coups) August, Joseph H. (Informer) August, Pernilla (Star Wars) August Koch, Georg (Nibelungen) Augusto, Otávio (Central do Brasil) Augusto Mendez, Luiz (Deus e o diabo na terra do sol) Aulisi, Joseph (Shaft) Aurel, Yvonne (Fièvre) Aurenche, Jean (Diable au corps; Jeux interdits) Auric, Georges (A nous la liberté; Dead of Night; Du Ri?? chez les hommes; Lavender Hill Mob; Lola Montès; Orphée; Passport to Pimlico; Salaire de la peur; Sang d’un poete) Aussey, Germaine (A nous la liberté) Auster, Paul (Smoke) Austin, Albert (City Lights; Gold Rush) Austin, Michele (Secrets and Lies) Austin, Robert (My Brilliant Career) Austin, William (Private Life of Henry VIII) Autant-Lara, Claude (Diable au corps) Auteuil, Daniel (Coeur en hiver) Auvray, Dominique (Paris, Texas) Avanzo, Renzo (Paisà) Avary, Roger (Pulp Fiction) Avenzo, Renzo (Carrosse d’or) Avery, Brian (Graduate) Avery, Val (Faces) Avil, Gordon (Hallelujah) ávila, Alfredo (Soy Cuba) ávila, Ricardo (Fresa y Chocolate) Avon, The Earl of (Chagrin et la pitié) Avydyushko, Viktor (Csillagosok, katonák) Awashima, Chikage (Ningen no joken) Axel, Gabriel (Babettes Gaestebud) Axelrod, George (Breakfast at Tiffany’s) Axt, Dr. William (Thin Man) Axt, Harry (42nd Street) Axt, William (Big Parade) Axtell, Kirk (Raging Bull) Aydini, Bahrovz (And Life Goes On) Ayers, Lemuel (Meet Me in St. Louis) Aylmer, Felix (Henry V; Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Ayme, Jean (Vampires) Ayres, Lew (All Quiet on the Western Front) Ayzen, Chahine (And Life Goes On) Azais, Paul (Casque d’or) Azar, Leonide (Ronde) Azcona, Rafael (Verdugo) Azema, Sabine (Dentellière) Azmi, Kai? (Garam Hawa; Kaagaz ke phool) Aznavour, Charles (Blechtrommel; Tirez sur le pianiste) Azorín, Eloy (Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Azra (Bharat Mata) Azumi, Jo (Seppuku) Baal, Karin (Lola) Baarova, Lida (Vitelloni) Baba, Masaru (Fukushu suru wa ware ni ari) Babanini, N. (Vampyr) Babbitt, Arthur (Fantasia; Snow White) Babenco, Hector (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Babereske, Robert (Berlin: Die Sinfonie der Grossstadt) Baberski, Robert (Kameradschaft) Babic, Branimir (Underground) Babki, Ali (Czlowiek z marmuru) Babochkin, Boris (Chapayev) Babu (Elippathayam) Babu, Mohnaraj (Salaam Bombay) Baby, Denise (Procès) Baby Naaz (Kaagaz ke phool) Bac, André (Jour se lève) Bacall, Lauren (Big Sleep; Written on the Wind) Bacalov, Luis Enriquez (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Bacciucchi, Eros (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Bacelos, Joel (Fuzis) Bach (Tystnaden) Bach, J. S. (Albero degli zoccoli; Zerkalo) Bach, Silvana (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Bacharach, Burt (Casino Royale) Bachelet, Jean (Crime de Monsieur Lange; Règle du jeu) Bachirzada, Ferched (And Life Goes On) Bachl, Simone (Funny Games) B?chler, Wolfgang (Deutschland im Herbst) Backus, Georgia (Citizen Kane) Backus, Jim (Rebel Without a Cause) Baclanova, Olga (Freaks) Bacon, Irving (Star Is Born) Bacon, Kevin (JFK) Bacon, Lloyd (42nd Street) Bacri, Georges (Dentellière) Badal, Jean (Playtime) Badalamenti, Angelo (Blue Velvet) Badalucco, Nicola (Caduta degli dei) Badalucco, Nicolas (Morte a Venezia) Badayuni, Shakeel (Bharat Mata) Baddeley, Angela (Tom Jones) Baddeley, Hermione (Passport to Pimlico; Room at the Top) Bade-Mauffroy, Raymonde (Shoah) Baden-Semper, Nina (Kongi’s Harvest) Badie, Laurence (Jeux interdits) Badoni, Guglielmo (Albero degli zoccoli) Baer, Harry (Hitler: Ein Film aus Deutschland; Lola) Bagashvili, Spartak (Teni zabytykh predkov) Bagdasarian, Ross (Rear Window) Bagdonas, Vladas (Idi i smotri) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1408 Bagenal, Philip (If...) Bagheri, Abdolhosein (Ta’m E Guilass) Bagherpour, Sassan (Ta’m E Guilass) Bahs, Henning (Der var engang en krig) Bahtia, Vanraj (Bhumika) Bai, Xue (Huang tudi) Bai Yu (Ba wang bie ji) Bailey, Albert (My Beautiful Laundrette) Baines, John V. (Dead of Night) Bair, Dave (Gun Crazy) Baird, Antony (Dead of Night) Baird, Roy (Casino Royale; If...) Baisho, Mitsuko (Fukushu suru wa ware ni ari; Narayama bushi-ko) Bak, Henryk (Eroica) Baka, Miroslaw (Dekalog) Bakaleinikoff, Constantin (Cross?re) Bakaleinikoff, Mischa (Big Heat) Bakalyan, Dick (Chinatown) Baker, Carroll (Giant) Baker, Douglas (Land) Baker, Eddie (City Lights) Baker, Hylda (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Baker, Kenny (Mona Lisa; Star Wars) Baker, Ruth (Marat/Sade) Baker, Sue (Life Is Sweet) Baker, Tungia (Piano) Bakewell, William (All Quiet on the Western Front) Bakhtari, Afshin Khorshid (Ta’m E Guilass) Bako, Alexander (Herr Arnes Pengar; K?rkalen) Bakula, Scott (American Beauty) Balaban, Bob (Close Encounters of the Third Kind) Balachov, V. (Ivan Grozny) Balàsz, Béla (Dreigroschenoper; Sodom und Gomorrha) Balázsovits, Lajos (Meg ker a nep) Balboa, Margarita (Otro Francisco) Balbusch, Peter (Scarlet Empress) Balcon, Michael (39 Steps; Dead of Night; Kind Hearts and Coronets; Lavender Hill Mob; Man of Aran; Passport to Pimlico) Balderston, John L. (Bride of Frankenstein; Dracula 1931; Frankenstein) Baldi, Gian Vittorio (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Baldini, Gabriele (Accattone) Balducci, Richard (A bout de souf?e) Balhaus, Michael (GoodFellas) Balin, Mireille (Pépé le Moko) Balinskaya, G. (Kommisar) Bálint, András (Meg ker a nep) Ball, Alan (American Beauty) Ball, Derek (Star Wars) Ball, Lucille (Dance, Girl, Dance) Ball, Robert (Easy Rider) Ballard, Lucien (Devil Is a Woman; Ride the High Country; Wild Bunch) Ballhaus, Helga (Ehe der Maria Braun) Ballhaus, Michael (Deutschland im Herbst; Ehe der Maria Braun) Balmaseda, Mario (De cierta manera) Balpêtré, Antoine (Journal d’un curé de campagne) Balsam, Martin (Breakfast at Tiffany’s; On the Waterfront; Psycho; Twelve Angry Men) Baltz, Kirk (Reservoir Dogs) Balzaretti, Georgina (Fresa y Chocolate) Bamattre, Martha (American in Paris) Bamberger, Bernhard (Funny Games) Banach, Manfred (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Banbury, Frith (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Banchev, Georgi (Sterne) Bancroft, Anne (Graduate) Banderas, Antonio (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios; Philadelphia) Bandhu, Ved (Annie Hall) Bando, Junosuke (Jujiro) Bando, Kataro (Jigokumon) Banerjee, Satya (Jana Aranya) Banerji, Kanu (Apu Trilogy) Banerji, Karuna (Apu Trilogy) Banerji, Subir (Apu Trilogy) Banes, Lionel (Blue Lamp; Passport to Pimlico) Ban?, Nella (Nuits fauves) Banionis, Donatas (Korol Lir) Bánki, Zsuzsa (Valahol Europaban) Banks, Leslie (Henry V) Banks, Lionel (His Girl Friday; Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Bannerman, Bill (Unforgiven) Banovich, Tamás (Cyrano de Bergerac; Meg ker a nep) Bánsági, Ildikó (Mephisto) Bansal, R. D. (Charulata) Banton, Travis (Scarlet Empress) Bantzer, Christoph (Funny Games) Baochang, Guo (Lan fengzheng) Baptiste Tiemele, Jean (Professione: Reporter) Baquet, Maurice (Crime de Monsieur Lange; Z) Bar Mor, Shalmi (Shoah) Bara, Roy (Last Wave) Baradaran, Kambiz (Ta’m E Guilass) Baragli, Nino (Accattone; Buono, il brutto, il cattivo; C’era una volta il west; Fiore delle mille e una notte; Once Upon a Time in America; Vangelo secondo Matteo) Baranov, Alexander (Igla) Baranovskaya, Vera (Konyets Sankt-Peterburga; Mat) Baranowski, Henryk (Dekalog) Baratier, Nèna (Chronique d’un été) Baratta, Fred (All That Heaven Allows) Barbaud, Pierre (Année dernière à Marienbad; Hiroshima mon amour) Barberi, Lia-Rho (Vlak bez voznog reda) Barbette (Sang d’un poete) Barbi, Vincent (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Barbieri, Gato (Last Tango in Paris) Barbini, Luigi (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Barbosa, Adoniran (Cangaceiro) Barbosa, Jarbas (Deus e o diabo na terra do sol; Fuzis) Barbulee, Madeleine (Jeux interdits) Barcelos, Manuel Rambout (Udju Azul di Yonta) Bardela, Adolfo (Salt of the Earth) Bardell, Maurice (Things to Come) Bardem, Juan Antonio (Muerte de un Ciclista) Bardette, Trevor (Big Sleep; Gun Crazy; Johnny Guitar) Bárdi;, Gy?rgi (Valahol Europaban) Bardini, Aleksander (Dekalog; Trois Couleurs) Bardot, Brigitte (Et ... Dieu créa la femme; Mèpris) Barela, Adolfo (Salt of the Earth) Barelkowska, Maja (Dekalog) Barencey, Odette (Casque d’or) Barge, Paul (Casque d’or) Barker, John (Fires Were Started) Barker, Lex (Cross?re; Dolce vita) Barlowe, Joy (Big Sleep) Barnabò, Gugliemo (Miracolo a Milano) Barnad, Raju (Salaam Bombay) Barnes, Binnie (Private Life of Henry VIII) Barnes, C. C. (Player) Barnes, Frank (General) Barnes, Harry (General) Barnes, Dr. W. E. (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1409 Barnet, Boris (Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov; Potomok Chingis-Khan) Barnet, Enrique Pineda (Soy Cuba) Barneto, Joyce (Salaam Bombay) Barnett, Vince (All Quiet on the Western Front; Killers; Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Barns, Gavin (Freaks) Barnum, Franklyn (Sunset Boulevard) Baron, Suzanne (Blechtrommel) Barone, Biagio (Kaos) Barr, Byron (Double Indemnity) Barr, Jean-Marc (Breaking the Waves) Barr, Patrick (Lavender Hill Mob) Barral (Fièvre) Barranco, Maria (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios) Barrault, Jean Louis (Enfants du paradis; Ronde) Barreto, Bruno (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Barreto, L. C. (Bye Bye Brasil) Barreto, Lima (Cangaceiro) Barreto, Luis Carlos (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos; Vidas secas) Barrett, Captain W. H. (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Barrie, Gina (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Barrie, John (Victim) Barrie, Wendy (Private Life of Henry VIII) Barro, Ibrahima (Noire de ...) Barrois, Charles (Kermesse héroique) Barry, Dave (Some Like It Hot) Barry, Jason (Titanic) Barry, John (Clockwork Orange; Midnight Cowboy; Star Wars; Walkabout) Barry, Mona (Detour) Barry, Philip (Philadelphia Story) Barry, Roukietou (Yaaba) Barrymore, Drew (E.T.—The Extraterrestrial) Barrymore, Lionel (Camille; It’s a Wonderful Life) Barsac, M. (Feu Mathias Pascal) Barsacq, André (Argent) Barsacq, Léon (Diaboliques; Enfants du paradis) Barsky, Vladimir (Bronenosets Potemkin) Barstow, Richard (Star Is Born) Bartczak, Józef (Matka Joanna od aniolow) Barth, Isolde (Ehe der Maria Braun; Lola) Barthelmess, Richard (Broken Blossoms) Barto, Dominic (Shaft) Bartolini, Elio (Avventura; Eclisse) Bartolomei, Alberto (8?) Barton, Baynes (North by Northwest) Barton, Sean (Star Wars) Barty, Billy (Bride of Frankenstein) Basac (Femme du boulanger) Baschirov, Aleksander (Igla) Basehart, Richard (Strada) Basevi, James (Big Parade; East of Eden; My Darling Clementine; Searchers) Basil, Toni (Easy Rider; Five Easy Pieces) Basilienses, Schola Cantorum (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Basinger, Kim (L.A. Con?dential) Baskin, Richard (Nashville) Bass, Al?e (Lavender Hill Mob) Bass, Saul (GoodFellas; North by Northwest; Psycho) Bass, Elaine (GoodFellas) Basserman, Albert (Red Shoes) Bassett, Angela (Malcolm X) Bassiak, Boris (Jules et Jim) Bassiak, Danielle (Jules et Jim) Bassman, George (Ride the High Country) Bassols, Narciso (Redes) Bassurini, Francesca (Albero degli zoccoli) Bastami, Mehdi (Ta’m E Guilass) Bastedo, Alexandra (Casino Royale) Bastos, Othon (Ant?nio das Mortes; Central do Brasil; Deus e o diabo na terra do sol) Basulto, Joe (Touch of Evil) Batagliotti, Augusto (Cabiria) Bataille, Sylvia (Crime de Monsieur Lange; Partie de campagne) Batalov, Alexe? (Letyat zhuravli; Moskva slezam ne verit) Batalov, Nikolai (Mat; Putyovka v zhizn; Tretia Meshchanskaia) Batcheff, Pierre (Chien andalou; Feu Mathias Pascal; Napoléon) Bates, Jeanne (Eraserhead) Bates, Jonathan (Mona Lisa) Bates, Kathy (Titanic) Bates, Michael (Clockwork Orange) Bath, Hubert (Blackmail) Bato, Joseph (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Battaglia, Luigi (Morte a Venezia) Batteli, Ivo (Sciuscia) Battisti, Carlo (Umberto D) B?tz, Regine (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Bau, Gordan (Rio Bravo) Baudrier, Yves (Bataille du rail) Bauer, Franz (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Bauer, Wolfgang (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Bauert, Monika (Das Boot) Baum, Barbara (Ehe der Maria Braun; Lola) Baum, Carol (Dead Ringers) Baum, Henri (Belle de jour; Casque d’or) Baum, L. Frank (Wizard of Oz) Baum, Ralph (Lola Montès; Madame de ...) Baum, Vicki (Dance, Girl, Dance) Baumeister, Albert (Ewige Jude) Baumer, Jacques (Jour se lève) Baumgartner, Charly (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Baumgartner, Karl (Underground) Baxley, Barbara (Nashville) Baxter, Anne (All about Eve; Magni?cent Ambersons) Baxter, Keith (Chimes at Midnight) Baxter, Warner (42nd Street) Bay, Frances (Blue Velvet) Bayashi, Taniye Kita (Biruma no tategoto) Bayat, Ali Reza (Ta’m E Guilass) Bayer, Leonides (Fuzis) Bayer, Wilhelm (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Bayldon, Geoffrey (Casino Royale) Bayle (Fièvre) Bayley, Terence (Brazil) Bayour, Buba (And Life Goes On) Bazanov, E. (Kommisar) Bazi, Belkacem (Battaglia di Algeri) Bea, Ambroise (Professione: Reporter) Beach, Richard (Caduta degli dei) Beals, Howard (Black Sunday) Beard, John (Brazil) Beard, Robert (Deer Hunter) Beardsley, Jamie (Reservoir Dogs) Béart, Emanuelle (Coeur en hiver) Beato, Alfonso (Ant?nio das Mortes; Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Beatty, Belinda (Deliverance) Beatty, May (Becky Sharp) Beatty, Ned (Deliverance; Nashville) Beatty, Robert (2001: A Space Odyssey; Odd Man Out) Beatty, Warren (Bonnie and Clyde) Beauchamp, Edmond (Crime de Monsieur Lange) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1410 Beaudoin, Robert (Kameradschaft) Beaugé, Marguerite (Napoléon; Pépé le Moko) Beaulieu, Lise (Nuits fauves) Beaulieu, Yolande (Menilmontant) Beauman, Nicholas (My Brilliant Career) Beaumont, Charles (Masque of the Red Death) Beaumont, Lucy (Crowd) Beaumont, Martin (If...) Beavan, Jenny (Howards End; Room with a View) Bebey, Francis (Yaaba) Becan (Fièvre) Beccaria, Mario (Boucher) Becce, Guiseppe (Letze Mann; Sodom und Gomorrha) Becher, Sophie (Life Is Sweet) Bechet, Sidney (Souf?e au coeur) Becilacqua, Amerigo (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Beck, Glenn (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Beck, J?rgen (Der var engang en krig) Beck, Reginald (Henry V) Beckel, Graham (L.A. Con?dential) Becker, Jacques (Boudu sauvé des eaux; Casque d’or; Grande illusion; Partie de campagne) Becker, Tom (Deer Hunter) Beckett, Ray (Room with a View) Beckley, Tony (Chimes at Midnight) Bedall, Rod (Mona Lisa) Beddoe, Don (Night of the Hunter) Beddows, Ivor (Casino Royale; Peeping Tom) Bedford, Paddy (Chimes at Midnight) Bedoya, Alfonso (Treasure of the Sierra Madre) Beebe, Ford (Fantasia) Beecher, Janet (Lady Eve) Beerblock, Maurice (Condamné à mort s’est échappé) Beerbohm Tre, Sir Herbert (Intolerance) Beery, Wallace (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Beery, Jr., Noah (Red River) Beery, Sr., Noah (She Done Him Wrong) Beetley, Samuel E. (Out of the Past) Beetson, Frank (Searchers) Beggs, Richard (Apocalypse Now) Begishe, Pipe Line (Searchers) Begley, Ed (Twelve Angry Men) Begum, Badar (Garam Hawa) Behn, Harry (Big Parade; Crowd) Behn-Grund, Friedl (M?rder sind unter uns) Bei, Atelier Ella (M?rchen vom Glück) Beijenaliev, B. (Andrei Rublev) Beil, Peter (Blechtrommel) Beineix, Jean-Jacques (Diva) Bekker, A. (Chapayev) Bel Geddes, Barbara (Vertigo) Bela, Nick (Little Caesar) Belafonte, Harry (Player) Belasco, Leon (Casablanca) Belázs, Béla (Valahol Europaban) Belegue, Christian (Conformista) Beliaeva, N. (Andrei Rublev) Belinskaya, Paulina (Potomok Chingis-Khan) Belkhadra, Karim (Haine) Bell, Daniel (Fanny och Alexander) Bell, Gene (Days of Heaven) Bell, Greg (Last Wave; My Brilliant Career) Bell, Martin (Shaft) Bell, Wayne (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Bellah, James Warner (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Bellamy, Ralph (Dance, Girl, Dance; His Girl Friday; Rosemary’s Baby) Bellens, Danny (Funny Games) Belleville, Matthew C. (Reservoir Dogs) Belling, Davina (Gregory’s Girl) Bellini, Isa (Film d’amore e d’anarchia) Bellocchio, Celestina (Pugni in tasca) Bellocchio, Marco (Pugni in tasca) Bellon, Loleh (Casque d’or) Belmondo, Jean-Paul (A bout de souf?e; Casino Royale) Belmont, Guy (Menilmontant) Belot, Marthe (Feu Mathias Pascal) Belova, V. (Idi i smotri) Beluzzi, Maria Antonietta (8?) Belvaux, Rémy (C’est arrivé près de chez vous) Belyakov, I. (Kino-Pravda) Belza, Ihor (Arsenal) Benavides, Miguel (Otro Francisco) Bénazéraf, José (A bout de souf?e) Benchley, Peter (Jaws) Benda, Georges K. (Kermesse héroique) Bender, Helga (Heimat; Zweite Heimat, Die) Bender, Lawrence (Pulp Fiction; Reservoir Dogs) Bendix Madson, Birgit (Der var engang en krig) Bendová, Jitka (Ostre sledované vlaky) Bendtsen, Henning (Gertrud; Ordet) Benedetti, Benedetto (Conformista) Benedetti, Rolando (Vitelloni, I) Benedict, Harold (Paths of Glory) Benedict, Richard (Cross?re) Benegal, Shyam (Bhumika) Benelli, Sennuccio (Salvatore Giuliano) Benevolskaya, L. (Kommisar) Beneyton, Yves (Dentellière; Weekend) Benga, Féral (Sang d’un poete) Benghiat, Suzy (Chagrin et la pitié) Bengsch, Hubertus (Das Boot) Bening, Annette (American Beauty) Benitz, Albert (Tie?and) Beniya, Yoshiichi (Narayama bushi-ko) Benktsson, Benkt-?ke (Sjunde inseglet) Bennent, David (Blechtrommel) Bennent, Heinz (Blechtrommel; Deutschland im Herbst) Bennett, Bruce (Mildred Pierce; Treasure of the Sierra Madre) Bennett, Charles (39 Steps; Blackmail) Bennett, Fran (Giant) Bennett, Frank (Intolerance) Bennett, Joseph (Howards End) Bennett, Lance (Last Wave) Bennett, Richard (Magni?cent Ambersons) Benois, Alexandre (Napoléon) Beno?t, G. (Femme du boulanger) Benson, Sally (Meet Me in St. Louis) Bentivoglio, Eugenio (Sans Soleil) Bentley, Wes (American Beauty) Bento, Serge (Femme in?dèle) Benton, Robert (Bonnie and Clyde) Benton, Toby (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Benton Reid, Carl (In a Lonely Place) Benvenuti, Jolanda (Viaggio in Italia) Benvenuti, Leonardo (Once Upon a Time in America) Beradino, John (North by Northwest) Beranger, Andre (Birth of a Nation) Beranger, George (Broken Blossoms) Bérard, Christian (Belle et la bête; Orphée) Beraud, Luc (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1411 Berber, Anita (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Berbert, Marcel (Jules et Jim) Beregi, Oskar (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Berenson, Marisa (Cabaret; Morte a Venezia) Berezowska, Teresa (Kanal) Berg, Jon (Star Wars) Berg, Lorena (Paisà) Berg, Stina (Erotikon; Herr Arnes Pengar) Berger, Bror (Herr Arnes Pengar) Berger, Georges (Zéro de conduite) Berger, Grete (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse; Metropolis; Nibelungen; Student von Prag) Berger, Helmut (Caduta degli dei; Godfather Trilogy) Berger, John (Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Berger, Mark (Apocalypse Now) Berger, Nicole (Tirez sur le pianiste) Berger, Willi (Heimat; Zweite Heimat, Die) Bergeron, René (Jour se lève; Pépé le Moko) Bergh?fer, Erika (M?rchen vom Glück) Bergman, Anna (Fanny och Alexander) Bergman, Henry (City Lights; Gold Rush; Kid; Modern Times) Bergman, Ingmar (Fanny och Alexander; Gycklarnas afton; Persona; Sjunde inseglet; Smultronst?llet; Sommarnattens leende; Tystnaden; Viskningar och rop) Bergman, Ingrid (Casablanca; Notorious; Stromboli; Viaggio in Italia) Bergman, Mats (Fanny och Alexander) Bergman, Ingmar (Sjunde inseglet) Bergmann, Werner (Sterne) Bergouignan, Jean-Fran?ois (Quatre cents coups) Bergstr?m, Anne-Louise (Fanny och Alexander) Bergstrom, Jan K. (American Beauty) Beridzé, Teimouraz (Pirosmani) Beringer, Carl (Mis?ts) Berkeley, Busby (42nd Street) Berkoff, Steven (Clockwork Orange; Professione: Reporter) Berley, André (Passion de Jeanne d’Arc) Berliet (Feu Mathias Pascal) Berliet, Jimmy (Entr’acte) Berlin, Irving (Hallelujah; Top Hat) Berling, Peter (Ehe der Maria Braun) Berlioz (Bête humaine) Berman, Pandro S. (Picture of Dorian Gray; Top Hat) Bernanos, Georges (Journal d’un curé de campagne) Bernard, Alex (Cabiria; Kameradschaft) Bernard, Alexandre (Napoléon) Bernard, Armand (A nous la liberté; Million; Napoléon) Bernard, Ivor (Great Expectations) Bernard, James (Dracula 1958) Bernard, Joachim (Heimat; Zweite Heimat, Die) Bernard, Paul (Dames du Bois de Boulogne) Bernardo, Claudio (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Bernd, Paul (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Bernds, E. E. (It Happened One Night) Bernds, Ed (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Bernède, Arthur (Judex) Bernhard, Joachim (Das Boot) Bernheim, Nicole-Lise (India Song) Bernon, Bluette (Voyage dans la lune) Bernsnnart (Kongi’s Harvest) Bernstein, Elmer (Sweet Smell of Success) Bernstein, Leonard (On the Town; On the Waterfront; West Side Story) Bernstein, Marcos (Central do Brasil) Bernstein, Walter (Annie Hall) Bernt, Reinhold (Blaue Engel) Berntsson, Vilhelm (Erotikon) Berouana, Maassouma (And Life Goes On) Berouana, Mohamed Reda (And Life Goes On) Berr, Georges (Million) Berrington, Elizabeth (Secrets and Lies) Berry, Eric (Red Shoes) Berry, Frank (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Berry, Jules (Argent; Crime de Monsieur Lange; Jour se lève) Berry, Mady (Jour se lève) Berry, Sam (Paris, Texas) Berryman, Michael (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Berselli, Adriana (Avventura) Bert (Days of Heaven) Bert, Malcolm (East of Eden; Star Is Born) Bert, Margaret (Singin’ in the Rain) Berta, Renato (Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Bertazzolo, Riccardo (Miracolo a Milano) Berth, Merlin (Paisà) Bertheau, Julien (Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie) Bertin, Fran?oise (Année dernière à Marienbad) Bertin, Pierre (Orphée) Bertin, Roland (Cyrano de Bergerac) Bertini, Francesca (1900 (Novecento)) Berto, Juliet (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris; Weekend) Bertoli, Pierangelo (Albero degli zoccoli) Bertolini, Vittorio (Notte) Bertolucci, Bernardo (C’era una volta il west; 1900; Accattone; Conformista; Last Tango in Paris) Bertolucci, Giovanni (Conformista) Bertolucci, Giuseppe (1900) Bertrand, Paul (Jeux interdits; Quai des brumes) Bertrand, Pierre-André (Condamné à mort s’est échappé) Bervoets, Gene (Spoorloos) Berwick, Ray (Birds) Besserer, Eugenie (Jazz Singer) Best, Ahmed (Star Wars) Best, Marjorie (Giant; Rio Bravo) Best, Willie (High Sierra) Bestaeva, Tatiana (Teni zabytykh predkov) Betsuie, Exactly Sonnie (Searchers) Bett, John (Gregory’s Girl) Betti, Laura (1900) Betzer, Just (Babettes Gaestebud) Bevan, Billy (Picture of Dorian Gray) Bevan, Tim (Fargo; My Beautiful Laundrette) Bevani, Alexander (Phantom of the Opera) Bevilacqua, Umberto (Accattone) Beydte, Louis (Kermesse héroique) Beymer, Richard (West Side Story) Beyshenaliyev, Bolot (Csillagosok, katonák) Beyza’i, Bahram (Dawandeh) Bez, Claire (Trois Couleurs) Bezdani, Mohamed (And Life Goes On) Bezon, Nathalie (Cyrano de Bergerac) Bezyaev, I. (Proshchanie) Bezzerides, A. I. (Kiss Me Deadly) Bhai, Ali (Salaam Bombay) Bhai, Ameer (Salaam Bombay) Bhanja, Samit (Aranyer din Ratri) Bhanudas (Bhumika) Bhanumati (Kaagaz ke phool) Bhattacharya, Bijon (Meghe dhaka tara) Bhattacharya, Bimal (Jana Aranya) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1412 Bhattacharya, Satindra (Meghe dhaka tara) Bhowal, Dwijen (Meghe dhaka tara) Bianchi, Regina (Kaos) Biberman, Abner (His Girl Friday) Biberman, Herbert J. (Salt of the Earth) Biberman, Sonja Dahl (Salt of the Earth) Bical, Yves (Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles) Bichkov, M. (Proshchanie) Bickford, Charles (Star Is Born) Bidault, Georges (Chagrin et la pitié) Biddle, Adrian (Thelma and Louise) Bideau, Jean-Luc (Coeur en hiver; Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Biebero (Third Man) Bied, Richard (Masque of the Red Death) Biedermann, Julia (Bleierne Zeit) Biedrzycka-Sheppard, Anna (Schindler’s List) Biedrzynska, Adrianna (Dekalog) Biely, Andrey (Konyets Sankt-Peterburga) Bienart, Gerhard (Blaue Engel; Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse; M) Bienkowski, Bogdan (Popiol i diament) Biensfeldt, Paul (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Bienvenu, Mrs. E. (Louisiana Story) Bieri, Ramon (Badlands) Biermann, Wolf (Deutschland im Herbst) Biette, Jean-Claude (India Song) Bigagli, Claudio (Kaos) Bigazzi, Luca (America, L’) Biggar, Trisha (Star Wars) Bight, John (Howards End) Bijelic, Severin (Budjenje pacova; Skuplijaci perja; Zaseda) Bijlani, Bisham M. (Bhumika) Bijlani, Lalit M. (Bhumika) Bikelodore (African Queen) Bilbrook, Lydia (Picture of Dorian Gray) Bilinsky, Boris (Jour se lève) Billings, Mike (Douglas Trilogy) Billings, Ted (Bride of Frankenstein) Billodeau, David C. (Easy Rider) Billquist, Carl (Fanny och Alexander) Bini, Alfredo (Accattone; Vangelo secondo Matteo, Il) Bini, René Marc (Nuits fauves) Binns, Edward (North by Northwest) Binoche, Juliette (Trois Couleurs) Birch, A. (39 Steps) Birch, Paul (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Birch, Thora (American Beauty) Bird, Alan (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Bird, H. J. (2001: A Space Odyssey) Bird, H. L. (Hard Day’s Night; Lolita) Bird, Lauri (Annie Hall) Bird, Norman (Victim) Bird, Richard (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Bird, Violet (Jazz Singer) Birinskio (Variété) Birkett, Lord Michael (Marat/Sade) Birkholz, Gerhard (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Birkin, Jane (Blow-Up) Birman, S. (Ivan Grozny) Birnbaum, Lillian (Central do Brasil) Biro, Katharina (Funny Games) Biro, Lajos (Private Life of Henry VIII; Things to Come) Biroc, Joseph (It’s a Wonderful Life) Birri, Fernando (Tire dié) Bishop, Dan (Lone Star) Bissainthe, Toto (Noire de ...) Bissell, James D. (E.T. The Extraterrestrial) Bissell, Whit (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Bisset, Jackie (Casino Royale) Bissmeier, Joachim (Deutschland im Herbst) Biswanger, Erwin (Nibelungen) Bitsch, Charles (Alphaville; Mèpris) Bittins, Michael (Das Boot) Bittmann, Hans (Vampyr) Bitzer, G. W. (Billy; Birth of a Nation Broken Blossoms; Intolerance) Bjelvenstam, Bj?rn (Smultronst?llet; Sommarnattens leende) Bj?rk, Anita (Fr?ken Julie) Bj?rnstad, Roy (Sult) Bj?rnstrand, Gunnar (Fanny och Alexander; Gycklarnas afton; Smultronst?llet; Sommarnattens leende) Bj?rnstrand, Gunner (Persona) Black, Dorothée (Cléo de cinq à sept) Black, Edward (Lady Vanishes) Black, J. Kyler (Lone Star) Black, John D. F. (Shaft) Black, Karen (Easy Rider; Five Easy Pieces; Nashville; Player) Black, Maurice (Little Caesar; Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Black Horse, Harry (Searchers) Blackford, Jeanne (High Noon) Blackman, Don (On the Waterfront) Blackmer, Sidney (Dance, Girl, Dance; Little Caesar; Rosemary’s Baby) Bladh, Hilding (Gycklarnas afton) Blain, Gérard (Amerikanische freund) Blair, Lionel (Hard Day’s Night) Blair, Preston (Fantasia) Blake, Amanda (Star Is Born) Blake, Anne (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Blake, John (Fargo) Blake, Julia (My Brilliant Career) Blake, Larry (High Noon; Sunset Boulevard) Blake, Madge (Singin’ in the Rain) Blake, Oliver (Casablanca) Blake, Robert (Treasure of the Sierra Madre) Blakely, Colin (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Blakley, Ronee (Nashville) Blalack, Robert (Star Wars) Blanc, Lionel Le (Louisiana Story) Blanchar, Dominique (Avventura; Zéro de conduite) Blanchard, C. (Farrebique) Blanchard, Terence (Malcolm X) Blanche, Francis (Belle de jour) Blanchetti, Suzanne (Napoléon) Blandick, Clara (Wizard of Oz) Blane, Ralph (Meet Me in St. Louis) Blane, Sally (I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang) Blane, Sue (Draughtsman’s Contract; Rocky Horror Picture Show) Blangsted, Folmar (Rio Bravo; Star Is Born) Blank, Dorothy Ann (Snow White) Blank, M. (Idi i smotri) Blanke, Henry (Maltese Falcon; Treasure of the Sierra Madre) Blasco-Ibá?ez, Vicente (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Blasquez, Adélaide (Belle de jour) Blaszczyk, Ewa (Dekalog) Blau, Martin Maria (Heimat; Zweite Heimat, Die) Blavet, Marc (Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Blavette (Femme du boulanger) Blawut, Jacek (Dekalog) Bla?ejovsky, Antonin (Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Blazickova, Nadezda (Baron Prasil) Bleakley, Annie (Last Wave) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1413 Bleibinger, Matheus (Chagrin et la pitié) Bleibtreu, Hedwig (Engel mit der Posaune; Third Man) Blessed, Brian (Star Wars) Bletcher, Bill (Sullivan’s Travels) Blethyn, Brenda (Secrets and Lies) Bliakin, P. (Novyi Vavilon) Blier, Bernard (Jour se lève) Blin, Noel (Belle et la bête) Blin, Roger (Crime de Monsieur Lange; Orphée) Blinnikov, Sergei (Alexander Nevsky) Blinov, Boris (Chapayev) Bliokh, Jacob (Bronenosets Potemkin) Bliss, Arthur (Things to Come) Blitzstein, Marc (Spanish Earth) Bloch, Robert (Psycho) Blok, S. (Mat) Blomdahl, Karl-Birger (Gycklarnas afton) Blondeau, Marcel (Crime de Monsieur Lange) Blondell, Joan (Public Enemy) Bloom, Brian (Once Upon a Time in America) Blore, Eric (Lady Eve; Sullivan’s Travels; Top Hat) Blue, Corine (Nuits fauves) Blue, Monte (Casablanca; Intolerance; Sullivan’s Travels) Blum, Gabriel (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Blum, Jack (Exotica) Blum, Roger (Napoléon) Blümner, Rudolf (M) Bluthal, John (Casino Royale) Bly Baker, Nellie (Kid) Blymer, Sugar (Black Sunday) Blyth, Ann (Mildred Pierce) Boardman, Eleanor (Crowd) Boasberg, Al (Freaks; General; Night at the Opera) Bober, Elen (Jules et Jim) Bobrov, I. (Bronenosets Potemkin) Bobrovsky, Valentin (Siberiade) Bochar, Ron (Philadelphia) Bocquel (Zéro de conduite) Bocquet, Gavin (Star Wars) Bodeen, DeWitt (Cat People) Bodrero, James (Fantasia) Bodyk, Lazar (Arsenal; Zemlya) Boehm, Karl (Peeping Tom) Boehm, Michèle (Z) Boehm, Sidney (Big Heat) Boehme, Margarethe (Tagebuch einer Verlorenen) Boemler, George (Adam’s Rib; Asphalt Jungle) Boffety, Jean (Dentellière) Bogaert, Lucienne (Dames du Bois de Boulogne) Bogarde, Dirk (Blue Lamp; Caduta degli dei; Morte a Venezia; Servant; Victim) Bogart, Humphrey (African Queen; Big Sleep; Casablanca; High Sierra; In a Lonely Place; Maltese Falcon; Treasure of the Sierra Madre) Bogdankevitch, V. (Ivan Grozny) Bogdanov, Mikhail (Voina i mir) Bogdanova, Anna (Letyat zhuravli) Bogdanovich, Peter (Last Picture Show; Red River) Bogé, Louis (Crime de Monsieur Lange) Bohanen, Fred (Giant) B?heim, Olly (Metropolis) B?hm, Adolf (Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Bohm, Hark (Angst essen Seele auf) B?hm, Hark (Lola) B?hm, Karlheinz (Engel mit der Posaune) B?hm, Marquard (Angst essen Seele auf; Im Lauf der Zeit) B?hm, Werner (38-Auch das war Wien) Bohm, Werner (Das Boot) Bohne, Werner (Triumph des Willens) Bohringer, Richard (Diva) Bohringer, Romane (Nuits fauves) Boht, Jean (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Boileau (Diaboliques; Yeux sans visage) Bois, Curt (Casablanca; Der Himmel Uber Berlin) Boisrond, Michel (Samourai) Boisson, Noelle (Cyrano de Bergerac) Bojorquez, Yolanda (Touch of Evil) Boland, Eddie (Sunrise) Boland, Mary (Annie Hall; Women) Bole (Fièvre) Boles, John (Frankenstein) Boley, May (Informer) Bolger, Ray (Wizard of Oz) Bolhaus, Karl (Blaue Engel) Bolkan, Florinda (Caduta degli dei) B?ll, Heinrich (Deutschland im Herbst) Bollhalder, Bruno (Im Lauf der Zeit) Bollinger, Alun (Heavenly Creatures) Bologna, Enrico (Avventura) Bolognini, Manolo (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Bolster, Anita (Lost Weekend) Bolt, Robert (Lawrence of Arabia) Bona, Chen (Huang tudi) Bonaccelli, Paolo (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli; Midnight Express) Bonaiuto, Anna (Film d’amore e d’anarchia) Bonaldi, Jacques (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Bonanova, Fortunio (Citizen Kane; Double Indemnity) Bonardier, Julien (Sang des bêtes) Bond, Edward (Walkabout) Bond, Lillian (Picture of Dorian Gray) Bond, Rudy (On the Waterfront; Twelve Angry Men) Bond, Ward (Gone With the Wind; Grapes of Wrath; It Happened One Night; It’s a Wonderful Life; Johnny Guitar; Maltese Falcon; My Darling Clementine; Rio Bravo; Searchers; Young Mr. Lincoln) Bondam, Klaus (Festen) Bondarchuk, Sergei (Voina i mir) Bondi (Chapeau de paille d’Italie) Bondi, A. (Maxim Trilogy) Bondi, Beulah (It’s a Wonderful Life; Mr. Smith Goes to Washington; Southerner) Bondy, Luc (Bleierne Zeit) Bonetti, Massimo (Kaos) Bonezzi, Bernardo (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios) Bonfa, Luis (Orfeu Negro) Bonfanti, Antoine (Last Tango in Paris) Bongard, Roland (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Bonham-Carter, Helena (Room with a View) Bonin, Madeleine (Enfants du paradis) Bonnot, Fran?ois (Z) Bonnot, Monique (Samourai) Bonpaint, Jacques (Muerte de un Ciclista) Bonzel, André (C’est arrivé près de chez vous)</entry Boorman, Charlie (Deliverance) Boorman, John (Deliverance) Booth, Frank (All Quiet on the Western Front) Booth, Jim (Heavenly Creatures) Booth, Margaret (Camille) Bor, Milan (Das Boot; Ehe der Maria Braun; Lola) Boratto, Caterina (8?) Borboni, Paolo (Vitelloni, I) Borden, Eugene (American in Paris) Borden, Marshall M. (West Side Story) Borderie, Raymond (Samourai) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1414 Bordier, Philippe (Orphée) Borel, Jacques (Partie de campagne) Borelli, Claude (Orphée) Boreo, Emile (Lady Vanishes) Borge, Vebe (GoodFellas) Borgel, George (Das Boot; Ehe der Maria Braun) Borgnine, Ernest (From Here to Eternity; Johnny Guitar; Wild Bunch) Borgstrom, Hilda (K?rkalen) Borkon, Jules (Yeux sans visage) Borlin, Jean (Entr’acte) B?rnstrand, Gunnar (Sjunde inseglet) Borowczyk, Tadeusz (Matka Joanna od aniolow) Borscheidt, Randy (Chelsea Girls) Borsody, Julius von (Sodom und Gomorrha) Borzage, Dan (My Darling Clementine; Searchers) Bosák, Old?ich (O slavnosti a hostech; Ostre sledované vlaky) Boschetti, Bruno (Morte a Venezia) Boschi, Eliseo (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Bose, Ashoke (Aranyer din Ratri; Jana Aranya) Bose, Kaberi (Aranyer din Ratri) Bose, Kamal (Do bigha zamin) Bose, Lucia (Muerte de un Ciclista) Bose, Purnendu (Aranyer din Ratri) Bosek, Pavel (O slavnosti a hostech) Boshnakov, Kancho (Sterne) Boste (Shaft) Bost, Pierre (Diable au corps; Jeux interdits) Bostick, Floyd (Salt of the Earth) Bostwick, Barry (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Bosworth, Hobart (Big Parade) Botsvadze, Zeinab (Pokaianie) Bottoms, Sam (Apocalypse Now; Last Picture Show) Bottoms, Timothy (Last Picture Show) Botz, Gustav (Nosferatu (1922novyi)) Bouché, Claudine (Jules et Jim; Tirez sur le pianiste) Bouche, Tessa (Fiore delle mille e una notte) Boucher, Olivier (Douglas Trilogy) Bouchet, Barbara (Casino Royale) Bouchey, Willis (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Bouchgard, W. (Fièvre) Bouchouchi, Youssef (Battaglia di Algeri) Boudreaux, Joseph (Louisiana Story) Bouise, Jean (Soy Cuba; Z) Bouksani, Ali (Battaglia di Algeri) Boulanger, Daniel (A bout de souf?e; Tirez sur le pianiste) Bouquet, Michel (Femme in?dèle; Nuit et brouillard) Bour, Armand (Argent) Bourgassof (Feu Mathias Pascal) Bourgine, Elizabethe (Coeur en hiver) Bourgoin, Jean (Orfeu Negro) Bourliaiev, Nikolai (Andrei Rublev) Bourne, Mel (Annie Hall; Manhattan) Bourseiller, Antoine (Cléo de cinq à sept) Bout-de-Zan (Judex) Boutchma, A. (Ivan Grozny) Bouzina, N. (Ivan Grozny) Bovo, Brunella (Miracolo a Milano) Bowdon, Dorris (Grapes of Wrath) Bowen, Chen (Guling jie shaonian sha ren shijian) Bowen, Roger (M*A*S*H) Bower, Dallas (Henry V) Bowies (Casino Royale) Bowles, Peter (Blow-Up) Bowman, Marcia (Easy Rider) Box, John (Lawrence of Arabia) Boxer, Nathan (Apocalypse Now; Conversation) Boy, Ibrahima (Noire de ...) Boyd, Karin (Mephisto) Boyd, Russell (Last Wave; Picnic at Hanging Rock) Boye, Hans-Peter (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Boyer, Charles (Casino Royale; Madame de ...) Boyer, Fran?ois (Jeux interdits) Boyer, Myriam (Coeur en hiver; Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Boyle, Danny (Trainspotting) Boyle, Edward G. (Johnny Guitar) Boyle, Peter (Taxi Driver) Boyle, Robert (Birds; North by Northwest) Boyman, Marc (Dead Ringers) Bozman, Ron (Philadelphia; Silence of the Lambs) Bozzu?, Marcel (Z) Braccini, Lola (Gattopardo) Bracco, Lorraine (GoodFellas) Brach, Gerard (Repulsion) Brackett, Charles (Jour se lève; Lost Weekend; Ninotchka; Sunset Boulevard) Brackettigh (Big Sleep; Rio Bravo; Star Wars) Bradbury, J. (Fantasia) Bradford, Jack (March of Time) Bradford, Marshall (White Heat) Bradley (It Happened One Night) Bradshaw, Charles (Sullivan’s Travels) Brady, Alice (Young Mr. Lincoln) Brady, Moya (Life Is Sweet) Brady, Scott (Johnny Guitar) Braeden, Eric (Titanic) Braga, Carlos (Bye Bye Brasil) Braga, Sonia (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Bragaglia, Arturo (Miracolo a Milano) Brahms, Penny (2001: A Space Odyssey) Braine, John (Room at the Top) Brakhage, Jane (Dog Star Man) Brakhage, Stan (Anticipation of the Night; Dog Star Man) Brambell, Wilfrid (Hard Day’s Night) Bramley, William (West Side Story) Bramonti, Mario (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli; Eclisse; Film d’amore e d’anarchia) Brancati, Vitaliano (Viaggio in Italia) Branche, Derrick (My Beautiful Laundrette) Brand, Roland (Lolita) Brandauer, Klaus Maria (Mephisto) Brandenburg, Larry (Fargo) Brandley, Major (Jeux interdits) Brando, Jocelyn (Big Heat) Brando, Marlon (Apocalypse Now; Godfather Trilogy; Last Tango in Paris; On the Waterfront; Streetcar Named Desire) Brandon, Henry (Searchers) Brandstaedter, Jutta (Hitler: Ein Film aus Deutschland) Brandt, Ivan (Things to Come) Brandt, Nils (Fanny och Alexander) Branki, Youssef (And Life Goes On) Bras, Albert (Napoléon; Vampyr) Brasch, Helmuth (Blechtrommel) Brasselle, Keefe (Place in the Sun) Brassers, Bille (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Brasseur, Pierre (Enfants du paradis; Quai des brumes; Yeux sans visage) Brault, Michel (Chronique d’un été) Braumberger, Pierre (Vivre sa vie) Braun, Charles (Chagrin et la pitié) Braun, Franti?ek (Staré povesti ceské) Braunberger, Pierre (Partie de campagne; Tirez sur le pianiste) Braut, Ivo (Vlak bez voznog reda) Brazil, Edgar (Limite) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1415 Brde?ka, Ji?í (Staré povesti ceské) Bream, Stephen (Brazil) Brecher, Irving (Meet Me in St. Louis) Brecht, Berthold (Dreigroschenoper) Brecianini, Teresa (Albero degli zoccoli) Bredel, Gertrud (Heimat; Zweite Heimat, Die) Bredell, Woody (Killers) Breese, Edmund (All Quiet on the Western Front; Duck Soup) Brega, Mario (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Bregovic, Goran (Dom za vesanje; Underground) Breil, Joseph Carl (Birth of a Nation; Intolerance) Breillet, Catherine (Last Tango in Paris) Breillet, Marie-Hélène (Last Tango in Paris) Brejchova, Jana (Baron Prasil; Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Brémand, Jean (Crime de Monsieur Lange) Bremer, Lucille (Meet Me in St. Louis) Brennan, Eileen (Last Picture Show) Brennan, Jack (Greed) Brennan, James (Greed) Brennan, Michael (Tom Jones) Brennan, Walter (Bride of Frankenstein; Fury; My Darling Clementine; Red River; Rio Bravo) Brenner, Albert (Hustler) Breno, Olga (Limite) Brent, George (42nd Street) Bresler, Jerry (Casino Royale) Bressart, Felix (Ninotchka) Bresson, Robert (Condamné à mort s’est échappé; Dames du Bois de Boulogne; Journal d’un curé de campagne; Pickpocket) Bretherton, David (Cabaret) Brethez, Michel (Nuits fauves) Breton, Auguste le (Du Ri?? chez les hommes) Brett, Fannie (Titanic) Breuer, Marita (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Breuer, Siegfried (Third Man) Brewer, Sherri (Shaft) Brialy, Jean-Claude (Cléo de cinq à sept; Quatre cents coups) Brickman, Jacob (Days of Heaven) Brickman, Marshall (Annie Hall; Manhattan) Bridenbecker, Milton (Phantom of the Opera) Bridge, Al (Sullivan’s Travels) Bridge, Alan (Night at the Opera) Bridge, Joan (Black Narcissus) Bridges, Jeff (Last Picture Show) Bridges, Lloyd (High Noon) Bridges, Lorraine (Night at the Opera) Bright, John (Public Enemy; Room with a View; She Done Him Wrong) Bright, Richard (Godfather Trilogy) Brightwell, Paul (Titanic) Brignoli, Giuseppe (Albero degli zoccoli) Brignoli, Mario (Albero degli zoccoli) Brignoli, Omar (Albero degli zoccoli) Brignone, Lilla (Eclisse) Brik, Osip (Potomok Chingis-Khan) Brillanti, Dinorah (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Brillouin, Jacques (Kermesse héroique) Brinton, Ralph (Odd Man Out; Room at the Top; Tom Jones) Briot, Marie-Odile (India Song) Brissac, Virginia (Rebel Without a Cause) Brisson, Jean-Claude (Central do Brasil) Britneva, Maria (Room with a View) Brito, Paulo (Central do Brasil) Britton, Aileen (My Brilliant Career) Brizzi, Anchise (Sciuscia) Broadbent, Jim (Brazil; Life Is Sweet) Brochard, Jean (Diaboliques; Vitelloni, I) Broche, Mario González (Soy Cuba) Brochet, Anne (Cyrano de Bergerac) Brock, Meinir (Brazil) Brockette, Gary (Last Picture Show) Broderick, Helen (Top Hat) Broderick, John (Badlands) Brodie, Don (Detour) Brodie, Steve (Cross?re; Out of the Past) Brodsky, Serge (Bronenosets Potemkin; Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles) Brodsky, Vlastimil (Ostre sledované vlaky) Brodzki, Marek (Schindler’s List) Broekman, David (All Quiet on the Western Front; Dracula 1931; Frankenstein) Brolis, Pasqualina (Albero degli zoccoli) Bromley, Dorothy (Servant) Bronson, Charles (C’era una volta il west) Bronzi, Francesco (Kaos) Brook, Peter (Marat/Sade) Brook-Jones, Elwyn (Odd Man Out) Brooke, Walter (Black Sunday; Graduate) Brooks, Albert (Taxi Driver) Brooks, Christopher (GoodFellas) Brooks, Dean R. (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Brooks, Hillary (Philadelphia Story) Brooks, Jess Lee (Sullivan’s Travels) Brooks, Louise (Büchse der Pandora; Tagebuch einer Verlorenen) Brooks, Rand (Gone With the Wind) Brooks, Randy (Reservoir Dogs) Brooks, Richard (Cross?re) Brookshier, Tom (Black Sunday) Brophie, Edward (Dance, Girl, Dance) Brophy, Edward (Freaks; Thin Man) Brophy, Jed (Heavenly Creatures) Brost, Gudrun (Gycklarnas afton; Sjunde inseglet) Brostr?m, Gunnel (Smultronst?llet) Brothers, Medini (Carrosse d’or) Browero (Alsino y el Condor; Lucia; Memorias del subdesarrollo; Otro Francisco; Primera carga al machete) Brown, Antony (Brazil) Brown, Barbara (Mildred Pierce) Brown, Barry Alexander (Do the Right Thing; Malcolm X; Salaam Bombay) Brown, Bernard (Killers) Brown, Charles D. (Big Sleep; Grapes of Wrath; Killers) Brown, David (Jaws; Player) Brown, Drew Bundini (Shaft) Brown, Everett (Gone With the Wind; I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang) Brown, Ewing (Shane) Brown, Gaye (Clockwork Orange; Masque of the Red Death) Brown, George (Searchers) Brown, Harry (Place in the Sun) Brown, Harry J. (Foolish Wives) Brown, Helen (Shane) Brown, Hillary (Deer Hunter) Brown, Hilyard (Night of the Hunter) Brown, James (Star Is Born) Brown, Joe (Mona Lisa) Brown, Joe E. (Some Like It Hot) Brown, John (Strangers on a Train) Brown, Karl (Birth of a Nation; Intolerance) Brown, Nacio Herb (Singin’ in the Rain) Brown, Phil (Killers) Brown, Timothy (Nashville) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1416 Browne, Irene (Red Shoes) Browning, Tod (Dracula 1931; Freaks; Intolerance) Bruce, Brenda (Peeping Tom) Bruce, Nigel (Becky Sharp) Bruce, Robert de (Philadelphia Story) Bruce, William (All the King’s Men) Bruckman, Clyde (General; Sherlock, Jr.) Brüel, Birgit (Der var engang en krig) Bruhns, Werner (1900) Brulier, Nigel De (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Brumbach, Franz (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Brunacci, Bruno (Miracolo a Milano) Brunelle, A. F. (Fièvre) Brunet, Mme. (Procès) Brunius, Jacques B. (Age d’or; Crime de Monsieur Lange; Partie de campagne) Brunner, Kathrin (Journey of Hope) Bruno, Nando (Ladri di biciclette; Roma, città aperta) Bruno, S. (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Brunoy, Blanchette (Bête humaine) Brüntjen, Eckart (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Brustellin, Alf (Deutschland im Herbst) Bryan, Dora (Blue Lamp) Bryan, John (Great Expectations) Bryan, Peggy (Dead of Night) Bryde, Wilhelm (Erotikon; G?sta Berlings Saga) Bryden, Sonia (Letter from an Unknown Woman) Bryon, Bruce (Scorpio Rising) Buarque, Chico (Bye Bye Brasil) Buchan, John (39 Steps) Buchanan, Edgar (Ride the High Country; Shane) Buchanan, Jack (Band Wagon) Buchanan, Robert (Gregory’s Girl) Buchanan, Simone (My Brilliant Career) Buchanan, Stuart (Snow White) Bucher, Anita (Angst essen Seele auf) Buchey, Willis (Big Heat) Buchheim, Lothar-Günther (Das Boot) Buchma, Amvroziy (Arsenal) Buchman, Sidney (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Buchmelter, John F., III (Deer Hunter) Buchwald, Art (Playtime) Buck, Jules (Naked City) Buckingham, Jan (Sullivan’s Travels) Buckland, Veda (Philadelphia Story) Buckley, Joss (Draughtsman’s Contract) Buckmaster, Maurice (Chagrin et la pitié) Bucquet, Harold S. (Wind) Buday, Dénes (Valahol Europaban) Budenmayer, Van Den (Trois Couleurs) Budiscak, Mladen (Samo jednom se ljubi) Budraitis, Yumas (Korol Lir) Bueno, Clovis (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Buff, Conrad (Star Wars) Buff, Conrad, IV (Titanic) Buffet, Eugénie (Napoléon) Buhl, Teresa Violetta (Trois Couleurs) Bujold, Geneviève (Dead Ringers) Bujord (J’accuse) Bulajic, Veljko (Vlak bez voznog reda) Bulgakova, Maiya (Proshchanie) Bulickoa, Ru?ena (Ostre sledované vlaky) Bull, Peter (African Queen; Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb; Tom Jones) Bulloch, Ian (Black Sunday) Bumstead, Henry (Unforgiven; Vertigo) Bunker, Eddie (Reservoir Dogs) Bunnage, Avis (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning; Tom Jones) Bunster, Carmen (Alsino y el Condor) Bunston, Herbert (Dracula 1931) Bu?uel, Luis (Age d’or; Belle de jour; Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie; Chien andalou; Olvidados; Viridiana) Bupp, Sonny (Citizen Kane) Bür?s, Gy?ngyi (Meg ker a nep) Burch, John (Great Expectations) Burel, Léonce-Henry (Condamné à mort s’est échappé; Journal d’un curé de campagne; J’accuse; Napoléon; Pickpocket) Buren, Mabel Van (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Burger, Gottfried (Baron Prasil) Burgess, Anthony (Clockwork Orange; Cyrano de Bergerac) Burgess, Grover (Naked City) Burghoff, Gary (M*A*S*H) Buric, Pero (Otac na sluzbenom putu) Burke, Billie (Becky Sharp; Wizard of Oz) Burke, James (Maltese Falcon) Burke, Sonny (Wild Bunch) Burke, Thomas (Broken Blossoms) Burke, Walter (All the King’s Men) Burke, William (A nous la liberté) Burke Frederick (Crowd) Burkhard, Ingrid (38-Auch das war Wien) Burks, Robert (Birds; North by Northwest; Rear Window; Strangers on a Train; Vertigo) Burman, S. D. (Kaagaz ke phool) Burn, Jonathan (Marat/Sade) Burnell, Janet (Henry V) Burnett, Murray (Casablanca) Burnett, W. R. (High Sierra; Little Caesar; Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Burnham, Vin (Brazil) Burns, Marilyn (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Burns, Mark (Morte a Venezia) Burns, Moya (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Burns, Ralph (Cabaret) Burns, Robert A. (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Burns, Robert E. (I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang) Burr, Fritzie (Chinatown) Burr, Raymond (Gojira; Place in the Sun; Rear Window) Burrell, Fred (Klute) Burroughs, Clark (Public Enemy) Burroughs, Dale (Deer Hunter) Burrow, Neil (Unforgiven) Burstyn, Ellen (Last Picture Show) Burton, Julian (Masque of the Red Death) Burton, Peter (Clockwork Orange) Burton, Robert (Big Heat) Burtt, Benjamin (Star Wars) Burwell, Carter (Fargo) Bury, Sean ( If...) Busby, George R. (Black Narcissus) Buscemi, Steve (Fargo; Pulp Fiction; Reservoir Dogs) Busch, Ernst (Dreigroschenoper; Kameradschaft) Busch, Mae (Foolish Wives) Busch, Robert (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Buschmann, Joey (Deutschland im Herbst) Busck, Ole (Der var engang en krig) Busey, Gary (Player) Bush, Billy ‘‘Green’’ (Five Easy Pieces) Bushman, Bruce (Fantasia) Bussi, Solange (Dreigroschenoper) Bussieres, Raymond (Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Butler, Bill (Clockwork Orange; Conversation; Deliverance; Jaws) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1417 Butler, Hugo (Southerner) Butler, Lawrence (Casablanca; Lady from Shanghai) Butler, Ralph (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Butters, Mike (Titanic) Buttolph, David (My Darling Clementine) Buus, S?ren (Breaking the Waves) Buzalski, Johannes (Hitler: Ein Film aus Deutschland; Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Byelova, V. (Proshchanie) Bykov, Rolan (Andrei Rublev; Kommisar) Byram, Arthur (Fantasia) Byrd, George (Ehe der Maria Braun) Byrne, Anne (Manhattan) Byron, Kathleen (Black Narcissus; Matter of Life and Death) Byron, W. (Shoah) Caan, James (Godfather Trilogy) Cabon, Suzanne (Femme du boulanger) Cabot, Bruce (Fury; King Kong) Cabrera, Frank (Fresa y Chocolate) Cabrera, Roberto (Soy Cuba) Cáceres, Luz M. (Soy Cuba) Cadaval, Silvia (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Cadix, Jeanne (Fièvre) Cadix, Marienette (Partie de campagne) Cadman, Michael (If...) Cadueri, Renato (Caduta degli dei) Cady, Gary (Mona Lisa) Cady, Jerome (Laura) Cafarel, Jose Maria (Professione: Reporter) Caffe, Carla (Central do Brasil) Cagney, James (Public Enemy; White Heat) Cahuzac, Georges (Napoléon) Cai Guohui (Guling jie shaonian sha ren shijian) Cain, James M. (Double Indemnity; Mildred Pierce; Ossessione) Cain, Sidney (Lolita) Caine, Michael (Mona Lisa) Cairncross, James (Tom Jones) Cairney, John (Victim) Calamai, Clara (Ossessione) Calandra, Giuliana (Film d’amore e d’anarchia) Calandra, Giuseppe (Salvatore Giuliano) Calder, Joseph (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Caldwell, H. H. (Sunrise) Calhern, Louis (Asphalt Jungle; Duck Soup; Notorious) Calihan, William A., Jr. (Detour) Callahane (Annie Hall) Callari, Francesco (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli) Callawy, William (Annie Hall) Callegari, Gianpaolo (Stromboli) Calleia, Joseph (Gilda; Touch of Evil) Callow, Simon (Room with a View) Calpini, A. (Strada) Calthrop, Donald (Blackmail) Calvet, Pierre (Et ... Dieu créa la femme; Hiroshima mon amour; Orphée; Ronde) Calvo, Yayo (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios) Camarata, Pietro (Salvatore Giuliano) Camargo, Cristina (Central do Brasil) Camay, Valentine (Vacances de Monsieur Hulots) Cambern, Don (Easy Rider; Last Picture Show) Cambi, Flora (Miracolo a Milano) Cambois, Nicolas (Odeur de la papaye verte) Cambria, Adele (Accattone) Cameron, James (Titanic) Cameron, Ken (Fires Were Started) Camille, Valérie (Playtime) Campanile, Pasquale Festa (Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Campbell (Blackmail) Campbell, Alan (Little Foxes) Campbell, Charles L. (Schindler’s List) Campbell, Colin (My Beautiful Laundrette) Campbell, Jack (Fantasia; Snow White) Campbell, James (Playtime; Professione: Reporter) Campbell, Lindsay (Clockwork Orange) Campbell, Mick (Douglas Trilogy) Campbell, Nell (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Campbell, Paul (Carrosse d’or) Campbell, R. Wright (Masque of the Red Death) Campbell, Raymond (Paisà) Campbell, W. Stewart (Chinatown) Campeau, Frank (Intolerance) Campi, Maria (Sciuscia) Campion, Jane (Piano) Campos, Ricardo (Cangaceiro) Campos, Teresa (Udju Azul di Yonta) Campos, Victor (Black Sunday) Camus, Marcel (Orfeu Negro) Camus, Pierre (Sans Soleil) Candido, Ivan (Fuzis) Candy, John (JFK) Canet, Francisco (Viridiana) Canevari, Sergio (Battaglia di Algeri; Salvatore Giuliano) Canfarelli, Giovanni (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Canino, Patricia (Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles) Cannom, Greg (Titanic) Cannon, Donna (Mona Lisa) Cannon, Johnny (Steamboat Willie) Cannon, Pomeroy (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Canonero, Milena (Clockwork Orange; Godfather Trilogy; Midnight Express) Canosa, Raúl (Lucia) Cantamessa, Gene (Black Sunday; Close Encounters of the Third Kind) Cantó, Toni (Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Canty, Marietta (Rebel Without a Cause) Cao Cuifeng (Dahong denglong gaogao gua) Cao Jiuping (Dahong denglong gaogao gua) Cao Juiping Cao (Ju Dou) Cao Yindi (Wutai jiemei) Capel, Fred (Jules et Jim) Capelier, Auguste (Du Ri?? chez les hommes; Yeux sans visage) Capell, Peter (Paths of Glory) Caple, Ray (Brazil) Capogna, Renato (Accattone) Capote, Truman (Breakfast at Tiffany’s) Cappeli, Claudio (Conformista) Cappelli, Vittorio (Albero degli zoccoli) Capra, Frank (It Happened One Night; It’s a Wonderful Life; Mr. Smith Goes to Washington; Why We Fight) Caracciolo, Marcello (Stromboli) Caraco, Albert (Lola Montès) Cardarelli, Romano (Film d’amore e d’anarchia) Cardenas, Elsa (Giant; Wild Bunch) Cardiff, Jack (African Queen; Black Narcissus; Life and Death of Colonel Blimp; Matter of Life and Death; Red Shoes) Cardiff, Luke (Draughtsman’s Contract) Cardinale, Claudia (8?; C’era una volta il west; Gattopardo; Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Cardwell, Herbert (Eraserhead) Carell, Lianella (Ladri di biciclette) Carelli, Joan (Deer Hunter) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1418 Carena, Anna (Miracolo a Milano) Carette, Julien (Bête humaine; Grande illusion; Règle du jeu) Carew, Arthur Edmond (Phantom of the Opera) Carew, Elaine (Brazil) Carew, Peter (Blue Velvet) Carey, Harry (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Carey, Joyce (Brief Encounter) Carey, Leslie I.. (Naked City) Carey, Olive (Searchers) Carey, Timothy (Conversation; East of Eden; Paths of Glory) Carey, Harry (Searchers) Carey, Harry, Jr. (Red River; Rio Bravo) Caribé (Cangaceiro) Cari?, Frank (Scorpio Rising) Caristan, Georges (Xala) Carl, Raymond (Vacances de Monsieur Hulots) Carl, Renee (Pépé le Moko; Vampiress) Carlberg, Lars-Owe (Fanny och Alexander) Carle, Richard (Ninotchka) Carles, Jose B. (Olvidados) Carlin, Lynn (Faces) Carlini, Carlo (Vitelloni, I) Carlini, Paolo (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Carlino, Antonio (Sciuscia) Carlisle, Kitty (Night at the Opera) Carlisle, Mary (Dance, Girl, Dance) Carloni, Esterina (Caduta degli dei) Carlos, Walter (Clockwork Orange) Carlos de Sanzo, Juan (Hora de los hornos) Carlquist, Margit (Sommarnattens leende) Carlsberg, Lars-Owe (Viskningar och rop) Carlsen, Henning (Sult) Carlson, Mats (Paisà) Carlson, Richard (Little Foxes) Carlson, Robert, Jr. (Fantasia) Carlton, Pamela (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Carmen, Jewel (Intolerance) Carmen, T. A. (Johnny Guitar) Carmichael, Hoagy (Best Years of Our Lives) Carmona, Antonio (Fresa y Chocolate) Carné, Marcel (Enfants du paradis; Jour se lève; Kermesse héroique; Quai des brumes) Carne, Sturges (All the King’s Men; Lady from Shanghai) Carnège, André (Orphée) Carneiro, Francisco (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Carneiro, Joao Emanuel (Central do Brasil) Carney, John J.(Clockwork Orange) Carnovsky, Morris (Gun Crazy) Carol, Martine (Lola Montès) Caroli, Maria Grazia (Albero degli zoccoli) Caronslie (American in Paris) Carotenuto, Memo (Umberto D) Carpenter, Claude (Notorious) Carpenter, Russell (Titanic) Carpentier, Marcel (Kermesse héroique) Carpianidzé, Zourad (Pirosmani) Carr, Marian (Kiss Me Deadly) Carr, Nat (Jazz Singer) Carr, Paul (Brazil; Mona Lisa) Carradine, John (Bride of Frankenstein; Grapes of Wrath; Johnny Guitar; Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Carradine, Keith (Nashville) Carradine, Robert (Player) Carraro, Nicola (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli) Carre, Ben (Phantom of the Opera) Carré, Léon (Journal d’un curé de campagne) Carré, Lucien (Belle et la bête) Carre de Malberg, Stanislas (Coeur en hiver) Carrere, Edward (Sweet Smell of Success; White Heat; Wild Bunch) Carrick, Edward (Fires Were Started) Carriere, Jean-Claude (Belle de jour; Blechtrommel; Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie; Cyrano de Bergerac) Carriere, Matthieu (India Song) Carrol, William (Douglas Trilogy) Carroll, Janice (Shane) Carroll, Joan (Meet Me in St. Louis) Carroll, Larry (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Carroll, Madeleine (39 Steps) Carroll, Moon (Dracula 1931) Carroll, Peter (Last Wave) Carroll, Sidney (Hustler) Carruth, Milton (All Quiet on the Western Front; Dracula 1931) Carson, Hunter (Paris, Texas) Carson, Jack (Mildred Pierce; Star Is Born) Carson, Renie (Picture of Dorian Gray) Carson, Wayne (Annie Hall) Carteny, Marilù (Salvatore Giuliano) Carter, Helen-Bonham (Howards End) Carter, John (Badlands; Jaws) Carter, Louise (I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang) Carter, Michael (Star Wars) Carter, Mike (Draughtsman’s Contract) Carter, Ruth E. (Do the Right Thing) Cartier, Max (Rocco e i suoi fratelli; Salvatore Giuliano) Cartier-Bresson, Henri (Partie de campagne; Règle du jeu) Cartlidge, Katrin (Breaking the Waves) Carton, Pauline (Feu Mathias Pascal; Sang d’un poete) Cartwright, Veronica (Birds) Caruso, Anthony (Asphalt Jungle) Caruso, Margherita (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Carvajal, Alfonson (Muerte de un Ciclista) Carvalho, Walter (Central do Brasil) Carvana, Hugo (Ant?nio das Mortes; Fuzis) Carver, Peter (Walkabout) Casadei, Yvonne (8?) Casanova, Delia (Alsino y el Condor) Casaravilla, Carlos (Muerte de un Ciclista) Casares, Maria (Dames du Bois de Boulogne; Orphée) Casas, Antonio (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Casati, Amedeo (Albero degli zoccoli) Casati, Georges (Femme in?dèle) Cascone, Nicholas (Titanic) Case, Gerald (Henry V) Caselotti, Adriana (Snow White) Cashin, Bonnie (Laura) Casilio, Maria-Pia (Umberto D) Casmiro, Antonio (Amor de perdic?o) Caspary, Vera (Laura) Cassares, Maria (Enfants du paradis) Cassavetes, John (Faces; Rosemary’s Baby) Cassavetti, Patrick (Brazil; Mona Lisa) Cassel, Jean-Pierre (Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie) Cassel, Seymour (Faces) Cassel, Vincent (Haine) Cassell, Wally (White Heat) Cassidy, Joanna (Blade Runner) Cassuto, Emanuele (Notte) Castaing, Claude (Casque d’or) Castan (Femme du boulanger) Casta?e, Juan (Age d’or) Casta?eda, Héctor (Soy Cuba) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1419 Castanier, Jean (Boudu sauvé des eaux; Crime de Monsieur Lange) Castel, Lou (Amerikanische freund; Pugni in tasca) Castellano, Richard (Godfather Trilogy) Castiglione, Mario (Accattone) Castillo, Gloria (Night of the Hunter) Castillo, Gonzalo (Lone Star) Castillo, Mary Lou (Salt of the Earth) Castle, John (Blow-Up) Castle, William (Lady from Shanghai; Rosemary’s Baby) Castro, Luis (Espiritu de la colmena) Castro, Sire (Espiritu de la colmena) Catallucci, Ettore (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Catillon, Brigitte (Coeur en hiver) Catlett, Loyd (Last Picture Show) Catlett, Walter (Bringing Up Baby) Catovic, Maksa (Underground) Catozzo, Léo (Strada) Cattozzoo (8?; Dolce vita) Causey, Buddy (Easy Rider) Cavalcanit, Emanuel (Ant?nio das Mortes) Cavalcanti, Alberto (Dead of Night; Feu Mathias Pascal; Rien que les heures; Song of Ceylon) Cavalcanti, Emanoel (Bye Bye Brasil) Cavalli, Olimpia (8?) Cave, Nick (Der Himmel Uber Berlin) Cavender, Glen (General) Cavett, Dick (Annie Hall) Cawdron, Robert (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Cayrol, Jean (Nuit et brouillard) Cazale, John (Conversation; Deer Hunter; Godfather Trilogy) Cecchi d’Amico, Suso (Gattopardo; Miracolo a Milano) Cecchi Gori, Mario (America, L’) Cecchi Gori, Vittorio (America, L’) Cecil, Edward (Phantom of the Opera) Cecil, Mary (Women) Cedarstrom, Ellen (G?sta Berlings Saga) Cederborg, Gucken (Erotikon) Cei, Pina (Film d’amore e d’anarchia) Celani, Isabella (Room with a View) Célarié, Clémentine (Nuits fauves) Célestin (Règle du jeu) Celio, Teco (Trois Couleurs) Cella, Gianfranco (Pugni in tasca) Celli, Teresa (Asphalt Jungle) Cellier, Frank (39 Steps) Cellier, Peter (Room with a View) Cendrars, Blaise (Atalante; J’accuse) Cenet, Michael (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) Centa (Salaire de la peur) Ceperac, Branko (Nesto izmedju; Underground) Cerny, Karel (Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Cerretani, Guido (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Cervantes Luro, Guillermo (Tire dié) Cervi, Felice (Albero degli zoccoli) Césair, Ina (Udju Azul di Yonta) Cesar, Paulo (Fuzis) Cesaroli, Bianca Maria (Viaggio in Italia) Cezar, Antonio (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Chaabani, Djalil (And Life Goes On) Chabert, Thierry (Cyrano de Bergerac) Chabrol, Claude (A bout de souf?e; Boucher; Femme in?dèle) Chacón, Juan (Salt of the Earth) Chagrin, Claude (Blow-Up) Chagrin, Julian (Blow-Up) Chahine, Youssef (Bab el hadid) Chakiris, George (West Side Story) Chakrabort, S. (Garam Hawa) Chakraborty, Amalendu (Akaler sandhane) Chakraborty, Dhiresh Kumar (Akaler sandhane) Chakravarti, Gautam (Jana Aranya) Chakravarti, Lily (Jana Aranya) Challee, William (Five Easy Pieces) Challis, Don (Tom Jones) Chalmers, Thomas (River) Chalvet, Jacques (Thérèse Desqueyroux) Chamarat, Georges (Diaboliques) Chamberlain, Richard (Last Wave) Champagne, Clarence (Psycho) Champetier de Ribes, Caroline (Shoah) Champion, Henri (Sang des bêtes) Champion, Pierre (Passion de Jeanne d’Arc) Chan, Jackie (Yanzhi kou) Chan Do-ming (Ahfei zheng zhuan) Chan Wai-hung, Steve (Ahfei zheng zhuan) Chanchal (Bharat Mata) Chandler, Chick (Star Is Born) Chandler, George (Fury) Chandler, Helen (Dracula 1931) Chandler, John Davis (Ride the High Country) Chandler, Lane (Laura; Red River) Chandler, Raymond (Big Sleep; Double Indemnity; Strangers on a Train) Chandler, Vivienne (Clockwork Orange; Draughtsman’s Contract) Chandra, Suresh (Akaler sandhane) Chandragupta, Bansi (Apu Trilogy; Aranyer din Ratri; Charulata) Chandran (Elippathayam) Chanel (Année dernière à Marienbad) Chanel, Coco (Règle du jeu) Chaney, Lon (High Noon; Phantom of the Opera) Chang Suk-ping, William (Ahfei zheng zhuan) Channing, Ruth (Thin Man) Channing, Stockard (Smoke) Channing-Williams, Simon (Life Is Sweet; Secrets and Lies) Channiolleau, Caroline (Deutschland im Herbst) Chanslor, Roy (Johnny Guitar) Chaoming, Cui (Xiao cheng zhi chun) Chapin, Billy (Night of the Hunter) Chaplin, Charles (City Lights; Gold Rush; Great Dictator; Kid; Modern Times) Chaplin, Geraldine (Cria Cuervos ...; Nashville) Chaplin, Saul (American in Paris; On the Town) Chapman, Edward (Things to Come) Chapman, Jan (Piano) Chapman, Lonny (Birds) Chapman, Mark Lindsay (Titanic) Chapman, Michael (Raging Bull; Taxi Driver) Chapuis, Dominique (Shoah) Charblay (Femme du boulanger) Charbonnier, Pierre (Condamné à mort s’est échappé; Journal d’un curé de campagne; Pickpocket) Charensol, Georges (Entr’acte) Charisse, Cyd (Band Wagon; Singin’ in the Rain) Charleswis (Sweet Smell of Success) Charlot, Georges (Quatre cents coups) Charlton, Bill (My Brilliant Career) Charpentier, Jean (Procès) Charpin, Fernand (Femme du boulanger; Marius Trilogy; Pépé le Moko) Charrel, Michel (Belle de jour; Femme in?dèle) Charters, Spencer (High Sierra; Young Mr. Lincoln) Chartoff, Robert (Raging Bull) Charton, Marcel (Belle de jour; Vivre sa vie) Chase, Borden (Red River) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1420 Chase, Carl (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Chase, Ilka (Now Voyager) Chaskel, Pedro (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas; Chacal de Nahueltoro) Chasney, Jasmine (Année dernière à Marienbad; Hiroshima mon amour) Chater, Geoffrey (If ... ) Chaterjee, Dhritiman (Akaler sandhane) Chaterjee, Robin (Bhumika) Chatterjee, Anil (Meghe dhaka tara) Chatterjee, Soumitra (Apu Trilogy; Aranyer din Ratri; Charulata) Chatterjee, Subhendu (Aranyer din Ratri) Chatton, Charlotte (Titanic) Chattopadhyay, Rabi (Meghe dhaka tara) Chattopadhyay, Satyen (Meghe dhaka tara) Chaudhury, Salil (Do bigha zamin) Chauhan, Y. G. (Kaagaz ke phool) Chaumeil, Bernard (Dentellière) Chaumette, Monique (Dentellière) Chaumont, Line (Fièvre) Chavance, Louis (Atalante) Chavez, Alejandro (Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes) Chávez, Carlos (Redes) Chawky, Farid (Bab el hadid) Chebotaryov, Boris (Csillagosok, katonák) Cheesman, Ted (King Kong) Chefahi, Chahrbanov (And Life Goes On) Chegwidden, Anne (Masque of the Red Death) Cheirel, Micheline (Kermesse héroique) Chellini, Luigi (Cabiria) Chen Changmin( Ba wang bie ji) Chen Chao-jung (He Liu) Chen Chuanxi (Wutai jiemei) Chen Huai’en (City of Sadness) Chen Jianyu (Red Sorghum) Chen Kaige (Ba wang bie ji; Haizi wang) Chen Shaohua (Haizi wang) Chen Sheng-Chang (He Liu) Chen Shiang-chyi (He Liu) Chen Shufang (City of Sadness) Chen Songyong (City of Sadness) Chendei, Ivan (Teni zabytykh predkov) Cheng Nien-Chiu (He Liu) Chenut, Jean-Marc (C’est arrivé près de chez vous) Cher (Player) Cheraghi, Ghorban (Ta’m E Guilass) Cherkasov, Nikolai (Alexander Nevsky) Cherrill, Virginia (City Lights) Cherviakov, Evgeni (Novyi Vavilon) Chesnakov, Alexis (Third Man) Cheung, Jacky (Ahfei zheng zhuan) Cheung, Leslie (Ahfei zheng zhuan; Ba wang bie ji; Yanzhi kou) Cheung, Maggie (Ahfei zheng zhuan) Cheung, Paul (Yanzhi kou) Cheung, Peter (Yanzhi kou) Chevalier, Louise (Femme in?dèle) Chevalier, Maurice (Chagrin et la pitié) Chevant, Claude (Dentellière) Chevret, Lita (Philadelphia Story) Chew, Richard (Conversation; One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest; Star Wars) Chiaki, Minoru (Ikiru; Rashomon; Shichinin no samurai) Chialvo, Jeanine (Piano) Chiantoni, Renato (Carrosse d’or) Chiari, Guilio (Ladri di biciclette) Chiari, Mario (Carrosse d’or; Miracolo a Milano; Vitelloni) Chiari, Walter (Chimes at Midnight) Chiba, Ichiro (Ikiru) Chibisov (Oktiabr) Chichignoud, Guy (Boucher; Femme in?dèle) Chico, Florinda (Cria Cuervos ...) Chicot, Martine (Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles) Chihaya, Akiko (Jujiro) Child, Kirsty (Picnic at Hanging Rock) Childers, Michael (Midnight Cowboy) Chin, Cub (Yanzhi kou) Chirkov, Boris (Chapayev; Maxim Trilogy) Chistyakov, A. (Konyets Sankt-Peterburga; Maxim Trilogy; Potomok Chingis-Khan) Chitnisela (Awara) Chitnis, Sheila (My Beautiful Laundrette) Chitty, Alison (Life Is Sweet; Secrets and Lies) Chiu Fu-Sheng (Dahong denglong gaogao gua) Chiu Shun-Ching (He Liu) Chiusano, Natale (Cabiria) Chodorowicz, Katarzyna (Popiol i diament) Choksi, Charu Bala (My Beautiful Laundrette) Chombert (Casino Royale) Chong, Wong Show (Lady from Shanghai) Choti, Mohan (Kaagaz ke phool) Chowdhury, Salil (Akaler sandhane) Chowdhury, Supriya (Meghe dhaka tara) Chpinel, I. (Ivan Grozny) Christensen, Bo (Babettes Gaestebud; Der var engang en krig) Christensen, Emil Hass (Ordet) Christian, Susanne (Paths of Glory) Christians, Mady (Letter from an Unknown Woman) Christians, Rudolph (Foolish Wives) Christie, Dorothy (Laura) Christine, Virginia (Invasion of the Body Snatchers; Killers) Christl, Lisy (Funny Games) Chu, Emily (Yanzhi kou) Chuckster, Simon (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Chugtai, Ismat (Garam Hawa) Chugunova, M. (Zerkalo) Chukhrai, Grigori (Balada o soldate) Chuko, Satoshi (Gojira) Chung Hu-pin (He Liu) Churchill, Berton (I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang) Churchill, Donald (Victim) Churchill, Frank (Snow White) Chutkowski, Ryszard (Dekalog) Chuvelov, Ivan (Konyets Sankt-Peterburga) Chuvelov, V. (Konyets Sankt-Peterburga) Chwalibóg, Maria (Matka Joanna od aniolow) ?i?ekoglu, Feride (Journey of Hope) Ciangottini, Valeria (Dolce vita) Ciannelli, Eduardo (Gilda) Cicero, Fernando (Salvatore Giuliano) Cicogna, Bino (C’era una volta il west) Cicognini, Alessandro (Miracolo a Milano; Sciuscia) Ciecierski, Jan (Popiol i diament) Ciepielewska, Anna (Matka Joanna od aniolow) Cie?lak, Piotr (Czlowiek z marmuru) Cigognini, Alessandro (Umberto D) Cigolani (Paisà) Cigoli, Emilio (Sciuscia) Cilento, Diane (Tom Jones) Cimino, Franco (Avventura) Cimino, Michael (Deer Hunter) Ciof?, Charles (Klute; Shaft) Cipriani, Mario (Accattone) Cissé, Souleymane (Yeelen) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1421 Cissé, Youssouf Tenin (Yeelen) Citti, Franco (Accattone; Fiore delle mille e una notte) Citti, Silvio (Accattone) Claessens, Ake (Fr?ken Julie) Clair, René (A nous la liberté; Chapeau de paille d’Italie; Entr’acte; Million) Claire, Ina (Ninotchka) Clapczynski, Stefan (Funny Games) Clare, Mary (Lady Vanishes) Clarence, O. B. (Great Expectations) Clarens, Juliette (Judex) Clarieux, Jean (Bataille du rail; Casque d’or; Ronde, La) Clark, Al (All the King’s Men; Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Clark, Bobby (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Clark, Bridgetta (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Clark, Candy (American Graf?ti) Clark, Carrol (Notorious; Top Hat) Clark, Cliff (Young Mr. Lincoln) Clark, Curtis (Draughtsman’s Contract) Clark, Davison (Duck Soup) Clark, Estelle (Crowd) Clark, Fred (Place in the Sun; Sunset Boulevard; White Heat) Clark, Les (Fantasia; Snow White; Steamboat Willie) Clark, Mae (Public Enemy; Singin’ in the Rain) Clark, Roger (Detour) Clark, Russ (Philadelphia Story) Clark, Toby (Brazil) Clark, Wallis (It Happened One Night) Clark, Walter (Bye Bye Brasil) Clark, Warren (Clockwork Orange) Clarke, Arthur C. (2001: A Space Odyssey) Clarke, Frank (Blow-Up) Clarke, Gordon B. (Hustler) Clarke, Mae (Frankenstein) Clarke, T. E. B. (Blue Lamp; Dead of Night; Lavender Hill Mob; Passport to Pimlico) Clatworthy, Robert (Touch of Evil; Written on the Wind) Claudius, Eva (Das Boot) Clauson, Ernest (Jazz Singer) Clavel, Aurora (Wild Bunch) Clavel, Robert (Belle de jour) Claworthy, Robert (Psycho) Clawson, Elliott J. (Phantom of the Opera) Clayton, Jack (Room at the Top) Clayton, Marion (All Quiet on the Western Front) Cleitman, Rene (Cyrano de Bergerac) Clémént, René (Bataille du rail) Clement, Aurore (Paris, Texas) Clement, Clay (Thin Man) Clement, Dora (Lady Eve) Clément, Monique (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) Clément, René (Bataille du rail; Belle et la bête; Jeux interdits) Clementi, Margaret (Fiore delle mille e una notte) Clémenti, Pierre (Belle de jour; Gattopardo) Clementi, Pierrel (Conformista) Clemento, Steve (King Kong) Clements, John (Things to Come) Clements, Ted (Servant) Clerc, Fran?ois (Arroseur arrosé) Clermonte-Tonnerre, Martine (Central do Brasil) Clévenot, Philippe (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) Clévers, Lyne (Kermesse héroique) Clifford, Frank (A nous la liberté; Million) Clifford, Graeme (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Clift, Montgomery (From Here to Eternity; Mis?ts; Place in the Sun; Red River) Clifton, Elmer (Birth of a Nation; Intolerance) Cline, Wilfred (Gone With the Wind) Clive, Colin (Bride of Frankenstein; Frankenstein) Clive, E. E. (Bride of Frankenstein) Clive, John (Clockwork Orange) Cloos, Hans Peter (Deutschland im Herbst) Cloquet, Ghislain (Nuit et brouillard) Closas, Alberto (Muerte de un Ciclista) Clothier, William H. (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Clouzot, Henri-Georges (Diaboliques; Salaire de la peur) Clouzot, Véra (Diaboliques) Clouzot, Vera (Salaire de la peur) Clute, Chester (Dance, Girl, Dance; Mildred Pierce) Clyde, David (Lost Weekend; Now Voyager) Clymer, Warren (Godfather Trilogy) Coates, Albert (Nuit sur le Mont Chauve) Coates, Carolyn (Hustler) Coats, Claude (Snow White) ?obanoglu, Necmettin (Journey of Hope) Cobb, Humphrey (Paths of Glory) Cobbe J. (On the Waterfront; Twelve Angry Men) Cobo, Nacho (Fresa y Chocolate) Cobo, Roberto (Olvidados) Cobos, Germán (Cria Cuervos ...) Coburn, Charles (Lady Eve) Coburn, James (Player) Coby, Fred (White Heat) Coca, Richard (Lone Star) Cocco, Albino (Gattopardo) Cochran, Steve (White Heat) Cockrell, Gary (Lolita) Cocteau, Jean (Belle et la bête; Dames du Bois de Boulogne; Orphée; Sang d’un poete) Codee, Ann (American in Paris) Codrick, Tom (Fantasia; Snow White) Coen, Ethan (Fargo) Coen, Joel (Fargo) Coffey, Mark (Reservoir Dogs) Co??o, Adolfo (Espiritu de la colmena) Coghlan, Frank, Jr. (Public Enemy) Cohen, Bruce (American Beauty) Cohen, Edward (Things to Come) Cohen, Leonard (Exotica) Cohen, Shura (If...) Cohn, Alfred A. (Jazz Singer) Cohn, Art (Stromboli) Cohn, Arthur (Central do Brasil) Cohn, Harry (From Here to Eternity; It Happened One Night) Colassanti, Manfredo (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Colbert, Claudette (It Happened One Night) Coldren, Louise (Deliverance) Cole, George (Henry V) Cole, Sidney (Dead of Night) Cole, Steve (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Coleman, Bryan (Mona Lisa) Coleman, Charles (Salt of the Earth) Coleman, Ira Curtis (Brazil) Colemanroy (Ride the High Country) Coleman, Richard (Brazil) Coleman, Rob (Star Wars) Colin, Fran?oise (Chronique d’un été) Colisium, Sapox (Deer Hunter) Coll, José Luis (Verdugo) Collard, Cyril (Nuits fauves) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1422 Collazo, Luz Maria (Soy Cuba) Colleano, Bonar (Matter of Life and Death) Collery, Gérard (Hiroshima mon amour) Colli, Tonino Delli (Accattone; Once Upon a Time in America; Vangelo secondo Matteo, Il) Collier, William, Jr. (Little Caesar) Collik, Cyril (Professione: Reporter) Collinge, Patricia (Little Foxes) Collins, Chick (Sullivan’s Travels) Collins, Eddie (Young Mr. Lincoln) Collins, G. Pat (All Quiet on the Western Front; White Heat) Collins, Ray (Citizen Kane; Magni?cent Ambersons; Touch of Evil) Collum, Charles (Pulp Fiction) Colomb, Pascal (Trois Couleurs) Colombini, Grazia (Journey of Hope) Colombo, Bruno (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Colon, Miriam (Lone Star) Colorado, Tita (Easy Rider) Colpi, Henri (Année dernière à Marienbad; Hiroshima mon amour; Offret) Colquhoun, Archibald (Gattopardo) Colton, John (Wind) Coltrane, Robbie (Mona Lisa) Columbia Studio Sound Department (From Here to Eternity) Colvig, Helen (Psycho) Colvig, Pinto (Snow White) Combe, Jessie (Douglas Trilogy) Comden, Betty (Band Wagon; On the Town; Singin’ in the Rain) Comer, Sam (Rear Window) Comingore, Dorothy (Citizen Kane) Comolli, Jean-Louis (Alphaville) Companeez, Jacques (Casque d’or) Compton, Athol (Last Wave) Compton, Fay (Odd Man Out) Compton, John (Mildred Pierce) Compton, Peter (Room with a View) Conerly, E. S. (Salt of the Earth) Conklin, Chester (Greed; Modern Times; Phantom of the Opera; Sullivan’s Travels) Conklin, Heine (All Quiet on the Western Front; Gold Rush) Conley, Darlene (Faces) Conlin, Jimmy (Sullivan’s Travels) Connaught, Richard (Clockwork Orange) Conneely, Patcheen (Man of Aran) Connell, Gordon (Rosemary’s Baby) Connelly, Vincent (Midnight Cowboy) Connely (Blackmail) Connely, Jennifer (Once Upon a Time in America) Connolly, Don (Last Wave; My Brilliant Career) Connolly, Edward (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Connolly, Walter (It Happened One Night) Connor, Patrick (Brazil) Connors, Kay (Laura) Conocchia, Mario (8?) Conrad, William (Killers) Conroy, Frank (Naked City) Consiglio, Alberto (Roma, città aperta) Constant, Jacques (Pépé le Moko) Constantin, Jean (Quatre cents coups) Constantine, Eddie (Alphaville; Cléo de cinq à sept) Constantine, Michael (Hustler) Conti, Luciano (Accattone) Conti, Mario (Paisà) Conti, Tonino Delli (Verdugo, El) Contractor, Navroze (Duvidha) Conulibaly, Dounamba (Yeelen) Conway, Jack (Birth of a Nation) Conway, Richard (Brazil) Conway, Tom (Cat People) Cooder, Ry (Paris, Texas) Coogan, Jackie (Kid) Cook, Chris (My Beautiful Laundrette) Cook, Donald (Public Enemy) Cook, Elisha (Rosemary’s Baby; Shane) Cook, Elisha, Jr. (Big Sleep; Maltese Falcon) Cook, Whit?eld (Strangers on a Train) Cookson, Barrie (Clockwork Orange) Cooley, Stanley (Double Indemnity) Coolidge, Philip (North by Northwest) Coop, Denys N. (Lolita) Cooper, Ben (Johnny Guitar) Cooper, Chris (American Beauty; Lone Star) Cooper, Edward (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Cooper, Frederick (Henry V) Cooper, Garry (My Beautiful Laundrette) Cooper, Gary (High Noon) Cooper, George (Big Heat; Cross?re) Cooper, George A. (Tom Jones) Cooper, Gladys (Now Voyager) Cooper, H. H. (Malcolm X) Cooper, Maxine (Kiss Me Deadly) Cooper, Melville (Adventures of Robin Hood; Lady Eve) Cooper, Merian C. (King Kong; Searchers) Cooper, Miriam (Birth of a Nation; Intolerance) Cooper, Ray (Brazil) Cooper, Terence (Casino Royale) Coote, Robert (Matter of Life and Death) Cope, John (Rear Window; Sunset Boulevard) Copley, Peter (Victim) Coppel, Alec (Vertigo) Copping, David (Picnic at Hanging Rock) Coppleman, Rusty (Midnight Express) Coppola, Carmine (Apocalypse Now; Godfather Trilogy) Coppola, Francis Ford (American Graf?ti; Apocalypse Now; Conversation; Godfather Trilogy) Coppola, So?a (Godfather Trilogy) Cora, Tony (Blair Witch Project) Corado, Eleanor (Touch of Evil) Corbella, Vincenzo (Notte) Corbett, Ray (Midnight Express) Corbett, Ronnie (Casino Royale) Corby, Ellen (Shane) Cordy, Raymond (A nous la liberté; Million) Corelli, Archangelo (Carrosse d’or) Corey, Isabelle (Et ... Dieu créa la femme) Corey, Jeff (Killers) Corey, Wendell (Rear Window) Corfman, Caris (Nesto izmedju) Cormack, Bartlett (Fury) Cormack, Jill (Heavenly Creatures) Cormack, Lynn (Dead Ringers) Cormack, Robert (Fantasia) Corman, Roger (Masque of the Red Death; Philadelphia) Cornelius, Henry (Passport to Pimlico) Cornett, Robert (Chinatown) Corra, Bruna (Muerte de un Ciclista) Corrado, Gina (Sunrise) Corrado, Gino (Night at the Opera; Top Hat) Corri, Adrienne (Clockwork Orange) Corrieri, Sergio (Memorias del subdesarrollo; Soy Cuba) Corrigan, D’Arcy (Informer) Corrin, Aaron (My Brilliant Career) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1423 Corsia, Ted de (Lady from Shanghai) Corsini, Silvana (Accattone) Cortazar, Julio (Blow-Up) Corteggiani, Tony (Casque d’or; Règle du jeu) Cortez, Stanley (Magni?cent Ambersons; Night of the Hunter) Cortina, Andrés (Fresa y Chocolate) Cosgrove, Jack (Gone With the Wind) Cosima, Renée (Orphée) Cosma, Vladimir (Diva) Cossio, Pancho (Age d’or) Costa, Antonio (Amor de perdic?o) Costa, M?nica (Central do Brasil) Costa, Rui (Limite) Costa e Silva, Manuel (Amor de perdic?o) Costa-Gavras, Constantin (Z) Costello, Dolores (Magni?cent Ambersons) Costes, Maries (Argent) Costner, Kevin (JFK) Cottam, Judy (Douglas Trilogy) Cottance, Simone (Age d’or) Cotten, Joseph (Citizen Kane; Magni?cent Ambersons; Third Man; Touch of Evil) Cottrell, William (Snow White) Couch, Lionel (Casino Royale) Couch, Robert (Hallelujah) Coulaudon, Emile (Chagrin et la pitié) Coulmas, Corinna (Shoah) Coulouris, George (Citizen Kane) Coulter, Michael (Gregory’s Girl) Cour, Paul la (Passion de Jeanne d’Arc) Courant, Curt (Bête humaine; Jour se lève) Courau, Pierre (Année dernière à Marienbad) Coureau, Francine (Procès) Court, Hazel (Masque of the Red Death) Courtal, Suzanne (Jeux interdits) Courten, Robert (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Courtier, Jamie (Brazil) Coutard, Raoul (A bout de souf?e; Alphaville; Chronique d’un été; Jules et Jim; Mèpris; Tirez sur le pianiste; Vivre sa vie; Weekend; Z) Coutellier, Julien (Cléo de cinq à sept) Coutinho, Eduardo (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Couturier, Daniel (Quatre cents coups) Covington, Bruce (Phantom of the Opera) Cowan, Jerome (High Sierra; Maltese Falcon) Cowan, John (Blow-Up) Coward, Herbert ‘‘Cowboy’’ (Deliverance) Coward, No?l (Brief Encounter) Cowie, Robin (Blair Witch Project) Cox, Harriet (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Cox, Jack (Blackmail; Lady Vanishes) Cox, James (Days of Heaven) Cox, Joel (Unforgiven) Cox, John (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb; Servant) Cox, Merle (Snow White) Cox, Ronny (Deliverance) Coy, Walter (North by Northwest; Searchers) Coyle, James (Brazil) Coyote, Peter (E.T.: The Extraterrestrial) Cozzi, Cathi (Easy Rider) Crabbe, Byron L. (King Kong) Craig, Helen (They Live by Night) Craig, Robert (Trouble in Paradise) Craig, Wendy (Servant) Cranby, Joseph (Written on the Wind) Crandall, Steve (Scorpio Rising) Crane, Fred (Gone With the Wind) Crane, Ward (Phantom of the Opera; Sherlock, Jr.) Cravenne, Marcel (Partie de campagne) Crawford, Broderick (All the King’s Men) Crawford, Joan (Johnny Guitar; Mildred Pierce; Women) Creach, Everett (Black Sunday) Creagh, Gethin (Piano) Creamer, William (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Creed, Geraldine (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Creedon, Richard (Snow White) Creelman, James (King Kong) Creley, Jack (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Crémieux, Henri (Orphée) Cremona, Rosemary (American Beauty) Crenn, Yvon (Trois Couleurs) Cresté, René (Judex) Cribbins, Bernard (Casino Royale) Crichton, Charles (Dead of Night; Lavender Hill Mob; Things to Come) Criman, Denis (Gregory’s Girl)</entr Crimmins, Margie (Salaam Bombay) Cripps, Kerman (Little Caesar) Crisanti, Andrea (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli) Crisp, Donald (Birth of a Nation; Broken Blossoms; Intolerance) Crisp, Tracey (Casino Royale) Cristaldi, Franco (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli; Salvatore Giuliano) Cristelli, Loredana (Yaaba) Cristiani, Dhia (Ossessione) Cristogoletti, Ciro (Morte a Venezia) Crkalová, Jana (Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Crocker, Harry (City Lights) Cromwell, James (L.A. Con?dential) Cromwell, Richard (Young Mr. Lincoln) Crone, Lewis (Deliverance) Cronenberg, David (Dead Ringers) Cronenberg, Denise (Dead Ringers) Cronenweth, Jordan (Blade Runner) Crosby, Floyd (High Noon; Land; River) Crosland, Alan (Jazz Singer; Sweet Smell of Success) Crothers, Scatman (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Crouan, Léonce (Menilmontant) Crouch, Sharon (My Brilliant Career) Crowden, Graham (If...) Crowe, Russell (L.A. Con?dential) Crowell, Josephine (Birth of a Nation; Intolerance) Crowley, Suzan (Draughtsman’s Contract) Crowley, Suzanne (Titanic) Croydon, John (Dead of Night) Crummy, Helen (Douglas Trilogy) Cruz, Penélope (Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Cruz, Vladimir (Fresa y Chocolate) Cserhalmi, Gy?gy (Mephisto) Csillag, Stephen (Fantasia) Cuadrado, Luis (Espiritu de la colmena) Cucco, Prof. (Avventura) Cuenoid, Nadia (Trois Couleurs) Cui Zhigang (Dahong denglong gaogao gua) Cukor, George (Adam’s Rib; All Quiet on the Western Front; Camille; Gone With the Wind; Philadelphia Story; Star Is Born; Women) Culhane, James (Snow White) Cullen, Hedley (Last Wave) Cullen, Max (My Brilliant Career) Cully, Russell A. (Cross?re; It’s a Wonderful Life) Culver, Roland (Dead of Night; Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Cummings, Alistair (Draughtsman’s Contract) Cummings, Dorothy (Wind) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1424 Cummins, Peggy (Gun Crazy) Cunliffe, Shay (Lone Star) Cunningham, David (Draughtsman’s Contract) Cunningham, John W. (High Noon) Cunningham, Lodge (Lady from Shanghai) Cunningham, Neil (Draughtsman’s Contract; My Beautiful Laundrette) Cunningham, Paddy (Lawrence of Arabia) Cuny, Alain (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli; Dolce vita) Cupane, Franca (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Curet, Daniel (Fargo) Curran, Adrian (Once Upon a Time in America) Currie, Finlay (Great Expectations) Curry, Tim (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Curtis, Alan (High Sierra) Curtis, Dick (King Kong) Curtis, Edward (Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Curtis, Howard (Black Sunday) Curtis, Jack (Greed) Curtis, Jackie (W.R.: Mysterije Organizma) Curtis, Ken (Searchers) Curtis, Tony (Rosemary’s Baby; Some Like It Hot; Sweet Smell of Success) Curtiss, Ray (Little Caesar) Curtiz, Michael (Adventures of Robin Hood; Casablanca; Mildred Pierce; Sodom und Gomorrha) Cusack, Cyril (Odd Man Out) Cusack, John (Player) Cushing, Peter (Dracula 1958; Star Wars) Cvr?ek, Ji?í (Ostre sledované vlaky) Cybulski, Zbigniew (Popiol i diament) Da Roma, Eraldo (Avventura; Eclisse; Miracolo a Milano; Notte; Paisà; Roma, città aperta) da Silva, Ademar (Orfeu Negro) da Silva, Cid Leite (Cangaceiro) da Silva, Fernando Ramos (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) da Silva, Howard (They Live by Night) Dade, Frances (Dracula 1931) Daele, Edmond Van (Fièvre) D’Agostino, Albert S. (Cross?re; Notorious; Out of the Past; They Live by Night) Dagover, Lil (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse; Kabinett des Dr. Caligari) Dahl, Sonja (Salt of the Earth) Dahlbeck, Eva (Sommarnattens leende) Dahlquist, ?ke (Kongi’s Harvest) Dahlstr?m, Gus (Fanny och Alexander) Dahlstrom, Harry (Herr Arnes Pengar) Daiba (Daoma zei) Daigeler, Sabine (Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Daike, Yuko (Hana-Bi) Dailey, Irene (Five Easy Pieces) Daji, Dinshaw (Salaam Bombay) Dal, Niels Valentin (Breaking the Waves) Dal, Oleg (Korol Lir) Dalban, Max (Boudu sauvé des eaux) d’Albert, Eugene (Tie?and) Dalby, Stephen (Hard Day’s Night; Repulsion) Dale, Esther (Women) Dale, Rex (Killers) D’Alessio, Carlos (India Song) Daley, Robert (Dirty Harry) Dalí, Salvador (Age d’or; Chien andalou) Dalili, Fathola (Dawandeh) Dalio, Marcel (Casablanca; Grande illusion; Pépé le Moko; Règle du jeu) Dall, John (Gun Crazy) Dallas, Ian (8?) Dalmasso, Dominique (Haine; Yaaba) D’Alquen, Jan (American Graf?ti) Dalrymple, Ian (Fires Were Started) Daly, Barbara (Clockwork Orange) Daly, Bill (JFK) Daly, Blythe (Star Is Born) Daly, George (Little Caesar) Dalya, Jacqueline (Treasure of the Sierra Madre) Dalzell, Terry (Gregory’s Girl) D’Amato, Paul (Deer Hunter) D’Ambrosio, Franc (Godfather Trilogy) D’Amico, Angelo (Sciuscia) D’Amico, Gianni (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli) D’Amico, Suco Cecchi (Rocco e i suoi fratelli; Salvatore Giuliano) Damien (Noire de ...) Damonde, Renee (All Quiet on the Western Front) Dan, Allen (Paisà) Dancigers, Oscar (Olvidados) Dandanell, Lotte (Der var engang en krig) Dandrieux, Dominique (Belle de jour) Dane, Karl (Big Parade) Dane, Olga (Night at the Opera) Dane, Peter (Caduta degli dei) Danesi, Giovanni (Avventura) Danet, Jean (Journal d’un curé de campagne) D’Angelo, Salvo (Terra trema) Daniderffo (Boudu sauvé des eaux) Daniel, Gordon (Hard Day’s Night) Danieli, Isa (Film d’amore e d’anarchia) Daniell, Henry (Camille; Great Dictator; Philadelphia Story) Daniels, Anthony (Star Wars) Daniels, Bebe (42nd Street) Daniels, William H. (Greed) Danielsslie (Viaggio in Italia) Daniels, Walter (King Kong) Daniels, William (Black Sunday; Camille; Foolish Wives; Graduate; Naked City; Ninotchka) Daniels, Jr., Henry H. (Meet Me in St. Louis) Danilova, Anna (Alexander Nevsky) Daniltsev, Ignat (Zerkalo) Danis, André (J’accuse) Danischewsky, John (Lolita) Dankworth, John (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning; Servant) Danna, Mychael (Exotica) Dannerford, Walther (Sult) D’Annunzio, Gabriele (Cabiria) Dano, Royal (Johnny Guitar) Danova, Cesare (Mean Streets) Dantas, Nelson (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Dante (Carrosse d’or) Dantine, Helmut (Casablanca; Mrs. Miniver) Danton, André (Farrebique) Danton, MM. (Chagrin et la pitié) Danziger, Allen (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Daouchvili, Chota (Pirosmani) Dapkounaite, Ingeborga (Outomlionnye solntsem) Darc, Mireille (Weekend) D’Arcy, Alexandre (A nous la liberté; Kermesse héroique) Darcy, Georgine (Rear Window) Darcy, Janine (Du Ri?? chez les hommes) D’Arcy, Jake (Gregory’s Girl) Dardill, Eric (C’est arrivé près de chez vous) Darel, Dominque (Morte a Venezia) Dar?er, Gene (Faces) d’Argila, Philippe (Z) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1425 Darien, Frank (Grapes of Wrath) Daries, N. (Femme du boulanger) Daring, Mason (Lone Star) Dario, Yvonne (Judex) Darling, Ann (Bride of Frankenstein) Darling, John (Mona Lisa) Darlington, Marion (Snow White) Darmon, Gerard (Diva) Darnell, Linda (My Darling Clementine) Darnoux, Georges (Boudu sauvé des eaux; Partie de campagne) d’Arrast, Harry d’Abbadie (Gold Rush) Darrieaux, Danielle (Ronde) Darrieu, Gérard (Z) Darrieux, Danielle (Madame de ...) Darrin, Sonia (Big Sleep) Darro, Frankie (Public Enemy) Darrow, Charlene (Deer Hunter) Darrow, Tony (GoodFellas) Darrow, Wayne (Land) Darwell, Jane (Gone With the Wind; Grapes of Wrath; My Darling Clementine) Darwin, Chris (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Das, Deva (Elippathayam) Das, Sudesna (Jana Aranya) Dasent, Peter (Heavenly Creatures) Dassanowsky, El? von (M?rchen vom Glück) Dassas, Stella (Hiroshima mon amour) Dassin, Jules (Du Ri?? chez les hommes; Naked City) Dasté, Jean (Atalante; Boudu sauvé des eaux; Crime de Monsieur Lange; Grande illusion; Z; Zéro de conduite) Datler, Jay (Laura) Daubert, Charlott (Kermesse héroique) Daubner, Istvan (Csillagosok, katonák) D’Aubonne, Jean Gabriel (Madame de ...; Sang d’un poete) Dauman, Anatole (Ai no corrida; Blechtrommel; Chronique d’un été; Der Himmel Uber Berlin; Paris, Texas; Sans Soleil) Dauphin, Claude (Casque d’or) Daurand, Jean (Bataille du rail) D’Auray, Jacques (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Dauvray, Maryse (J’accuse) Davalos, Richard (East of Eden) Davanture, Andree (Yeelen) Davenport, Harry (Gone With the Wind; Meet Me in St. Louis) Davenport, Nigel (Peeping Tom) Daviau, Allen (E.T.—The Extraterrestrial) David, Israel Feres (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) David, Johnny (Easy Rider) David, Michael (Yaaba) Davidova, Luna (Sterne) Davidson, Gordon (Unforgiven) Davidson, Roy (Big Sleep; White Heat) Davidtz, Embeth (Schindler’s List) Davies, Betty Ann (Blue Lamp) Davies, Gary (My Beautiful Laundrette) Davies, Oliver Ford (Star Wars) Davies, Sally (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Davies, Terence (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Davis, Angelina ‘‘Pepper’’ (Chelsea Girls) Davis, Bette (All about Eve; Little Foxes; Now Voyager) Davis, Brad (Midnight Express; Player) Davis, Frank (Dance, Girl, Dance) Davis, Geena (Thelma and Louise) Davis, George (All about Eve; American in Paris) Davis, George W. (Ride the High Country) Davis, Humphrey (Annie Hall) Davis, Judy (My Brilliant Career) Davis, Ossie (Do the Right Thing; Kongi’s Harvest; Malcolm X) Davis, Richard (If ...) Davis, Sammi (Mona Lisa) Davis, Warwick (Star Wars) Davis, Jr., Owen (All Quiet on the Western Front) Davlopoulos, Takis (Thiasos, O) Davoli, Ninetto (Fiore delle mille e una notte) Davray, Dominque (Casque d’or; Cléo de cinq à sept) d’Avril, Yola (All Quiet on the Western Front) Dawn, Bob (Black Sunday) Dawn, Doreen (Masque of the Red Death) Dawn, Jack (Wizard of Oz) Dawn, Marapessa (Orfeu Negro) Dawson, Blase M. (Easy Rider) Dawson, Eleanor (Deer Hunter) Dawson, Gordon (Wild Bunch) Dawson, Ralph (Adventures of Robin Hood) Day, Bryan (Dead Ringers) Day, Josette (Belle et la bête) Daymbert (Gilda) Day, Capt. Richard (Greed) Day, Richard (Foolish Wives; Grapes of Wrath; On the Waterfront; Streetcar Named Desire; Young Mr. Lincoln) Day, W. Percy (Black Narcissus; Henry V; Matter of Life and Death; Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Day-Lewis, Daniel (My Beautiful Laundrette; Room with a View) Days, Jerry (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Dayton, Charles (Sunset Boulevard) De, Guita (Meghe dhaka tara) de Ansorena, R. (Napoléon) de Barros, Maria Cecilia M. (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) de Bartoli, Manolo (Otac na sluzbenom putu) de Beauregard, Georges (A bout de souf?e; Cléo de cinq à sept; Mèpris) De Becker, Marie (Mrs. Miniver) de Bedarieux, Gerard (Zéro de conduite) De Bernardi, Piero (Once Upon a Time in America) de Bragelonne, Bob (Z) de Bretagne, Courme (Partie de campagne) de Bretagne, Joseph (Carrosse d’or; Grande illusion; Partie de campagne; Règle du jeu) de Broca, Philippe (A bout de souf?e) de Chambrun, Comte Rene (Chagrin et la pitié) de Chomon, Giovanni (Cabiria) de Chomon, Segundo (Cabiria) De Corsia, Ted (Naked City) De Cossio, José María (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios; Todo Sobre Mi Madre) de Falco, Rubens (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) de Farias, Isadora (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) de Fina, Barbara (GoodFellas) De Gianni (Carrosse d’or) de Glahs, Arthur (M?rchen vom Glück) de Gonzague-Frick, Louis (Zéro de conduite) de Grasse, Sam (Intolerance) de Greenlaw, Jennifer (Last Wave) de Gregorio, Eduardo (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) de Guzman, Don Fernando (Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes) de Havilland, Olivia (Adventures of Robin Hood; Gone With the Wind) de Holanda, Chico Buarque (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) De Igoa, Luis F. (Muerte de un Ciclista) de la Cruz, René (Memorias del subdesarrollo) de la Mazière, Christian (Chagrin et la pitié) de la Torre, Raf (Carrosse d’or) de la Vigerie, Emmanuel d’Astier (Chagrin et la pitié) de Labaerdesque, Caridad (Age d’or) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1426 de Lalsky, Gertrud (M?dchen in Uniform) de Lamothe, Francois (Samourai) De Laurentiis, Dino (Strada) de Léa, Lia (Madame de ...) de Maravilles, Xaume (Age d’or) de Maré, Rolf (Entr’acte) de Marney, Derrick (Things to Come) de Matteis, Mario (Carrosse d’or) de Medeiros, Maria (Pulp Fiction) de Melo, Manuela (Amor de perdic?o) De Mille, Cecil B. (Sunset Boulevard) de Morlaye, Marguerite (Dames du Bois de Boulogne) de Musset, Alfred (Student von Prag) de Muylder, Marianne (Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles) De Negri, Giuliani G. (Kaos) De Niro, Robert (1900 (Novecento); Brazil; Deer Hunter; Godfather Trilogy; GoodFellas; Mean Streets; Once Upon a Time in America; Taxi Driver) de Noailles, Charles Vicomte (Age d’or) de Oliveira, Manoel (Amor de perdic?o) de Pablo, Luis (Espiritu de la colmena) De Poliolo, Dorothy (Avventura) de Queiróz, Rachel (Cangaceiro) de Re, Michel (Dentellière) de Rochemont, Louis (March of Time) de Rochemont, Richard (March of Time) de Roubaix, Francois (Samourai) De Sales, Francis (Psycho) De Santis, Giuseppe (Ossessione) De Santis, Pasquale (Caduta degli dei; Morte a Venezia) de Sedouy, Alain (Chagrin et la pitié) De Sica, Vittoria (Sciuscia) De Sica, Vittorio (Ladri di biciclette; Madame de ...; Miracolo a Milano; Sciuscia; Umberto D) de Stefano, Vitale (Cabiria) de Troyes, Suzanne (Bête humaine) de Vargas, Valentin (Touch of Evil) De Vega, Jose (West Side Story) de Villalonga, José-Luis (Breakfast at Tiffany’s; Cléo de cinq à sept) De Vito, Danny (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) de Wahl, Anders (Erotikon) de Weese, Richard (Red River) de Wilde, Brandon (Shane) de Winter, Jo (Dirty Harry) de Wit, Jacqueline (All That Heaven Allows) De Witt, Louis (Night of the Hunter) de Zan, Bout (Vampiress) Déa, Marie (Orphée) Deacon, Richard (Birds; Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Deadman, Derek (Brazil) Deakins, Roger (Fargo) Deal, Randall (Deliverance) Dean, Dorothy (Chelsea Girls) Dean, James (East of Eden; Giant; Rebel Without a Cause) Deane, Hamilton (Dracula 1931) Dearden, Basil (Blue Lamp; Dead of Night; Victim) Dearing, Edgar (Sullivan’s Travels) Dearing, R. E. (Lady Vanishes) d’Eaubonne, Jean (Casque d’or; Lola Montès; Orphée; Ronde) Debray, Eddy (Règle du jeu) Debroy, Helen (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Debucourt, Jean (Carrosse d’or; Diable au corps; Madame de ...) Deca?, Henri (Quatre cents coups) Decae, Henri (Samourai) Decker, Diana (Lolita) Decomble, Guy (Crime de Monsieur Lange; Quatre cents coups) Decorte, Jan (Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles) Decou, Patricia (Blair Witch Project) Decroux, Etienne (Enfants du paradis) Decugis, Cécile (A bout de souf?e; Tirez sur le pianiste) DeCuir, John F. (Naked City) Dedecke, Andreas (Amerikanische freund) Dedieu, Nicole (Odeur de la papaye verte) Dedintsev, A. (Potomok Chingis-Khan) Dee, Frances (Becky Sharp) Dee, George (Casablanca) Dee, Ruby (Do the Right Thing) Deeley, Michael (Blade Runner; Deer Hunter) Deering, Elizabeth (Faces) Dekker, Albert (East of Eden; Killers; Kiss Me Deadly; Wild Bunch) DeKnight, Fannie B. (Hallelujah) Del, Barry (American Beauty) del Amo, Pablo G. (Cria Cuervos ...; Espiritu de la colmena) Del Cueto, Alfredo L. (Primera carga al machete) del Grande, Ovidio (Carrosse d’or; Paisà) del Mar, Norman (African Queen) del Monte, Jesús (Soy Cuba) Del Prato, Enzo (Caduta degli dei) Del Rey, Geraldo (Deus e o diabo na terra do sol) Del Rosario, Linda (Exotica) Delacorta (Diva) Delahaie, Agnès (Pickpocket) Delahalle, France (Playtime) Delahaye, Michel (Alphaville) Delair, Suzy (Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Delamare, Lise (Lola Montès) Delany, Maureen (Odd Man Out) Delarue, Georges (Mèpris) Delbaro, Bernard (Noire de ...) Delbat, Germaine (Lola Montès) DeLeo, Accursio (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli) Delerue, Georges (Conformista; Hiroshima mon amour; Jules et Jim; Tirez sur le pianiste) Delfosse, Raoul (Procès) Delgado, Aramis (Soy Cuba) Delgado, Livio (Otro Francisco) Delgado, Marcel (King Kong) Delgado, Victor (King Kong) Delgado Caro, Julia (Muerte de un Ciclista) Delgarde, Domenick (Touch of Evil) Delhomme, Benoit (Odeur de la papaye verte) Dell, Frances (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Delli Colli, Tonino (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo; C’era una volta il west) Delluc, Louis (Fièvre) Delmont (Femme du boulanger) Delmont, Edouard (Quai des brumes) Delon, Alain (Eclisse; Gattopardo; Rocco e i suoi fratelli; Samourai) Delon, Nathalie (Samourai) Delorme, Danièle (Cléo de cinq à sept) Delpak, Mohamadreza (Ta’m E Guilass) Delphin (Kermesse héroique; Zéro de conduite) Delpy, Julette (Trois Couleurs) Delpy, Julie (Trois Couleurs) Delschaft, Maly (Letze Mann; Variété) Delteil, Joseph (Passion de Jeanne d’Arc) Delville, Marcel (Fièvre) Demarest, William (Jazz Singer; Lady Eve; Mr. Smith Goes to Washington; Sullivan’s Travels) Demazis, Orane (Marius Trilogy) Demblinska, Wieslawa (Dekalog) Demidova, Alla (Zerkalo) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1427 Demina, Galina (Proshchanie) Demme, Jonathan (Philadelphia; Silence of the Lambs) Dempster, Carol (Intolerance) Demutsky, Danilo (Zemlya) Demutsky, Danylo (Arsenal) Dena?s, Freddy (Yaaba) Dench, Judi (Room with a View) Denchev, Kliment (Koziyat rog) Deneuve, Catherine (Belle de jour; Repulsion) Deng Nan (Wutai jiemei) Denic, Aleksandar (Underground) Denis, Claire (Der Himmel Uber Berlin; Paris, Texas) Denis, Jacques (Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Denlin, Mike (General) Denman, Tony (Fargo) Dennek, Barbara (Playtime) Denner, Charles (Z) Dennett, Jil (Devil Is a Woman) Dennis, John (Henry V) Dennis, Nick (East of Eden; Kiss Me Deadly) Dennis, Winston (Brazil) Densy, Ivan (Lola Montès) Dent, Alan (Henry V) Dentzler, Erika (Playtime) Depardieu, Gérard (1900 (Novecento)) Dépardieu, Gérard (Cyrano de Bergerac) Derek, John (All the King’s Men) Deren, Maya (Meshes of the Afternoon) Dermit, Edouard (Orphée) Dern, Bruce (Black Sunday) Dernura (Blue Velvet) Derschau, Christoph (Chagrin et la pitié) Desagneaux, Jacques (Bataille du rail) Desagneux, Jacques (Bataille du rail) Desai, Nitin (Salaam Bombay) DeSantis, Pasqualino (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli) Desbordes, Jean (Sang d’un poete) Desfassiaux, Maurice (Chapeau de paille d’Italie) Deshavani, Ramesh (Salaam Bombay) Deshpande, Sulabha (Bhumika) Deshpande, Sulbha (Salaam Bombay) Desideri, Osvaldo (Professione: Reporter) Desjardins (J’accuse) Desmarais, Marie (Obchod na korze) Desnoes, Edmundo (Memorias del subdesarrollo) Desny, Ivan (Ehe der Maria Braun; Lola) Desormière, Roger (Belle et la bête) Despotovic, Veljko (Skuplijaci perja) Dest, Jo (Salaire de la peur) Deswarte, Benie (Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles) Detha, Vijaydan (Duvidha) Deutsch, Adolph (Apartment; Band Wagon; High Sierra; Maltese Falcon; Some Like It Hot) Deutsch, Ernst (Third Man) Dev, Vasanth (Bhumika) Devadle, Jean (Judex) Devcica, Natko (Budjenje pacova) Devenish, Myrtle (Brazil) Devère, Arthur (Jour se lève; Kermesse héroique) Devi, Chunibali (Apu Trilogy) Devi, Padma (Jana Aranya) Devi, Pratima (Kaagaz ke phool) Devigny, André (Condamné à mort s’est échappé) Devillers, Renée (Thérèse Desqueyroux) Devine, Andy (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Devine, George (Tom Jones) DeVito, Danny (L.A. Con?dential; Pulp Fiction) Devol, Frank (Kiss Me Deadly) Devore, Frank (Deer Hunter) Devri, Serge (Tirez sur le pianiste) Dew, Desmond (Brief Encounter; Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Dewhurst, Collen (Annie Hall) Dexter, John (Laura) Dey, Dipankar (Akaler sandhane; Jana Aranya) DeYong, Joe (Shane) Di Fiori, Luigi (Room with a View) di Lasso, Orlandi (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) di Mazzarelli, Carmelo (America, L’) di Napoli, Raffaele (Cabiria) di Roma, Eraldo (Umberto D) di Venanzo, Gianni (8?) Di Venanzo, Gianni (Eclisse; Notte; Salvatore Giuliano) Diage, Louis (All the King’s Men) Diamanti, Saverio (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Diamanti, Tarcisio (Battaglia di Algeri) Diament, Dan (Last Tango in Paris) Diamond, I. A. L. (Apartment; Some Like It Hot) Diamond, Margaret (Victim) Diane, Georges (Haine) Diange, Fatim (Xala) Dias, Jennie (Touch of Evil) Dias, Pedro (Udju Azul di Yonta) Dias, Selma Vaz (Lady Vanishes) Díaz, Jose?na (Cria Cuervos ...) Díaz, Rafael (Soy Cuba) Diaz Torres, Daniel (De cierta manera) DiCaprioonardo (Titanic) Dick, Philip K. (Blade Runner) Dickens, Charles (Great Expectations) Dickens, Judith (Young Mr. Lincoln) Dickerson, Ernest (Malcolm X) Dickerson, Ernest R. (Do the Right Thing) Dickerson, George (Blue Velvet) Dickerson, Milton (Hallelujah) Dickey, James (Deliverance) Dickie, Olga (Dracula 1958) Dickinson, Angie (Rio Bravo) Dicko, Solo (Haine) Dickson, Andrew (Secrets and Lies) Dickson, Helen (Lost Weekend) Dickson, Philip (Fires Were Started) Diderot, Denis (Dames du Bois de Boulogne) Diegelmann, Wilheim (Blaue Engel) Diegues, Carlos (Bye Bye Brasil) Dierkes, John (Shane) Diessl, Gustav (Büchse der Pandora; Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Dietrich, Carey (American Beauty) Dietrich, Marlene (Blaue Engel; Devil Is a Woman; Scarlet Empress; Touch of Evil) Dietrich., Robert A. (Student von Prag) Dietz, Howard (Band Wagon) Dietze, Max (Metropolis) Dieudonné, Albert (Napoléon) Dieudonné, Hélène (Thérèse Desqueyroux) Dieudonné, Yvette (Napoléon) Díez, María de las Mercedes (Soy Cuba) Dighton, John (Kind Hearts and Coronets) Digital Domain (Titanic) Diglas, August (M?rchen vom Glück) Diglas, Otto (M?rchen vom Glück) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1428 Dignam, Mark (Tom Jones) Dihua, Rebecca Pan (Ahfei zheng zhuan) Dijon, Alan (Dolce vita) Dike, Phil (Fantasia; Snow White) DiLeo, Frank (GoodFellas) Diligent, Rafa (Raphael) (Zéro de conduite) Diligent, Raya (Atalante) Dillane, Michael (Man of Aran) Dillaway, Don (Magni?cent Ambersons) Dilleyslie (Raiders of the Lost Ark; Star Wars) Dillinger, A. (Land) Dillitzer, Karl (Blechtrommel) Dillon, Carmen (Henry V) Dillon, Edward (Intolerance) Dillon, Melinda (Close Encounters of the Third Kind) Dillon, Tom (Laura) Din, Ayub Khan (My Beautiful Laundrette) Dineff, Dimitri (Vivre sa vie) Dines, Gordon (Blue Lamp) Dinesen, Isak (Babettes Gaestebud) Ding Li (Wutai jiemei) Ding Ran (Wutai jiemei) Ding Weimin (Dahong denglong gaogao gua) Dingle, Charles (Little Foxes) Dinheiro, Pedro (Amor de perdic?o) Dioguardi, Richard (Deer Hunter) Dione, Rose (Freaks) Dionnet (Chagrin et la pitié) Diop, Pathé (Noire de ...) Dirrane, Maggie (Man of Aran) Dirrane, Stephen (Man of Aran) Disenhaus, I. (Condamné à mort s’est échappé) Diskant, George E. (They Live by Night) Disko, Jane-Colette (Deer Hunter) Disney, Roy (Steamboat Willie) Disney, Walt (Fantasia; Snow White; Steamboat Willie) Diver, William (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Dixie Jubilee Singers (Hallelujah) Dixon, Humphrey (Room with a View) Dixon, Thomas (Birth of a Nation) Djanelidze, Nana (Pokaianie) Djordjevic, Milivoje (Skuplijaci perja) Dmochowski, Mariusz (Eroica) Dmytryk, Edward (Cross?re) do Norte, Zé (Cangaceiro) do Valle, Maurício (Ant?nio das Mortes; Deus e o diabo na terra do sol) do-Yun, Yun (Koshikei) Dobai, Péter (Mephisto) Dobb, Henry (Chapeau de paille d’Italie) Dobbels, Daniel (India Song) Dobkinwrence (North by Northwest; Sweet Smell of Success) Dobrina, Stanislav (Samo jednom se ljubi) Dobrowolska, Halina (Dekalog; Trois Couleurs) Dobtcheff, Vernon (India Song) Dodds, Johnny (Scorpio Rising) Dods, Gillian (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Dodson, Betty (W.R.: Mysterije Organizma) Dodsworth, John (Singin’ in the Rain) Doer, Gloria (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Dogen, Yuji (Entotsu no mieru basho) Doherty, Kate (Draughtsman’s Contract) Dohm, Will (Kermesse héroique) Doknic-Manojlivic, Zorka (Nesto izmedju) Dokuchaev, B. (Kommisar) Doldinger, Klaus (Das Boot) D’Oliveira, Damon (Exotica) Doller, Mikhail (Mat) Dolleriis, Helle (Festen) Domanski, Jacek (Czlowiek z marmuru) Domarchi, Jean (A bout de souf?e) Domin, Friedrich (Lola Montès) Dominguez, Joe (Red River) Dominguinhos (Bye Bye Brasil) Dominquez, Alfredo (Yawar Mallku) Domínquez, Bárbara (Soy Cuba) Dominquez, Beatrice (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Dommartin, Solveig (Der Himmel Uber Berlin) Donachie, Ron (Titanic) Donahue, Heather (Blair Witch Project) Donahue, Troy (Godfather Trilogy) Donat, Robert (39 Steps; Private Life of Henry VIII) Donath, Ludwig (Gilda) Donati, Danilo (Fiore delle mille e una notte; Vangelo secondo Matteo, Il) Donati, Nicole (Noire de ...) Donati, Sergio (C’era una volta il west) Donatién, Osvaldo (Fresa y Chocolate) Donde, Manuel (Treasure of the Sierra Madre) Donen, Stanley (On the Town; Singin’ in the Rain) Dong Huamiao (Dahong denglong gaogao gua) Dong Lin (Wutai jiemei) Dongen, Helen Van (Land; Louisiana Story) Doniol-Valcroze, Jacques (Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles; Orphée) Donnadieu, Bernard-Pierre (Spoorloos) Donnadieu, Pierre (Udju Azul di Yonta) Donnell, Jeff (In a Lonely Place; Sweet Smell of Success) Donnelly, Donal (Godfather Trilogy) Donnelly, James (City Lights) Donnelly, Ruth (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Donner, J?rn (Fanny och Alexander) Donniger, Benjamin (Louisiana Story) D’Onofrio, Vincent (Player) Donohue, Walter (My Beautiful Laundrette) Donovan, King (Invasion of the Body Snatchers; Singin’ in the Rain) Doonan, Patric (Blue Lamp) Doqui, Robert (Nashville) Doraine, Lucy (Sodom und Gomorrha) d’Ora, Daisy (Büchse der Pandora) Doran, Ann (Rebel Without a Cause) Dorcev, Aleksandar (Otac na sluzbenom putu) Doren Stern, Philip (It’s a Wonderful Life) Dorff, Marta (Fr?ken Julie) Dorfman, Bill (Notorious; Scorpio Rising) Dorfmann, Robert (Jeux interdits) Dorian, Angela (Rosemary’s Baby) Doring, Helmut (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Dorman, Teri E. (Deer Hunter) D?rner, Erich (M?rchen vom Glück) Dorning, Robert (Mona Lisa) Doro, Mino (8?) D’Orsi, Ugo (Fantasia; Snow White) Dorsman, Judy (Picnic at Hanging Rock) dos Humildes, S?nia (Deus e o diabo na terra do sol) Dos Santos, José Nilson Martin (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) dos Santos, Nelson Pereira (Vidas secas) Doucette, John (Strangers on a Train) Douchet, Jean (A bout de souf?e; Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) Doude, Van (A bout de souf?e; Z) Doughty, Harold (Fantasia) Douglas, Bill (Douglas Trilogy) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1429 Douglas, Don (Gilda) Douglas, Kirk (Out of the Past; Paths of Glory) Douglas, Melvyn (Ninotchka) Douglas, Michael (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Douglas, Shirley (Dead Ringers; Lolita) Douking, Georges (Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie; Jour se lève) Doumanian, John (Annie Hall) Dourif, Brad (Blue Velvet; One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Douvane, Isaure (Feu Mathias Pascal) Douy, Max (Dames du Bois de Boulogne; Diable au corps; Règle du jeu) d’Ovidio, Jacques (Z) Dovzhenko, Alexander (Arsenal; Zemlya) Dowie, Freda (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Dowling, Doris (Lost Weekend) Downs, Cathy (My Darling Clementine) Doyen, Léon (Playtime) Doyle, Barc (Last Picture Show) Doyle, Bob (Brazil) Doyle, Christopher (Ahfei zheng zhuan) Doyle, Julian (Brazil) Doyle-Murray, Brian (JFK) Doynel, Ginette (Carrosse d’or) Drage, Prudence (Clockwork Orange) Dragon, Carmen (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Drahota, Andrea (Meg ker a nep) Drake, Charles (All That Heaven Allows; Now Voyager) Drake, Claudia (Detour) Drake, Fabia (Room with a View) Drake, Tom (Meet Me in St. Louis) Draper, Fred (Faces) Drashi (Daoma zei) Dravíc, Milena (W.R.: Mysterije Organizma; Zaseda) Dreier, Hans (Devil Is a Woman; Double Indemnity; Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde; Duck Soup; Lost Weekend; Scarlet Empress; Sullivan’s Travels; Sunset Boulevard; Trouble in Paradise) Dreiserodore (Place in the Sun) Dresser, Louise (Scarlet Empress) Drew, Barbara (Some Like It Hot) Drew, Desmond (Henry V) Drewanz, Katja (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Drews, Berta (Blechtrommel) Dreyer, Carl Theodor (Gertrud; Ordet; Passion de Jeanne d’Arc; Vampyr; Vredens dag) Dreyer, Carl Theodor (Vredens dag) Dreyfuss, Richard (American Graf?ti; Close Encounters of the Third Kind; Jaws) Drigo, Bruno (Cléo de cinq à sept) Drinkwater, Carol (Clockwork Orange) Drozdov, Pavel (Malenkaya Vera) Dru, Joanne (All the King’s Men; Red River) Drumheller, Robert (Annie Hall) Drury, James (Ride the High Country) Dryburgh, Stuart (Lone Star; Piano) Drye, Jenny (C’est arrivé près de chez vous) Dryer, David (Blade Runner) Drzewicz, Wieslaw (Czlowiek z marmuru) Du Duzhi (City of Sadness; Guling jie shaonian sha ren shijian) du Jonchay, R. (Chagrin et la pitié) Du Yuan (Dahong denglong gaogao gua; Ju Dou; Red Sorghum) Düberg, Axel (Fanny och Alexander) Dubergen, Albert (Chien andalou) Dubey, Pandit Satyadev (Bhumika) Dubin, Al (42nd Street) Dublin, Jessica (Caduta degli dei) Dubois, André (Vacances de Monsieur Hulots) Dubois, Marie (Jules et Jim; Tirez sur le pianiste) Dubons, Arthur (Kongi’s Harvest) Dubost, Paulette (Lola Montès; Règle du jeu) Dubreuil, Raymond (Argent) Duchamp, Marcel (Entr’acte) Duchamps, Fernand (Sang d’un poete) Duchaussoy, Michel (Femme in?dèle) Duchezne Cuzán, Manuel (Memorias del subdesarrollo) Duclos, Jacques (Chagrin et la pitié) Ducouret, Marguerite (Kermesse héroique) Ducret, Andrée (Kameradschaft) Ducreux, Yvette (Playtime) Dudley, Robert (Sullivan’s Travels) Dudnikov, D. (Maxim Trilogy) Duell, Randall (Asphalt Jungle; Singin’ in the Rain) Duell, William (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Due?as, Miriam (Fresa y Chocolate) Duering, Carl (Clockwork Orange) Duff, Howard (Naked City) Duf?eld, Michael (Last Wave) Dugan, John (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Duggan, Gerry (Servant) Duhamel, Antoine (Weekend) Duhamel, Marcel (Crime de Monsieur Lange) Dujmovic, Davor (Dom za vesanje; Otac na sluzbenom putu) Dujmovic-Perhan, Davor (Underground) Dulac, Germaine (Coquille et le clergyman) Dullac (Femme du boulanger) Dullac, Paul (Marius Trilogy) Dullaghan, John (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Dullea, Keir (2001: A Space Odyssey) Dumar?ay, Philippe (Fuzis) Dumas, Alexandre (Camille) Dumas, Robert (Star Is Born) Dumas, Yvonne (Argent) Dumke, Ralph (All the King’s Men; Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Dumont, Margaret (Duck Soup; Night at the Opera) Dumpling, Baby (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Dunai, Tamás (Angi Vera) Dunaway, Faye (Bonnie and Clyde; Chinatown) Dunbar, John (Peeping Tom) Dundee, Jimmie (Sullivan’s Travels) Duneton, Claude (Trois Couleurs) Dunham, Duwayne (Blue Velvet; Star Wars) Dunlop, Nick (Brazil) Dunn, Emma (Dance, Girl, Dance) Dunn, Linwood G. (King Kong; West Side Story) Dunn, Louise (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Dunn, Ralph (Laura) Dunne, Elizabeth (Cat People) Dunning, George (From Here to Eternity) Dunson, Sonja (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) DuPar, Edwin (Giant) Dupont, E. A. (Variété) Dupontx (Blue Velvet) Dupont, René (Lolita) Dupuis, Paul (Passport to Pimlico) Duran, Jorge (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos; Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Duran, Michel (Crime de Monsieur Lange) Durant, Maurice (Peeping Tom) Duras, Marguerite (Hiroshima mon amour; India Song) Duret, Marc (Haine) Duringer, Anne-Marie (Dentellière) Durniok, Manfred (Mephisto) Durovv (Proshchanie) Duryea, Dan (Little Foxes) Duse, Vittorio (Ossessione) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1430 Dussolier, André (Coeur en hiver) Dutt, Guru (Kaagaz ke phool) Dutt, Sunil (Bharat Mata) Dutt, Uptal (Jana Aranya) Dutta, Ashim (Aranyer din Ratri) Dutta, Dulal (Apu Trilogy; Aranyer din Ratri; Charulata; Jana Aranya) Dutta, Nepal (Aranyer din Ratri) Dutta, Santosh (Jana Aranya) Dutton, Michael J. (Piano) Duval, Daniel (Arroseur arrosé) Duval, Patrick (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Duvall, Robert (Apocalypse Now; Conversation; Godfather Trilogy; M*A*S*H) Duvall, Shelley (Annie Hall; Nashville) Duvivier, Julien (Pépé le Moko) Dux, Pierre (Z) Dvigubsky, Nikolai (Siberiade) Dvorak, Ann (Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Dworak, Boris Otto (38 - Auch das war Wien) Dwyer, Marlo (Cross?re) Dwyre, Roger (Du Ri?? chez les hommes; Jeux interdits) Dyall, Franklin (Private Life of Henry VIII) Dyall, Valentine (Casino Royale; Henry V; Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) d’Yd, Jean (Napoléon; Passion de Jeanne d’Arc)</entry Dykstra, John (Star Wars) Dyrenforth, James (Lolita) Dyrholm, Trine (Festen) Dyson, Anny (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Dzhagofavov, M. (Putyovka v zhizn) Dzhidrov, Konstantin (Koziyat rog) Dzhonev, Trifon (Sterne) Dziewoński, Edward (Eroica) Dzizmba, Joe (Deer Hunter) Dzundza, George (Deer Hunter) Earle, Edward (Wind) Earles, Daisy (Freaks) Earles, Harry (Freaks) Earnshaw, Tina (Titanic) Earth Wind and Fire (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Easdale, Brian (Black Narcissus; Peeping Tom; Red Shoes) Easley, Pamela (Titanic) Eastwood, Clint (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo; Dirty Harry; Unforgiven) Eaton, Jay (Night at the Opera) Eaton, Wallas (Last Wave) Eatwell, Brian (If...; Walkabout) Ebb, Fred (Cabaret) Ebbeson, Dagmar (Herr Arnes Pengar) Ebsen, Buddy (Breakfast at Tiffany’s) Eck, Johnny (Freaks) Eckardt, Fritz (Kameradschaft) Eckhausen, Sylvia (Ordet) Economopoulos, Phoebe (Vlemma Tou Odyssea) Economou, Nicolas (Bleierne Zeit) ěcuas, Manuel Jo?o (Udju Azul di Yonta) Edalati, Mahmood Reza (Ta’m E Guilass) Edel, Alfred (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Edelman, Louis F. (White Heat) Edelman, Steve (Fargo) Edelstam, Harald (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Edens, Roger (On the Town; Singin’ in the Rain) Edenson, Robert (Foolish Wives) Eder, Hannes (Funny Games) Eder, Liselotte (Angst essen Seele auf; Ehe der Maria Braun) Edeson, Arthur (All Quiet on the Western Front; Casablanca; Frankenstein; Maltese Falcon) Edgington, Lyn (Dirty Harry) Edington, Harry (Dance, Girl, Dance) Edlund, Richard (Raiders of the Lost Ark; Star Wars) Edmonds, Chris (American Beauty) Edmonds, Dale (Paisà) Edmunds, William (Casablanca) Edmundsen, Al (Foolish Wives) Edouart, Farciot (Lost Weekend; Sullivan’s Travels; Sunset Boulevard) Edson, Richard (Do the Right Thing) Edwall, Allan (Fanny och Alexander; Offret) Edwards, Blake (Breakfast at Tiffany’s) Edwards, Cliff (His Girl Friday) Edwards, Hilton (Victim) Edwards, Meredith (Blue Lamp; Lavender Hill Mob) Edwards, Robert Gordon (Morte a Venezia) Edwards, Snitz (Phantom of the Opera; Public Enemy) Effa, Karel (Baron Prasil) Effenterre, Joelle Van (Dentellière) Egerton, Mark (My Brilliant Career) Egidi, Carlo (Salvatore Giuliano) Egoyan, Atom (Exotica) Eguino, Antonio (Yawar Mallku) Ehmke, Horst (Deutschland im Herbst) Ehrle, Kurt (Sodom und Gomorrha) Ehrlich, Karl (Engel mit der Posaune) Ehrlich, Wolfgang (Caduta degli dei) Ehrling, Monica (Smultronst?llet) Eichberger, Franz (Tie?and) Eichberger, Willy (Lola Montès) Eichelanev, Bolot (Andrei Rublev) Eicher, Manfred (Journey of Hope) Eichgrun, Hartmut (Paris, Texas) Eick, Bob (Blair Witch Project) Eigen, Erika (Clockwork Orange) Eilers, Sally (Sunrise) Eisen, Robert S. (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Eisenstein, Sergei (Alexander Nevsky; Bronenosets Potemkin; Ivan Grozny; Oktiabr; Stachka) Eisenstein, Yulia (Bronenosets Potemkin) Eisinger, Jo (Gilda) Eisler, Hans (Nieuwe Gronden; Nuit et brouillard) Ek, Anders (Gycklarnas afton; Sjunde inseglet; Viskningar och rop) Ekberg, Anita (Dolce vita) Ekblad, Stina (Fanny och Alexander) Ekelund, Allan (Sjunde inseglet; Smultronst?llet; Sommarnattens leende; Tystnaden) Ekerot, Bengt (Sjunde inseglet) Ekk, Nikolai (Putyovka v zhizn) Ekman, Hasse (Gycklarnas afton) Ekmar, Bruno (Salvatore Giuliano) Elam, Jack (C’era una volta il west; High Noon) Eldredge, George (Psycho) Eldredge, John (High Sierra) Elezi, Nikolin (America, L’) Elg-Lundgren, Otto (G?sta Berlings Saga) Elias, Luiz (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Elina, Lise (Règle du jeu) Elisabeth, Ann (Ordet) Elisabetta, Comtesse (8?) Ellenstein, Robert (North by Northwest) Ellington, E.A. (Gilda) Elliot, Denholm (Raiders of the Lost Ark; Room with a View) Elliot, Dick (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Elliotura (Strangers on a Train) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1431 Elliott, A. (Fantasia) Elliott, Peter (Heavenly Creatures) Elliotte, J. (Fantasia) Ellis, Bo (Hoop Dreams) Ellis, Edward (Fury; I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang; Thin Man) Ellis, Evelyn (Lady from Shanghai) Ellis, Michael (Douglas Trilogy) Ellroy, James (L.A. Con?dential) Elmes, Frederick (Blue Velvet; Eraserhead) Elsone (Out of the Past) Elton, Federico (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Eltzodore von (Big Sleep) Eluard, Paul (Age d’or) Emelyanov, Vladimir (Korol Lir) Emerson, Eric (Chelsea Girls) Emerson, Hope (Adam’s Rib) Emert, Oliver (Naked City) Emerton, Roy (Henry V) Emile, Mme. (Zéro de conduite) Emmanuel, Benjamin (Paisà) Emmett, E.V.H. (Passport to Pimlico) Emmett O’Connor, Robert (Night at the Opera; Public Enemy) Emmott, Basil (Drifters) Emory, Richard (Singin’ in the Rain) Enami, Keiko (Sansho dayu) Endo, Shigeru (Shichinin no samurai) Endrejat, A. (Ewige Jude) Endrulat, H. (Lola Montès) Endrulat, Illo (Das Boot) Enei, Evgeny (Maxim Trilogy) Enei, Yevgeni (Novyi Vavilon) Engel, Harry van (Draughtsman’s Contract) Engel, Samuel G. (My Darling Clementine) Engel, Tina (Blechtrommel) Engel, Tobias (38 - Auch das war Wien) Enger, Charles Van (Phantom of the Opera) England, Jo (Last Wave) Englander, Otto (Fantasia; Snow White) Enoki, Toshio (Hadaka no shima) Ensign, Michael (Titanic) Epstein, Julius J. and Philip G. (Casablanca) Epstein, Mitch (Salaam Bombay) Erdman, D. (Arsenal) Erdmann, Hans (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse; Nosferatu (1922novyi)) Erdodyo (Detour) Erdorza, Mariano (Chimes at Midnight) Erhardt, Hermann (Engel mit der Posaune) Erice, Victor (Espiritu de la colmena) Ericks, Siv (Fanny och Alexander) Ericksonif (On the Waterfront) Eriksdotter, Kerstin (Offret) Eristoff, Nestor (Laura) Ernst, Marie Berthe (Age d’or) Ernst, Max (Age d’or) Ershadi, Homayoun (Ta’m E Guilass) Erskine, Eileen (Great Expectations) Ertaud, Jacques (Condamné à mort s’est échappé) Ertl, Hans (Olympia) Esaka (Hiroshima mon amour) Esbensen, Axel (Erotikon; Herr Arnes Pengar; K?rkalen) Escamilla, Teodoro (Cria Cuervos ...) Eschkenazy, Bella (Sterne) Escof?er, Jean-Yves (Shoah) Escof?er, Marcel (Lola Montès; Orphée) Escof?er, Paul (Pépé le Moko) Escolano, Angel (Chimes at Midnight) Escorel, Eduardo (Ant?nio das Mortes) Escoreluro (Bye Bye Brasil) Esper, Dwain (Freaks) Espinosa (Private Life of Henry VIII) Espinosa, José (Soy Cuba) Espinosa, Julio García (Lucia) Esplandio, Juan (Age d’or) Esposito, Giancarlo (Do the Right Thing) Esquivel, Alan (Alsino y el Condor) Estrada-Pox, Patrick (Bleierne Zeit) Estrin, Robert (Badlands) Etaix, Pierre (Pickpocket) Etches, Matilda (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Etievant, Yvette (Dames du Bois de Boulogne) Etiévant, Yvette (Journal d’un curé de campagne) Etter, Serge (Dentellière) Eugster, Al (Snow White) Eustache, Jean (Amerikanische freund; Weekend) Evangelatos, Grigoris (Thiasos, O) Evans, David (Victim) Evans, Edith (Tom Jones) Evans, Evans (Bonnie and Clyde) Evans, Flight Sergeant (Chagrin et la pitié) Evans, Geoffrey (Douglas Trilogy) Evans, Matthew (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Evans, Maurice (Rosemary’s Baby) Evans, Peggy (Blue Lamp) Evans, Ray (Sunset Boulevard) Evans, Rex (Philadelphia Story) Evans, Robert (Black Sunday; Chinatown) Evans, Sallie (Brazil) Evans-Jones, Jonathan (Titanic) Evanson, Edith (Big Heat; Shane) Evein, Bernard (Année dernière à Marienbad; Cléo de cinq à sept; Quatre cents coups) Evelyn, Judith (Rear Window) Everett, Richard (If...) Eveslage, Ron (American Graf?ti) Evje, Michael (Raging Bull; Unforgiven) Evmenko, A. (Putyovka v zhizn) Evonee, Marria (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Ewell, Tom (Adam’s Rib) Ewers, Hanns Heinz (Student von Prag) Eybner, Richard (M?rchen vom Glück) Eyck, Peter van (Salaire de la peur) Eymesa (Angst essen Seele auf) Eymon, Florence (Xala) Eyraud, Marc (Belle de jour) Eyssen, John Van (Dracula 1958) Fabbri, Jacques (Diva) Fabisiak, Kazimierz (Matka Joanna od aniolow) Fabre, Pierre (Jules et Jim) Fabre, Saturnin (Pépé le Moko) Fabrizi, Aldo (Roma, città aperta) Fabrizi, Franco (Morte a Venezia; Vitelloni, I) Fadden, Tom (Big Sleep; Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Fage, Christiane (Vivre sa vie) F?hrmann, Anja (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Fairbanks, Douglas (Intolerance) Fairbanks, Jr., Douglas (Little Caesar) Fait, Andrei (Bronenosets Potemkin) Faivre, Paul (Et ... Dieu créa la femme) Falcón, Jacinto (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Falconetti, Maria (Passion de Jeanne d’Arc) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1432 Falk, Peter (Der Himmel Uber Berlin; Player) Falk, Rosella (8?) Falkenberg, Paul (M; Vampyr) Falkenstein, Julius (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Falknberg, Paul (Tagebuch einer Verlorenen, Das) Fallberg, Carl (Fantasia) Falzari, Felizitas (M?rchen vom Glück) Fancher, Hampton (Blade Runner) Fankboner, Sarah (Black Sunday) Fano, Michel (Chronique d’un été) Farafan, Daniel (Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes) Farago, Alexander (Top Hat) Farago, Katinka (Offret) Faragoh, Francis Edward (Becky Sharp; Frankenstein; Little Caesar) Farahani, Gholam Reza (Ta’m E Guilass) Faraoni, Mario (8?) Farell, Claude (Vitelloni, I) Fares, Tew?k (Chronique des années de braise) Faress, Souad (My Beautiful Laundrette) Faria, Betty (Bye Bye Brasil) Farinas, Carlos (Soy Cuba) Farkas, Zoltán (Csillagosok, katonák; Meg ker a nep) Farley, Jim (General) Farnham, Joseph (Crowd; Greed) Farnham, Joseph W. (Big Parade) Farr, Yolanda (Memorias del subdesarrollo) Farrar, David (Black Narcissus) Farrell, Charles (Chimes at Midnight) Farrell, Glenda (I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang; Little Caesar) Farrell, Paul (Clockwork Orange) Farrell, Tom (Paris, Texas) Farrell, Tommy (North by Northwest; Singin’ in the Rain) Farrow, Mia (Rosemary’s Baby) Fassbinder, Rainer Werner (Angst essen Seele auf; Deutschland im Herbst; Ehe der Maria Braun; Lola) Fassler, Otto (M?rchen vom Glück) Fattahi, Gholam Reza (Ta’m E Guilass) Fauchois, René (Boudu sauvé des eaux) Faulds, Andrew (Chimes at Midnight) Faulk, John Henry (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Faulkner, William (Big Sleep; Southerner) Favaliura (Nuits fauves) Favart, Robert (Samourai) Faversham, William (Becky Sharp) Favre, Michel (A bout de souf?e) Fax, Jesslyn (Rear Window) Fay, Dorothy (Philadelphia Story) Fay, Vivian (Dance, Girl, Dance) Fay, W.G. (Odd Man Out) Fayard, Michele (Zéro de conduite) Faye, Babou (Xala) Faye, Seco (Udju Azul di Yonta) Fayet, Jacques (Lola Montès) Faylan, Frank (It’s a Wonderful Life) Fayton, Edward (Paris, Texas) Fazaldin (Bharat Mata) Fazan, Adrienne (American in Paris; Singin’ in the Rain) Feast, Michael (Draughtsman’s Contract) Fedder, Jan (Das Boot) Feddersen, Helga (Lola) Feder, Frédérique (Trois Couleurs) Federspiel, Birgitte (Babettes Gaestebud; Ordet; Sult) Federspiel, Ejnar (Ordet) Feeley, Billy (Gregory’s Girl) Feher, Friedrich (Kabinett des Dr. Caligari) Fehmiu, Bekim (Black Sunday; Skuplijaci perja) Fei Yang (Ba wang bie ji) Feiginova, L. (Zerkalo) Feist, Harry (Roma, città aperta) Fejér, Judit (Valahol Europaban) Fék, Gy?rgy (Angi Vera) Feldman, Charles K. (Casino Royale; Red River; Streetcar Named Desire) Feldman, Konstantin (Bronenosets Potemkin) Feldman, Phil (Wild Bunch) Fell, Norman (Graduate) Fellini, Federico (8?; Dolce vita; Paisà; Roma, città aperta; Strada; Vitelloni, I) Fellini, Riccardo (Vitelloni, I) Fellner, Eric (Fargo) Feng Ji (Wutai jiemei) Fenglan, Wen (Yanzhi kou) Fengler, Michael (Ehe der Maria Braun) Feninv (Alexander Nevsky) Fennell, Albert (Peeping Tom) Fenoglio, Armando (Chacal de Nahueltoro) Fentonslie (Public Enemy) Fenton, Mark (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Fenwick, Jean (Laura) Fenwick, Peg (All That Heaven Allows) Fenwick, Perry (Mona Lisa) Ferari, Rahela (Skuplijaci perja) Ferber, Edna (Giant) Ferbus, Jean-Pol (Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles) Ferguson, Frank (Johnny Guitar; Star Is Born) Ferguson, Norman (Fantasia; Snow White) Ferhi, Azzedine (Battaglia di Algeri) Fernandez, Anita (Udju Azul di Yonta) Fernandez, Bobby (Unforgiven) Fernández, Carlos (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas; Lucia; Memorias del subdesarrollo) Fernandez, Emilio (Wild Bunch) Fernández, Félix (Verdugo, El) Fernandez, Wilhelminia Wiggins (Diva) Fernández Vila, Pedro (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Fernbach, C.W. (M?rchen vom Glück) Fernhout, John (Nieuwe Gronden) Ferno, John (Spanish Earth) Ferone, Pasquale (Boucher) Ferragut, Jean-No?l (Yeelen) Ferrare (Ossessione) Ferrari, Antonio (Albero degli zoccoli) Ferrari, Nick (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Ferrari, William (Adam’s Rib) Ferreira-Atchutchi, Adriano G. (Udju Azul di Yonta) Ferreol, Andrea (Blechtrommel) Ferrer, Jose (Lawrence of Arabia) Ferrero, Willi (Terra trema) Ferres, Veronika (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Ferretti, Dante (Fiore delle mille e una notte) Ferreux, Benoit (Souf?e au coeur) Ferreux, Fabien (Souf?e au coeur) Ferrini, Franco (Once Upon a Time in America) Ferris, Audrey (Jazz Singer) Ferro, Pablo (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Ferry, Kirsti (Heavenly Creatures) Ferzetti, Gabriele (Avventura; C’era una volta il west) Fesler, Bailey (Citizen Kane; Magni?cent Ambersons) Festa Campanile, Pasquale (Gattopardo) Feuchtwanger, Lion (Jud Süss) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1433 Feuer, Cy (Cabaret) Feuillade, Louis (Judex; Vampiress) Feyder, Jacques (Kermesse héroique) Feydi, Ferhendeh (And Life Goes On) Feydi, Marhem (And Life Goes On) Feylen, Frank (Lost Weekend) Feyte, Jean (Dames du Bois de Boulogne) Fezia, Mario (Tire dié) Fialová, Kveta (Ostre sledované vlaky) Fiebrandt, Hans (Sterne) Fieguth, Monty (Last Wave) Field, Betty (Southerner) Field, Eliot (West Side Story) Field, Jonathan (Henry V) Field, Mary (Mrs. Miniver; Out of the Past) Field, Shirley Ann (My Beautiful Laundrette; Peeping Tom; Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Field, Virginia (Dance, Girl, Dance) Fielder, John (Twelve Angry Men) Fielding, Henry (Tom Jones) Fielding, Jan (Klute) Fielding, Jerry (Wild Bunch) Fielding, Marjorie (Lavender Hill Mob) Fields, Norman (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Fields, Stanley (Little Caesar) Fields, Verna (American Graf?ti; Jaws) Fiennes, Ralph (Schindler’s List) Fierro, Paul (Red River) Fieschi, Jacques (Nuits fauves) Fieschi, Jean-André (Alphaville) Fiesler, Karl (Douglas Trilogy) Fi?, Mahrem (And Life Goes On) Figueroa, Gabriel (Olvidados) Figueroa, Miguel (Redes, Los) Filac, Vilko (Dom za vesanje; Otac na sluzbenom putu; Underground) Fildes, Audrey (Kind Hearts and Coronets) Filho, Arthur Costa (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Filho, Jardel (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Filipovski, Etelka (Skuplijaci perja) Filippazzi, Alfredo (Pugni in tasca) Filippi, Eliane (Chagrin et la pitié) Filippone, Piero (Viaggio in Italia) Fillios, Danielle (Shoah) Fillmore, Clyde (Laura) Finck, Werner (Lola Montès) Fink, Harry Julian (Dirty Harry) Fink, Margaret (My Brilliant Career) Fink, Rita M. (Dirty Harry) Finkiel, Emmanuel (Trois Couleurs) Finklehoffe, Fred F. (Meet Me in St. Louis) Finn, Mali (Titanic) Finnerty, Warren (Easy Rider) Finney, Albert (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning; Tom Jones) Finney, Jack (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Fiore, Elena (Film d’amore e d’anarchia) Fiorelli, Nada (Carrosse d’or) Fiorini, Guido (Miracolo a Milano) Fiorita, Antonietta (Caduta degli dei) Fiorittorry (Pulp Fiction) Firbank, Ann (Servant) Firenze, Casa d’Arte (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Fischer, Ernst (M?rder sind unter uns) Fischer, Gunnar (Sjunde inseglet; Smultronst?llet; Sommarnattens leende) Fischer, O.W. (M?rchen vom Glück) Fishburnerry (Apocalypse Now) Fisher, Carrie (Star Wars) Fisher, Frances (Titanic; Unforgiven) Fisher, Sash (Casino Royale) Fisher, Shug (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Fisher, Terence (Dracula 1958) Fisherman, Joe (Avventura) Fisk, Jack (Badlands; Eraserhead) Fisk, James (Days of Heaven) Fitch, Terence (Brazil) Fitzgerald, Barry (Bringing Up Baby; Naked City) Fitzgerald, Edward (Olvidados) Fitzgerald, Neil (Informer) Fitzgerald, Wayne (Chinatown) Fitzsimmons, John (Gertie the Dinosaur) Fix, Paul (Johnny Guitar; Red River; Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Fizstephens, Jack (Midnight Cowboy) Flagg, Fannie (Five Easy Pieces) Flaherty, David (Man of Aran) Flaherty, Frances (Louisiana Story; Man of Aran; Nanook of the North) Flaherty, Frances H. (Land; Man of Aran) Flaherty, Robert J. (Land; Louisiana Story; Man of Aran; Nanook of the North) Flaiano, Ennio (8?; Dolce vita; Notte; Strada; Verdugo, El; Vitelloni, I) Flamand, Didier (India Song) Flamant, Georges (Quatre cents coups) Flanagan, John (Brazil) Flanagan, Susan (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Flannery, Seamus (Repulsion) Flateau, Georges (Judex) Flattster (Bonnie and Clyde) Flaum, Elisabeth (Blair Witch Project) Flavin, James (Big Sleep; King Kong; Laura) Fleetwood, Susan (Offret) Fleischman, Tom (Do the Right Thing) Fleming, Charlotte (Cabaret) Fleming, Ian (Casino Royale) Fleming, Jerry (Player) Fleming, Rhonda (Out of the Past) Fleming, Victor (Gone With the Wind; Wizard of Oz) Flemming, Patrick (Chelsea Girls) Flemyng, Robert (Blue Lamp) Fletcher, Louise (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest; Player) Fletcher, Randy (Malcolm X) Fleugel, Darlanne (Once Upon a Time in America) Flick, Steve H. (Raiders of the Lost Ark) Fliesler, Joseph R. (Büchse der Pandora) Flint, Sam (Psycho) Flip (Freaks) Flippen, Jay C. (They Live by Night) Flodin, Stig (Tystnaden) Floersheim, Patrick (Diva) Flon, Suzanne (Procès) Florat, Robert (Procès) Florelle (Dreigroschenoper) Florency, Jack (Vivre sa vie) Flores, Delores (Flaming Creatures) Flores, Pedro (Age d’or) Florey, Robert (Frankenstein) Florian, Werner (Grande illusion) Flournoy, Elizabeth (Adam’s Rib) Flowers, A.D. (Apocalypse Now) Flowers, Bess (Laura) Floyd, Frank (Gone With the Wind) Flynn, Errol (Adventures of Robin Hood) Flynn, Rita (Public Enemy) Foà, Arnoldo (Procès) Focas, Spiros (Rocco e i suoi fratelli) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1434 Foch, Nina (American in Paris) Fochler, Karl (M?rchen vom Glück) Fogel, Vladimir (Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov; Tretia Meshchanskaia) Folarin, Agbo (Kongi’s Harvest) Folsey, George J. (Adam’s Rib; Meet Me in St. Louis) Fomin, Andrei (Malenkaya Vera) Fomina, N. (Zerkalo) Fonda, Bridget (Godfather Trilogy) Fonda, Henry (C’era una volta il west; Grapes of Wrath; Lady Eve; My Darling Clementine; Twelve Angry Men; Young Mr. Lincoln) Fonda, Jane (Klute) Fonda, Peter (Easy Rider) Fontaine, Joan (Letter from an Unknown Woman; Women) Fontaine, Lillian (Lost Weekend) Fontaine, Robert (Noire de ...) Fontan, Gabrielle (Partie de campagne) Fonton, Gabrielle (Jour se lève) Fooe Tung (Laura) Foottit (Fièvre) Forbes, Brenda (Mrs. Miniver) Forbes, Mary (Picture of Dorian Gray) Forbsteino F. (I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang; Maltese Falcon) Ford, Francis (Informer; My Darling Clementine; Young Mr. Lincoln) Ford, Glenn (Big Heat; Gilda) Ford, Harrison (American Graf?ti; Apocalypse Now; Blade Runner; Conversation; Raiders of the Lost Ark; Star Wars) Ford, John (Grapes of Wrath; Informer; Man Who Shot Liberty Valance; My Darling Clementine; Searchers; Young Mr. Lincoln) Ford, Michael (Titanic) Ford, Patrick (Searchers) Ford, Reuben (Land) Ford, Roy (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Ford, Wallace (Freaks; Informer) Ford Coppola, Francis (Godfather Trilogy) Foreman, Carl (High Noon) Forestier, Jean (Et ... Dieu créa la femme) Forman, Milo? (Lásky jedné plavovlásky; One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Formánek, Emanuel (Staré povesti ceské) Fornet, Ambrosio (Retrato de Teresa) Forouzanfar, Davood (Ta’m E Guilass) Forrest, Frederic (Apocalypse Now; Conversation) Forrest, John (Great Expectations) Forrest, William (Laura) Forrester, Viviane (India Song) Forsch, Robert (M?rder sind unter uns) Forst, Willi (Sodom und Gomorrha) Forstenbergif (Tystnaden) Forster (J’accuse) Forster, E.M. (Howards End) Forster, Roger (Règle du jeu) Forster, Rudolph (Dreigroschenoper) Forster-Larringa, Robert (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Forsyth, Bill (Gregory’s Girl) Forsythe, William (Once Upon a Time in America) Fort, Garrett (Dracula 1931; Frankenstein) Fortunati, Ugo (Notte) Fortunato, Pasquale (Conformista) Fosco, Piero (Cabiria) Fossard, Marc (Enfants du paradis; Pépé le Moko) Fosse, Bob (Cabaret) Fossey, Brigitte (Jeux interdits) Foster, Allison (Gregory’s Girl) Foster, Dan (Singin’ in the Rain) Foster, Jan (Lone Star) Foster, Jodie (Silence of the Lambs; Taxi Driver) Fosterwis R. (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Foster, Preston (I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang; Informer) Fothergill, Mia (Room with a View) Fouche, André (Marius Trilogy) Fouché-Degliame, Marcel (Chagrin et la pitié) Fouchet, Jean (Année dernière à Marienbad) Foulger, Byron (Sullivan’s Travels) Foulk, Robert (Rebel Without a Cause) Fountaine, William (Hallelujah) Fowle, H.E. (Cangaceiro) Fowler, George (Easy Rider) Fowler, John (Deliverance) Fowley, Douglas (Singin’ in the Rain) Fox, Bernard (Titanic) Fox, James (Servant) Foxe (Clockwork Orange) Fox, Paul S. (Laura) Foxe, Kevin (Blair Witch Project) Fradetal, Marcel (Sang des bêtes) Fraenkel, Jacques (Belle de jour) Fraile, Alfredo (Muerte de un Ciclista) Fraisse, Claire (Diva) Fraker, William A. (Close Encounters of the Third Kind) Fraker, William (Rosemary’s Baby) Frampton, Hollis (Wavelength) France, Rolla (A nous la liberté) Francesopoldo (Et ... Dieu créa la femme) Francesco Lavagnino, Angelo (Chimes at Midnight) Franchi, Franco (Kaos) Franci, Adolfo (Miracolo a Milano; Sciuscia) Franci, Carlo (Chimes at Midnight) Francine, Francis (Flaming Creatures) Francini, Paolo (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Franciosa, Massimo (Gattopardo; Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Francis, Clive (Clockwork Orange) Francis, Eve (Fièvre) Francis, Freddie (Room at the Top; Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Francis, Kay (Trouble in Paradise) Francis, Noel (I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang) Fran?ois, Camille (Règle du jeu) Fran?ois, Clotilde (C’est arrivé près de chez vous) Francouer, Richard (Règle du jeu) Franek, Emanuel (Staré povesti ceské) Franju, Georges (Sang des bêtes; Thérèse Desqueyroux; Yeux sans visage) Frank, Carl (Lady from Shanghai) Frank, Tony (Lone Star) Frankenheimer, John (Black Sunday) Frankeur, Paul (Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie; Enfants du paradis) Franklin, Miles (My Brilliant Career) Franklin, Sidney (Mrs. Miniver) Franko, I. (Zemlya) Frantzisson, Boris (Turksib) Franzen, Filippa (Offret) Franzi, Gino (Ossessione) Fraser, Helen (Repulsion) Fraser, Hugh (Draughtsman’s Contract; Fantasia) Fraser, John (Repulsion) Fraser, Richard (Picture of Dorian Gray) Fraser, Sally (North by Northwest) Fraticelli, Franco (Film d’amore e d’anarchia) Fratus, Massimo (Albero degli zoccoli) Fraunfelder Family (Snow White) Frawley, John (Last Wave) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1435 Frazee, Logan (Black Sunday; Chinatown) Frazer, Henrietta (Hallelujah) Frears, Stephen (My Beautiful Laundrette) Freas, Dianna (Lone Star) Frederic, Blanche (It Happened One Night) Frederick, John (Caduta degli dei) Fredericks, Ellsworth (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Fredericks, Neal (Blair Witch Project) Frederickson, Gray (Godfather Trilogy) Frederics, John (Gone With the Wind) Freeborn, Stuart (Star Wars) Freed, Arthur (American in Paris; Band Wagon; Meet Me in St. Louis; On the Town; Singin’ in the Rain; Wizard of Oz) Freed, Bert (Paths of Glory) Freeman, Howard (Letter from an Unknown Woman) Freeman, Joel (Shaft) Freeman, Kathleen (Singin’ in the Rain) Freeman, Morgan (Unforgiven) Freeman, Paul (Raiders of the Lost Ark) Freeman, Robert (Hard Day’s Night) Freeman, William (Birth of a Nation) Freeman Jr., Al (Malcolm X) Frégis, Lucien (Vacances de Monsieur Hulots) Frehel (Pépé le Moko) Fremy, Gerard (India Song) Frenchslie (Gattopardo; Morte a Venezia) Frenck, Jenny (Yeelen) Frentz, Walter (Olympia) Fresnay, Pierre (Grande illusion; Marius Trilogy) Fresson, Bernard (Belle de jour; Hiroshima mon amour; Z) Freund, Karl (All Quiet on the Western Front; Berlin: Die Sinfonie der Grossstadt; Camille; Dracula 1931; Letze Mann; Metropolis; Variété) Frey, Ellen (Metropolis) Frey, Sami (Cléo de cinq à sept; Thérèse Desqueyroux) Fricke, Florian (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Fridell, Ake (Fr?ken Julie; Gycklarnas afton; Sjunde inseglet; Smultronst?llet; Sommarnattens leende) Fridh, Gertrud (Smultronst?llet) Friebel, Otto (Deutschland im Herbst) Frieberg, Camilia (Exotica) Fried, Gerald (Paths of Glory) Friedhofer, Hugo (Best Years of Our Lives) Friedl, Franz R. (Ewige Jude) Friedman, Lin (Spoorloos) Friedman, Stephen F. (Last Picture Show) Fries, Otto (Night at the Opera) Friese, Hildegard (Deutschland im Herbst) Frietas, Stela (Central do Brasil) Frigerio, Ezio (Cyrano de Bergerac) Frigiero, Enzo (1900 (Novecento)) Friis, Mlle. (Entr’acte) Frisch, Arno (Funny Games) Frisco, Joe (Sweet Smell of Success) Frison, Paul (Gun Crazy) Fritch, James (Deer Hunter) Fritsch, Heribert (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Froelich, Carl (M?dchen in Uniform) Froeschel, George (Mrs. Miniver) Frogley, Louise (Mona Lisa) Fr?hlich, Gustav (Metropolis) Fr?hlich, Pea (Ehe der Maria Braun; Lola) Frohriep, Jürgen (Sterne) Fr?ling, Ewa (Fanny och Alexander) Froment, Raymond (Année dernière à Marienbad) Fromkesson (Detour) Fronczkowiak, B. (Czlowiek z marmuru) Frondi, Dino (Accattone) Frost, Dean Sarah (Annie Hall) Frost, Jackie (Viaggio in Italia) Fruchtman, Lisa (Godfather Trilogy) Frye, Dwight (Bride of Frankenstein; Dracula 1931; Frankenstein) Fu, Wang (Yanzhi kou) Fuchs, Armin (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Fuchs, Matthias (Lola) Fuentes, Alma Delia (Olvidados) Fuerstenbeg, Ilsu (Blaue Engel) Fueter, Peter-Christian (Journey of Hope) Fugiwara, Kamatari (Ikiru) Fuji, Tatsuya (Ai no corrida) Fuji, Yahiro (Sansho dayu) Fuji, Yozo (Zangiku monogatari) Fujima, Naoki (Sansho dayu) Fujimoto, Tak (Badlands; Philadelphia; Silence of the Lambs) Fujiwara, Giichi (Sansho dayu) Fujiwara, Kamatari (Shichinin no samurai; Yojimbo) Fukai, Shiro (Zangiku monogatari) Fukamizu, Mitsuaki (Narayama bushi-ko) Fukao, Michinori (Koshikei) Fukita, Susumu (Yojimbo) Fuller, Brad (Gattopardo) Fuller, Dale (Foolish Wives; Greed) Fullerland (Laura) Fuller, Samuel (Amerikanische freund) Fulton, Jessie Lee (Last Picture Show) Fulton, John P. (Bride of Frankenstein; Rear Window) Fundus, John (Silence of the Lambs) Furlan, Mira (Otac na sluzbenom putu) Furmanov, Dmitri (Chapayev) Furneaux, Yvonne (Dolce vita; Repulsion) Furrer, Urs (Shaft) Furse, Judith (Black Narcissus) Furse, Margaret (Henry V) Furse, Roger (Henry V) Fürst, Sigge (Sommarnattens leende) Furthman, Jules (Big Sleep; Rio Bravo) Furukawa, Katsumi (Ran) Fusco, Giovanni (Avventura; Eclisse; Hiroshima mon amour) Futcher, Hugh (Repulsion) Gabin, Jean (Bête humaine; Grande illusion; Jour se lève; Pépé le Moko; Quai des brumes) Gable, Clark (Gone With the Wind; It Happened One Night; Mis?ts) Gábor, Miklós (Valahol Europaban) Gábor, Pál (Angi Vera) Gabor, Zsa Zsa (Touch of Evil) Gabourie, Fred (General; Sherlock, Jr.) Gabriello, (Partie de campagne) Gabrio, Gabriel (Pépé le Moko) Gabteni, Choukri (Haine) Gabutti, Raymond (Enfants du paradis) Gackstetter, Dieter (Lola) Gadd, Renee (Dead of Night) Gaddi, Carlo (Conformista) Gadler, Steve (Z) Gaete, Marcelo (Alsino y el Condor) Gaf?nuri (Fargo) Gahr, Michael (Deutschland im Herbst) Gaillard, Jacques (Boucher; Femme in?dèle) Gaillard, Jimmy (Argent) Gaines, Richard (Double Indemnity) Gaipa, Amy (Titanic) Gajos, Janusz (Dekalog; Trois Couleurs) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1436 Galadzhev, P. (Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov) Galdini, Marcello (Vangelo secondo Matteo, Il) Gale, Edra (8?) Gale, West (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Galeen, Henrik (Nosferatu (1922novyi)) Galento, Tony (On the Waterfront) Galetti, Giovanna (Last Tango in Paris) Galili, Hal (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Gallagher, Peter (American Beauty; Player) Gallard, Jean (Lola Montès) Gallardo, José (Soy Cuba) Galletti, Giovanna (Roma, città aperta) Galli, Ida (Gattopardo) Gallo, Fred T. (Annie Hall) Gallo, Maria Rosa (Tire dié) Gallo, Mario (Morte a Venezia) Gallois, Jacques (Tirez sur le pianiste) Galvin, Tim (Philadelphia; Silence of the Lambs) Gam, Rita (Klute) Gama, Hugo (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Gama, Jo?o (Deus e o diabo na terra do sol) Gamet, Pierre (Cyrano de Bergerac; Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Gampel, Chris (Annie Hall) Gance, Abel (J’accuse; Napoléon) Gance, Marguerite (Napoléon) Ganeshan (Elippathayam) Ganguly, Subodh (Apu Trilogy) Ganguly, Sunil (Aranyer din Ratri) Gant, David (Draughtsman’s Contract) Ganz, Bruno (Amerikanische freund; Der Himmel Uber Berlin) Gao Jie (City of Sadness) Gao Jingwen (Dahong denglong gaogao gua) Gao Yuansheng (Wutai jiemei) Gaoba (Daoma zei) Garaudet (Argent) Garavagliao (Sciuscia) Garbarek, Jan (Journey of Hope) Garber, Victor (Exotica; Titanic) Garbo, Greta (Camille; G?sta Berlings Saga; Ninotchka) Garbuglia, Mario (Gattopardo; Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Garbutt, Bernard (Snow White) Garcia, Allan (City Lights; Gold Rush; Modern Times) Garcia, Andy (Godfather Trilogy) Garcia, Galileu (Cangaceiro) Garciae (Orfeu Negro) García, Luis (De cierta manera) Garcia, Raúl (Primera carga al machete; Soy Cuba) Garcia, Risa Bramon (JFK) García Berlanga, Luis (Verdugo, El) García Espinosa, Julio (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas; De cierta manera; Primera carga al machete) Garcia-Ville, Luce (Année dernière à Marienbad) Gardiner, Reginald (Great Dictator) Gardinia, Vincent (Hustler) Gardinovacki, Maja (Dom za vesanje) Gardner, Ava (Killers) Garewal, Simi (Aranyer din Ratri) Garfagnoli, Sergio (Morte a Venezia) Garfath, David (Brazil) Gar?eld, Allen (Conversation; Nashville) Gar?nkle, Louis (Deer Hunter) Garga, Beatrice (Metropolis) Garity, William E. (Fantasia) Garland, Janet (Rosemary’s Baby) Garland, Judy (Meet Me in St. Louis; Star Is Born; Wizard of Oz) Garlicka, Miros?awa (Eroica) Garmese (Gone With the Wind; Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Garner, Don (My Darling Clementine) Garr, Teri (Close Encounters of the Third Kind; Conversation; Player) Garralaga, Martin (Casablanca) Garrani, Ivo (Gattopardo) Garrel, Maurice (Coeur en hiver) Garretson, Oliver S. (Maltese Falcon) Garrett, Betty (On the Town) Garrison, Jim (JFK) Garson, Greer (Mrs. Miniver) Garvin, Thomas (Central do Brasil) Garwin, Gene (Shane) Garwood, Norman (Brazil) Gary, Lorraine (Jaws) Gaslini, Giorgio (Notte) Gasparri, Aldo (Battaglia di Algeri; Caduta degli dei) Gasser, Yves (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli; Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Gassman, Remi (Birds) Gassner, Helmut (Lola) Gates, Curtis (Hoop Dreams) Gates, Emma (Hoop Dreams) Gatesrry (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Gates, William (Hoop Dreams) Gatti, Marcello (Battaglia di Algeri; Chronique des années de braise) Gattinoni, Fernanda (Viaggio in Italia) Gatto, Alfonso (Vangelo secondo Matteo, Il) Gattorno, Francisco (Fresa y Chocolate) Gaubert, Ginette (Kermesse héroique) Gaucher, Pierre (Boucher) Gaudier, André (Noire de ...) Gaudino, Giuseppi M. (America, L’) Gaudio, Tony (Adventures of Robin Hood; All Quiet on the Western Front; High Sierra; Little Caesar) Gauhe, Peter (Angst essen Seele auf) Gaulke, James (Fargo) Gaultier, Henri (Passion de Jeanne d’Arc) Gaunt, Valerie (Dracula 1958) Gausman, Russell (Naked City) Gausman, Russell A. (Written on the Wind) Gauthier, Jack (Playtime) Gavin, John (Psycho) Gay, Gregory (Casablanca) Gaye, Howard (Birth of a Nation; Intolerance) Gayle, Gregory (Ninotchka) Gaynor, Janet (Sunrise) Gazut, André (Chagrin et la pitié) Gazzo, Michael V. (Black Sunday; Godfather Trilogy) Ge Schicheng (Wutai jiemei) Ge You (Ba wang bie ji) Geasland, Jack (Dead Ringers) Gebel, Malgoscha (Schindler’s List) Gebhart, Peter (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Gebuhr, Vera (Gertrud) Gee, Dorothy (Public Enemy) Geer, Will (Salt of the Earth) Geeta (Bharat Mata) Gégauff, Paul (Weekend) Gehret, Jean (Boudu sauvé des eaux) Geiger, Franz (Lola Montès) Geiger, Rod E. (Paisà) Gélin, Daniel (Ronde) Gelin, Daniel (Souf?e au coeur) Gelin, Patricia (Fanny och Alexander) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1437 Gelovani, Mikhail (Maxim Trilogy) Gemelli, Enrico (Cabiria) Gemet, Pierre (Dentellière) Gemini, Marco (8?) Geminiani, Raphael (Chagrin et la pitié) Gemma, Giuliano (Gattopardo) Gendunova, Naidan (Proshchanie) Genée, Heidi (Deutschland im Herbst) Genevois, Emile (Casque d’or) Genevois, Simone (Napoléon) Geng, Tian (Huang tudi) Genge, Paul (North by Northwest) Génin, René (Crime de Monsieur Lange; Jour se lève; Quai des brumes) Genin, René (Yeux sans visage) Genno (Henry V) Gennari, Lina (Umberto D) Gennesy, Hugh (Snow White) Génovès, André (Boucher; Femme in?dèle) Gentil, Dominique (Udju Azul di Yonta) Geoffrey, Odile (Vivre sa vie) George, Gladys (Maltese Falcon) George, Heinrich (Jud Süss; Metropolis) George, Jac (Singin’ in the Rain) George, Maude (Foolish Wives) George, Nathan (Klute) George, Peter (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) George, Richard (Great Expectations) Georgoulis, Aliki (Thiasos, O) Gerace, Liliana (Pugni in tasca) Gerald, Jim (Chapeau de paille d’Italie) Gérard, Claire (Crime de Monsieur Lange; Règle du jeu) Gerard, Emanuel (Shaft) Gérard, Henriette (Vampyr) Gerard, Norman (Mean Streets) Gerard, Wendy (Annie Hall) Gerasimov, Sergei (Novyi Vavilon) Geray, Steven (Gilda) Gerd Guderian, Paul (Nibelungen) Gerdago (M?rchen vom Glück) Gere, Richard (Days of Heaven) Géret, Georges (Z) Germon, Nane (Belle et la bête) Germonprez, Louis (Foolish Wives; Greed) Géronimi, Jér?me (Diaboliques) Gerrard, Charles (Dracula 1931) Gerrard, Douglas (Public Enemy) Gerritty, William (Klute) Gerron, Kurt (Blaue Engel; Variété) Gersheonard (Star Is Born) Gershenson, Joseph (All That Heaven Allows; Touch of Evil; Written on the Wind) Gershin, Scott Martin (American Beauty) Gershwin, George (American in Paris; Manhattan) Gershwin, Ira (American in Paris; Star Is Born) Gerson, Natasha (Gregory’s Girl) Gerstad, Harry W. (Cross?re; Gun Crazy; High Noon) Gerstad, Merritt B. (Freaks; Night at the Opera) Gert, Valeska (Dreigroschenoper) Gessner, Adrienne (Engel mit der Posaune) Gest, Walter (Raging Bull) Getino, Octavio (Hora de los hornos) Gettinger, Neil (Salaam Bombay) Geyling, Remigius (Sodom und Gomorrha) Geymond, Vital (Chapeau de paille d’Italie) Ghafari, Jalal (Ta’m E Guilass) Ghanbari, Ali (Ta’m E Guilass) Ghanekar, Manohar (Bhumika) Gharibpur, Behruz (Dawandeh) Ghasaei, Mohamad Aziz (Ta’m E Guilass) Ghatak, Gita (Meghe dhaka tara) Ghatak, Ritwik (Meghe dhaka tara) Ghent, Derek (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Gherardi, Anna-Marie (1900 (Novecento)) Gherardi, Piero (8?; Dolce vita) Ghili, Abdel Ahmed (Haine) Gholamzadeh, A. (Dawandeh) Ghosal, Shyamal (Charulata) Ghosal, Smaran (Apu Trilogy) Ghosh, Hitendra (Bhumika) Ghosh, Robi (Aranyer din Ratri; Jana Aranya) Ghosh, Sujit (Jana Aranya) Ghostley, Alice (Graduate) Giachetti, Fosco (Conformista) Giannini, Giancarlo (Film d’amore e d’anarchia) Gibal, Daniel (Journey of Hope) Gibbons, Cedric (Adam’s Rib; American in Paris; Asphalt Jungle; Band Wagon; Big Parade; Crowd; Freaks; Fury; Hallelujah; Meet Me in St. Louis; Mrs. Miniver; Night at the Opera; Ninotchka; On the Town; Philadelphia Story; Picture of Dorian Gray; Singin’ in the Rain; Thin Man; Wind; Wizard of Oz; Women) Gibbs, Antony (Tom Jones; Walkabout) Gibbs, George (Brazil) Gibbs, Matyelock (Room with a View) Gibbs, Suzanne (Lolita) Giber, Grigorii (Tretia Meshchanskaia) Gibory, A. (Fièvre) Gibson, Florence (Greed) Gibson, Helen (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Gibson, Henry (Nashville) Gibson, James (Greed) Gibson, Moses (Blue Velvet) Giddings, Al (Titanic) Gielgud, John (Chimes at Midnight) Gierasch, Stefan (Hustler) Giering, Frank (Funny Games) Gierke, Henning V. (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Gifford, Alan (2001: A Space Odyssey) Gil, Gilbert (Pépé le Moko) Gil Abad, José (Memorias del subdesarrollo) Gil Soares, Paulo (Deus e o diabo na terra do sol) Gilbert, Billy (Great Dictator; His Girl Friday; Music Box; Night at the Opera; Snow White) Gilbert, John (Big Parade) Gilbert, Peter (Hoop Dreams) Gilchrist, David (Life Is Sweet) Gilks, Al (American in Paris) Gilks, Alfred (Searchers) Gill, Inga (Fr?ken Julie; Sjunde inseglet; Viskningar och rop) Gilles, Maurice (Atalante) Gillespie, A. Arnold (Crowd; North by Northwest; Wizard of Oz) Gillette, Ruth (In a Lonely Place) Gilliam, Holly (Brazil) Gilliam, Terry (Brazil) Gilliat, Sidney (Lady Vanishes) Gillmor, Noele (Année dernière à Marienbad) Gilmore, Lowell (Picture of Dorian Gray) Gilmore, Stuart (Lady Eve; Sullivan’s Travels) Gilmore, Jr., William S. (Jaws) Gilpin, Jay (Southerner) Gimenez, Manuel Horacio (Tire dié) Gimenez, Raul (Lola) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1438 Gimpera, Terésa (Espiritu de la colmena) Ginsberg, Henry (Giant) Ginsburg, Valery (Kommisar) Ginzburg, Natalia (Vangelo secondo Matteo, Il) Giono, Jean (Femme du boulanger) Giordani, Eraldo (Stromboli; Viaggio in Italia) Giorgietti, Florence (Dentellière) Giorgiobani, Edisher (Pokaianie) Gioto, Jo?o Batista (Cangaceiro) Giral, Sergio (Otro Francisco) Girard, André (Année dernière à Marienbad; Femme in?dèle) Girard, Jacques (Farrebique) Girard, Michel (Quatre cents coups) Girardot, Annie (Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Giron, Jacques (Et ... Dieu créa la femme) Girotti, Mario (Gattopardo) Girotti, Massimo (Last Tango in Paris; Ossessione) Girvan, Ronald (Gregory’s Girl) Gish, Lillian (Birth of a Nation; Broken Blossoms; Intolerance; Night of the Hunter; Wind) Gísladóttir, Gudrún (Offret) Gismonti, Egberto (Journey of Hope) Gist, Robert (Strangers on a Train) Giuffrè, Aldo (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Giuliano, Salvatore (Salvatore Giuliano) Givenchy (Breakfast at Tiffany’s) Givera, Pierangelo (Conformista) Gladstein, Richard N. (Reservoir Dogs) Gladwell, David (If...) Gladwin, Frances (Laura) Gladys, Maria (Fuzis) Glagoleva, Nina (Soy Cuba) Glasberg, Jimmy (Shoah) Glasgow, William (Kiss Me Deadly) Glasmon, Kubec (Public Enemy) Glass, Everett (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Glass, Ned (North by Northwest; West Side Story) Glass, Robert (Close Encounters of the Third Kind) Glass, Seamon (Deliverance) Glattes, Wolfgang (Cabaret) Glattli, A. (Judex) Glauberman, A. (Bronenosets Potemkin) Glazkov, Vladimir (Csillagosok, katonák) Gleason, Jackie (Hustler) Gleason, James (Night of the Hunter) Gleason, James A. (Twelve Angry Men) Gleason, Keogh (American in Paris; Band Wagon) Gleason, Pat (Detour) Gleason, Russell (All Quiet on the Western Front) Glen, Lucille (Spoorloos) Glenn, Robert (Last Picture Show) Glenn, Rodney (Brazil) Glenn, Roy (Written on the Wind) Glenn, Scott (Nashville; Player; Silence of the Lambs) Glennon, Bert (Scarlet Empress) Gliese, Rochus (Sunrise) Gliński, Wieńczys?aw (Kanal) Glizer, J. (Stachka) Gloag, Helena (Douglas Trilogy) Globisz, Krzysztof (Dekalog) Glory, Mary (Argent; Et ... Dieu créa la femme) Glover, Bruce (Chinatown) Glover, John (Annie Hall) Glover, Julian (Tom Jones) Glowna, Vadim (Deutschland im Herbst) Gluchkova, A. (Novyi Vavilon) Glück, Wolfgang (38 - Auch das war Wien; Funny Games) Gn?dinger, Mathias (Journey of Hope) Gnass, Fritz (M) Gobbi, Jean-Fran?ois (Z) Godard, Agnes (Paris, Texas) Godard, Jean-Luc (A bout de souf?e; Alphaville; Argent; Cléo de cinq à sept; Mèpris; Vivre sa vie; Weekend) Goddard, Malcolm (Marat/Sade) Goddard, Paulette (Great Dictator; Modern Times; Women) Godden, Rumer (Black Narcissus) Godfrey, Nancy (W.R.: Mysterije Organizma) Godfrey, Patrick (Room with a View) Godfrey, Tommy (If...) Goehr, Walter (Great Expectations) Goetz-Dickopp, Mulle (Deutschland im Herbst) Goetzke, Bernhard (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse; Nibelungen) Goff, Ivan (White Heat) Gogol (Nuit sur le Mont Chauve) Goldbeck, Willis (Freaks; Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Goldberg, Jakub (Noz w wodzie) Goldberg, Whoopi (Player) Goldblum, Jeff (Annie Hall; Nashville; Player) Golden, David (Shaft) Golden, Robert (Night of the Hunter) Goldfarb, Phillip M. (Taxi Driver) Goldie, Gilbert (Heavenly Creatures) Goldman, Bo (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Goldman, John (Man of Aran) Goldsmith, Jerry (Chinatown; L.A. Con?dential) Goldsmith, Martin (Detour) Goldstein, Jenette (Titanic) Goldstein, Robert (Birth of a Nation) Goldstone, John (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Goldthwait, Jim (L.A. Con?dential) Goldwyn, Samuel (Best Years of Our Lives; Greed; Little Foxes) Golisano, Francesco (Miracolo a Milano) Golitzen, Alexander (All That Heaven Allows; Letter from an Unknown Woman; Touch of Evil; Written on the Wind) Golovnya, Anatoli (Konyets Sankt-Peterburga; Mat; Potomok Chingis-Khan) Golstein, Coco (Zéro de conduite) Goltz, Anna (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Goly?ev, Colonel (Ostre sledované vlaky) Gomarov, Mikhail (Bronenosets Potemkin) Gombell, Minna (High Sierra; Thin Man) Gombert, Wilhelm (Kermesse héroique) Gomes, Bia (Udju Azul di Yonta) Gomes, Flora (Udju Azul di Yonta) Gómez, Antxón (Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Gómez, Fernando Fernán (Espiritu de la colmena; Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Gómez, Manuel Octavio (Primera carga al machete) Gómez, Sara (De cierta manera) Gómez Muriel, Emilio (Redes, Los) Gomikawa, Jumpei (Ningen no joken) Gomorov, Mikhail (Stachka) Goncaldes, Anabela (Amor de perdic?o) Gong Li (Ba wang bie ji; Dahong denglong gaogao gua; Ju Dou; Red Sorghum) Gonino, Luciano (Accattone) Gonka, Maria (Putyovka v zhizn) Gonzáles, Ofelia (Memorias del subdesarrollo) Gonzalez, Jesus (Olvidados) González, Sara (De cierta manera) González Pérez, Tomas (De cierta manera) Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Pedro (Rio Bravo) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1439 Gooch, Rich (Player) Good, John (Letter from an Unknown Woman) Goodall, Caroline (Schindler’s List) Goodis, David (Tirez sur le pianiste) Goodliffe, Michael (Peeping Tom) Goodman, Jeff (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Goodrich, Frances (It’s a Wonderful Life; Thin Man) Goodwin, Harold (All Quiet on the Western Front) Goosson, Stephen (Gilda; It Happened One Night; Lady from Shanghai; Little Foxes) Gopalakrishnan, Adoor (Elippathayam) Gorcey, Jr.o (Blade Runner) Gorchev, Anton (Koziyat rog) Gordine, Sacha (Orfeu Negro; Ronde) Gordon, Barbara (Dead Ringers) Gordon, Bobby (Jazz Singer) Gordon, C. Henry (Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Gordon, Colin (Casino Royale) Gordon, Gavin (Bride of Frankenstein; Scarlet Empress) Gordon, Harold (East of Eden) Gordon, Hugh (Draughtsman’s Contract) Gordonon (Freaks) Gordon, Marianne (Rosemary’s Baby) Gordon, Ruth (Adam’s Rib; Rosemary’s Baby) Gordon Sinclair, John (Gregory’s Girl) Goretta, Claude (Dentellière) Gori, Gigi (Paisà) Goring, Marius (Matter of Life and Death; Red Shoes) Gorjchilin, A. (Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov) Gorky, Maxim (Mat) Gorton, Adrian (Unforgiven) Gorton, Asheton (Blow-Up) Gosho, Heinosuke (Entotsu no mieru basho) Goss, Walter (Deliverance) Gosser, Yves (Dentellière) Gotell, Otto (Greed) Gotell, Walter (Black Sunday) Gotho, Heinrich (Metropolis) Goto, Toshio (Saikaku ichidai onna) Gottlieb, Carl (Jaws) Gottowt, John (Nosferatu (1922novyi); Student von Prag) Gottschalck, Christian (Der var engang en krig) Gottschalk, Louis F. (Broken Blossoms; Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Gottwald, Andi (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) G?tz, Carl (Büchse der Pandora) G?tz, Jeno (Csillagosok, katonák) Goudier, Jean (Cyrano de Bergerac) Gough, Lloyd (Sunset Boulevard) Gough, Michael (Dracula 1958) Goulart, Walter (Ant?nio das Mortes) Gould, Elliott (M*A*S*H; Player) Gould, William (Night at the Opera) Gourtchenko, Liudmila (Siberiade) Goutas, Pierre (Casque d’or) Gover, Michael (Clockwork Orange) Gow, John (Gregory’s Girl) Gowland, Gibson (Greed; Phantom of the Opera) Goya, Mona (Argent) Grabbe, N. (Andrei Rublev) Grace, Henry (North by Northwest) Gracey, Yale (Fantasia) Graff, Philippe (Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles) Graff, Wilton (Star Is Born) Graham, Angelo (Apocalypse Now; Godfather Trilogy) Graham, Fred (Rio Bravo) Graham, Imogen (Repulsion) Graham, Michael (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) Graham, Morland (Henry V) Graham, Richard (My Beautiful Laundrette; Titanic) Graham, Winston (My Beautiful Laundrette) Grahame, Gloria (Big Heat; Cross?re; In a Lonely Place; It’s a Wonderful Life) Grahame, Margot (Informer) Gramatica, Emma (Miracolo a Milano) Granach, Alexander (Kameradschaft; Ninotchka; Nosferatu (1922novyi); Schatten) Granados, Daisy (Memorias del subdesarrollo; Retrato de Teresa) Grandjaquet, Francesco (Roma, città aperta) Grandys, Jan (Eroica) Granger, Bertram (Double Indemnity) Granger, Farley (Strangers on a Train; They Live by Night) Granger, Michael (Big Heat) Granlund, Majlis (Fanny och Alexander) Granlund, Maria (Fanny och Alexander) Gr?nsman, Jerry (Kongi’s Harvest) Grant, Campbell (Fantasia) Grant, Cary (Bringing Up Baby; His Girl Friday; North by Northwest; Notorious; Philadelphia Story; She Done Him Wrong) Grant, David (Brazil) Grant, Jo (Snow White) Grant, Joe (Fantasia) Grant, Keith (Howards End) Grantwrence (Devil Is a Woman) Grant, Richard E. (Player) Grant, Russell Keith (Brazil) Granval, Charles (Boudu sauvé des eaux; Pépé le Moko) Granville, Bonita (Now Voyager) Granzbach, Bud (Godfather Trilogy) Grapewin, Charles (Grapes of Wrath; Wizard of Oz) Grass, Günter (Blechtrommel) Grasse, Sam De (Birth of a Nation) Grasset, Pierre (Du Ri?? chez les hommes) Grau, Albin (Nosferatu (1922novyi); Schatten) Grave, Erich (Tie?and) Grave, Louis (Chagrin et la pitié) Graves, Peter (Night of the Hunter) Graves, Rupert (Room with a View) Gravett, George (Fires Were Started) Gravey, Fernand (Ronde) Gravina, Cesare (Foolish Wives; Greed; Phantom of the Opera) Gray, Allan (African Queen; Life and Death of Colonel Blimp; Matter of Life and Death) Gray, Beatrice (Laura) Gray, Billy (Some Like It Hot) Gray, Charles (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Gray, Coleen (Red River) Gray, Harry (Hallelujah) Gray, Lisa (Metropolis) Gray, Lois (Lolita) Gray, Maggie (Brazil) Gray, Nadia (Dolce vita) Gray, Roger (Fury) Gray, Vivean (Last Wave; Picnic at Hanging Rock) Graziati, Aldo (Umberto D) Grcevic, Kreso (Vlak bez voznog reda) Gréco, Juliette (Orphée) Green (On the Town) Green, ); Asst. Group Of?cer (Fires Were Started) Green, Adolph (Band Wagon; On the Town; Singin’ in the Rain) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1440 Green, Calvin (Exotica) Green, Cliff (Picnic at Hanging Rock) Green, Dick (Blue Velvet) Green, Dorothy (Big Heat) Green, Douglas (Cabaret) Green, Elisabeth (Freaks) Green, F.L. (Odd Man Out) Green, Guy (Great Expectations) Green, Howard J. (I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang) Green, Jack N. (Unforgiven) Green, Janet (Victim) Green, Jerry (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Green, Johnny (American in Paris) Green, Keith (Easy Rider) Green, Marika (Pickpocket) Green, Nigel (Masque of the Red Death) Green, Pamela (Peeping Tom) Green, Philip (Victim) Green, W. Howard (Adventures of Robin Hood) Green, Walon (Wild Bunch) Greenaway, Peter (Draughtsman’s Contract) Greenbury, Chris (American Beauty) Greene, Danford (M*A*S*H) Greene, Graham (Third Man) Greene, Peter (Pulp Fiction) Greene, William (Lolita) Greenham, Chris (Casino Royale; Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Greenhut, Robert (Annie Hall) Greenlaw, Verina (Masque of the Red Death) Greenleaf, Raymond (All the King’s Men) Greenlees, William (Gregory’s Girl) Greenough, George (Last Wave) Greenstreet, Sydney (Casablanca; Maltese Falcon) Greenwood, Bruce (Exotica) Greenwood, Joan (Kind Hearts and Coronets; Tom Jones) Greenwood, John (Man of Aran) Greer, Dabbs (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Greer, Jane (Out of the Past) Greeves, Vernon (Henry V) Gregg, Everley (Brief Encounter; Great Expectations; Private Life of Henry VIII) Gregor, Martin (Obchod na korze) Grégor, Nora (Règle du jeu) Gregory, Edna (Jazz Singer) Gregory, Jon (Life Is Sweet; Secrets and Lies) Gregory, Paul (Night of the Hunter) Gregory, Robin (Blow-Up) Gregorz-Quef, Stella (Shoah) Gregson, John (Lavender Hill Mob) Greig, Robert (Lady Eve; Picture of Dorian Gray; Sullivan’s Travels) Greist, Kim (Brazil) Grendel, Frédéric (Diaboliques) Grenier, Philippe (Et ... Dieu créa la femme) Grenzbach, Bud (Chinatown) Gresley, Marjorie (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Gretler, Heinrich (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Gréville, Vanda (Million) Grey, Denise (Diable au corps) Grey, Harry (Once Upon a Time in America) Grey, Joel (Cabaret; Player) Grey, Lita (Kid) Grey, Olga (Birth of a Nation; Intolerance) Grey, Virginia (All That Heaven Allows) Grey Eyes, Pete (Searchers) Gridoux, Lucas (Pépé le Moko) Grieg, Edward (M) Griem, Helmut (Cabaret; Caduta degli dei; Deutschland im Herbst) Grierson, John (Drifters; Song of Ceylon; Turksib) Grifasi, Joe (Deer Hunter) Griffen, David (If...) Grif?es, Ethel (Birds) Grif?n, Bob (Blair Witch Project) Grif?th, D.W. (Birth of a Nation; Broken Blossoms; Intolerance) Grif?th, Hugh (Tom Jones) Grif?th, Raymond (All Quiet on the Western Front) Grif?ths, Fred (Fires Were Started) Griggs, Loyal (Shane) Grigorev, V. (Kommisar) Grillo, John (Brazil) Grillo, Mike (Deer Hunter) Grimaldi, Alberto (1900 (Novecento); Buono, il brutto, il cattivo; Fiore delle mille e una notte; Last Tango in Paris) Grimault, Paul (Crime de Monsieur Lange) Grimes, Stephen (Mis?ts) Grinko, Nikolai (Andrei Rublev; Zerkalo) Grisolet, Patrice (Nuits fauves) Gritsius, Jonas (Korol Lir) Grlic, Rajko (Samo jednom se ljubi) Grodin, Charles (Rosemary’s Baby) Grogan, Clare (Gregory’s Girl) Gromball, Hannes (Angst essen Seele auf) Gromov, A. (Konyets Sankt-Peterburga) Gr?nberg, Ake (Gycklarnas afton) Gronemeyer, Herbert (Das Boot) Grosmandislav (Obchod na korze) Gross, Frank (All That Heaven Allows) Gross, Jerry (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Gross, Roland (Stromboli) Grossas, Graciela (Fresa y Chocolate) Grosskopf, Walter (Olympia) Grossman, Eugene (Young Mr. Lincoln) Grot, Anton (Little Caesar; Mildred Pierce) Groult, Fran?ois (Central do Brasil) Groupe Instrumental (Czlowiek z marmuru) Groves, George R. (Jazz Singer) Gruault, Jean (Jules et Jim) Grubb, Davis (Night of the Hunter) Grubb, Robert (My Brilliant Career) Grubbs, Gary (JFK) Gruenberg, Louis (All the King’s Men) Grüenwald, Jean Jacques (Journal d’un curé de campagne) Gruffudd, Ioan (Titanic) Grünbaum, Herbert (Dreigroschenoper) Grund, Bert (38 - Auch das war Wien) Grundauer, Walter (Blechtrommel) Grundeen, F. (Fantasia) Grunenwald, Jean-Jacques (Dames du Bois de Boulogne) Gruning, Ilka (Casablanca) Grunwald, Cheryl (Clockwork Orange) Grunwalski, Ferenc (Csillagosok, katonák) Grusin, David (Graduate) Gu Changning (Haizi wang) Gu Changwei (Ba wang bie ji; Haizi wang; Ju Dou; Red Sorghum) Guaramadzé, Maria (Pirosmani) Guard, Barrie (Room with a View) Guard, Dominic (Picnic at Hanging Rock) Guardino, Harry (Dirty Harry) Guedry, C. T. (Louisiana Story) Guedry, Paul (Easy Rider) Guérault, William (Boucher) Guérin, Fran?ois (Yeux sans visage) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1441 Guerra, José Antonio de la (Verdugo, El) Guerra, Ruy (Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes; Fuzis) Guerra, Tonino (Avventura; Blow-Up; Cristo si e fermato a Eboli; Eclisse; Kaos; Notte; Vlemma Tou Odyssea) Guerzoni, Fausto (Ladri di biciclette) Guest, Don (Paris, Texas) Guest, Val (Casino Royale) Guetary, Georges (American in Paris) Guffey, Burnett (All the King’s Men; Bonnie and Clyde; From Here to Eternity; In a Lonely Place) Guffey, Cary (Close Encounters of the Third Kind) Guffroy, Pierre (Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie) Gug, Madeleine (Diable au corps; Diaboliques; Farrebique; Lola Montès; Salaire de la peur) Guglielmi, Riccardo (8?) Guha, Subir (Jana Aranya) Guhl, George (Night at the Opera) Guibert, Armand (Journal d’un curé de campagne) Guibert, E. (Spanish Earth) Guichard, Paul (Coquille et le clergyman) Guichard, René (Feu Mathias Pascal) Guidelli, Mirio (Room with a View) Guidi, Guidarino (8?) Guidi, Paola (Accattone) Guiffan, Michel (Odeur de la papaye verte) Guilbert, J.C. (Weekend) Guilbert, Yvette (Argent) Guilfoyle, Paul (Grapes of Wrath; White Heat) Guillemaud, M. (Million) Guillemot, Agnès (Alphaville; M`pris; Vivre sa vie; Weekend) Guillén, Fernando (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios; Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Guinn, Ed (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Guinness, Alec (Great Expectations; Kind Hearts and Coronets; Lavender Hill Mob; Lawrence of Arabia; Star Wars) Guiol, Fred (Giant) Guiomar, Julien (Z) Guiping, Luo (Lan fengzheng) Guisol, Henri (Crime de Monsieur Lange; Lola Montès) Gulager, Clu (Last Picture Show) Gulart, Walter (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Gulliver, Dorothy (Faces) Gulpilil (Last Wave) Gülstorff, Max (Schatten) Gumpilil, David (Walkabout) Gunn, Moses (Shaft) Gunnarsson, Bj?rn (Fanny och Alexander) Günther, Carl (Engel mit der Posaune) Gunzberg, Baron Nicolas de (Vampyr) Gupta, Dinen (Meghe dhaka tara) Gupta, Pinaki Sen (Apu Trilogy) Gupta, Ramani Sen (Apu Trilogy) Gupta, Uma Das (Apu Trilogy) Gurnyak, K. (Potomok Chingis-Khan) Gurudulic, Stjepan (Vlak bez voznog reda) Gusev, S. (Novyi Vavilon) Gusm?o, Mário (Ant?nio das Mortes; Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Gustafsson, Gittan (Smultronst?llet) Gustafsson, G?sta (Herr Arnes Pengar) Gustav Ahlefeldt, Karl (Gertrud) Guth, Jacques (Lola Montès) Guthridge, John (Victim) Guthrie, A.B. (Shane) Guthrie, Caroline (Gregory’s Girl) Gutierrez, Eduardo (Tystnaden) Gutiérrez Alea, Tomás (De cierta manera; Fresa y Chocolate; Memorias del subdesarrollo) Gutjahr, Rainer (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Gutman, David (Novyi Vavilon) Gutowski, Gene (Repulsion) Guve, Bertil (Fanny och Alexander) Guyler, Deryck (Hard Day’s Night) Guyot, Jacqueline (Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie) Guzmán, Patricio (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Gwiazdowski, Tadeusz (Kanal) Gwynn, Fred (On the Waterfront) Gys, Robert (Crime de Monsieur Lange; Partie de campagne) Gyürki, András (Angi Vera) Haas, Robert (Maltese Falcon; Now Voyager) Haber, Sheldon (Raging Bull) H?berle, Horatius (Deutschland im Herbst) Hack, Ernst (Cangaceiro) Hackett, Albert (It’s a Wonderful Life; Thin Man) Hackett, Jonathan (Breaking the Waves) Hackman, Gene (Bonnie and Clyde; Conversation; Unforgiven) Haddad, Moussa (Battaglia di Algeri) Hadley, Annie (Brazil) Haenel, Mary Ann (Deer Hunter) Hafenrichter, Oswald (Cangaceiro; Third Man) Hafner, A. (Ewige Jude) Hagashiyama;, Chieko (Saikaku ichidai onna) Hagen, Jean (Adam’s Rib; Asphalt Jungle; Singin’ in the Rain) Hagerman, Jan (Fr?ken Julie) Hagg, Russell (Clockwork Orange) Haggiag, Brahim (Battaglia di Algeri) Haggiag, Ever (Caduta degli dei) Hagney, Frank (It’s a Wonderful Life) Hahn, Jess (Procès) Haigh, Kenneth (Hard Day’s Night) Haines, Bert (General) Haines, Victor (Paisà) Hainia, Marcelle (Boudu sauvé des eaux) Haitov, Nikolai (Koziyat rog) Hajdar, Mirsad (Otac na sluzbenom putu) Hájek, Ludvík (Staré povesti ceské) Hájek, Miroslav (Lásky jedné plavovlásky; O slavnosti a hostech) Hajek, Rudolf (Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Hakim, Raymond (Belle de jour; Bête humaine; Eclisse; Pépé le Moko) Hakim, Robert (Belle de jour; Bête humaine; Eclisse; Pépé le Moko; Southerner) Hakl, Fritz (Blechtrommel) Hakuryu (Hana-Bi) Halász, László (Angi Vera) Halbik, Herbert (Third Man) Hald, Birgitte (Festen) Hale, Alan (Adventures of Robin Hood; Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse; It Happened One Night) Hale, Chester (Night at the Opera) Hale, Creighton (Casablanca; Thin Man) Hale, Georgia (Gold Rush) Hale, Gregg (Blair Witch Project) Hale, Jonathan (Fury; Night at the Opera; Strangers on a Train) Hale, Richard (All the King’s Men) Haley, Alex (Malcolm X) Haley, Jack (Wizard of Oz) Halfon, Samy (Hiroshima mon amour) Halfter, Rodolfo (Olvidados) Hall, Albert (Apocalypse Now; Malcolm X) Hall, Ben (My Darling Clementine) Hall, Cameron (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1442 Hall, Charles D. (All Quiet on the Western Front; Bride of Frankenstein; City Lights; Dracula 1931; Frankenstein; Gold Rush; Modern Times; Phantom of the Opera) Hall, Conrad L. (American Beauty) Hall, Harvey (Masque of the Red Death) Hall, Porter (Double Indemnity; His Girl Friday; Mr. Smith Goes to Washington; Sullivan’s Travels; Thin Man) Hall, Robert (Close Encounters of the Third Kind) Hall, Tex (Easy Rider) Hall, Walter L. (Intolerance) Hallatt, May (Black Narcissus) Haller, Ernest (Gone With the Wind; Mildred Pierce; Rebel Without a Cause) Halliday, John (Philadelphia Story) Halliwell, David (Mona Lisa) Halton, Charles (Young Mr. Lincoln) Halzaei, Valliolah (Ta’m E Guilass) Hamada, Tatsuo (Higanbana; Samma no aji; Tokyo monogatari) Hamada, Yuriko (Saikaku ichidai onna) Hamamura, Yoshiyasu (Higanbana; Tokyo monogatari) Hambling, Arthur (Henry V; Odd Man Out) Hambling, Gerry (Midnight Express; Servant) Hameister, Willy (Kabinett des Dr. Caligari) Hamer, Robert (Dead of Night; Kind Hearts and Coronets) Hamill, Mark (Star Wars) Hamilton, Chico (Repulsion) Hamilton, George (Godfather Trilogy) Hamilton, Hale (I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang) Hamilton, Jane (Draughtsman’s Contract) Hamilton, John (Maltese Falcon; On the Waterfront) Hamilton, Margaret (Wizard of Oz) Hamilton, Murray (Graduate; Hustler; Jaws) Hamilton, William (Top Hat) Hammeren, Torsten (Erptokon; G?sta Berlings Saga) Hammett, Dashiell (Thin Man) Hammett, Olivia (Last Wave) Hammid, Alexander (Meshes of the Afternoon) Hampshire, Melanie (Blow-Up) Hampton, Dan (Skuplijaci perja) Hampton, Lawrence A. (Birds) Hamsun, Knut (Sult) Han Lin (Ba wang bie ji) Hanai, Ranko (Entotsu no mieru basho) Hanayagi, Shotaro (Zangiku monogatari) Hanayagi, Yoshiaki (Sansho dayu) Hancock, Herbie (Blow-Up) Hand, David (Snow White) Hand, H. (Man of Aran) Handel (Amor de perdic?o) Handford, Peter (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Handford, Ruth (Intolerance) Handimar, E. (Paisà) Handke, Peter (Der Himmel Uber Berlin) Handley, Jim (Fantasia) Handley, Thomas (On the Waterfront) Handorf, Heidi (38-Auch das war Wien; Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Haneke, Michael (Funny Games) Hangley, Jim (Fantasia) Hanin, Roger (A bout de souf?e; Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Hanks, Tom (Philadelphia) Hanley, Jimmy (Blue Lamp; Henry V) Hannah, Darryl (Blade Runner) Hannen, Nicholas (Henry V) Hannen, Patsy (Foolish Wives) Hanno, Eva von (Fanny och Alexander) Hanray, Lawrence (Private Life of Henry VIII) Hansen, Gunnar (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Hansen, Steen Lyders (Breaking the Waves) Hansen, Sverre (Sult) Hanson, Curtis (L.A. Con?dential) Hanson, Lars (Erotikon; G?sta Berlings Saga; Wind) Hansson, Maud (Sjunde inseglet; Smultronst?llet) Hanus, Emmerich (M?rchen vom Glück) Hanu?, Ladislav (Obchod na korze) Hanusova, Natasa (Spoorloos) Hara, Kensaku (Naniwa ereji) Hara, Masato (Ran) Hara, Setsuko (Banshun; Tokyo monogatari) Harada, Mieko (Ran) Harasimowicz, Cezary (Trois Couleurs) Harbort, Christine (Mephisto) Harbou, Thea von (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Harburg, E. Y. (Wizard of Oz) Hardan (Duvidha) Hardie, Kate (Mona Lisa) Hardie, Russell (Camille) Harding, Elizabeth (Chinatown) Harding, Jay (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Hardwicke, Sir Cedric (Becky Sharp; Things to Come) Hardy, Frank (Louisiana Story) Hardy, Oliver (Music Box) Hardy, Sam (King Kong) Hardy, Victoria (Piano) Hare, Ernest (Henry V) Hare, Philippa (Servant) Harkins, Pat (Gregory’s Girl) Harlan, Otis (Snow White) Harlan, Russell (Gun Crazy; Red River; Rio Bravo) Harlan, Veit (Jud Süss) Harline, Leigh (Snow White; They Live by Night) Harling, W. Frank (Scarlet Empress; Trouble in Paradise) Harlow, Jean (City Lights; Public Enemy) Harmon, Jack (Star Is Born) Harms, Kenneth I. (Black Sunday) Harnecker, Marta (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Harnoncourt, Nikolaus (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Haroun (Kaagaz ke phool) Harper, Rand (Rear Window) Harpman, Fred (Deliverance) Harris, André (Chagrin et la pitié) Harris, Barbara (Nashville) Harris, Del (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Harris, Henry (Matter of Life and Death) Harris, Jack (Brief Encounter; Great Expectations) Harris, James B. (Lolita; Paths of Glory) Harris, Julie (Casino Royale; East of Eden; Hard Day’s Night) Harris, Len (Dracula 1958) Harris, Leonard (Taxi Driver) Harris, Major Sam (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Harris, Mildred (Intolerance) Harris, Richard (Unforgiven) Harris, Richard A. (Titanic) Harris, Robert (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Harris, Sam (Laura) Harris, Theresa (Out of the Past) Harris, Thomas (Silence of the Lambs) Harrison, Doane (Apartment; Double Indemnity; Lost Weekend; Some Like It Hot; Sunset Boulevard) Harrison, George (Hard Day’s Night; Mona Lisa) Harrison, John (Lolita) Harrison, Paul (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1443 Harrison, Stephen (Private Life of Henry VIII) Harrison, Susan (Sweet Smell of Success) Harron, Robert (Birth of a Nation; Intolerance) Hart, Dorothy (Naked City) Hart, Lamp (Land) Hart, Moss (Star Is Born) Harting, Peter (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Hartl, Karl (Engel mit der Posaune) Hartley, Mariette (Ride the High Country) Hartley, Richard (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Hartman, A. (Ewige Jude) Hartman, Susanne (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Hartmann, Paul (Kermesse héroique) Hartnell, William (Odd Man Out) Harvey, Anthony (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb; Lolita) Harvey, Clem (Johnny Guitar) Harvey, Grizelda (Informer) Harvey, Harry (They Live by Night) Harvey, Jack (Blue Velvet) Harvey, Laurence (Room at the Top) Harvey, Paul (High Sierra; Southerner) Harvey, Peter (Douglas Trilogy) Harvey, Phil (Touch of Evil) Harwood, John (Marat/Sade) Hasagawa, Mitsuo (Akasen chitai) Hasegawa, Kazuo (Jigokumon) Hashim, Edmund (Shaft) Hashimoto, Fumio (Tampopo) Hashimoto, Shinobu (Ikiru; Rashomon; Seppuku; Shichinin no samurai) Hashmi, Irshad (Salaam Bombay) Hashmi, Jamal (Garam Hawa) Haskell, Charles (Piano) Haskin, Bryon (High Sierra) Hasler, Emil (Blaue Engel; Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse; M; Tagebuch einer Verlorenen) Hasmovic, Husnija (Dom za vesanje) Hasoya, Tatsuo (Ningen no joken) Hassani, Hassan (Chronique des années de braise; Z) Hassanzadeh, Mohammmad (Dawandeh) Hasse, Charles (Dead of Night) Hasse, Hannjo (Sterne) Hasse, Monica (Bleierne Zeit) Hassel, Karl-Heinz von (Lola) Hassell, George (Becky Sharp) Hasselmann, Werner (Caduta degli dei) Hasselqvist, Jenny (G?sta Berlings Saga) Hassing, Louise (Idioterne) Hasslo, Hugo (Fanny och Alexander) Hastrup, Vibeki (Babettes Gaestebud) Hat, Feather (Searchers) Hat?eld, Hurd (Picture of Dorian Gray) Hauben, Lawrence (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Hauberg, Annelise (Babettes Gaestebud) Hauchecorne, Gisèle (Vivre sa vie) Haudepin, Sabine (Jules et Jim) Hauer, Rutger (Blade Runner) Hauff, Reinhard (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Hau?er, Max (Procès) Haugen, Per Theodor (Sult) Haugse, Bill (Hoop Dreams) Hauser, Cristina (Amor de perdic?o) Hausner, Jessica (Funny Games) Havelková, Libu?e (Ostre sledované vlaky) Havelock-Allan, Anthony (Brief Encounter; Great Expectations) Haves, Jean (Sherlock, Jr.) Havlick, Gene (His Girl Friday; It Happened One Night; Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Hawkins, David (Carrosse d’or) Hawkins, J.N.A. (Fantasia) Hawkins, Jack (Lawrence of Arabia) Hawks, Howard (Big Sleep; Bringing Up Baby; His Girl Friday; Red River; Rio Bravo; Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Haworth, Edward (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Haworth, Ted (Some Like It Hot; Strangers on a Train) Hay, Ian (39 Steps) Hayasaka, Fumio (Ikiru; Rashomon; Sansho dayu; Ugetsu monogatari) Hayashi, Hikaru (Hadaka no shima; Koshikei; Shonen) Hayashi, Joichi (Kwaidan) Hayashi, Miki (Gojira) Hayden, Harry (Killers; Out of the Past; Sullivan’s Travels) Hayden, James (Once Upon a Time in America) Hayden, Sterling (1900; Asphalt Jungle; Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb; Godfather Trilogy; Johnny Guitar) Hayden, Ted (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Haye, Helen (39 Steps) Hayer, Nicholas (Orphée) Hayes, Billy (Midnight Express) Hayes, Frank (Greed) Hayes, George (Great Expectations) Hayes, Isaac (Shaft) Hayes, John Michael (Rear Window) Hayes, Margaret (Sullivan’s Travels) Haymer, Johnny (Annie Hall) Haynes, Daniel (Hallelujah) Haynowsky, Estudio (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Haysom, Harold (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Hayton, Lennie (On the Town; Singin’ in the Rain) Hayward, David (Nashville) Hayward, Louis (Dance, Girl, Dance) Hayward, William L. (Easy Rider) Hayworth, Rita (Gilda; Lady from Shanghai) He Caifei (Dahong denglong gaogao gua) Head, Edith (All about Eve; Birds; Breakfast at Tiffany’s; Double Indemnity; Man Who Shot Liberty Valance; Place in the Sun; Rear Window; Shane; Sunset Boulevard) Heald, Anthony (Silence of the Lambs) Healey, Myron (Rio Bravo) Hearn, Edward (Sullivan’s Travels) Hearn, Lafcadio (Kwaidan) Heath, Albert (Fantasia) Heath, Geoffrey (Heavenly Creatures) Heath, Percy (Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde) Heathcock, Joe (Last Picture Show) Heather, Jean (Double Indemnity) Hecht, Ben (Gone With the Wind; His Girl Friday; Notorious; Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Heckroth, Hein (Black Narcissus; Red Shoes) Hedberg, Vanjek (Gycklarnas afton) Hedegaard, Tom (Der var engang en krig) Hedenbratt, Sonya (Fanny och Alexander) Hedgecock, William (Killers) Hedgecock, William W. (All Quiet on the Western Front) Hedqvist, Bell (Erotikon) Hedren, Tippi (Birds) Hedrick, Earl (Lost Weekend; Sullivan’s Travels) Hee, T. (Fantasia) Heer, Inge (Blechtrommel) Heere, F. C. (Ewige Jude) He?in, Van (Shane) Heggie, O. P. (Bride of Frankenstein) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1444 Hegira, Anne (On the Waterfront) Heglin, Wally (Singin’ in the Rain) Hegyi, Barnabás (Valahol Europaban) Heid, Grahm (Fantasia) Heiduschka, Veit (Funny Games) Heimann, Betsy (Pulp Fiction) Heinemann, Arthur (Fantasia) Heinig Hansen, Jan (Der var engang en krig) Heinrich, Hubert (Nibelungen) Heinrichs, Rick (Fargo) Heinz, Albert (Paisà) Heinz, Wolfgang (Nosferatu 1922) Heinz von Twardowski, Hans (Kabinett des Dr. Caligari) Heinzle, Otto (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Heldabrand, John (On the Waterfront) Helfand, Michael (Schindler’s List) Helgeland, Brian (L.A. Con?dential) Helia, Jenny (Règle du jeu) Hellberg, Martin (Mephisto) Heller, André (Hitler: Ein Film aus Deutschland) Heller, Otto (Peeping Tom; Victim) Heller, Robert (Why We Fight) Hellinger, Mark (High Sierra; Killers; Naked City) Hellman, Jerome (Midnight Cowboy) Hellman, Lillian (Little Foxes) Hellman, Monte (Reservoir Dogs) Helm, Brigitte (Argent; Metropolis) Helmke, Erika (Kermesse héroique) Helmond, Katherine (Brazil) Helmore, Tom (Vertigo) Helmuth, Osvald (Sult) Helpmann, Robert (Henry V; Red Shoes) Helton, Percy (Star Is Born) Heman, Roger (Young Mr. Lincoln) Hemblen, David (Exotica) Hemingway, Ernest (Killers; Spanish Earth) Hemingway, Mariel (Manhattan) Hemmings, David (Blow-Up) Henaberry, Joseph (Birth of a Nation; Intolerance) Hénaff, René le (A nous la liberté) Henckels, Paul (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Henderson, Dell (Crowd) Henderson, Don (Brazil) Henderson, Richard (Last Wave) Hendricks, Ben, Jr. (Little Caesar; Public Enemy) Hendricks, Ben, III (Public Enemy) Hendriksen, Finn (Babettes Gaestebud) Hendry, Ian (Professione: Reporter; Repulsion) Heng, Liu (Qiu Ju da Guansi) Henininger, Hans (Kermesse héroique) Henkel, Kim (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Henley, Jack (Dreigroschenoper) Henley, Joan (Room with a View) Henn, Otto (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Hennequin, Dominique (Cyrano de Bergerac) Hennesy, Dale (Dirty Harry) Hennesy, Hugh (Fantasia) Hennig, Heinz (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Henning, Pat (On the Waterfront) Henreid, Paul (Casablanca; Now Voyager) Henrikson, Anders (Fr?ken Julie) Henry, Bill (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Henry, Buck (Graduate; Player) Henry, Emmaline (Rosemary’s Baby) Henry, William (Thin Man) Henson, Gladys (Blue Lamp) Hepburn, Audrey (Breakfast at Tiffany’s; Lavender Hill Mob) Hepburn, Dee (Gregory’s Girl) Hepburn, Katharine (Adam’s Rib; African Queen; Bringing Up Baby; Philadelphia Story) Herberg, Katharina (Angst essen Seele auf) Herbert, Alfred (Cross?re) Herbert, Charles (Land) Herbert, Holmes (Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde) Herbert, Jocelyn (If...) Herbert, Lucien (Jeux interdits) Herbert, Percy (Casino Royale) Hercules, Evan (Midnight Express) Herczeg, Ferenc (Erotikon) Herder, Laurence (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Herder, Lilli (Schatten) Hériat, Philippe (Feu Mathias Pascal; Napoléon) Heringová, Diana (Obchod na korze) Herlihy, James Leo (Midnight Cowboy) Herlth, Robert (Letze Mann) Herman, Al (Dance, Girl, Dance; They Live by Night) Herman, Lila (A bout de souf?e) Herman, Roger (Jaws) Hermann, Fernand (Vampires) Hermann, Irm (Angst essen Seele auf) Herńadi, Gyula (Csillagosok, katonák; Meg ker a nep) Hernández, Germinal (Alsino y el Condor; De cierta manera; Fresa y Chocolate; Memorias del subdesarrollo) Hernandez, Juano (Kiss Me Deadly) Hernández, Silvio (Redes) Herndon, Walter Scott (Last Picture Show) Heron, Julia (Written on the Wind) Herrand, Marcel (Enfants du paradis) Herrera, Jorge (Alsino y el Condor; Lucia; Primera carga al machete) Herrera, Juvenal (Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes) Herrman, Julius E. (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Herrmann, Bernard (Birds; Citizen Kane; Magni?cent Ambersons; North by Northwest; Psycho; Taxi Driver) Herrmann, Bernard (Vertigo) Hersfeld (Nosferatu; 1922novyi) Hersholt, Jean (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse; Greed) Hervé, Jean (Feu Mathias Pascal) Herzog, Werner (Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes; Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Hesch, Gottlieb (Büchse der Pandora) Hesky, Sharon (Blade Runner) Hess, Arnold (Easy Rider) Heston, Charlton (Touch of Evil) Heuer, Andrea (Lola) Heughan, William (Private Life of Henry VIII) Heumann, Eric (Vlemma Tou Odyssea) Hewitt, Leslie G. (White Heat) Hewlett, Brian (Masque of the Red Death) Heyder, Haymo Henry (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle; Heimat; Hitler: Ein Film aus Deutschland; Zweite Heimat) Heydt, Louis Jean (Big Sleep; Star Is Born) Heymann, Claude (Partie de campagne; Tirez sur le pianiste) Heymann, Werner R. (Ninotchka) Hickman, Darryl (Grapes of Wrath) Hickman, Howard (Fury; Gone With the Wind) Hickox, Sid (Big Sleep; White Heat) Hicks, Barbara (Brazil) Hicks, Parris (Deer Hunter) Hidari, Bokuzen (Ikiru; Shichinin no samurai) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1445 Hidari, Tonpei (Narayama bushi-ko) Hieronimko, Jan (Vampyr) Higashiyama, Chieko (Tokyo monogatari) Higgins, Anthony (Draughtsman’s Contract) Higgins, Georges (Carrosse d’or) Higgins, Michael (Conversation) Higgs, Richard (Taxi Driver) Highsmith, Patricia (Strangers on a Train) Higino, Raimundo (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Higson, Christopher (Gregory’s Girl) Hilbard, John (Gertrud) Hilbeck, Fernando (Chimes at Midnight) Hilding, Olle (Fanny och Alexander) Hilditch, Bob (Last Wave) Hildyard, David (Cabaret) Hildyard, Jack (Casino Royale) Hill, Bernard (Titanic) Hill, Dave (Draughtsman’s Contract) Hill, Dennis (Nashville) Hill, Derek R. (JFK) Hill, George (Blue Velvet) Hill, Grant (Titanic) Hill, James (Sweet Smell of Success) Hill, Riley (Rio Bravo) Hill, Ronald (Carrosse d’or) Hill Johnstone, Anna (East of Eden; Godfather Trilogy) Hiller, Max (Letze Mann) Hillerman, John (Chinatown; Last Picture Show) Hilliard, Patricia (Things to Come) Hillie, Vera (Duck Soup) Hilliker, Katherine (Sunrise) Hillinger, Wolfgang (Caduta degli dei) Hills, Gillian (Blow-Up; Clockwork Orange) Hilton, Arthur (Killers) Hilton, Daisy and Violet (Freaks) Hilton, James (Camille; Mrs. Miniver) Himeda, Shinsaku (Fukushu suru wa ware ni ari) Himori, Shinichi (Ikiru) Hinderks, Heiko (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Hinds, Anthony (Dracula 1958) Hinds, Nandu (Chinatown) Hinds, Samuel S. (It’s a Wonderful Life) Hine, Kelly (Blade Runner) Hingle, Pat (On the Waterfront) Hinkly, Simon (My Beautiful Laundrette) Hinojosa, Rafael (Redes) Hintze, Anny (Metropolis) Hinwood, Peter (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Hippler, Fritz (Ewige Jude) Hirakawa, Totetsu (Suna no onna) Hirano, Yoshimi (Saikaku ichidai onna) Hirata, Akihiko (Gojira) Hirataka, Kazue (Ningen no joken) Hiroshige, Kimiro (Blade Runner) Hirsch, Paul (Star Wars) Hirskorn, Bernd (Im Lauf der Zeit) Hirst, Malcolm (Life Is Sweet) Hirtz, Dagmar (Bleierne Zeit) Hisaishi, Jo (Hana-Bi) Hiss, Nicole (India Song) Hitchcock, Alfred (39 Steps; Birds; Blackmail; Lady Vanishes; North by Northwest; Notorious; Psycho; Rear Window; Strangers on a Train; Vertigo) Hitchcock, Patricia (Psycho; Strangers on a Train) Hitomi, Reiko (Ningen no joken) Hively, George (Bringing Up Baby; Informer) Ho, A. Kitman (JFK) Ho, Leonard (Yanzhi kou) Hoag, Zachary (King Kong) Hobart, Rose (Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde) Hobbes, Halliwell (Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde) Hobbs, Peter (Top Hat) Hobbs, Ron (Deer Hunter) Hobson, Valerie (Bride of Frankenstein; Great Expectations; Kind Hearts and Coronets) Hoch, Winton C. (Searchers) Hocinerouhi, Mohamed (And Life Goes On) H?cker, Oskar () H?cker, Paul Oskar (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Dreigroschenoper; Kameradschaft; Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Hodgins, Earle (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Hodgson, Leslie (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) H?eber, Albert (Vredens dag) Hoeltz, Nikola (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Hoerbiger, Paul (Third Man) Hoesli, John (2001: A Space Odyssey; African Queen) Hoffe, Monckton (Lady Eve) Hoffenstein, Samuel (Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde; Laura) Hoffman, Carl (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Testament des Dr. Mabuse; Nibelungen) Hoffman, Dustin (Graduate; Midnight Cowboy) Hoffmann, Gérard (Vivre sa vie) Hoffmann, Ingo (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Hoffner, William (Midnight Express) Hogan, Joe Bill (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Hoger, Hannelore (Deutschland im Herbst; Heimat; Zweite Heimat) H?ger, Karel (Baron Prasil; Staré povesti ceské) Hogg, Justin (Paris, Texas) Hogsander, Arne (Fanny och Alexander) H?hne, Claus (Caduta degli dei) Holden, Maxine (Lolita) Holden, William (Casino Royale; Sunset Boulevard; Wild Bunch) Holder, Ram John (My Beautiful Laundrette) Holender, Adam (Midnight Cowboy; Smoke) Holiday, Hope (Apartment) Holland, Anthony (Klute) Holl?nder, Friedrich (Blaue Engel) Holles, Anthony (Things to Come) Holliday, Judy (Adam’s Rib) Hollis, Tommy (Malcolm X) Holloway, Dona (Rosemary’s Baby) Holloway, Stanley (Brief Encounter; Lavender Hill Mob; Passport to Pimlico) Holly, Martin (Obchod na korze) Holm, Astrid (K?rkalen) Holm, Casper (Idioterne) Holm, Celeste (All about Eve) Holm, Ian (Brazil) Holm, Ralph (Passion de Jeanne d’Arc) Holm, Vals? (Gertrud) Holman, Vincent (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Holmes, Brown (I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang) Holmes, Christopher (Five Easy Pieces) Holmes, Stuart (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse; Man Who Shot Liberty Valance; Singin’ in the Rain; Star Is Born) Holmes, William (I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang) Holsboer, Wilhelm (Kermesse héroique) Holsen, Joseph (Player) Holst, Maria (M?rchen vom Glück) Holst, Svea (Fanny och Alexander; Sommarnattens leende) Holt, Hans (Engel mit der Posaune) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1446 Holt, Jack (Cat People; Treasure of the Sierra Madre) Holt, Seth (Lavender Hill Mob; Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Holt, Tim (Magni?cent Ambersons; My Darling Clementine; Treasure of the Sierra Madre) Holtzmann, Thomas (Procès) Holzboer, Max (Tie?and) Homans, Robert E. (Public Enemy; Young Mr. Lincoln) Homes, Geoffrey (Out of the Past) Homma, Fumiko (Ikiru; Rashomon) Honda, Ishir? (Gojira) Honegger, Arthur (Napoléon) H?ner, Martin (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Honess, Peter (L.A. Con?dential) Hong, James (Blade Runner; Chinatown) Hongmei, Zhang (Xiao cheng zhi chun) Honig, Heinz (Das Boot) Hoobyar, Luther (Night at the Opera) Hood, Ed (Chelsea Girls) Hooker, Buddy Joe (Close Encounters of the Third Kind) Hooker, Richard (M*A*S*H) Hooper, Dennis (Apocalypse Now) Hooper, Tobe (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Hoover, Joseph (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Hope Crews, Laura (Camille; Gone With the Wind) Hopf, Heinz (Fanny och Alexander) Hopgood, Alan (My Brilliant Career) Hopkins, Anthony (Howards End; Silence of the Lambs) Hopkins, Billy (JFK) Hopkins, Bo (Midnight Express; Wild Bunch) Hopkins, George James (Casablanca) Hopkins, Kenyon (Hustler; Twelve Angry Men) Hopkins, Michael (Blade Runner) Hopkins, Miriam (Becky Sharp; Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde; Trouble in Paradise) Hopkins Adams, Samuel (It Happened One Night) Hoppe, Rolf (Mephisto) Hopper, Dennis (Amerikanische freund; Blue Velvet; Easy Rider; Giant; Rebel Without a Cause) Hopper, DeWolfe (Intolerance) Hopper, Hedda (Sunset Boulevard; Women) Hopper, William (Rebel Without a Cause) Horan, Gerard (My Beautiful Laundrette) H?rbiger, Attila (Engel mit der Posaune) H?rbiger, Paul (Engel mit der Posaune) Horikoshi, Kenzo (Smoke) Horimoto, Masanori (Hadaka no shima) Horiuchi, Senji (Hana-Bi) H?rmann, Günter (Deutschland im Herbst) Hornbeck, William (Giant; It’s a Wonderful Life; Place in the Sun; Shane; Why We Fight) Hornblow, Arthur, Jr. (Asphalt Jungle) Horne-Rasmussen, Sigrid (Sult) Horner, Harry (Hustler) Horner, James (Titanic) Horniman, Roy (Kind Hearts and Coronets) Horning, William A. (Fury; North by Northwest) Horrocks, Jane (Life Is Sweet) Horsely, David S. (Killers) Horsetzky, George C. (Büchse der Pandora) Horton, Andrew (Nesto izmedju) Horton, Edward Everett (Devil Is a Woman; Top Hat; Trouble in Paradise) Horton, Russell (Annie Hall) Horváth, László (Angi Vera) Horváth, Leci (Valahol Europaban) Hosford, Mike (Last Picture Show) Hoskins, Bob (Brazil; Mona Lisa) Hosogoe, Seigo (Tampopo) Hosoya, Tatsuo (Seppuku) Hossein, Robert (Du Ri?? chez les hommes) Hotaling, Frank (Searchers) Hou Hsiao-Hsien (City of Sadness) Hou Xiaoxian (Dahong denglong gaogao gua) Hou Yong (Daoma zei) Houchet, Louis (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Houck, Bryon (Sherlock, Jr.) Houghton, Johnny (Fires Were Started) Houllé, Marguerite (Femme du boulanger; Partie de campagne; Règle du jeu) Houseman, Arthur (Sunrise) Houseman, John (Letter from an Unknown Woman; They Live by Night) Houston, Angelica (Player) Houston, Clyde (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Houston, Donald (Room at the Top) Houston, Gary (Fargo) Houston, Grace (Naked City) Houston, Kent (Brazil) Houston, Renee (Repulsion) Howard, Arthur (Broken Blossoms) Howard, Digby (Draughtsman’s Contract) Howard, Esther (Detour; Sullivan’s Travels) Howard, John (Philadelphia Story) Howard, Kathleen (Laura) Howard, Leslie (Gone With the Wind) Howard, Ron (American Graf?ti) Howard, Sidney (Gone With the Wind) Howard, Tom (2001: A Space Odyssey) Howard, Trevor (Brief Encounter; Third Man) Howarth, Jennifer (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Howe, James Wong (Sweet Smell of Success; Thin Man) Howell, John (Casino Royale) Howes, Sally Ann (Dead of Night) Howlett, John (If...) Howlett, Noel (Victim) Hoy, Maysie (Player; Smoke) Hoyos, Rodolfo (Night at the Opera) Hoyt, Arthur (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse; It Happened One Night; Sullivan’s Travels) Hoyt, Robert L. (Jaws) Hrabal, Bohumil (Ostre sledované vlaky) Hrabě, Zdeněk (Staré povesti ceské) Hranova, Elena (Sterne) Hruby, Ji?í (Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Hrusinsky, Rudolf (Baron Prasil) Hsu, Jade (Ba wang bie ji) Hsu Bin (Ba wang bie ji) Hsu Feng (Ba wang bie ji) Hsu Li-Kong (He Liu) Hu Jian (Ju Dou) Huakun (City of Sadness) Huamiao, Tong (Qiu Ju da Guansi) Huang Lihua (Dahong denglong gaogao gua) Huang Zhun (Wutai jiemei) Hube, J?rg (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Huber, Harold (Dance, Girl, Dance; Thin Man) Hubert, Georges (Sang des bêtes) Hubert, René (A nous la liberté; My Darling Clementine; Things to Come) Hubert, Roger (Enfants du paradis; Napoléon) Hubley, John (Fantasia) Huch, Mat-Mac (Freaks) Huchet, Pierre (Crime de Monsieur Lange) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1447 Hudson, Rochelle (Rebel Without a Cause; She Done Him Wrong) Hudson, Rock (All That Heaven Allows; Giant; Written on the Wind) Huet, Henri-Jacques (A bout de souf?e) Hugelmann, Oskar (M?rchen vom Glück) Hughes, Barnard (Midnight Cowboy) Hughes, Dorothy B. (In a Lonely Place) Hughes, Howard (Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Hughes, John (Treasure of the Sierra Madre) Hughes, Ken (Casino Royale) Hughes, Rhetta (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Hughes, Tony (My Brilliant Career) Hughes, Wendy (My Brilliant Career) Hugo, Jean (Passion de Jeanne d’Arc) Hugo, M. (Paisà) Hugo, Valentine (Age d’or; Passion de Jeanne d’Arc) Huhardeaux, Catherine (Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles) Hui, Ann (He Liu) Huillet, Danièle (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Huisken, Joop (Nieuwe Gronden) Hulburd, Bud (Wild Bunch) Hull, Frank (Greed) Hull, Greg (Blue Velvet) Hull, Henry (High Sierra) Humann, Helena (Last Picture Show) Hume, Alan (Star Wars) Humeau, Jean-Michel (Sans Soleil) Hummel, Helenka (Bleierne Zeit) Hummel Wilson, Clarence (Young Mr. Lincoln) Hunt, Dave (Mona Lisa) Hunt, Martita (Great Expectations) Hunt, Roy (Cross?re) Hunte, Otto (Blaue Engel; Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Testament des Dr. Mabuse; Metropolis; M?rder sind unter uns; Nibelungen) Hunter, Albert (Snow White) Hunter, C. Roy (All Quiet on the Western Front; Dracula 1931; Frankenstein) Hunter, Craig (Clockwork Orange) Hunter, Evan (Birds) Hunter, Holly (Piano) Hunter, Ian (Adventures of Robin Hood) Hunter, J. Michael (Blue Velvet) Hunter, Jeffrey (Searchers) Hunter, Kim (Matter of Life and Death; Streetcar Named Desire) Hunter, Ross (All That Heaven Allows) Huntley, G.P., Jr. (Becky Sharp) Huntley, Raymond (Passport to Pimlico) Huo Jianqi (Daoma zei) Hupfeld, Herman (Casablanca) Huppert, Isabelle (Dentellière) Huppertz, Gottfried (Metropolis; Nibelungen) Hurd, Earl (Fantasia; Snow White) Hurlbut, William (Bride of Frankenstein) Hurley, Joseph (Psycho) Hurst, Gordon (Last Picture Show) Hurst, Michelle (Smoke) Hurst, Paul (Gone With the Wind) Hurst, Ralph S. (Giant) Hurst, Veronica (Peeping Tom) Hurt, John (Midnight Express) Hurt, William (Smoke) Hüske, Max (Tie?and) Hussey, Ruth (Philadelphia Story; Women) Huston, John (African Queen; Asphalt Jungle; Casino Royale; Chinatown; Dead; High Sierra; Maltese Falcon; Mis?ts; Treasure of the Sierra Madre) Huston, Virginia (Out of the Past) Huston, Walter (Maltese Falcon; Treasure of the Sierra Madre; Why We Fight) Huszar, Karl (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Hutcheson, David (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Hutchinson, Harry (Blow-Up) Hutchinson, Josephine (North by Northwest) Hutchinson, Muriel (Women) Hutchinson, Thomas (Blade Runner) Hutchison, Max (Detour) Hutshing, Joe (JFK) Huyck, Willard (American Graf?ti) Hyams, Leila (Freaks) Hyde, Jonathan (Titanic) Hyde, Kimberley (Last Picture Show) Hyde-White, Wilfrid (Third Man) Hyke, Ray (Red River) Hyltén-Cavillius, Ragner (G?sta Berlings Saga) Hynek, Dr. J. Allen(Close Encounters of the Third Kind)Hyspa, Vincent (A nous la liberté) Hytten, Olaf (Casablanca) Hyttenberg-Bartoletti, Maud (Fanny och Alexander) Ianoukova, V. (Stachka) Iawkoff, Hélène (Lola Montès) Ibanez, Duchange (Age d’or) Ibarra, Mirta (Fresa y Chocolate) Iberia, Claude (Belle et la bête) Ibraguimbekov, Roustam (Outomlionnye solntsem) Ichikawa, Haruo (Saikaku ichidai onna) Ichikawa, Kiichi (Suna no onna) Ichikawa, Kon (Biruma no tategoto) Ichimura, Toshiyuki (Ikiru) Ide, Masato (Ran) Idziak, Slawomir (Dekalog; Trois Couleurs) Ifukube, Akira (Biruma no tategoto; Gojira) Igashino, Eijiro (Shichinin no samurai) Igawa, Hisashi (Ran; Seppuku) Iglesias, Alberto (Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Ihara, Saikaku (Saikaku ichidai onna) Ikebe, Shinichiro (Fukushu suru wa ware ni ari; Narayama bushi-ko) Ikehata, Shinnosuke (Ran) Ikeuchi, Manpei (Tampopo) Ilic-Hajne, Peter (Nesto izmedju) Ilin, Inge (Vlak bez voznog reda) Ilingsworth, John (Walkabout) Illin, Ev?en (Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Ilyenko, Yuri (Teni zabytykh predkov) Ilyine, Vladimir (Outomlionnye solntsem) Imaizumi, Ren (Gojira) Imamura, Shohei (Fukushu suru wa ware ni ari; Narayama bushi-ko) Imani, Elham (Ta’m E Guilass) Imanie, Rahim (Ta’m E Guilass) Imazu, Eddie (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Inaba, Yoshio (Seppuku; Shichinin no samurai) Inagaki, Koichi (Ningen no joken) Inamdar, Shaukut H. (Salaam Bombay) Ince, Ralph (Little Caesar) Inclán, Miguel (Olvidados) Inda, Estela (Olvidados) Indrisano, John (Some Like It Hot) Indseth, Lilian (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Inescort, Frieda (Place in the Sun) Infantino, Luigi (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli) Ingdal, Yvonne (Der var engang en krig) Ingemarsson, Sylvia (Fanny och Alexander) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1448 Ingraham, Lloyd (Intolerance) Ingram, Rex (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Ingrassia, Ciccio (Kaos) Inkishinov, I. (Potomok Chingis-Khan) Inkishinov, Valeri (Potomok Chingis-Khan) Innocent, Harold (Brazil) Inoue, Kazuo (Fukushu suru wa ware ni ari) Interlenghi, Franco (Sciuscia; Vitelloni, I) International Velvet (Chelsea Girls) Iório, átila (Vidas secas) Irani, Faradoon A. (Bharat Mata) Irani, J.D. (Jana Aranya) Irazoqui, Enrique (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Ireland, John (All the King’s Men; My Darling Clementine; Red River) Irene (Picture of Dorian Gray) Irons, Jeremy (Dead Ringers) Irvin, Jerry (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Irving, Bill (All Quiet on the Western Front) Irving, Ernest (Blue Lamp) Irving, George (Bringing Up Baby; Night at the Opera) Irving, Louis (My Brilliant Career) Irving, Roy (Odd Man Out) Isaacs, James (Unforgiven) Isakovic, Antonije (Zaseda) Isayeva, V. (Kommisar) Isbert, José (Verdugo) Isbert, Maruja (Verdugo) Iseki, Satoru (Smoke) Isherwood, Christopher (Cabaret) Ishido, Toshiro (Koshikei) Ishihama, Akira (Ningen no joken; Seppuku) Ishii, Choshiro (Yojimbo) Ishimori, Izumi (Tampopo) Isho, Kyoto (Narayama bushi-ko) Ishsy, Niels (Der var engang en krig) Isoda, Norishiro (Hana-Bi) Istueta, Ricardo (Lucia) Istumi, Taro (Hana-Bi) Itami, Juzo (Tampopo) Itkine, Sylvain (Crime de Monsieur Lange; Grande illusion) Ito, Hiroko (Suna no onna) Ito, Kisaku (Sansho dayu; Ugetsu monogatari) Ito, Senji (Banshun; Zangiku monogatari) Ito, Toshiya (Ran) Ito, Yunosuke (Biruma no tategoto; Ikiru) Itoh, Hideo (Ai no corrida) Itoh, Kisaku (Jigokumon) Iurenev, L. (Tretia Meshchanskaia) Iutkevich, Sergei (Tretia Meshchanskaia) Ivanir, Mark (Schindler’s List) Ivanov, I. (Stachka) Ivanov, Kalina (Smoke) Ivanov, V. (Potomok Chingis-Khan) Ivanova, Natalya (Outomlionnye solntsem) Ivasheva, Vera (Alexander Nevsky) Ivashov, Vladimir (Balada o soldate) Ivens, Joris (Nieuwe Gronden; Spanish Earth) Ives, Burl (East of Eden) Ivkov, Dragolub (Zaseda) Ivonnet, Robert (Dames du Bois de Boulogne) Ivory, James (Howards End; Room with a View) Iwaki, Hiroyuki (Ran) Iwasaki, Kaneko (Ningen no joken) Iwashita, Koichi (Ikiru) Iwashita, Shima (Samma no aji; Seppuku) Iwaszkiewicz, Jaros?aw (Matka Joanna od aniolow) Iwaya, Sanichi (Zangiku monogatari) Iwerks, Ub (Birds; Steamboat Willie) Iyitanir, Galip (Journey of Hope) Izewski, Teresa (Kanal) Jabbour, Gabriel (Z) Jachino, Carlo (Ladri di biciclette) Jack, Wolfman (American Graf?ti) Jackson, Andy (Brazil; Mona Lisa) Jackson, Charles R. (Lost Weekend) Jackson, Freda (Great Expectations; Henry V; Tom Jones) Jackson, Gemma (Mona Lisa) Jackson, Glenda (Marat/Sade) Jackson, Harry (Band Wagon) Jackson, Jenie (Ride the High Country) Jackson, Peter (Heavenly Creatures) Jackson, Robert (Schindler’s List) Jackson, Samuel L. (Do the Right Thing; Pulp Fiction) Jackson, Selmer (Night at the Opera) Jackson, Thomas (Big Sleep; Little Caesar; Thin Man) Jackson, Wilfred (Fantasia; Snow White; Steamboat Willie) Jacob, Irène (Trois Couleurs) Jacobi, Ernst (Blechtrommel) Jacobs, Jon (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Jacobs, Monika (Der Himmel Uber Berlin) Jacobs, Rusty (Once Upon a Time in America) Jacobsen, Kjeld (Der var engang en krig) Jacobson, Egon (M) Jacobsson, Ulla (Sommarnattens leende) Jacques, Norbert (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Jacquot, Benoit (India Song) Jaenicke, Kate (Blechtrommel) Jaenson, Julius (Herr Arnes Pengar) Jaenzon, Henrik (Erotikon) Jaenzon, Julius (G?sta Berlings Saga; K?rkalen) Jaffé, Carl (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Jaffe, Sam (Asphalt Jungle; Scarlet Empress) Jaffe, Shirley (Clockwork Orange) Jaffrey, Saeed (My Beautiful Laundrette) Jager, Lucien (Sang d’un poete) Jahangiri, Ahmad (Ta’m E Guilass) Jahnberg, Haakan (Tystnaden) Jaikishen (Awara) Jaipuri, Hasrat (Awara) Jaiswal, Prashant (Salaam Bombay) Jaivin, Linda (Ba wang bie ji) Jakobsen, Sven Erik (Fanny och Alexander) Jaksic-Fandjo, Milorad (Budjenje pacova; Zaseda) Jalaja (Elippathayam) Jambrina, Francisco (Olvidados) James, Brion (Blade Runner; Player) James, Clifton (Lone Star) James, Jocelyn (Distant Voices, Still Lives) James, Rian (42nd Street) James, Sidney (Lavender Hill Mob) James, Steve (Hoop Dreams) James-Hopkins, George (Strangers on a Train) Jameson, House (Naked City) Jameson, Joyce (Apartment) Jan, H. T. (City of Sadness) Janá?ek, Jaromir (Obchod na korze) Jancso, Miklos (Meg ker a nep) Janczar, Tadeusz (Kanal) Janda, Krystyna (Czlowiek z marmuru; Dekalog; Mephisto) Jane Bruce, Sally (Night of the Hunter) Janeczka, Herbert (Tie?and) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1449 Janica, Barbara (Shoah) Jankowski, Bohdan (Eroica) Janney, Allison (American Beauty) Jannings, Emil (Blaue Engel; Letze Mann; Variété) Janovsky, Vladimír (Staré povesti ceské) Janowitz, Hans (Kabinett des Dr. Caligari) Jansen, Adolf (Dreigroschenoper; Kameradschaft; M) Jansen, Pierre (Boucher; Dentellière; Femme in?dèle) Janssen, Werner (Southerner) Janushi, Elida (America, L’) Jara, Jorge (Bleierne Zeit) Jarel, Don (Close Encounters of the Third Kind) Jargil, Jesper (Idioterne) Jaritz, Klaus (Last Wave) Jarlot, Gerard (Hiroshima mon amour) Jarmuth, Jack (Jazz Singer) Jaroszewicz, Anrzej (Dekalog) Jarov, M. (Ivan Grozny) Jarratt, John (Picnic at Hanging Rock) Jarre, Maurice (Blechtrommel; Caduta degli dei; Lawrence of Arabia; Thérèse Desqueyroux; Yeux sans visage) Jarrico, Paul (Salt of the Earth) Jasiukiewicz, Stanis?aw (Matka Joanna od aniolow) Jaubert, Maurice (Atalante; Jour se lève; Quai des brumes; Zéro de conduite) Jauffret, Jean-Jacques (Nuits fauves) Jaworska, Malgorzata (Dekalog) Jaxon, David (Hard Day’s Night) Jayang Jamco (Daoma zei) Jaynes, Roderick (Fargo) Jean-Baptiste, Marianne (Secrets and Lies) Jeans, Ursula (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Jeanson, Blandine (Weekend) Jeanson, Henri (Pépé le Moko) Jeayes, Allan (Things to Come) Jeffrey, Peter (If...) Jegorychev, Gennadii (Istoria Asi Kliachinoi kotoraia lubila da nie vyshla zamuzh) Jeimo, Janina (Novyi Vavilon) Jelinek, Anne-Marie (Noire de ...) Jelinek, Rudolf (Baron Prasil) Jelliman, Marie (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Jellison, Bob (Star Is Born) Jenart, Corinne (Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles) Jenci, Blazenka (Vlak bez voznog reda) Jencks, Clinton (Salt of the Earth) Jencks, Virginia (Salt of the Earth) Jendly, Roger (Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Jendrychowski, Anke (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Jenei, Jen?cek (Korol Lir) Jenet, Veronica (Piano) Jenkins, Allen (42nd Street; I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang) Jenkins, George (Best Years of Our Lives; Klute) Jenks, Frank (His Girl Friday) Jennings, Al (Deliverance) Jennings, Dev (General; Public Enemy) Jennings, Gordon (Lost Weekend; Scarlet Empress; Shane; Sunset Boulevard) Jennings, Humphrey (Fires Were Started) Jensen, Egil Hjort (Sult) Jensen, Erik (Sult) Jensen, K. Sandt (Vredens dag) Jensen, Lola (Dance, Girl, Dance) Jensen, N. Sanat (Ordet) Jensen, Peter Aalb?k (Breaking the Waves) Jensen, Roy (Chinatown) Jericevic, Dusko (Vlak bez voznog reda) Jerome, M. K. (Casablanca) Jersild, J?rgen (Gertrud) Jeter, James (Black Sunday) Jewell, Austin (Greed) Jewell, Edward C. (Detour) Jewell, Isabel (Gone With the Wind; High Sierra) Je?ková, Milada (Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Jhabvala, Ruth Prawer (Howards End; Room with a View) Ji Chunhua (Red Sorghum) Jia Tianxi (Haizi wang) Jiang Xiuqiong (Guling jie shaonian sha ren shijian) Jianjun, He (Lan fengzheng) Jiji, Dan (Daoma zei) Jiménez, Luisa María (Soy Cuba) Jin, Elaine (Guling jie shaonian sha ren shijian) Jin Ping (Ba wang bie ji) Jin Shuyuan (Dahong denglong gaogao gua) Jing Wen (Red Sorghum) Jinks, Dan (American Beauty) Jiping, Zhao (Huang tudi; Qiu Ju da Guansi) Jirásek, Alois (Staré povesti ceské) Jiuping, Cao (Qiu Ju da Guansi) Joano, Clotilde (Z) Job, Enrico (Film d’amore e d’anarchia) Jobim, Antonio Carlos (Orfeu Negro) Joffé, Alex (Tirez sur le pianiste) Joffe, Charles H. (Annie Hall; Manhattan) Johann, Albert (M?rder sind unter uns) Johansson, Ulf (Sjunde inseglet) John, Barry (Salaam Bombay) John, David (Mona Lisa) John, Georg (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Testament des Dr. Mabuse; Letze Mann; M; Metropolis; Nibelungen; Variété) John, Gottfried (Ehe der Maria Braun) John, Howard St. (Strangers on a Train) John, Lucien (Walkabout) Johns, Mervyn (Dead of Night) Johnson, Arnold (Shaft) Johnson, Ben (Last Picture Show; Shane; Wild Bunch) Johnson, Brian (Star Wars) Johnson, Carmencita (Wind) Johnson, Celia (Brief Encounter) Johnson, Dots M. (Paisà) Johnson, Femi (Kongi’s Harvest) Johnson, Greg (Smoke) Johnson, Laurie (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Johnson, MacMillan (Rear Window) Johnson, Malcolm (On the Waterfront) Johnson, Mark (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Johnson, Mary (Herr Arnes Pengar) Johnson, Noble (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse; King Kong) Johnson, Nunnally (Grapes of Wrath) Johnson, Oliver, Jr. (Fantasia) Johnson, Tom (Titanic) Johnson, Tony (Piano) Johnston, Arthur (City Lights; Duck Soup) Johnston, Joe (Star Wars) Johnston, John Dennis (Annie Hall) Joint, Alf (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Jokovic, Mirjana (Underground) Jolson, Al (Jazz Singer) Jonah (Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Jones, Allan (Night at the Opera) Jones, Bob (Casino Royale; Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1450 Jones, Carolyn (Big Heat; Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Jones, Christine (Annie Hall) Jones, Debi (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Jones, Dickie (Young Mr. Lincoln) Jones, Freddie (Marat/Sade) Jones, Grif?th (Henry V) Jones, Grover (Trouble in Paradise) Jones, Henry (Vertigo) Jones, James (From Here to Eternity) Jones, James Earl (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb; Star Wars) Jones, John Pierce (Brazil) Jones, Joseph E. (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Jones, L. Q. (Wild Bunch) Jones, Mark (Marat/Sade) Jones, Paul (Lady Eve; Sullivan’s Travels) Jones, Robert (Masque of the Red Death) Jones, Robert Edmond (Becky Sharp) Jones, Simon (Brazil) Jones, Stanley (East of Eden) Jones, Tiny (Greed) Jones, Tommy Lee (JFK) Jordan, Daniel (Memorias del subdesarrollo) Jordan, Dorothy (Searchers) Jordan, Joanne Moore (Faces) Jordan, John (Clockwork Orange) Jordan, Neil (Mona Lisa) Jorge, Paul (Passion de Jeanne d’Arc) J?rgensen, Bodil (Idioterne) J?rgensen, Knud Romer (Idioterne) Jory, Victor (Gone With the Wind) José, Geraldo (Fresa y Chocolate; Todo Sobre Mi Madre; Vidas secas) Joseph, Allan (Eraserhead) Joseph, André (Sang des bêtes) Joseph-Josephine (Freaks) Josephson, Erland (Fanny och Alexander; Offret; Samo jednom se ljubi; Viskningar och rop; Vlemma Tou Odyssea) Joshi, Jayant (Salaam Bombay) Joshi, Ramesh (Meghe dhaka tara) Jost, Larry (Chinatown) Jost, Lawrence (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Joubé, Romuald (J’accuse) Jouby, Roland (Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Jourdain, Francis (Atalante) Jourdan, Catherine (Samourai) Jourdan, Louis (Letter from an Unknown Woman) Journet, Marcel (Letter from an Unknown Woman) Jouvet, Louis (Kermesse héroique) Jovanovic, Divna (Otac na sluzbenom putu) Jovanovic, Gordana (Skuplijaci perja) Jovanovic, Milorad (Skuplijaci perja) Joya, Mario García (Fresa y Chocolate) Joyce, Adrien (Five Easy Pieces) Joyeux, Odette (Ronde, La) Jozie, Ahmad (Ta’m E Guilass) Juan, Claude (India Song) Judd, Ashley (Smoke) Judd, Phil (Last Wave) Judkins, Ronald (Schindler’s List) Jüges, Jürgen (Angst essen Seele auf) Juhász, Jácint (Csillagosok, katonák) Juillard, Robert (Jeux interdits) Jul, Christen (Vampyr) Julian, Alexander (Player) Julian, Rupert (Phantom of the Opera) Juliao, Jorge (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Juliusson, Karl (Breaking the Waves) Jullion, Albert (39 Steps) Junge, Alfred (Black Narcissus; Life and Death of Colonel Blimp; Marius Trilogy; Matter of Life and Death) Jungk, Dr. Klaus (M?rder sind unter uns) Júnior, Fábio (Bye Bye Brasil) Junkersdorf, Eberhard (Bleierne Zeit) Junkin, John (Hard Day’s Night) Junqueira, Nieta (Cangaceiro) Junqueria, Caio (Central do Brasil) Jurado, Katy (High Noon) Jürgens, Curd (Engel mit der Posaune) Jurgens, Curt (Et ... Dieu créa la femme) Jürges, Jürgen (Deutschland im Herbst; Funny Games) Jurow, Martin (Breakfast at Tiffany’s) Jurowski, Georg (Nibelungen) Justice, B. (Fantasia) Justin, George (Twelve Angry Men) Justo Verde, Rafael (Deus e o diabo na terra do sol) Juvenet, Pierre (Argent) Juying, Dong (Lan fengzheng) Jympson, John (Hard Day’s Night) Kaas, Nikolaj Lie (Idioterne) Kaczmarek, Jerzy (Matka Joanna od aniolow) Kaczor, Kazmierz (Czlowiek z marmuru) Kadár, Ján (Obchod na korze) Kader, Fawzia El (Battaglia di Algeri) Kadhemi, Behram (And Life Goes On) Kadochnikov, Pavel (Siberiade) Kadochnikova, Larissa (Teni zabytykh predkov) Kadotchnikov, P. (Ivan Grozny) Kadri, Shamsudin (Bharat Mata) Kafka, Franz (Procès) Kagawa, Kyoko (Sansho dayu; Tokyo monogatari) Kagawa, Ryosuke (Sansho dayu; Ugetsu monogatari) Kahl, Milton (Snow White) Kahler, Wolf (Raiders of the Lost Ark) Kahn, Michael (Close Encounters of the Third Kind; Raiders of the Lost Ark; Schindler’s List) Kahn, Sheldon (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Kai Kit-wai (Ahfei zheng zhuan) Kai?, Gita Shauhat (Garam Hawa) Kai?, Shaukat (Salaam Bombay) Kaige, Chen (Huang tudi) Kainar, Josef (Baron Prasil) Kaiser, Phillip (Funny Games) Kaiser, Rudolf (Tie?and) Kakar, Prahlad (Bhumika) Kakkar, Deepa (Salaam Bombay) Kalatozov, Mikhail (Letyat zhuravli; Soy Cuba) Kalfon, Jean-Pierre (Weekend) K?lin, Matthias (Yaaba) Kalinciska, Maria (Czlowiek z marmuru) Kalinowski, Igor B. (Boudu sauvé des eaux) Kaliz, Armand (Little Caesar) Kallianiotes, Helena (Five Easy Pieces) Kallman, Per (Offret) Kalloch (His Girl Friday; Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Kalloch, Robert (It Happened One Night) Kalmar, Bert (Duck Soup; Night at the Opera) Kalmus, Natalie (Black Narcissus) Kaloper, Jagoder (W.R.: Mysterije Organizma) Kalouguine, Helene (Alphaville) Kaluta, Vilen (Outomlionnye solntsem) Kamberidis, Dimitri (Thiasos, O) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1451 Kamen, Michael (Brazil; Mona Lisa) Kamenka, Alexandre (Chapeau de paille d’Italie; Feu Mathias Pascal) Kamenka, Sacha (Hiroshima mon amour) Kamińska, Ida (Obchod na korze) Kaminski, Janusz (Schindler’s List) Kamiyama, Sojin (Shichinin no samurai) Kammer, Salome (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Kamp, Stefan (Spoorloos) Kampers, Fritz (Kameradschaft) Kanayan, Richard (Quatre cents coups; Tirez sur le pianiste) Kander, John (Cabaret) Kane, Carol (Annie Hall) Kane, Eddie (Public Enemy) Kane, Issiaka (Yeelen) Kane, Pascal (India Song) Kaneko, Ienori (Shichinin no samurai) Kaneko, Nobuo (Ikiru; Ningen no joken) Kanev, Stiliyan (Sterne) Kanhaiyalal (Bharat Mata) Kanin, Garson (Adam’s Rib) Kanter, Christoph (Funny Games) Kantor, MacKinlay (Gun Crazy) Kanwar, Aneeta (Salaam Bombay) Kany, Zsuzsa Zsa (Mephisto) Kapetanovic, Amer (Otac na sluzbenom putu) Kaplan, Mady (Deer Hunter) Kaplan, Michael (Blade Runner) Kaplan, Sol (Salt of the Earth) Kapler, Alexei (Arsenal) Kapoor, Bikram (Kaagaz ke phool) Kapoor, Privthviraj (Awara) Kapoor, Raj (Awara) Kapoor, Shashi (Awara) Kapur, Nisha (My Beautiful Laundrette) Karaindrou, Eleni (Vlemma Tou Odyssea) Karajlic, Dr. Nele (Underground) Karamani (Elippathayam) Karanovic, Mirjana (Otac na sluzbenom putu; Underground) Karanovic, Srdjan (Nesto izmedju; Samo jednom se ljubi) Karapiperis, Mikes (Thiasos, O) Karas, Anton (Third Man) Karchenko, V. (Zerkalo) Karewicz, Emil (Kanal) Karimbeik, Hossein (Mona Lisa) Karina, Anna (Alphaville; Cléo de cinq à sept; Vivre sa vie) Karisik, Suada (Dom za vesanje) Karkus, Steve (Easy Rider) Karl, Roger (Argent) Karlbeck, Marianne (Fanny och Alexander) Karlin, Miriam (Clockwork Orange) Karloff, Boris (Bride of Frankenstein; Frankenstein; Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Karlowa, Elma (Angst essen Seele auf) Karlsson, Lars (Fanny och Alexander) Karlsson, Lasse (Offret) Karm, Michael (Annie Hall) Karmakar, Radhu (Awara) Kárment?, éva (Angi Vera) Karmitz, Marin (Trois Couleurs) Karnad, Girish (Bhumika) Karns, Roscoe (His Girl Friday; It Happened One Night; Jazz Singer) Karp, L. (Fantasia) Karpa?, Jan (Staré povesti ceské) Karte, Kerstin (Fanny och Alexander) Karte, Tore (Fanny och Alexander) Kasdan, Lawrence (Raiders of the Lost Ark; Star Wars) Kase, Hisashi (Naniwa ereji) Kassen, Mohamed Ben (Battaglia di Algeri) Kassigi (Pickpocket) Kassovitz, Mathieu (Haine) Kassowitz, Peter (Haine; Vivre sa vie) Kasznar, Kurt (Casino Royale) Katagiri, Tsuneo (Shichinin no samurai) Katin-Yartsev, Yuri (Proshchanie) Katins, Alexander (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Kato, Daisuke (Ikiru; Rashomon; Saikaku ichidai onna; Shichinin no samurai; Yojimbo) Kato, Kazuo (Ran) Kato, Masahiko (Sansho dayu) Kato, Takeshi (Ran) Kato, Yoshi (Tampopo) Katrivanos, Kiriakos (Thiasos, O) Katsura, Kokinjo (Ningen no joken) Katz, Gloria (American Graf?ti) Katz, Michael (Funny Games) Katz, Steve (Close Encounters of the Third Kind) Kaufman, Avy (Lone Star) Kaufman, Boris (A propos de Nice; Atalante; On the Waterfront; Twelve Angry Men; Zéro de conduite) Kaufman, Francine (Shoah) Kaufman, George S. (Night at the Opera) Kaufman, Mikhail (Chelovek s kinoapparatom; Kino-Pravda) Kaufman, Philip (Raiders of the Lost Ark) Kaufmann, Christine (Lola) Kaufmann, Günther (Ehe der Maria Braun; Lola) Kaul, Mahesh (Kaagaz ke phool) Kaul, Mani (Duvidha) Kausch, Michael (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Kaushik (Bharat Mata) Kavsadze, Kakhi (Pokaianie) Kawaguchi, Matsutaro (Ugetsu monogatari; Zangiku monogatari) Kawahigashi, Koshi (Zangiku monogatari) Kawakami, Yasuko (Akasen chitai) Kawalerowicz, Jerzy (Matka Joanna od aniolow) Kawanami, Ryotaro (Zangiku monogatari) Kawararaki, Gonjuro (Zangiku monogatari) Kawazu, Seizaburo (Yojimbo) Kawazu, Yusuke (Ningen no joken) Kay, Jerry (Easy Rider) Kayama, Shigeru (Gojira) Kaye, Gordon (Brazil) Kayukov, Stepan (Maxim Trilogy) Kazan, Elia (East of Eden; On the Waterfront; Streetcar Named Desire) Kazan, Vangelis (Thiasos, O) Kazanjian, Howard (Raiders of the Lost Ark; Star Wars) Kazanskaya, Alla (Outomlionnye solntsem) Ke Suyun (City of Sadness) Keane, Edward (Night at the Opera) Kearns, Billy (Playtime; Procès) Keaton, Buster (General; Sherlock, Jr.; Sunset Boulevard) Keaton, Diane (Annie Hall; Godfather Trilogy; Manhattan) Keaton, Joseph (General; Sherlock, Jr.) Keats, Steven (Black Sunday) Keegan, Arthur (On the Waterfront) Keeler, Ruby (42nd Street) Keeling, Fredo (Carrosse d’or) Keener, Ken (Deliverance) Keighley, William (Adventures of Robin Hood) Keita, Balla Moussa (Yeelen) Keita, Kossa Mody (Yeelen) Keita, Salif (Yeelen) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1452 Keitel, Harvey (Mean Streets; Piano; Reservoir Dogs; Smoke; Taxi Driver; Thelma and Louise; Vlemma Tou Odyssea) Keith, Isabelle (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Keith, Robert (Written on the Wind) Keith, Warren (Fargo) Kelber, Michel (Diable au corps) Kelier, Pamela (Last Picture Show) Kell, Sherman (General) Keller, Harry (Touch of Evil) Keller, Marthe (Black Sunday) Kellerhaus, Walter (Blechtrommel) Kellerman, Sally (M*A*S*H; Player) Kelley, Barry (Asphalt Jungle) Kellin, Mike (Midnight Express) Kellner, William (Lavender Hill Mob) Kellogg, Virginia (White Heat) Kellum, Terry (Stromboli) Kelly, Chris (Mona Lisa) Kelly, Clare (Hard Day’s Night) Kelly, Craig G. (Dirty Harry) Kelly, Gene (American in Paris; On the Town; Singin’ in the Rain) Kelly, Grace (High Noon; Rear Window) Kelly, Jack (Young Mr. Lincoln) Kelly, James A. (Twelve Angry Men) Kelly, Judy (Dead of Night) Kelly, Orry (42nd Street) Kelly, Patsy (Rosemary’s Baby) Kelly, Paul (Cross?re) Kelly, Skeets (Lawrence of Arabia) Kelly, W. (Fantasia) Kelsey, Dick (Fantasia) Kelshteyn, Liliya (Csillagosok, katonák) Kemény;, László (Valahol Europaban) Kemkhadze, Dato (Pokaianie) Kemp, Paul (Dreigroschenoper; M) Kemper, Charles (Southerner) Kempke, Helga (Angst essen Seele auf) Kemplen, Ralph (African Queen; Room at the Top) Kempner, Brenda (Marat/Sade) Kempson, Rachel (Tom Jones) Kendall, Jo (Howards End) Kende, János (Meg ker a nep) Keneally, Thomas (Schindler’s List) Kenji, Suzuki (Tampopo) Kennedy, Arthur (High Sierra; Lawrence of Arabia) Kennedy, Edgar (Duck Soup) Kennedy, Kathleen (E.T.—The Extraterrestrial; Schindler’s List) Kennedy, Madge (North by Northwest) Kennedy, Pat (My Brilliant Career) Kennedy, Tom (Some Like It Hot) Kennelly, Shawn (Blair Witch Project) Kennington, Jill (Blow-Up) Kensikowski, Jozef (Matka Joanna od aniolow) Kent, Diana (Heavenly Creatures) Kent, Mrs. (Foolish Wives) Kent, Ted (Bride of Frankenstein) Kent, Ted J. (Letter from an Unknown Woman) Keo Souvannavong (Odeur de la papaye verte) Keqi, Guo (Huang tudi) Kerbash, Michele (Battaglia di Algeri) Kermack, Paul (Douglas Trilogy) Kern, Hal C. (Gone With the Wind) Kern, Peter (Hitler: Ein Film aus Deutschland) Kern, Pouel (Babettes Gaestebud) Kern, Robert J. (Thin Man; Women) Kerns, Linda (Titanic) Kerr, Deborah (Black Narcissus; Casino Royale; From Here to Eternity; Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Kerr, Frederick (Frankenstein) Kerrigan, J. M. (Gone With the Wind; Informer) Kerry, Norman (Phantom of the Opera) Kershaw, Doug (Days of Heaven) Kershner, Irvin (Star Wars) Kertész, Michael (Sodom und Gomorrha) Kesey, Ken (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Kessler, Bodo (Deutschland im Herbst) Kesterber, Rachel (Last Tango in Paris) Kettelhut, Erich (Berlin: Die Sinfonie der Grossstadt; Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Testament des Dr. Mabuse; Metropolis; Nibelungen) Kevin McGuiness, James (Night at the Opera) Key, Kathleen (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Keyes, Evelyn (Gone With the Wind) Kezdi Kovacs, Zsolt (Csillagosok, katonák) Khadem, Hocine (And Life Goes On) Khan, Hammu (Duvidha) Khan, Irfan (Salaam Bombay) Khan, Iska (Belle de jour) Khan, Mehboob (Bharat Mata) Khan, Ramzan (Duvidha) Khan, Ski (Duvidha) Khan, Ustad Bahadur (Garam Hawa) Khanjian, Arsinée (Exotica) Kharbanda, Kulbhushan (Bhumika) Kharitonova, S. (Letyat zhuravli) Kharkov, H. (Arsenal) Kharlampiev, G. (Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov) Kheil, Ivan (Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Kheradmand, Farhad (And Life Goes On) Khmelik, Mariya (Malenkaya Vera) Khmelyov, Nikolai (Konyets Sankt-Peterburga) Khokhlova, Alexandra (Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov) Khorasani, Akbar (Ta’m E Guilass) Khouri, Callie (Thelma and Louise) Khvatov, V. (Stachka) Kia’i, Nezam-e-Din (Dawandeh) Kiarostami, Abbas (And Life Goes On; Ta’m E Guilass) Kiarostami, Bahman (Ta’m E Guilass) Kiaulehn, Walter (Lola Montès) Kibardina, Valentina (Maxim Trilogy) Kibbee, Guy (42nd Street; Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Kidd, Michael (Band Wagon) Kiebach, Hans-Jurgen (Cabaret) Kiener, Petra (Deutschland im Herbst) Kienzler, Karin (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Kier, Udo (Breaking the Waves; Lola) Kiernan, William (Big Heat) Kie?lowski, Krzysztof (Dekalog; Trois Couleurs) Kietel, Harvey (Pulp Fiction) Kiki (Ballet mécanique; Quai des brumes) Kikuchi, Kan (Jigokumon) Kikushima, Ryuzo (Yojimbo) Kilbride, Percy (Southerner) Kiliadonis, Lukianos (Thiasos, O) Kilibayev, Bakhyt (Igla) Kilik, Jon (Do the Right Thing) Killick, Alan (Room with a View) Killifer, Jack (High Sierra) Kimball, David J. (Raging Bull) Kimball, Ward (Fantasia; Snow White) Kimura, Ko (Ikiru; Shichinin no samurai) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1453 Kimura, Takeo (Tampopo) Kimuri, Hiroko (Blade Runner) Kindahl, Jullan (Smultronst?llet) King, Cammie (Gone With the Wind) King, Claude (Philadelphia Story) King, Colman ‘‘Tiger’’ (Man of Aran) King, E. Lewis (Deliverance) King, Frank (Gun Crazy) King, Jim (Blair Witch Project) King, Ken (Pulp Fiction) King, Maurice (Gun Crazy) King, Richard (Room with a View) King, Sherwood (Lady from Shanghai) Kingsley, Ben (Schindler’s List) Kinnell, Murray (Public Enemy) Kinoshita, Chuji (Ningen no joken) Kinoshita, Tsuyoshi (Shonen) Kinskey, Leonid (Trouble in Paradise) Kinski, Klaus (Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes) Kinski, Nastassja (Paris, Texas) Kinsky, Leonid (Casablanca) Kinugasa, Teinosuke (Jigokumon; Jujiro) Kinz, Franziska (Tagebuch einer Verlorenen) Kippen, Mannart (Mildred Pierce) Kirby, Ben (Draughtsman’s Contract) Kirby, Godfrey (Draughtsman’s Contract) Kirchner, Rainer (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Kirk, Al (Shaft) Kirk, Charles (Informer) Kirk, Mark-Lee (Magni?cent Ambersons; Young Mr. Lincoln) Kirkeby, Per (Breaking the Waves) Kirkland, Geoffrey (Midnight Express) Kirkland, Jack (Carrosse d’or) Kirkland, Sally (JFK; Player) Kirsanoff, Dimitri (Menilmontant) Kirsanova, Nina (Nesto izmedju) Kirschner, Bill (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Kirshner, Mia (Exotica) Kirwan, Kitty (Odd Man Out) Kish, Joseph (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Kish, Laszlo I. (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Kishi, Keiko (Kwaidan) Kishida, Kuichiro (Gojira) Kishida, Kyoko (Ningen no joken; Suna no onna) Kishimoto, Gin-ichi (Seppuku) Kishimoto, Kayoko (Hana-Bi) Kisho, Hideo (Ningen no joken) Kiss, Esther (Argent) Kita, Ryuji (Samma no aji) Kita, Takeo (Gojira) Kitano, Takeshi (Hana-Bi) Kitzmeyer, Bruce (GoodFellas) Kiyokawa, Nijiko (Fukushu suru wa ware ni ari) Kjaerulff-Schmidt, Palle (Der var engang en krig) Kjellqvist, Tommy (Offret) Kjer, Bodil (Babettes Gaestebud) Klagemann, Eugen (M?rder sind unter uns) Klap, V. (Proshchanie) Klata, Wojciech (Dekalog) Klaus, Henry (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Klausse (Judex) Kleid, Frank (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Klein, Adelaide (Naked City) Klein, Erik S. (Sterne) Klein, Georges (Yeux sans visage) Klein, Marius (Chagrin et la pitié) Klein-Rogge, Rudolph (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Testament des Dr. Mabuse; Kabinett des Dr. Caligari; Nibelungen) Klepikov, Yuri (Istoria Asi Kliachinoi kotoraia lubila da nie vyshla zamuzh) Klimov, Elem (Idi i smotri; Proshchanie) Klimov, Herman (Proshchanie) Kline, Benjamin H. (Detour) Klingman, Lynzee (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Kljakovic, Miljen Kreka (Dom za vesanje; Nesto izmedju; Underground) Kl?pfer, Eugene (Jud Süss) Klos, Elmar (Obchod na korze) Klosinski, Edward (Czlowiek z marmuru; Dekalog; Trois Couleurs) K?osowski, Roman (Eroica) Kloth, Barbara (Bleierne Zeit) Kluge, Alexander (Deutschland im Herbst) Kluge, Josef (Staré povesti ceské) Klugman, Jack (Twelve Angry Men) Klusák, Jan (O slavnosti a hostech) Kluth, H. (Ewige Jude) Klyavkov, Petar (Koziyat rog) Klyukvine, I. (Stachka) Kmit, Leomind (Chapayev) Knapp, Charles (Blade Runner) Knef, Hildegard (M?rder sind unter uns) Knieper, Jürgen (Amerikanische freund; Der Himmel Uber Berlin) Kniesbeck, Mathias (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Knight, Bobby (Hoop Dreams) Knight, Captain (Private Life of Henry VIII) Knight, Charles (Five Easy Pieces) Knight, Eric (Why We Fight) Knight, Esmond (Black Narcissus; Henry V; Peeping Tom) Knight, Fuzzy (She Done Him Wrong) Knight, James (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Knight, Rosalind (Tom Jones) Knoblauch, William (Gertrud) Knode, Charles (Blade Runner) Knoll, John (Star Wars) Knonov, Mikhail (Siberiade) Knowles, Bernard (39 Steps) Knowles, Patric (Adventures of Robin Hood) Knox, Doris (Servant) Knox, Mickey (C’era una volta il west; White Heat) Knox, Robert (Song of Ceylon) Knudsen, Poul (Vredens dag) Knudson, Buzz (Close Encounters of the Third Kind; Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Knudson, Robert (Cabaret) Knusden, Peggy (Big Sleep) Knutzon, Lars (Gertrud) Kobart, Ruth (Dirty Harry) Kobayashi, Kanae (Ai no corrida) Kobayashi, Masaki (Kwaidan; Ningen no joken; Seppuku) Kobayashi, Shoji (Seppuku) Kober, Arthur (Little Foxes) Kobiela, Bogumil (Eroica; Popiol i diament) Kobori, Makoto (Ikiru) Koch, Carl (Grande illusion; Règle du jeu) Koch, Howard (Casablanca; Letter from an Unknown Woman) Koch, Howard, Jr. (Chinatown) Kodama, Kenji (Ran) Kodo, Kokuten (Gojira) Kodo, Kuninori (Shichinin no samurai) Koenekamp, H. F. (High Sierra; Strangers on a Train; Treasure of the Sierra Madre; White Heat) Kogure, Michiyo (Akasen chitai) Kohler, Fred, Jr. (Young Mr. Lincoln) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1454 Kohler, Hanna (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Kohout, Eduard (Baron Prasil; Staré povesti ceské) Koi, Hideo (Saikaku ichidai onna) Kokernot, Larissa (Fargo) Kokobkin, B. (Letyat zhuravli) Kolarov, Dimo (Koziyat rog) Kolb, Clarence (Adam’s Rib; His Girl Friday) Kolb, Josef (Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Kolev, Todor (Koziyat rog) Koline, Nicolas (Napoléon) Kolk, Scott (All Quiet on the Western Front) Kolldehoff, Reinhard (Caduta degli dei) Koller, Xavier (Journey of Hope) Kollhanek, Fred (M?rchen vom Glück) Kollorsz, Richard (Scarlet Empress) Kolner, Alfredo (Carrosse d’or) Koloschinski, Andrea (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Kolowrat, Count Alexander (Sodom und Gomorrha) Kolsrud, Dan (L.A. Con?dential) Kolstad, Henki (Sult) Kolster, Clarence (Frankenstein) Koltai, Lajos (Angi Vera; Mephisto) Kolychev (Ivan Grozny) Komarov, Sergei (Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov) Komatsu, Hosei (Koshikei) Komeda, Krzysztof (Noz w wodzie; Rosemary’s Baby; Sult) Komorowska, Maja (Dekalog) Komroff, Manuel (Scarlet Empress) Konchalovsky, Andrei (Istoria Asi Kliachinoi kotoraia lubila da nie vyshla zamuzh) Kondov, Ivan (Sterne) Konforti, Leo (Sterne) Kong, Johnny (Ahfei zheng zhuan) Kong Lin (Dahong denglong gaogao gua) Kongkham, Lynn (Deer Hunter) Kongo, Reiko (Sansho dayu) Kono, Akitake (Sansho dayu) Konoe, Toshiaki (Saikaku ichidai onna) Konopelska, Wieslawa (Czlowiek z marmuru) Konstantin, Leopoldine (Notorious) Konwicki, Tadeusz (Matka Joanna od aniolow) Konyukhova, Tatyana (Csillagosok, katonák) Koo-Koo (Freaks) Kopalin, Ilya (Kino-Pravda) Kopecky, Milos (Baron Prasil) Kopestonsky, Father Stephen (Deer Hunter) Koppenh?fer, Maria (Tie?and) Korda, Alexander (Marius Trilogy; Private Life of Henry VIII; Things to Come) Korda, Nino (Lola) Korda, Vincent (Marius Trilogy; Private Life of Henry VIII; Things to Come; Third Man) Kore-eda, Hirokazu (Wandafuru Raifu) Koreneva, Yelena (Siberiade) Korff, Arnold (Tagebuch einer Verlorenen) Kornel, Hélèna (Année dernière à Marienbad) Korner, Freddy (Room with a View) K?rner, Lothar (Student von Prag) Korngold, Eric Wolfgang (Adventures of Robin Hood) Korobei (Bronenosets Potemkin) Kortner, Fritz (Büchse der Pandora; Schatten) Korzhikin, Dmitri (Voina i mir) Korzyński, Andrzej (Czlowiek z marmuru) Koscialkowska, Maria (Dekalog) Kose, El? (M?rchen vom Glück) Kosheverova, N. (Maxim Trilogy) Koshiba, Kanji (Sansho dayu) Kosiak, Stephane (Last Tango in Paris) Koslovsky, Sergei (Potomok Chingis-Khan) Kosma, Joseph (Bête humaine; Enfants du paradis; Grande illusion; Partie de campagne; Sang des bêtes) Kosono, Yoko (Sansho dayu) Koss, Doug von (Conversation) Kostal, Irwin (Fantasia) Kostecki, Józef (Eroica) Kostrichkin, Andrei (Novyi Vavilon) Kosugi, Yoshio (Shichinin no samurai) Kotamanidou, Eva (Thiasos, O) Koteas, Elias (Exotica) Kottke, Leo (Days of Heaven) Kottmann, Claus (Ehe der Maria Braun) Koubitsky, Alexandre (Napoléon) Kouchi, Momoko (Gojira) Kouiret, M. (Chronique des années de braise) Koukhianidzé, V. (Pirosmani) Kounde, Hubert (Haine) Kourani, Elsa (Der var engang en krig) Kouznetzov, A. (Stachka) Kouznetzov, M. (Ivan Grozny) Kovacevic, Dusan (Underground) Kovacs, Lajos (Der Himmel Uber Berlin) Kovacs, Laszlo (Close Encounters of the Third Kind; Easy Rider; Five Easy Pieces) Koval-Samborsky, Ivan (Mat) Kovrighine, Vladimir (Oktiabr) Koyama, Akiko (Ai no corrida; Koshikei; Shonen) Koza, Dezs? (Angi Vera) Kozaburo, Nakajima (Sansho dayu) Kozák, András (Csillagosok, katonák) Kozakov, Mikhail (Csillagosok, katonák) Kozien, Zdzislaw (Czlowiek z marmuru) Kozintsev, Grigori (Korol Lir; Maxim Trilogy; Novyi Vavilon) Kozlovsky, Sergei (Mat; Konyets Sankt-Peterburga) Kozomara, Ljubisa (Budjenje pacova) Krabbé, Tim (Spoorloos) Krafft, Barbara (Popiol i diament) Kraft, Dorothea (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Kramer, Louis (Gregory’s Girl) Kramer, Stanley (High Noon) Kramer, Vernon W. (Naked City) Kramm, Waltraut (Sterne) Krampf, Gunther (Nosferatu (1922novyi) Krantz, Peter (Exotica) Kranze, Don (Graduate; Hustler) Krasker, Robert (Brief Encounter; Henry V; Odd Man Out; Third Man) Krasna, Michel (Sans Soleil) Krasna, Norman (Fury) Krasner, Milton (All about Eve) Kratochvíl, Milos (Staré povesti ceské) Kraus-Rajteric, Vladimir (Vlak bez voznog reda) Krause, George (Paths of Glory) Krauss, Henry (Napoléon) Krauss, Jacques (Pépé le Moko) Krauss, Werner (Jud Süss; Kabinett des Dr. Caligari) Kravchinovski, I. (Stachka) Kravshenko, Alexei (Idi i smotri) Kravtchunovsky, I. (Stachka) Kreissel, Gusti (Angst essen Seele auf) Krenz, Jan (Eroica; Kanal) Kres, Hans (M?rchen vom Glück) Kresoja, Dragan (Dom za vesanje) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1455 Kress, Harold S. (Mrs. Miniver) Kreuzer, Lisa (Amerikanische freund; Im Lauf der Zeit) Kreuzer, Patrick (Im Lauf der Zeit) Krichevsky, Vasily (Zemlya) Krimer, Harry (Napoléon) Kristensen, Knud (Gertrud) Kristiansen, Cay (Ordet) Kristiansen, Henning (Babettes Gaestebud; Sult) Kristofferson, Kris (Lone Star) Kritzer, Heather (L.A. Con?dential) Kriuchkov, N. (Maxim Trilogy) Kriutchkova, Svetlana (Outomlionnye solntsem) Kroeber, Ann (Blue Velvet) Kroeber, Carlos (Bye Bye Brasil) Kroecher, Michael (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Kroeger, Berry (Gun Crazy) Kroke, Wolfgang (Blechtrommel) Kroll, Eva (Paths of Glory) Króner, Jozef (Obchod na korze) Krook, Margaretha (Persona) Krpata, Franz (M?rchen vom Glück) Kruchkov, Nikolai (Balada o soldate) Krueger, Lorraine (Dance, Girl, Dance) Kruger, Alma (His Girl Friday) Kruger, Jules (Argent; Napoléon; Pépé le Moko) Kruger, Otto (High Noon) Krumbachová, Ester (O slavnosti a hostech) Kruschen, Jack (Apartment) Krusharska, Sasha (Sterne) Kruta, Ferdinand (Ostre sledované vlaky) Krylov, Michail (Istoria Asi Kliachinoi kotoraia lubila da nie vyshla zamuzh) Krylov, S. (Andrei Rublev) Kryuk, Leonid (Proshchanie) Kryzjewska, Ewa (Popiol i diament) Kubelka, Peter (Unsere Afrikareise) Kubrick, Christiane (Clockwork Orange) Kubrick, Stanley (2001: A Space Odyssey; Clockwork Orange; Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb; Lolita; Paths of Glory) Kuc, Dariusz (Dekalog) Kuchinsky, V. (Moskva slezam ne verit) Kuchynsky, M. (Arsenal) Kuga, Yoshiko (Higanbana) Kühle, Walter (Metropolis) Kuhn, George (Ehe der Maria Braun) Kuhn, Manfred (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Kuhn, Mickey (Gone With the Wind; Red River) Kuhn, Toni (Spoorloos) Kühr, Ernst (Caduta degli dei) Kulagina, Valentina (Siberiade) Kulakov, A. (Maxim Trilogy) Kuleshov, Lev (Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov) Kulky, Henry (Star Is Born) Kulle, Jarl (Babettes Gaestebud; Fanny och Alexander; Sommarnattens leende) Kulp, Nancy (Shane) Kumagai, Jiro (Shichinin no samurai) Kumar, Raaj (Bharat Mata) Kumar, Rajendra (Bharat Mata) Kumar, Rattan (Do bigha zamin) Kumkum (Bharat Mata) Kun, Magda (Dead of Night) Kunikowski, Tadeusz (Blechtrommel) Künneke, Evelyn (M?rchen vom Glück) Kunstmann, Doris (Funny Games) Kuntze, Reimar (Berlin: Die Sinfonie der Grossstadt; M?dchen in Uniform) Kuo Mu-Shan (He Liu) Kupferberg, Tuli (W.R.: Mysterije Organizma) Kupriyanova, E. (Letyat zhuravli) Kurasaki, Seiji (Narayama bushi-ko) Kureishi, Hanif (My Beautiful Laundrette) Kuriowa, Hisami (Smoke) Kuroda, Kiyoshi (Hadaka no shima) Kurokawa, Yataro (Jigokumon) Kurosawa, Akira (Ikiru; Ran; Rashomon; Shichinin no samurai; Yojimbo) Kurth, Hans (M?rchen vom Glück) Kurti, Besim (America, L’) Kurtz, Emilie (Letze Mann) Kurtz, Gary (American Graf?ti; Star Wars) Kurtz, Wilbur G. (Gone With the Wind) Kusakabe, Goro (Narayama bushi-ko) Kusatsu, Clyde (Black Sunday) Kuss, Richard (Deer Hunter) Kustova, Anna (Proshchanie) Kusturica, Emir (Dom za vesanje; Otac na sluzbenom putu; Underground) Kuszewski, Jaros?aw (Matka Joanna od aniolow) Kutty, Hassan (Salaam Bombay) Kutudjan, Kevork (India Song) Kuwano, Miyuki (Higanbana) Kuzis, E. (Tretia Meshchanskaia) Kuzmina, Elena (Novyi Vavilon) Kuznetsov, A. (Maxim Trilogy) Kveselava, Rezo (Pokaianie) Kwan, Moon (Broken Blossoms) Kwan, Stanley (Yanzhi kou) Kwei, James (GoodFellas) Kwiatkowska, Halina (Popiol i diament) Kwiet, Hans (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Kwouk, Bert (Casino Royale) Kylau, Hans-Günter (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Kyo, Machiko (Akasen chitai; Jigokumon; Rashomon; Ugetsu monogatari) Kyrlya, Ivan (Putyovka v zhizn) La Barthe, d’Henri (Pépé le Moko) La Motta, Jake (Raging Bull) La Penna, Anthony (Paisà) La Rue, Grace (She Done Him Wrong) La Torre, Charles (Casablanca) La Verne, Lucille (Little Caesar) Labarthe, André S. (A bout de souf?e; Vivre sa vie) Labasse, Laurent (Haine) Labiche, Eugene (Chapeau de paille d’Italie) Labisse, Felix (Zéro de conduite) Labourdette, Elina (Dames du Bois de Boulogne) Labourier, Dominique (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris; Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Labow, Hilary (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Labrély, Henri (Sang d’un poete) Labry, Pierre (Kermesse héroique) Labussière, André (Procès) Labussière, Jean (Cléo de cinq à sept; Thérèse Desqueyroux) LaCapria, Raffaele (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli) Lacca, Yolanda (Laura) Lacerda, Felipe (Central do Brasil) Lacey, Catherine (Lady Vanishes; Servant) Lacey, Ronald (Raiders of the Lost Ark) Lachmann, Ed (Player) Lack, Stephen (Dead Ringers) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1456 Lacoste, Christian (Noire de ...) Lacour, René (Orphée) Ladd, Alan (Shane) Ladd, Diane (Chinatown) Ladengast, Walter (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle; M?rchen vom Glück) Ladi?insky, Mikulá? (Obchod na korze) Ladmiral, Nicole (Journal d’un curé de campagne; Sang des bêtes) Lado, Marta (Conformista) Laemmle, Carl (Dracula 1931; Foolish Wives; Phantom of the Opera) Laemmle, Carl, Jr. (All Quiet on the Western Front; Bride of Frankenstein; Frankenstein) Lafont, Jean-Philippe (Babettes Gaestebud) Lagergren, Ake (Fanny och Alexander) Lagergren, Elin (Erotikon) Lagerl?f, Selma (G?sta Berlings Saga; Herr Arnes Pengar; K?rkalen) Lagrange, Jacques (Playtime) Lagrange, Louise (Vampires) Lagrange, Naima (Trois Couleurs) Lagrange, Valérie (Weekend) Lagutin, Ivan (Alexander Nevsky) Lahiri, Soven (Jana Aranya) Lahr, Bert (Wizard of Oz) Lai, Michael (Yanzhi kou) Lai Fanyun (Guling jie shaonian sha ren shijian) Lai Mingtang (Guling jie shaonian sha ren shijian) Laine, Pascal (Dentellière) Laine, Paul (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) Laing, Martin (Titanic) Laird, Jenny (Black Narcissus) Laird, Joan (Salt of the Earth) Lajarrige, Bernard (Dames du Bois de Boulogne) Lajmi, Kalpana (Bhumika) Lake, Stuart N. (My Darling Clementine) Lake, Veronica (Sullivan’s Travels) Lakhdar Hamina, Mohammed (Chronique des années de braise) Lakovic, Predrag (Otac na sluzbenom putu) Lakshmanan, Lila (Mèpris; Vivre sa vie) Lalara, Cedric (Last Wave) Lalara, Morris (Last Wave) Lamadriz, Rosenda (Soy Cuba) Lamb, Judith (Shaft) Lamb, Marc (Godfather Trilogy) Lambert, Anne Louise (Draughtsman’s Contract; Picnic at Hanging Rock) Lambert, Jack (Killers) Lambert, Tom (Gun Crazy) Lambourne, Stanley (Black Narcissus; Brief Encounter) Lambrinos, Fotos (Thiasos, O) Lamirand, Georges (Chagrin et la pitié) Lamont, Duffy (Easy Rider) Lamont, Duncan (Carrosse d’or) Lamont, Peter (Titanic) LaMotta, Jake (Hustler) Lampe, Jutta (Bleierne Zeit) Lampe, Karl-Heinz (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Lampel, Peter Martin (Kameradschaft) Lamphere, W. H. (Land) Lampin, Georges (Napoléon) Lampley, Oni Faida (Lone Star) Lampreave, Chus (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios) Lamy, Raymond (Condamné à mort s’est échappé; Pickpocket) Lan, Ke (Huang tudi) Lan, Tony (He Liu) Lancaster, Burt (1900; From Here to Eternity; Gattopardo; Killers; Sweet Smell of Success) Lanchester, Elsa (Bride of Frankenstein; Private Life of Henry VIII) Lanci, Giuseppe (Kaos; Pugni in tasca) Lanclos, Bertrand (Trois Couleurs) Lancret, Bernard (Kermesse héroique) Lancy, Lucy (Dames du Bois de Boulogne) Landa, Alfredo (Verdugo) Landa, J. de (Ossessione) Landaker, Gregg (JFK) Landau, David (I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang; She Done Him Wrong) Landau, Jon (Titanic) Landau, Martin (North by Northwest) Landers, Alan (Annie Hall) Landgré, Inga (Sjunde inseglet) Landgrebe, Gudrun (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Landgut, Inge (M) Landier, Jean (Ronde) Landis, Jeanette (Marat/Sade) Landis, Jessie Royce (North by Northwest) Landon, Judy (Singin’ in the Rain) Landry, Gerard (Bête humaine) Landshoff, Ruth (Nosferatu (1922novyi) Landy, Hanna (Rosemary’s Baby) Lane, Charles (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Lane, Eric (Lolita) Lane, Tommy (Shaft) Lang, Arno (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Lang, Charles (She Done Him Wrong; Some Like It Hot) Lang, Charles, Jr. (Big Heat) Lang, Christiane (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Lang, David (Udju Azul di Yonta) Lang, Doreen (Birds; North by Northwest) Lang, Fritz (Big Heat; Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Testament des Dr. Mabuse; Fury; M; Metropolis; Mèpris; Nibelungen) Lang, Julia (Red Shoes) Lang, Stephen J. (Lone Star) Langdon, Lillian (Intolerance) Langdon, Richard (Blue Velvet) Lange, David (Klute) Lange, Harry (2001: A Space Odyssey; Star Wars) Lange, Hellmuth (Hitler: Ein Film aus Deutschland) Lange, Hope (Blue Velvet) Langer, Ludwig (M?rchen vom Glück) Langford, Dick (Casino Royale) Langley, Noel (Wizard of Oz) Langton, David (Hard Day’s Night) Lanhua, Li (Qiu Ju da Guansi) Lani, Hriday (Salaam Bombay) Lania, Leo (Dreigroschenoper) Lanier, Jean (Année dernière à Marienbad) Lanner, Margarete (Metropolis) Lanoe, Jacques (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Lanovoi, Vasily (Voina i mir) Lansbury, Angela (Picture of Dorian Gray) Lansing, Joi (Touch of Evil) Lantos, Robert (Exotica) Lantschner, Guzzi (Olympia) Lanzmann, Claude (Shoah) Laosheng, Lei (Qiu Ju da Guansi) Lapikov, Ivan (Andrei Rublev) Lapis, Joe (All That Heaven Allows) Laplanche, Yves (Procès) Lapointe, Bobby (Tirez sur le pianiste) Lara, Antonio (Redes) Lara, Odete (Ant?nio das Mortes) Lararev, L. (Andrei Rublev) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1457 Larch, John (Dirty Harry) Larder, Geoffrey (Draughtsman’s Contract; Mona Lisa) Lardner, Ring (Laura) Lardner, Ring, Jr. (M*A*S*H) Laretei, K?bi (Fanny och Alexander) Largemains, Bernard (Jules et Jim) Larionov, Vsevolod (Siberiade) Larive, Léon (Règle du jeu; Zéro de conduite) Larner, Stevan (Badlands) Laroche, Guy (Casino Royale) Larraburre, Roberto (De cierta manera) Larrinaga, Juan (King Kong) Larrinaga, Mario (King Kong) Larroquette, John (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Larsen, Eric (Fantasia) Larsen, Roy (March of Time) Larsen, Thomas Bo (Festen) Larson, Eric (Snow White) Lary, Pierre (Belle de jour) Laser, Dieter (Deutschland im Herbst) LaShelle, Joseph (Apartment; Laura) Lasic, Vladislav (Underground) Laskowska, Irena (Czlowiek z marmuru) Lassalle, Martin (Pickpocket) Lassally, Walter (Tom Jones) Lasser, Ulrike (Funny Games) Lassick, Sydney (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Laszlo, Ernest (Kiss Me Deadly) Látal, Stanislav (Staré povesti ceské) Latarjet, Tania (Spoorloos) Latch, John (Written on the Wind) Latif (Duvidha) Latour, Maria (Belle de jour) Latyshevskii, V. (Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov) Lau, Andy (Ahfei zheng zhuan) Lau, Fred (Apartment; Some Like It Hot) Lau, Karina (Ahfei zheng zhuan) Laucevicius, Liubomiras (Idi i smotri) Laughton, Charles (Night of the Hunter; Private Life of Henry VIII) Laughton, Eddie (Lost Weekend) Launder, Frank (Lady Vanishes) Launders, Perc (Sullivan’s Travels) Laurel, Stan (Music Box) Laurent, Antoine (Bataille du rail) Laurent, Hugues (Boudu sauvé des eaux) Laurent, Jacqueline (Jour se lève) Laurent, Jeanne-Marie (Vampires) Laureux, Jean-Claude (Bye Bye Brasil; Trois Couleurs) Laurie, John (39 Steps; Henry V; Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Laurie, Piper (Hustler) Lavanic, Zlatko (Otac na sluzbenom putu) Lavellée, Robert (Dames du Bois de Boulogne) LaVerne, Lucille (Snow White) Lavert, René (Weekend) Lavi, Daliah (Casino Royale) Law, John (Casino Royale) Lawarence, Marc (Big Sleep) Lawford, Peter (Picture of Dorian Gray) Lawner, Mordecai (Annie Hall) Lawrence, Marc (Asphalt Jungle) Lawrence, Patricia (Room with a View) Lawrence, Viola (In a Lonely Place; Lady from Shanghai) Lawson, Arthur (Black Narcissus; Peeping Tom; Red Shoes) Lawton, Charles, Jr. (Lady from Shanghai) Lawson, Denis (Star Wars) Lawson, Wilfrid (Tom Jones) Lax, Frances Weintraub (Apartment) Laydu, Claude (Journal d’un curé de campagne) Lazan, David S. (American Beauty) Lazare, Veronica (Last Tango in Paris) Lazarowitz, Les (Godfather Trilogy; Raging Bull) Lazarus, Simon (Salt of the Earth) Lazzari, Nicolo (Sciuscia) Le Beal, Robert (Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie) le Calvez, Pierre (Chagrin et la pitié) Le Clainche, Charles (Condamné à mort s’est échappé) Le Fèbvre, Robert (Casque d’or) Le Flon, Robert (Zéro de conduite) Le Gang (Haizi wang) Le Hénaff, René (Jour se lève; Quai des brumes) Le Mare, Mike (Das Boot) Le Mat, Paul (American Graf?ti) Le Vigan, Robert (Quai des brumes) Leach, Penny (Last Wave) Leach, Rosemary (Room with a View) Leachman, Cloris (Kiss Me Deadly; Last Picture Show) Leacock, Richard (Louisiana Story) Leah, Petra (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Leake, Barbara (Dead of Night) Lean, David (Brief Encounter; Great Expectations; Lawrence of Arabia) Léaud, Jean-Pierre (Last Tango in Paris; Quatre cents coups; Weekend, Le) Leaver, Philip (Lady Vanishes) Leavitt, Sam (Star Is Born) LeBaron, William (She Done Him Wrong) Lebdu?ková, Helena (Staré povesti ceské) Lebeau, Madeleine (8?; Casablanca) Lebihan, Samuel (Trois Couleurs) LeBlanc, Lee (North by Northwest) Lebon, Roger (Entr’acte) Lebreton, J. (Du Ri?? chez les hommes) Lebreton, Jacques (Jeux interdits; Procès) Lebreton, Jean (Belle et la bête) Lebrun, Fran?ois (India Song) Lecallier, Adeline (Haine) Lechle, Trude (Tie?and) Leclerc, Ginette (Femme du boulanger) Leclerc, Sohie (Noire de ...) Lecomte, Jacqueline (Playtime) Lecuyer (Farrebique) Leder, Erwin (Das Boot) Lederer, Charles (His Girl Friday) Lederer, Franz (Büchse der Pandora) Lederer, Otto (Jazz Singer) Ledl, Lotte (38-Auch das war Wien) Ledoux, Fernand (Bête humaine; Procès) Ledrut, Jean (Procès) Lee, Alberta (Birth of a Nation) Lee, Anna (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Lee, Bernard (Blue Lamp; Third Man) Lee, Bill (Do the Right Thing) Lee, Christopher (Dracula 1958) Lee, Danny (Bonnie and Clyde) Lee, David (Masque of the Red Death) Lee, Florence (City Lights) Lee, Jennie (Birth of a Nation) Lee, Lilian (Ba wang bie ji) Lee, Peggy (Johnny Guitar) Lee, Robert B. (Big Sleep; Rio Bravo; Treasure of the Sierra Madre) Lee, Robert E. (Little Caesar) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1458 Lee, Spike (Do the Right Thing; Hoop Dreams; Malcolm X) Lee Kang-sheng (He Liu) Lee Kirk, Mark (Grapes of Wrath) Lee Pao-Lin (He Liu) Leeds, Philip (Rosemary’s Baby) Leer, Hunter von (Black Sunday) Lefebvre, Jean (Et ... Dieu créa la femme) Lefèvre, Louis (Atalante; Zéro de conduite) Lefèvre, René (Crime de Monsieur Lange; Million) Léger, Fernand (Ballet mécanique) Legg, J. Gordon (Fantasia) Legg, Stuart (Paisà; Song of Ceylon) Legitimus, Darling (Last Tango in Paris) Legrá, Adela (Lucia) Legrand, Lucien (Dames du Bois de Boulogne) Legrand, Michel (Cléo de cinq à sept; Joli Mai; Vivre sa vie) Legris, Roger (Pépé le Moko) Legros, Paul (Sang des bêtes) Lehman, Ernest (North by Northwest; Sweet Smell of Success; West Side Story) Lei Chen-Ching (He Liu) Lei Han(Ba wang bie ji) Leicier, Dulice (My Beautiful Laundrette) Leigh, Janet (Psycho; Touch of Evil) Leigh, Mike (Life Is Sweet; Secrets and Lies) Leigh, Vivien (Gone With the Wind; Streetcar Named Desire) Leigh, Walter (Song of Ceylon) Leipold, John (Scarlet Empress) Leiris, M. (Chagrin et la pitié) Leland, David (Mona Lisa) LeMaire, Charles (All about Eve) Lemaire, Martine (Journal d’un curé de campagne) Lemaitre, Francine (Trois Couleurs) Lemaitre, Pascal (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) Lemarque, Francis (Playtime) LeMay, Alan (Searchers) Lemberg, A. (Kino-Pravda) Lemery, Raymond (Noire de ...) Lemery, Suzanne (Noire de ...) Lemkow, Tutte (Casino Royale) Lemmon, Jack (Apartment; JFK; Player; Some Like It Hot) Lemon, Genevieve (Piano) Lemon, Max (Last Wave) Lenard, Mark (Annie Hall) Lendruz, R. (Femme du boulanger) Lengleng, Qian (Lan fengzheng) Lengyel, Melchior (Ninotchka) Lenhart (Orfeu Negro) Lennon, John (Hard Day’s Night) Lenny, Bill (Casino Royale; Dracula 1958) Lenny, Tony (Room with a View) Lenoir, Claude (Trois Couleurs) Lenya, Lotte (Dreigroschenoper) Leon, Joseph (Shaft; Sweet Smell of Success) Leon, Lotes (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios) Leon Y Quiroga, Valverde (Cria Cuervos ...) Leonard, Harry M. (Laura) Leonard, Jamie (Mona Lisa) Leonard, Joshua (Blair Witch Project) Leonard, Sheldon (It’s a Wonderful Life) Leone, Sergio (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo; C’era una volta il west; Once Upon a Time in America) Leonetti, Francesco (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Leonetti, Gina (Silence of the Lambs) Leonhardt, Gustav (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Leonhardt, Kathrien (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Leonhardt, Rudolf (Tagebuch einer Verlorenen) Leontiev, Avangard (Outomlionnye solntsem) Leontyev, S. (Maxim Trilogy) Lepel, Bernd (Blechtrommel) Lepennec, Gérard (Last Tango in Paris) Lepicier, Eugène (Samourai) Lépicier, Eugène (Thérèse Desqueyroux) Lepine, Jean (Player) Leprince, Solange (India Song) Lerczinska, Séverine (Boudu sauvé des eaux) Lerdorff, Preben (Vredens dag) Lerfeldt, Hans Henrik (Fanny och Alexander) Lerner, Alan Jay (American in Paris) Lerner, Carl (Klute; Twelve Angry Men) Lerner, Elvire (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) Lerner, Irving (Land) Leroux, Bernard (Vlemma Tou Odyssea) Leroux, Gaston (Phantom of the Opera) Leroy (Bataille du rail) Leroy, Jacques (Samourai) LeRoy, Mervyn (I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang; Little Caesar; Wizard of Oz) Lesaffre, Roland (Casque d’or) Lesander, Birgir (Tystnaden) Lesch, Michael (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Lesiak, Urszula (Trois Couleurs) Lesignor, Michael (Quatre cents coups) Leslie, Joan (High Sierra) Lessing, Lena (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Lessley, Elgin (Sherlock, Jr.) Lester, Eleese (Lone Star) Lester, Frank (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Lester, Richard (Hard Day’s Night) Lestringuez, Pierre (Partie de campagne) Leszcyzlowski, Michel (Offret) Leterrier, Fran?ois (Condamné à mort s’est échappé) Letort, Jean (Feu Mathias Pascal) Lettinger, Rudolf (Kabinett des Dr. Caligari) Leubas, Louis (Judex; Vampires) Leung, Tony (City of Sadness) Leung Chiu-wei, Tony (Ahfei zheng zhuan) Levant, Oscar (American in Paris; Band Wagon) Levantal, Francois (Haine) Levanway, William (Night at the Opera) Levene, Sam (Cross?re; Killers; Sweet Smell of Success) Levert, Rene (Alphaville) Leveseque, Marcel (Crime de Monsieur Lange) Levesque, Marcel (Judex; Vampires) Levin, Charles (Annie Hall) Levin, Ira (Rosemary’s Baby) Levin, Sid (Mean Streets; Nashville) Levin, V. (Kommisar) Levine, Alan (Black Sunday) Levine, Joseph E. (Mèpris) Levine, Ted (Silence of the Lambs) Levitsky, Alexander (Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov) Levitt, Heidi (JFK) Levshin, A. (Stachka) Levy, Alfredo (Caduta degli dei) Levy, Benn W. (Blackmail) Lévy, Dr. Claude (Chagrin et la pitié) Levy, Louis (39 Steps; Lady Vanishes) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1459 Levy, Raoul-J. (Et ... Dieu créa la femme) Levy, Shmulik (Schindler’s List) Lewin, Albert (Picture of Dorian Gray) Lewin, Bill (Singin’ in the Rain) Lewin, Boris (Madame de ...) Lewis, Andy K. (Klute) Lewis, Dave (Klute) Lewis, David (Apartment; Camille) Lewis, George (Gilda; Shane) Lewis, Grover (Last Picture Show) Lewis, Harold (Rosemary’s Baby) Lewis, Harry (Gun Crazy) Lewis, Howard Lew (Brazil) Lewis, Joseph H. (Gun Crazy) Lewis, Ralph (Birth of a Nation; Intolerance) Lewis, Russell (Becky Sharp) Lewis, Tony (Douglas Trilogy) Lewis, Vera (Intolerance) Lewsley, Patrick (Gregory’s Girl) Lewton, Val (Cat People) Lewzey, Dick (Life Is Sweet) Leymarie, Pierre (Pickpocket) L’Herbier, Marcel (Argent; Feu Mathias Pascal) Lhomme, Pierre (Cyrano de Bergerac; Joli Mai) L’Hote, Ann-Marie (Shoah) Li, Gong (Qiu Ju da Guansi) Li Baotian (Ju Dou) Li Bihua (Yanzhi kou) Li Changqing (Daoma zei; Red Sorghum) Li Chun (Ba wang bie ji) Li Dan (Ba wang bie ji) Li Jingzhong (Daoma zei) Li Lanhua (Dahong denglong gaogao gua; Ju Dou) Li Longyu (Guling jie shaonian sha ren shijian) Li Tianlu (City of Sadness) Li Wei (Ju Dou; Wutai jiemei) Lianov, Boris (Oktiabr) Liao Pen-jung (He Liu) Liao Qingsong (City of Sadness) Libby, Fred (My Darling Clementine) Libowitzky, Herwig (38-Auch das war Wien) Licho, A. E. (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Lichtenstein, Rose (Metropolis; Nibelungen) Licudi, Gabriella (Casino Royale) Liebmann, Robert (Blaue Engel) Liessem, Wera (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Lieven, Albert (Kermesse héroique; Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Lievsay, Skip (Do the Right Thing; GoodFellas; Malcolm X; Silence of the Lambs) Liewehr, Fred (Engel mit der Posaune) Lifschitz, Philippe (Chronique d’un été) Lilienthal, Peter (Amerikanische freund) Liljeholm, Lars (Fanny och Alexander) Lilley, Merv (Last Wave) Lima, Gilvan Lima e Genivaldo (Vidas secas) Lima, Waldemar (Deus e o diabo na terra do sol) Lima, Walter (Deus e o diabo na terra do sol) Lima Barreto (Cangaceiro) Lima Barreto, Victor (Cangaceiro) Limentani, Annelena (Paisà) Limentani, L. (Paisà) Limonta, Mario (De cierta manera) Lin, Lin (Huang tudi) Lin Chongwen (City of Sadness) Lin Gu (Wutai jiemei) Linaker, Kay (Laura; Young Mr. Lincoln) Lincoln, Charles (Variété) Lincoln, Elmo (Birth of a Nation; Intolerance) Lind, Lars (Sjunde inseglet) Lindblom, Gunnal (Sjunde inseglet; Smultronst?llet; Sult; Tystnaden) Linden, Edward (King Kong) Lindenkreuz, Konrad (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Lindenkreuz, Ulrich (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Linder, Cec (Lolita) Lindersay, D. (Kongi’s Harvest) Lindgaard, E. (Henry V) Lindgran, Harry (Shane) Lindgren, Greta (Erotikon) Lindgren, Harry (Rear Window; Sunset Boulevard) Lindholm, Manne (Sjunde inseglet) Lindlof, John (Erotikon) Lindner, Robert M. (Rebel Without a Cause) Lindo, Delroy (Malcolm X) Lindon, Vincent (Haine) Lindsay, Joan (Picnic at Hanging Rock) Lindsey, Peter (Private Life of Henry VIII) Lindstr?m, Bibi (Gycklarnas afton; Persona) Lindstr?m, J?rgen (Persona; Tystnaden) Lingen, Theo (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse; M) Linhares, Haydil (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Linkov, Alexander (Malenkaya Vera) Linn, Jim (Close Encounters of the Third Kind) Lino, Edilson (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Linst?dt, Axel (Im Lauf der Zeit) Lion, Doctor (Draughtsman’s Contract) Lion, Margo (Dreigroschenoper) Liotta, Ray (GoodFellas) Lipanovic, Nebojsa (Underground) Liping, Lu (Lan fengzheng) Lipman, Jerzy (Kanal; Noz w wodzie) Lira, Soia (Central do Brasil) Li?ka, Zdeněk (Baron Prasil; Obchod na korze) Lissek, Leon (Marat/Sade) Lister, Francis (Henry V) Litera, Stanislav (Das Boot) Littaye, Guy (Boucher; Femme in?dèle) Littin, Herman (Alsino y el Condor) Littin, Miguel (Alsino y el Condor; Chacal de Nahueltoro) Little, Mickey (Gun Crazy) Little, Thomas (All about Eve; Laura) Little?eld, Marissa (GoodFellas) Littlejohn, Gary (Badlands) Littlestone, Carol (E.T.:The Extraterrestrial) Littman, Gordon (Red Shoes) Litvak, Anatole (Why We Fight) Litvinoff, Si (Clockwork Orange; Walkabout) Litvinov, Semyon (Zerkalo) Liu Haichen (Haizi wang) Liu Heng (Ju Dou) Liu Ji (Red Sorghum) Liu Miaomiao (Haizi wang) Liu Zhihua (City of Sadness) Liuchun, Yang (Qiu Ju da Guansi) Livadary, John P. (From Here to Eternity) Livesey, Roger (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp; Matter of Life and Death) Livesy, Sam (Private Life of Henry VIII) Livingston, Jay (Sunset Boulevard) Livingston, Pickles (Things to Come) Livingstone, Margaret (Sunrise) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1460 Llauradó, Adolfo (Lucia; Otro Francisco; Primera carga al machete; Retrato de Teresa) Llorens, Antonio (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios) Lloyd, Christopher (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Lloyd, Doris (Becky Sharp) Lloyd, Jake (Star Wars) Lloyd, John R. (Midnight Cowboy) Lloyd, Norman (Southerner) Lloyd, Robert (Marat/Sade) Lo, Y Sa (Lola) Lo Verso, Enrico (America, L’) Loach, Ken (My Name Is Joe) Lobewein, Johannes (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Locatelli, Laura (Albero degli zoccoli) Lockhart, Gene (His Girl Friday) Lockrem, Ray (Snow White) Lockwood, Alexander (North by Northwest) Lockwood, Gary (2001: A Space Odyssey) Lockwood, Margaret (Lady Vanishes) Loder, John (Now Voyager; Private Life of Henry VIII) Lodge, Jean (Masque of the Red Death) Lodge, John (Scarlet Empress) Lodife, Maurizio (Conformista) Loeb, Arthur (Chelsea Girls) Loef?er, Louis R. (Laura) Loegk, Carsta (Kermesse héroique) Loerk, Robert-Klein (Blaue Engel) Loew, David (Southerner) Loewen, Jan van (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Logan, Frank (Black Sunday) Logan, M. (Some Like It Hot) Logan, Phyllis (Secrets and Lies) Loginova, N. (Kommisar) Lohmann, Dietrich (Deutschland im Herbst; Hitler: Ein Film aus Deutschland) Lohmann, Paul (Nashville) Loisel, Roger (Crime de Monsieur Lange) Lokcinski, Tadek (Haine) Lokey, H. (Fantasia) Lokshina, Kh. (Maxim Trilogy) Loman, Christin (Offret) Lombardi, Ugo (Paisà) Lombardo, Goffredo (Gattopardo; Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Lombardo, Louis (Wild Bunch) Lomino, Dan (Close Encounters of the Third Kind) Lomnicki, Jacek (Czlowiek z marmuru) Lomnicki, Tadeusz (Czlowiek z marmuru; Eroica) Londe, Christian (Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) London, Tom (All Quiet on the Western Front; High Noon) Lonergan, Arthur (M*A*S*H) Long, Beverly (Rebel Without a Cause) Long, Matthew (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Long, Walter (Birth of a Nation; Intolerance; Thin Man) Longden, John (Blackmail) Longo, Gisella (Pugni in tasca) Longuet, René (Samourai; Belle de jour) Lonsdale, Michel (India Song; Procès; Souf?e au coeur) Loof, Claus (Der var engang en krig) Loos, Anita (Women) Loos, Theodor (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Testament des Dr. Mabuse; M; Metropolis; Nibelungen) Lopatina, V. (Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov) Lopes, Antonio Sequeira (Amor de perdic?o) Lopez, Carlos (Nuits fauves) López, Luis (Memorias del subdesarrollo) Lopez, Perry (Chinatown) López, Rigoberto (De cierta manera) López, Tony (Soy Cuba) López Vásquez, José Luis (Verdugo) Lord, Olga (Pépé le Moko) Lord, Robert (In a Lonely Place) Lord, Russell (Land) Lordon, Anne (Spoorloos) Lorencová, Zdeňka (Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Lorents, Victor (Idi i smotri) Lorentz, Pare (River) Lorenz, Juliane (Deutschland im Herbst; Ehe der Maria Braun; Lola) Lorenz, Perry (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Lorenzon, Livio (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Lorez, Claire De (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Lorin, Gérard (Année dernière à Marienbad) Lorin, Léon (A nous la liberté) Lorio, Atila (Fuzis) Loris, Fabien (Crime de Monsieur Lange; Enfants du paradis) Loris, Janine (Crime de Monsieur Lange) Lorit, Jean-Pierre (Trois Couleurs) Lorne, Marion (Graduate; Strangers on a Train) Lorre, Peter (Casablanca; M; Maltese Falcon) Losey, Joseph (Servant) Lothar, Ernst (Engel mit der Posaune) Lothar, Susanne (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Lother, Susanne (Funny Games) Loublier, Jean-Paul (Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles) Louge, René (Dames du Bois de Boulogne) Louiguy (A bout de souf?e) Louis, Jean (All the King’s Men; Big Heat; Gilda; Lady from Shanghai; Star Is Born) Louis, Pierre (Kameradschaft) Lounsbery, J. (Fantasia) Lourié, Eugène (Bête humaine; Grande illusion; Règle du jeu) Louys, Pierre (Devil Is a Woman) Louzeiro, José (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Louzowsky, V. (Ivan Grozny) Love, Alan (Gregory’s Girl) Love, Bessie (Birth of a Nation; Intolerance) Love, Edward (Fantasia) Love, Montagu (Adventures of Robin Hood; Wind) Lovejoy, Frank (In a Lonely Place) Lovejoy, Ray (2001: A Space Odyssey) Lovering, Otho (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Lovett, Lyle (Player) Low, Chuck (GoodFellas) Low, David (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Low, Warren (Now Voyager) Lowe, Arthur (If...) L?wert, Karen Marie (Der var engang en krig) L?wgren, Curt (Gycklarnas afton) L?witsch, Klaus (Ehe der Maria Braun) Lowry, Morton (Picture of Dorian Gray) Loy, Myrna (Best Years of Our Lives; Jazz Singer; Thin Man) Loyola, Mauricio (Fuzis) Lozano, Carlos (Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Lozano, Margarita (Kaos; Viridiana) Lu Man San (Odeur de la papaye verte) Lu Hsiao-Ling (He Liu) Lu Qi (Ba wang bie ji) Lu Shiao-Lin (He Liu) Lu Wei (Ba wang bie ji) Lubaszenko, Olaf (Dekalog) Lubchansky, William (Shoah) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1461 Lubitsch, Ernst (Ninotchka; Trouble in Paradise) Lubtchansky, Nicole (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) Lucas (Fièvre) Lucas, George (American Graf?ti; Raiders of the Lost Ark; Star Wars) Lucas, Isobel (Lolita) Lucas, Marcia (American Graf?ti; Star Wars; Taxi Driver) Lucas, Wilfred (Intolerance) Luce, Clare Booth (Women) Luciani, Mike (Kiss Me Deadly) Lucibello, Grant (Unforgiven) Lucien, Marcel (Boudu sauvé des eaux) Lucy, Arnold (All Quiet on the Western Front) Luczak, Jolanta (Trois Couleurs) Luczyc Wyhowski, Hugo (My Beautiful Laundrette) Lüdi, Heidi (Der Himmel Uber Berlin; Im Lauf der Zeit) Ludlam, Helen (Annie Hall) Ludwig, Ernst (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Ludwig, Heintz Forster (Kermesse héroique) Luft, Krzystof (Schindler’s List) Luft, Sidney (Star Is Born) Lugosi, Bela (Dracula 1931; Ninotchka) Lühr, Peter (Hitler: Ein Film aus Deutschland) Luick, Earl (Public Enemy) Lukas, Paul (Lady Vanishes) Lukaszewicz, Olgierd (Dekalog) Luke?ová, Ji?ina (Ostre sledované vlaky) Lukic, Snezana (Budjenje pacova) Lukovac, Pedrag (Otac na sluzbenom putu) Lulli, Folco (Salaire de la peur) Lully (Pickpocket) Lumet, Sidney (Twelve Angry Men) Lumière, Louis (Arroseur arrosé) Luna, Away (Searchers) Luna, Margarito (Treasure of the Sierra Madre) Lund, Kátia (Central do Brasil) Lund, Richard (Herr Arnes Pengar) Lundequist-Dahlstrom, Gerda (G?sta Berlings Saga) Lundgren, Bengt (Fanny och Alexander) Lundgren, P. A. (Sjunde inseglet; Sommarnattens leende; Tystnaden) Lundgren, Siv (Viskningar och rop) Lundholm, Lisa (K?rkalen; Sommarnattens leende) Lundy, Dick (Snow White) Luo Zhengyi (Wutai jiemei) Lupard, Deborah (GoodFellas) Lupi, Ignazio (Cabiria) Lupino, Ida (High Sierra) Lupovici, Marcel (Crime de Monsieur Lange; Du Ri?? chez les hommes) Luppov, Denis (Proshchanie) Lurie, John (Paris, Texas) Lüring, Werner (Deutschland im Herbst) Luruli, Ntshavheni Wa (Malcolm X) Lurville, André (Passion de Jeanne d’Arc) Lusk, Don (Fantasia) Luske, Hamilton (Fantasia; Snow White) Lustig, Branko (Blechtrommel) Lutèce, Régine (Boudu sauvé des eaux) Luther, Igor (Blechtrommel) Luttazzi, Lelio (Avventura) Lutz, Catherine (Tirez sur le pianiste) Lyashinskaya, S. (Kommisar) Lyby, Troels (Idioterne) Lydecker, Theodore (Johnny Guitar) Lynch, David (Blue Velvet; Eraserhead) Lynch, Ken (North by Northwest) Lynch, Warren E. (Big Sleep) Lyndon, Victor (2001: A Space Odyssey; Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Lynn, Vera (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Lynskey, Melanie (Heavenly Creatures) Lyon, Sue (Lolita) Lyon, William A. (From Here to Eternity) Lyonnel, Emma (Dames du Bois de Boulogne) Lyons, Donald (Chelsea Girls) Lyons, John (Fargo) Lyons, Richard E. (Ride the High Country) Lyovshin, Alexander (Bronenosets Potemkin) Lys, Lya (Age d’or) Lyubashevski, L. (Maxim Trilogy) Ma, Horace (Yanzhi kou) Ma Ji (Wutai jiemei) Ma Jingwu (Dahong denglong gaogao gua) Ma Mingwei (Ba wang bie ji) Maa, Jiloo (Bharat Mata) Maar, Dora (Crime de Monsieur Lange) Mabry, Moss (Giant) MacArthur, Charles (His Girl Friday) Macartney, Carol (Gregory’s Girl) MacBride, Donald (Killers) Macc, Jerry (Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Maccanti, Roberto (1900 (Novecento)) Macchi, Giulio (Carrosse d’or) MacDonald, Ian (High Noon; White Heat) MacDonald, J. Farrell (Sullivan’s Travels; Sunrise) MacDonald, Joseph P. (My Darling Clementine) Macdonald, Richard (Servant) Macdougal, Ranald (Mildred Pierce) MacDougall, Don (Close Encounters of the Third Kind; Star Wars) Macedo, Orlando (Vidas secas) MacGill, Moyna (Picture of Dorian Gray) MacGinnis, Nial (Henry V) MacGowan, Kenneth (Becky Sharp; Young Mr. Lincoln) MacGowran, Jack (Tom Jones) Macguire, Marlena (Five Easy Pieces) Machado, Sergio (Central do Brasil) Machalica, Piotr (Dekalog) Machaty, Gustav (Foolish Wives) Macheret, Alexander (Turksib) Machida, Hiroko (Akasen chitai) Machowski, Ignacy (Eroica; Popiol i diament) Macht, Heike (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Mack, Helen (His Girl Friday) Mack, Hughie (Greed) Mack, Marion (General) Mack, Wilbur (Night at the Opera) Mackeben, Theo (Dreigroschenoper) Mackendrick, Alexander (Blue Lamp; Sweet Smell of Success) Mackenzie, Aeneas (Casablanca) Mackie, Alex (Distant Voices, Still Lives) MacLachlan, Kyle (Blue Velvet) MacLaine, Shirley (Apartment) Maclane, Barton (High Sierra) MacLane, Barton (Maltese Falcon; Treasure of the Sierra Madre) MacLean, Fred M. (Big Sleep) MacLean, Gus (Life Is Sweet) MacLeod, Mary (If...) MacLiammoir, Michael (Tom Jones) MacManus, Daniel (Fantasia) MacMurray, Fred (Apartment; Double Indemnity) MacNaughton, Alan (Victim) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1462 MacNaughton, Robert (E.T.—The Extraterrestrial) MacNeil, Jennie (Pugni in tasca) Macola, Beatrice (Schindler’s List) MacOrlan, Pierre (Quai des brumes) Macphail, Angus (Dead of Night) MacQuarrie, George (Duck Soup) Macrae, Duncan (Casino Royale) MacRae, Elizabeth (Conversation) Macready, George (Gilda; Paths of Glory) Macy, William H. (Fargo) Madaras, József (Csillagosok, katonák) Madden, Ian (Gregory’s Girl) Madden, John (Shakespeare in Love) Madden, Peter (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Maddow, Ben (Asphalt Jungle) Madery, Earl (Jaws) Madison, Noel (Little Caesar) Madoras, József (Meg ker a nep) Madou, Malou (C’est arrivé près de chez vous) Madrid, Bert (Black Sunday) Madsen, Michael (Reservoir Dogs; Thelma and Louise) Mae McKinney, Nina (Hallelujah) Maestri, Antonio (Conformista) Maffre (Femme du boulanger; Orphée) Magalh?es, Ioná (Deus e o diabo na terra do sol) Magara, Manlio (Accattone) Magarill, Sophie (Novyi Vavilon) Magee, Patrick (Clockwork Orange; Marat/Sade; Masque of the Red Death; Servant) Magenty, Adrian Ross (Howards End) Maggiorani, Lamberto (Ladri di biciclette) Magli, Franco (Dolce vita) Magnani, Anna (Carrosse d’or; Roma, città aperta) Magnier, Pierre (Règle du jeu) Mago (Persona; Sommarnattens leende) Magrini, Gitt (Last Tango in Paris; Notte) Maguelon, Pierre (Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie) Maguire, Charles (Hustler) Maguire, Vincent (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Mahajan, K.K. (Akaler sandhane) Mahaney, Floyd (Last Picture Show) Maher, Frank (Gone With the Wind) Mahin, John Lee (Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Mahler, Gustav (Morte a Venezia) Mahler, Horst (Deutschland im Herbst) Mahoney III, Francis R. (Reservoir Dogs) Maia, Marise (Chapeau de paille d’Italie) Maiden, Rita (Playtime) Maielli, Claudio (Avventura; Eclisse; Notte; Salvatore Giuliano) Maiki-Marin (Cria Cuervos ...) Main, Marjorie (Women) Main, Mena (Tie?and) Mainka, Maximiliana (Deutschland im Herbst) Mainka-Jellinghaus, Beate (Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes; Deutschland im Herbst; Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Mainwaring, Daniel (Invasion of the Body Snatchers; Out of the Past) Maione, Maria Gabriella (Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie) Mairess, Guy (Z) Mairesse, Valérie (Offret) Maistre, Fran?ois (Belle de jour; Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie) Maistre, Francois (Chronique des années de braise) Maitland, Colin (Lolita) Maitland, Scott (Unforgiven) Maitland, Tod A. (JFK) Majda, Wojciech (Czlowiek z marmuru) Majidi, Asadollah (Ta’m E Guilass) Majolie, Bianca (Fantasia) Major, Grant (Heavenly Creatures) Majumdar, Sreela (Akaler sandhane) Makavejev, Dusan (W.R.: Mysterije Organizma) Makharadze, Avtandil (Pokaianie) Makhlis, I. (Chapayev) Makking, Cornelius (Clockwork Orange) Makking, Herman (Clockwork Orange) Malanga, Gerard (Chelsea Girls) Malanowicz, Zygmunt (Noz w wodzie) Malbequi, Richard (Blechtrommel) Malberg, Anna (Gertrud) Malberg, Henrik (Ordet) Malden, Karl (On the Waterfront; Streetcar Named Desire) Maldesi, Mario (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli) Malick, Terrence (Badlands; Days of Heaven) Malin, Eddie (Hard Day’s Night) Malinovskaya, Lyubov (Proshchanie) Malkin, Barry (Godfather Trilogy) Malkzadeh, Firuz (Dawandeh) Malle, Louis (Souf?e au coeur) Malle, Vincent (Souf?e au coeur) Mallen, Antonia (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Malleson, Miles (39 Steps; Dead of Night; Kind Hearts and Coronets; Peeping Tom) Mallo, John (Star Wars) Malm, Mona (Fanny och Alexander) Malmsj?, Jan (Fanny och Alexander) Malone, Dorothy (Big Sleep; Written on the Wind) Malte, L. V. de (Fièvre) Maltz, Albert (Naked City) Malvica, Anna (Kaos) Malvin, Marc (Klute) Mamaji (Awara) Mamakos, Peter (Searchers) Mamangakis, Nikos (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Mamanov, Pyotr (Igla) Mamine, M. (Stachka) Mamou, Sabine (Shoah) Mamoulian, Rouben (Becky Sharp; Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde) Mamsel, H. (Fantasia) Man, Alex (Yanzhi kou) Man, Frank (Black Sunday) Manamura, Yoshiyasu (Samma no aji) Manbara, Shinji (Ningen no joken) Manchetti, Mauro (Last Tango in Paris) Mancini, Henry (Breakfast at Tiffany’s; Touch of Evil) Mandaroux, Jean (Procès) Mandel, Rena (Vampyr) Mandel, Steve (Deliverance) Mandel, Johnny (M*A*S*H) Mandell, Daniel (Apartment; Best Years of Our Lives; Little Foxes) Mandella, Nelson (Malcolm X) Mander, Miles (Mrs. Miniver; Picture of Dorian Gray; Private Life of Henry VIII) Mandic, Miroslav (Otac na sluzbenom putu) Mandil, Milka (Sterne) Manès, Gina (Napoléon) Manfredi, Nino (Verdugo) Mangano, Silvano (Morte a Venezia) Mangiarotti, Aurelio (Pugni in tasca) Mangini, Mark (Raiders of the Lost Ark) Mangini, Palma (8?) Mangold, Erni (Engel mit der Posaune) Mangold, Lisi (Deutschland im Herbst) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1463 Mangolte, Babette (Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles) Mangos, Therese (Piano) Mangs, Sune (Fanny och Alexander) Mani, M. (Elippathayam) Manichoux (Vampires) Manila, Satasinh (India Song) Mankiewicz, Herman J. (Citizen Kane) Mankiewicz, Joseph L. (All about Eve; Fury; Philadelphia Story) Mankowitz, Wolf (Casino Royale) Mann, Bertha (All Quiet on the Western Front) Mann, Carl (Casino Royale) Mann, Claude (India Song) Mann, Hank (City Lights; Modern Times; Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Mann, Heinrich (Blaue Engel) Mann, Klaus (Mephisto; Paisà) Mann, Ned (Miracolo a Milano; Things to Come) Mann, Roman (Kanal; Matka Joanna od aniolow; Popiol i diament) Mann, Sharon (Titanic) Mann, Thomas (Morte a Venezia) Manners, David (Dracula 1931) Mannheim, Lucie (39 Steps) Mannino, Franco (Morte a Venezia) Mano, Olinda (Judex) Manocheri, Bahram (Douglas Trilogy) Manojlovic, Miki (Otac na sluzbenom putu; Predrag; Undergroun) Manojlovic, Predrag (Samo jednom se ljubi) Manrodiev, Stefan (Koziyat rog) Mansard, Claude (A bout de souf?e; Tirez sur le pianiste) Manser, Alan (Raging Bull) Manson, Hélèna (Kameradschaft) Manson, Helena (Lola Montès) Mantegna, Joe (Godfather Trilogy) Mantell, Joe (Birds; Chinatown) Mantle, Anthony Dod (Festen) Manuel, Jacques (Argent) Manuel, Robert (Du Ri?? chez les hommes) Manver, Kiti (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios) Many Mules, Bob (Searchers) Manz, Linda (Days of Heaven) Mao, Xiao (Lan fengzheng) Mapa, Claude-Antoine (Ant?nio das Mortes) Mapes, Jacques (Singin’ in the Rain) Mapp, Neville (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Marais, Jean (Belle et la bête; Orphée) Marangoni, Elizabeth (Room with a View) Maravala, Persis (My Beautiful Laundrette) Maravilha, Elke (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Marcay, Pierre (Belle de jour) Marcelle, Lou (Casablanca) March, Eve (Adam’s Rib) March, Frederic (Best Years of Our Lives; Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde) Marchal, Georges (Belle de jour) Marchal, Lynda (Draughtsman’s Contract) Marchall, Alain (Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles) Marchand, Corinne (Cléo de cinq à sept) Marchand, Henri (A nous la liberté) Marchand, Lucienne (Cléo de cinq à sept) Marchat, Jean (Dames du Bois de Boulogne) Marchetti, Jean-Claude (Quatre cents coups) Marchi, Virgilio (Umberto D) Marcijus (Blechtrommel) Marco, Raoul (Belle et la bête) Marcos, José Ruis (Espiritu de la colmena) Marcus, Andrew (Howards End) Marcus, James (Clockwork Orange) Marcus, Stephen (My Beautiful Laundrette) Marcuzzo, Elio (Ossessione) Marcy, Robert (Noire de ...) Marczewska, Teresa (Dekalog) Marengo, Lina (Carrosse d’or) Mare?, Karel (O slavnosti a hostech) Mare?, Karel (O slavnosti a hostech) Mareuil, Fran?ois (A bout de souf?e) Mareuil, Simone (Chien andalou) Margacheva, Raisa (Istoria Asi Kliachinoi kotoraia lubila da nie vyshla zamuzh) Margallo, Juan (Espiritu de la colmena) Margaritis, Gilles (Atalante) Margolin, Janet (Annie Hall) Margolin, Stuart (Days of Heaven) Margrini, Gitt (Conformista) Margutti, Vic (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Mari, Fiorella (Kaos) Maria Bayerswaltes, Eva (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Maria Beils, Ralph (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Maria Bottini, Anna (Gattopardo) Maria Schneider, Eva (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Marian, Ferdinand (Jud Süss) Mariássy;, Felix (Valahol Europaban) Marijan (Blechtrommel) Marin, Jacques (Jeux interdits) Marina, Artan (America, L’) Marinari, M. (Strada) Marinelli, Renato (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli) Marinovic, Milosav (Nesto izmedju) Marinuzzi, Gino (Carrosse d’or) Marion, Frances (Camille; Wind) Maris, Merrill de (Snow White) Marjac, Rene (Ronde, La) Markaris, Petros (Vlemma Tou Odyssea) Markatt, Mark (City Lights) Markell, Robert (Twelve Angry Men) Markem, Jane (Dreigroschenoper) Marken, Jeanne (Enfants du paradis; Et ... Dieu créa la femme; Partie de campagne) Marker, Chris (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas; Joli Mai; Sans Soleil) Markert, Philip (Blue Velvet) Markey, Enid (Naked City) Marklewitz, Peter (Lola) Markman, Joel (Flaming Creatures) Markovic, Olivera (Vlak bez voznog reda) Marks, Leo (Peeping Tom) Marks, Owen (Casablanca; East of Eden; Treasure of the Sierra Madre; White Heat) Marks, Richard (Apocalypse Now; Godfather Trilogy) Marlen, Trude (Kermesse héroique) Marley, John (Faces) Marlin, Gloria (Laura) Marlow, Lucy (Star Is Born) Marlowe, Frank (Johnny Guitar) Marlowe, Hugh (All about Eve; Meet Me in St. Louis) Marlowe, Jo Ann (Mildred Pierce) Marlowe, Nora (North by Northwest) Marly, Guy (Femme in?dèle) Marmer, Lea (Easy Rider) Marner, Richard (African Queen) Maroc, Ali (Battaglia di Algeri) Maroff, Bob (Annie Hall) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1464 Marquand, Christian (Et ... Dieu créa la femme) Marquand, John (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Marquand, Luce (Last Tango in Paris) Marquand, Richard (Star Wars) Marquet, Henri (Vacances de Monsieur Hulot) Marquez, Antonio (Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes) Marrama, Alberto (Pugni in tasca) Marret, Mario (Sans Soleil) Marrom (Deus e o diabo na terra do sol) Marrs, Jim (JFK) Mars, Séberin (J’accuse) Marsh, Carol (Dracula 1958) Marsh, Garry (Dead of Night) Marsh, Joan (All Quiet on the Western Front) Marsh, Mae (Birth of a Nation; Intolerance; My Darling Clementine; Searchers; Star Is Born) Marsh, Oliver T. (Women) Marshall, Alan (Midnight Express) Marshall, E. G. (Twelve Angry Men) Marshall, Frank (E.T.—The Extraterrestrial; Raiders of the Lost Ark) Marshall, Herbert (Little Foxes; Trouble in Paradise) Marshall, James Vance (Walkabout) Marshall, Ted (Marat/Sade; Saturday Night and Sunday Morning; Tom Jones) Marshall, Tully (Intolerance; Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Marshek, Archie (Becky Sharp; King Kong) Marshman, D. M. (Sunset Boulevard) Marstini, Rosita (Big Parade) Marta, Maysa (Udju Azul di Yonta) Martel, K. C. (E.T.—The Extraterrestrial) Martel, S. Z. (Gilda) Martelli, Otello (Dolce vita; Paisà; Strada; Stromboli; Vitelloni, I) Martenson, Mona (G?sta Berlings Saga) Marthe-Huguet, Marguerite (Grande illusion) M?rthesheimer, Peter (Ehe der Maria Braun; Lola) Martin, Betty (Fires Were Started) Martin, Dean (Rio Bravo) Martin, Diana (Brazil) Martin, Edie (Lavender Hill Mob) Martin, George (Hard Day’s Night) Martin, Helen (Mona Lisa) Martin, Hugh (Meet Me in St. Louis) Martin, Jean (Battaglia di Algeri) Martin, Marcella (Gone With the Wind) Martin, Mardik (Mean Streets; Raging Bull) Martin, Skip (Masque of the Red Death; Singin’ in the Rain) Martin, Strother (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance; Wild Bunch) Martin, William (Fantasia) Martin, Yvonne (Procès) Martinelli, Elsa (Procès) Martinez, Julio (Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes) Martinez, Pablo (Alsino y el Condor) Martínez, Rolando (Fresa y Chocolate) Martini, Maura (Pugni in tasca) Martinovic, Milan (Dom za vesanje) Martins, Orlando (Kongi’s Harvest) Martsch, Robert (Snow White) Marty, Cindy (Unforgiven) Maruyama, Kunie (Hadaka no shima) Marvin, Grace (Phantom of the Opera) Marvin, Lee (Big Heat; Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Marvin, Mia (Public Enemy) Marx, Chico (Duck Soup; Night at the Opera) Marx, Frederick (Hoop Dreams) Marx, Groucho (Duck Soup; Night at the Opera) Marx, Harpo (Duck Soup; Night at the Opera) Marx, Sam (Night at the Opera) Marx, Zeppo (Duck Soup) Marzot, Vera (Caduta degli dei) Mascari, Rose (Blade Runner) Mascolo, Dionys (India Song) Masé, Marino (Gattopardo; Pugni in tasca) Mashourian, Mac (Easy Rider) Masina, Giulietta (Strada) Masini, Tito (8?) Masník, Vojen (Staré povesti ceské) Masocro, Becker (Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Masokha, P. (Zemlya) Mason, Benedict (Chapeau de paille d’Italie) Mason, James (Lolita; North by Northwest; Odd Man Out; Star Is Born) Mason, Leroy (King Kong) Mason, Mark (Blair Witch Project) Mason, Martin (Shane) Masoumi, Hamid (Ta’m E Guilass) Massalitinova, Varvarra (Alexander Nevsky) Massalsky, P. (Ivan Grozny) Massari, Lea (Avventura; Cristo si e fermato a Eboli; Souf?e au coeur) Massaro, Francesco (Gattopardo) Massey, Anna (Peeping Tom) Massey, Raymond (East of Eden; Matter of Life and Death; Things to Come) Massine, Leonide (Red Shoes) Masson, René (Diaboliques) Masters, Tony (2001: A Space Odyssey) Masterson, Brian (Room with a View) Masterson, Whit (Touch of Evil) Mastertoff, Joe (Cabaret) Mastrogiacomo, Gina (GoodFellas) Mastroianni, Marcello (8?; Dolce vita; Notte) Mastroianni, Ruggero (Caduta degli dei; Cristo si e fermato a Eboli; Morte a Venezia) Masure, Louis de (Diaboliques) Maté, Rudolph (Gilda; Passion de Jeanne d’Arc; Vampyr) Mateau, Henri (Femme in?dèle) Matejka, Adam (Obchod na korze) Matetski, Vladimir (Malenkaya Vera) Mathé, Edouard (Judex; Vampires) Mathews, Gisela (Carrosse d’or) Mathie, Marion (Lolita) Mathieson, Muir (Fires Were Started; Henry V) Mathis, June (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse; Greed) Mathisen, Leo (Der var engang en krig) Mathison, Melissa (E.T.—The Extraterrestrial) Matilla, Julio (Memorias del subdesarrollo) Matisik, B. (Andrei Rublev) Matlin, Marlee (Player) Matras, Christian (Grande illusion; Lola Montès; Madame de ...; Ronde; Thérèse Desqueyroux) Matray, Ernst (Dance, Girl, Dance) Matson, Curt (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Matsuda, Eiko (Ai no corrida) Matsuda, Masao (Koshikei) Matsui, Norio (Ran) Matsui, Yasuko (Ai no corrida) Matsura, Eisaku (Hadaka no shima) Matsura, Tsukie (Saikaku ichidai onna) Matsuyama, So (Ikiru; Rashomon; Shichinin no samurai) Matsuyama, Takashi (Biruma no tategoto; Rashomon) Matsuyama, Zenzo (Ningen no joken) Matta, Roberto (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Matteis, Maria De (Ossessione) Mattes, Doris (Angst essen Seele auf) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1465 Matthau, Walter (JFK) Matthews, A. E. (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Matthews, Cecil (Carrosse d’or) Mattraw, Scotty (Snow White) Mattson, Per (Fanny och Alexander) Matula, Hanns (M?rchen vom Glück) Mature, Victor (My Darling Clementine) Maturin, Eric (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Mauban, Maria (Viaggio in Italia) Mauch, Thomas (Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes) Maude, Beatrice (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Maude, Joan (Matter of Life and Death) Mauduech, Julie (Haine) Maugham, Robin (Servant) Maumont, Jacques (A bout de souf?e; Cléo de cinq à sept; Vivre sa vie) Maupassant, Guy (Partie de campagne) Maupi (Femme du boulanger) Mauprey, André (Dreigroschenoper) Maura, Carmen (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios) Maurette, Yolande (Samourai) Maurey, Nicole (Journal d’un curé de campagne) Mauriac, Claude (Orphée; Thérèse Desqueyroux) Mauriac, Fran?ois (Thérèse Desqueyroux) Maurice, Frank (Pépé le Moko) Maurice, Argent (Dirty Harry) Maurier, Claire (Quatre cents coups) Maurin, Dominique (Du Ri?? chez les hommes) Maurriello, Tami (On the Waterfront) Max, Edwin (Matter of Life and Death) Maxey, Paul (American in Paris) Maximilliene (Femme du boulanger) Maximova, Antonina (Balada o soldate) Maximova, Yelena (Zemlya) Maxwell, Bob (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Maxwell, Edwin (All Quiet on the Western Front; Duck Soup; Fury; His Girl Friday; Ninotchka; Scarface: The Shame of a Nation; Young Mr. Lincoln) Maxwell, John (Blackmail; Johnny Guitar) Maxwell, Lois (Lolita) Maxwell, Nora (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Maxwell, Peter (My Beautiful Laundrette) Maxwell, Roberta (Philadelphia) May, Jock (Dracula 1958; Fires Were Started) May, Martin (Das Boot) Mayekar, G. G. (Awara) Mayen, Anne (Règle du jeu) Mayer, Carl (Kabinett des Dr. Caligari; Letze Mann; Sunrise) Mayer, Ray (Rear Window) Mayhew, Peter (Star Wars) Mayne, Eric (Duck Soup) Mayniel, Juliette (Yeux sans visage) Mayo (Casque d’or; Hiroshima mon amour) Mayo, Antoine (Enfants du paradis) Mayo, Virginia (Best Years of Our Lives; White Heat) Mayo, Walter (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Mayuzumi, Toshiro (Akasen chitai) Mazar, Debi (GoodFellas) Mazelli, Adrianno (Accattone) Mazurki, Mike (Some Like It Hot) Mazzacurati, Rosi (Notte) Mazzola, Frank (Rebel Without a Cause) Mbow, El Hadji (Xala) McAdoo, Tom (Shane) McAllister, Stewart (Fires Were Started) McAlpine, Andrew (Piano) McAlpine, Don (My Brilliant Career) McAteer, James (Dead Ringers) McAvoy, May (Jazz Singer) McBride, Donald (High Sierra) McBride, Elizabeth (Thelma and Louise) McCabe, Don (Star Is Born) McCabe, Leo (Informer) McCallion, James (North by Northwest) McCallum, Gordon K. (Black Narcissus; Peeping Tom; Victim) McCallum, Rick (Star Wars) McCambridge, Mercedes (All the King’s Men; Giant; Johnny Guitar; Touch of Evil) McCampbell, B. H. (Rio Bravo) McCarey, Leo (Duck Soup) McCarthy, John (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) McCarthy, John, Jr. (Johnny Guitar) McCarthy, Kevin (Invasion of the Body Snatchers; Mis?ts) McCarthy, Kyle (Silence of the Lambs) McCartney, Paul (Hard Day’s Night) McCauley, Hugh J.(Greed) McCay, Winsor (Gertie the Dinosaur) McClain, Anne (Easy Rider) McCleary, Urie (Mrs. Miniver) McConaughey, Matthew (Lone Star) McConnico, Hilton (Diva) McCord, Harold (Jazz Singer) McCord, Ted (East of Eden; Treasure of the Sierra Madre) McCormick, Barry (Brazil) McCormick, Ed (Public Enemy) McCormick, F. J. (Odd Man Out) McCormick, John (Victim) McCormick, Myron (Hustler) McCoy, Kid (Broken Blossoms) McCoy, Matt (L.A. Con?dential) McCrea, Joel (Ride the High Country; Sullivan’s Travels) McCune, Grant (Star Wars) McDaniel, Hattie (Gone With the Wind) McDaniel, James (Malcolm X) McDaniel, Sam (Public Enemy) McDevitt, Ruth (Birds) McDiarmid, Ian (Star Wars) McDonald, Edmund (Detour) McDonald, Ian (Johnny Guitar) McDonald, J. Farrell (My Darling Clementine) McDonald, Jack (Greed) McDonnell, Fergus (Odd Man Out) McDonough, Mac (Man of Aran) McDormand, Frances (Fargo; Lone Star) McDougall, Ken (Exotica) McDowell, Andie (Player) McDowell, Claire (Big Parade) McDowell, Hugh (Dance, Girl, Dance; Searchers) McDowell, Hugh, Jr. (Informer) McDowell, Malcolm (Clockwork Orange; If...; Player) McElroy, Hal (Last Wave; Picnic at Hanging Rock) McElroy, James (Last Wave; Picnic at Hanging Rock) McEndree, Maurice (Faces) McEnery, Peter (Victim) McFadden, Captain Tom (Black Sunday) McGann, William (Treasure of the Sierra Madre) McGarrity, Everett (Hallelujah) McGarry, Bill (Breakfast at Tiffany’s) McGiveney, Maura (North by Northwest) McGiver, John (Midnight Cowboy) McGivern, Cecil (Great Expectations) McGlone, Mary (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1466 McGovern, Elizabeth (Once Upon a Time in America) McGovern, John (Birds) McGrath, Joseph (Casino Royale) McGraw, Charles (Birds; Killers) McGregor, Ewan (Star Wars) McGuire, George (Detour) McGuire, Kathryn (Sherlock, Jr.) McIntire, John (Asphalt Jungle) McIntyre, Alistair (Repulsion) McIntyre, John (Psycho) McKay, Craig (Philadelphia; Silence of the Lambs) McKechnie, James (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) McKee, Lonette (Malcolm X) McKellar, Don (Exotica) McKelvey, Frank (North by Northwest) Mckenna, Bernard (Douglas Trilogy) McKeown, Charles (Brazil) McKinney, Billy (Deliverance) McKinney, Florine (Philadelphia Story) McKrell, Jim (Annie Hall) McLaglen, Victor (Informer) McLaughlin, Chris (Nashville) McLaughlin, Gibb (Private Life of Henry VIII) McLean, Barbara (All about Eve) McLeish, John Fraser (Fantasia) McLennan, M. (Fantasia) McLuhan, Marshall (Annie Hall) McManus, John (Fantasia) McMinn, Teri (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) McMurtry, Larry (Last Picture Show) McNaughton, Gus (39 Steps) McQuade, Arlene (Touch of Evil) McQuarrie, Ralph (Star Wars) McQueen, Butter?y (Gone With the Wind; Mildred Pierce) McVeagh, Eve (High Noon) McVehill, Chuch (Professione: Reporter) McVey, Pat (North by Northwest) McVey, Paul (Shane) McWade, Robert (42nd Street; I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang) Mdivani, Georgiy (Csillagosok, katonák) Mead, Syd (Blade Runner) Meador, Joshua (Fantasia; Snow White) Meadows, Heidi (Star Is Born) Meagher, John (Last Wave) Measor, Beryl (Odd Man Out) Meat Loaf (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Medeiros, Anisio (Bye Bye Brasil; Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Medina, Henrique (Picture of Dorian Gray) Medini, Alfredo (Carrosse d’or) Medioli, Enrico (Caduta degli dei; Gattopardo; Once Upon a Time in America; Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Medwin, Michael (If...) Meehan, John (Sunset Boulevard) Meek, Donald (Informer; Top Hat; Young Mr. Lincoln) Meeker, George (Casablanca; High Sierra) Meeker, Ralph (Kiss Me Deadly; Paths of Glory) Meeks, Dana (Blair Witch Project) Meera (Elippathayam) Meerson, Lazare (A nous la liberté; Argent; Chapeau de paille d’Italie; Feu Mathias Pascal; Kermesse héroique; Million) Megna, R. (Roma, città aperta) Meguto, Andrés (Chimes at Midnight) Mehdikhah, Hossain (Ta’m E Guilass) Mehmood (Kaagaz ke phool) Meier, Armin (Deutschland im Herbst) Meier, Pierre-Alain (Yaaba) Meinhard, Edith (Tagebuch einer Verlorenen) Meisel, Edmund (Berlin: Die Sinfonie der Grossstadt; Bronenosets Potemkin) Meixner, Karl (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Mejdi, Nena (Thiasos, O) Mejia, Alfonso (Olvidados) Melaranci, Sergio (Room with a View) Melato, Mariangela (Film d’amore e d’anarchia) Mele, Amiello (Sciuscia) Melford, Jill (Servant) Méliès, Georges (Voyage dans la lune) Melio, Brenno (Orfeu Negro) Melles, Sunnyi (38-Auch das war Wien) Melli, Nello (Vidas secas) Mellier, Michel (Yeelen) Mellon, John (Walkabout) Mellor, William C. (Giant; Place in the Sun) Melmerfelt, Sixten (G?sta Berlings Saga) Melo, Luis (Chacal de Nahueltoro) Melrac, Marcel (Casque d’or) Melville, Jean-Pierre (A bout de souf?e; Orphée; Samourai) Melville, Pauline (Mona Lisa) Mely, Jacques (Tirez sur le pianiste) Memedov, Zabit (Dom za vesanje) Menchikov, Oleg (Outomlionnye solntsem) Mendaille, Daniel (Casque d’or; Kameradschaft; Lola Montès; Napoléon) Mendes, António Sim? (Udju Azul di Yonta) Mendes, Gildo (Udju Azul di Yonta) Mendes, Miguel (Udju Azul di Yonta) Mendes, Sam (American Beauty) Mendès-France, Pierre (Chagrin et la pitié) Mendillo, Stephen (Lone Star) Mendizabal, Ramon (Last Tango in Paris) Mendon?a, Mauro (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Mendoza, Antonio (Easy Rider) Mendoza, David (Big Parade; Public Enemy) Mendoza, Miguel (Fresa y Chocolate; Memorias del subdesarrollo) Mendoza Huanca, Benedicta (Yawar Mallku) Mendy, Juan José (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Meneghel, Susanne (Funny Games) Menescal, Roberto (Bye Bye Brasil) Meniconi, Enzo (Outomlionnye solntsem) Menjou, Adolphe (Paths of Glory) Menke, Sally (Pulp Fiction) Menken, Marie (Chelsea Girls) Menks, Sally (Reservoir Dogs) Menon, Ravi (Duvidha) Menshov, Vladimir (Lásky jedné plavovlásky; Moskva slezam ne verit) Menut, Commandant (Chagrin et la pitié) Menyalshchikov, Said (Moskva slezam ne verit) Menz, Bernardo (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas; Cria Cuervos ...) Menz, Elly (Alsino y el Condor) Menzel, Ji?í (Ostre sledované vlaky) Menzel, Sharon (Paris, Texas) Menzer, Ernest (Weekend) Menzies, William Cameron (Gone With the Wind; Things to Come) Merasty, Billy (Exotica) Mercanton, J. (Vacances de Monsieur Hulot) Mercanton, Victoria (Et ... Dieu créa la femme) Mercer, Beryl (All Quiet on the Western Front; Public Enemy) Mercer, Johnny (Breakfast at Tiffany’s) Mercer, Mae (Dirty Harry) Merchant, Gilbert D. (West Side Story) Merchant, Ismail (Howards End; Room with a View) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1467 Mercier, Louis (My Darling Clementine) Meredith, Charles (Strangers on a Train) Meredith, Stanley (Salt of the Earth) Méril, Macha (Belle de jour) Mérimée, Prosper (Carrosse d’or) Merkel, Una (42nd Street) Merkuriev, Vasily (Letyat zhuravli; Maxim Trilogy) Merlatti, O. (Arsenal) Merle, Pierre (Zéro de conduite) Merli, Franco (Fiore delle mille e una notte) Merlin, Monica (Repulsion) Merminod (Dreigroschenoper) Merovee, Marcel (Ronde, La) Merovee, Pierre (Jeux interdits) Merrall, Mary (Dead of Night) Merrells, Mel (Days of Heaven) Merrill, Louis (Lady from Shanghai) Merrison, Clive (Heavenly Creatures) Mertens, Andreas (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Merzin, Leonard (Korol Lir) Mescall, John D. (Bride of Frankenstein) Mesonero, Luis (Idioterne) Messaris, Kostas (Thiasos, O) Messina, Mario (Gattopardo) Messine, Monique (Vivre sa vie) Mesurier, John Le (Casino Royale) Metcalf, Laurie (JFK) Metra, Olivier (Carrosse d’or) Metscher, Alfred (Sunrise) Metty, Russell (All That Heaven Allows; Bringing Up Baby; Dance, Girl, Dance; Mis?ts; Touch of Evil; Written on the Wind) Metzdori, Johannes (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Metzer, Ludwig (Jud Süss) Metzner, Ern? (Kameradschaft; Tagebuch einer Verlorenen) Meunier, Francine (Cyrano de Bergerac) Meurisse, Paul (Diaboliques) Meyer, David (Draughtsman’s Contract) Meyer, Emile (Paths of Glory; Shane; Sweet Smell of Success) Meyer, Joey (Hoop Dreams) Meyer, Tony (Draughtsman’s Contract) Meyer, Torben (Casablanca; Sullivan’s Travels) Meyer-Furst, Dr. Willy (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Meyers, William (Foolish Wives) Mguebrov, A. (Ivan Grozny) Miake, Bontaro (Akasen chitai) Miao Tien (He Liu) Mica, Milo (Skuplijaci perja) Michael, Ralph (Dead of Night) Michalakopoulos, Yorgos (Vlemma Tou Odyssea) Michaud, André (A nous la liberté) Michel, André (Nuit et brouillard) Michel, Dr. Elmar (Chagrin et la pitié) Michel, Gaston (Judex) Michel, Marc (Chapeau de paille d’Italie) Michel, Véronique (Trois Couleurs) Michelin, Andre (Alphaville) Michelsen, Trine (Idioterne) Michi, Maria (Last Tango in Paris; Paisà; Roma, città aperta) Mida, Massimo (Paisà) Middleton, Charles B. (Duck Soup) Middough, Miles (Deliverance) Midgets, Singer (Wizard of Oz) Midgley, Fanny (Greed) Mielche, Edouard (Gertrud) Mieritz, Louise (Idioterne) Mifune, Toshiro (Rashomon; Saikaku ichidai onna; Shichinin no samurai; Yojimbo) Migale, Rosario (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Might, Mary (Chelsea Girls) Migliaccio, Brunella (Albero degli zoccoli) Migliori, Gabriel (Cangaceiro) Migy, Bernard (Chagrin et la pitié) Mihalesco, Alexandre (Argent; Passion de Jeanne d’Arc) Mihashi, Tatsuya (Biruma no tategoto) Mihic, Gordan (Budjenje pacova; Dom za vesanje) Mikaberidze, Ruslan (Siberiade) Mikami, Shin-ichiro (Samma no aji) Mikami, Yoshiro (Yojimbo) Mikayo, Chocho (Fukushu suru wa ware ni ari) Mikeladze, Georgii (Pokaianie) Mikhailov, E. (Novyi Vavilon) Mikha?lov, M. (Ivan Grozny) Mikhailov, V. (Zemlya) Mikhalkov, Nadia (Outomlionnye solntsem) Mikhalkov, Nikita (Csillagosok, katonák; Outomlionnye solntsem; Siberiade) Mikhalkov-Konchalovsky, Andrei (Andrei Rublev; Siberiade) Mikhine, Boris (Stachka) Miki, Minoru (Ai no corrida; Naniwa ereji) Miki, Shigeto (Zangiku monogatari) Miki-Manojlovic, Predrag (Nesto izmedju) Mikolajewska, Krystyna (Csillagosok, katonák) Mikulski, Stanis?aw (Kanal) Mikuni, Rentaro (Biruma no tategoto; Fukushu suru wa ware ni ari; Kwaidan; Seppuku) Milanés, Pablo (Primera carga al machete) Milchan, Arnon (Brazil; L.A. Con?dential; Once Upon a Time in America) Milde-Meissner, Hansom (M?dchen in Uniform) Mildred Puter, Alice (Crowd) Miles, Bernard (Great Expectations) Miles, Buster (Laura) Miles, Harold (Snow White) Miles, Sarah (Blow-Up; Servant) Miles, Sylvia (Midnight Cowboy) Miles, Vera (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance; Psycho; Searchers) Milestone, Lewis (All Quiet on the Western Front) Milford, Gene (On the Waterfront) Milic, Nikola (Budjenje pacova) Milius, John (Apocalypse Now) Miljan, John (Killers; Phantom of the Opera) Milkani, Piro (America, L’) Millan, Victor (Touch of Evil) Milland, Ray (Lost Weekend) Miller, Ann (On the Town) Miller, Arthur (Mis?ts; Young Mr. Lincoln) Miller, Brian (Brazil) Miller, Carl (Kid) Miller, Claude (Weekend) Miller, Frank (2001: A Space Odyssey) Miller, George (Draughtsman’s Contract) Miller, H. C. (All the King’s Men) Miller, Harry (Brief Encounter) Miller, Jack (I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang) Miller, John (Shane) Miller, Ken (Touch of Evil) Miller, Lee (Sang d’un poete) Miller, Martin (Peeping Tom) Miller, Mirta (Cria Cuervos ...) Miller, R. Paul (Lone Star) Miller, Robert (Wild Bunch) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1468 Miller, Seton I. (Adventures of Robin Hood; Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Miller, Virgil (Phantom of the Opera) Miller, Winston (My Darling Clementine) Milletaire, Carl (Singin’ in the Rain) Milli, Robert (Klute) Millican, James (High Noon) Millican, Jane (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Millichip, Roy (Lolita) Milligan, Min (Odd Man Out) Mills, Frank (Sullivan’s Travels) Mills, John (Great Expectations) Mills, Mort (Psycho; Touch of Evil) Mills, Reginald (Black Narcissus; Matter of Life and Death; Red Shoes; Servant) Mills, Shirley (Grapes of Wrath) Milly (Conformista) Milner, Martin (Sweet Smell of Success) Milner, Victor (Lady Eve; Trouble in Paradise) Milo, George (Birds; Psycho) Milo, Sandro (8?) Milosevic, Milan (Vlak bez voznog reda) Milosovljenic, Vladica (Samo jednom se ljubi) Milski, Stanislaw (Popiol i diament) Milton, Franklin (North by Northwest; Ride the High Country) Mimasu, Aiko (Akasen chitai) Mimica-Gezzan, Sergio (Schindler’s List) Mimra, Jan (Baron Prasil) Minami, Michio (Ningen no joken) Minami, Yoshie (Ikiru) Mineo, Sal (Rebel Without a Cause) Minetti, Bernhard (Tie?and) Ming, Xu (Xiao cheng zhi chun) Minkler, Bob (Star Wars) Minkler, Michael (JFK) Minnehaha (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Minnelli, Liza (Cabaret) Minnelli, Vincente (American in Paris; Band Wagon; Meet Me in St. Louis) Mintshine, Rosalia (Pirosmani) Minuro, Jingo (Rashomon) Mioche, Monsieur (Chagrin et la pitié) Miou-Miou (Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Miqueau, Marie-Catherine (Yeelen) Miquel, Jean-Pierre (Z) Mira, Brigitte (Angst essen Seele auf; Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Mirabal, Fausto (Soy Cuba) Miracle, Irene (Midnight Express) Miranda, Isa (Ronde, La) Miravalles, Reinaldo (Alsino y el Condor) Miravilles, Jaime (Chien andalou) Mirhashemi, Seyed Mehdi (Ta’m E Guilass) Mirjian, Carolyn De (Blade Runner) Mironov, Alexander (Malenkaya Vera) Mironova, Olga (Idi i smotri) Mirovitch, M. (Rien que les heures) Mirshekari, Jahangir (Ta’m E Guilass) Mirza, Vajahat (Bharat Mata) Mischajora, Jelene (Moskva slezam ne verit) Misharin, Aleksandr (Zerkalo) Mishima, Masao (Ningen no joken; Seppuku) Misiano, Nino (Umberto D) Misraki, Paul (Alphaville; Et ... Dieu créa la femme) Missirio, Genica (Napoléon) Mi?urová, Gita (Obchod na korze) Mitani, Sachiko (Tokyo monogatari) Mitchell, Adrian (Marat/Sade) Mitchell, Donald O. (Raging Bull) Mitchell, Grant (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Mitchell, Gwenn (Shaft) Mitchell, Howard (Sullivan’s Travels) Mitchell, James (Band Wagon) Mitchell, John (African Queen; Casino Royale) Mitchell, Joseph (Sherlock, Jr.) Mitchell, Landon (Becky Sharp) Mitchell, Margaret (Gone With the Wind) Mitchell, Millard (Singin’ in the Rain) Mitchell, Philip (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance; Mis?ts) Mitchell, Thomas (Gone With the Wind; High Noon; It’s a Wonderful Life; Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Mitchum, John (Dirty Harry) Mitchum, Robert (Cross?re; Night of the Hunter; Out of the Past) Miteva, Tsonka (Sterne) Mito, Mitsuki (Ugetsu monogatari) Mitra, Subrata (Apu Trilogy; Charulata) Mitry, Jean (Napoléon) Mitsuda, Ken (Sansho dayu) Mitsui, Koji (Ningen no joken; Suna no onna) Mittendorf, Karin (Caduta degli dei) Miura, Mitsuo (Entotsu no mieru basho) Miwa, Akira (Entotsu no mieru basho) Miyagawa, Kazuo (Akasen chitai; Rashomon; Sansho dayu; Ugetsu monogatari; Yojimbo) Miyaguchi, Seiji (Ikiru; Ningen no joken; Shichinin no samurai) Miyajima, Yoshio (Kwaidan; Ningen no joken; Seppuku) Miyake, Bontaro (Sansho dayu) Miyake, Kuniko (Samma no aji; Tokyo monogatari) Miyamoto, Nobuko (Tampopo) Miyata, Mitsuji (Sansho dayu; Ugetsu monogatari) Miyazaki, Yoshiko (Ran) Miyoshi, Eiko (Ikiru) Mizoguchi, Kenji (Akasen chitai; Naniwa ereji; Saikaku ichidai onna; Sansho dayu; Ugetsu monogatari; Zangiku monogatari) Mizoguchi, Yasumi (Naniwa ereji) Mizuki, Yoko (Kwaidan) Mizutani, Hiroshi (Akasen chitai; Saikaku ichidai onna; Zangiku monogatari) Mlodnicki, Arthur (Popiol i diament) Mo Yen (Red Sorghum) Moati, Henri (Quatre cents coups) Moberly-Holland, Sylvia (Fantasia) Mobley, Claresie (Paris, Texas) Mochizuki, Tamekichi (Sansho dayu) Mockridge, Cyril (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance; My Darling Clementine) Mocky, Jean-Pierre (Orphée) Modot, Gaston (Age d’or; Casque d’or; Dreigroschenoper; Enfants du paradis; Fièvre; Grande illusion; Pépé le Moko; Règle du jeu) Modugno, Enrica Maria (Kaos) Moes, Nick (Douglas Trilogy) Moffat, Ivan (Giant; Shane) Moffatt, John (Tom Jones) Mof?tt, Peggy (Blow-Up) Moghadam (Ta’m E Guilass) Mogherini, Flavio (Accattone) Mohan (Elippathayam) Mohner, Carl (Du Ri?? chez les hommes) Mohr, Gerald (Gilda) Mohr, Hal (Jazz Singer) Moitra, Joyotirindra (Meghe dhaka tara) Mokkoussov, B. (Joli Mai) Moland, Peter (Angst essen Seele auf; Hitler: Ein Film aus Deutschland) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1469 Molander, Gustav (Herr Arnes Pengar) Molander, Karin (Erotikon) Molano, Elvira (Salt of the Earth) Molé, Rita (Avventura) Molen, Gerard R. (Schindler’s List) Molinet, María Elena (Lucia; Primera carga al machete) Moll, Georgia (Mèpris) Mollenheimer, William (Greed) M?ller, Eberhard Wolfgang (Jud Süss) Mollo, John (Star Wars) Molnár, Tibor (Csillagosok, katonák; Meg ker a nep) Molok, A. (Novyi Vavilon) Momo, Joseph (Haine) Mompou, Federico (Cria Cuervos ...) Monahan, Jeff (Lone Star) Monden, Bruno (M?rder sind unter uns) Mondi, Bruno (Jud Süss) Monello, Michael (Blair Witch Project) Moneta, Adriana (Accattone; Dolce vita) Monetti, Mike (Once Upon a Time in America) Moniak, Jerzy (Czlowiek z marmuru) Monnier, Violette (Jeux interdits) Monod, Jacques (Thérèse Desqueyroux) Monod, Roland (Condamné à mort s’est échappé) Monost, Attila (Cyrano de Bergerac) Monroe, Marilyn (All about Eve; Asphalt Jungle; Mis?ts; Some Like It Hot) Monroe, Tom (Rio Bravo) Montagu, Ivor (39 Steps) Montana, Bull (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Montana, Monty (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Montand, Yves (Joli Mai; Salaire de la peur; Z) Montanti, Linda (L.A. Con?dential) Monteil, Beatriz (Easy Rider) Montel, Virginie (Haine) Montemuri, Davide (Année dernière à Marienbad) Montenegro, Fernanda (Central do Brasil) Montero, Germaine (Partie de campagne) Montero, Medardo (Memorias del subdesarrollo) Montez, Mario (Chelsea Girls; Flaming Creatures) Montgomery, Bryan (Badlands) Montgomery, Ray (White Heat) Montoute, Edouard (Haine) Mooney, Martin (Detour) Moore, Bill (Mona Lisa) Moore, Charles (Sullivan’s Travels) Moore, Dennie (Women) Moore, Dickie (Out of the Past) Moore, Doris Langley (African Queen) Moore, Fred (Fantasia; Snow White) Moore, Gar (Paisà) Moore, Hedda (Life Is Sweet) Moore, J. (Fantasia) Moore, Joanna (Touch of Evil) Moore, Jonathan (My Beautiful Laundrette) Moore, Liz (Clockwork Orange) Moore, Owen (Intolerance; She Done Him Wrong) Moore, Pauline (Young Mr. Lincoln) Moore, Rex (Shane) Moorehead, Agnes (All That Heaven Allows; Citizen Kane; Magni?cent Ambersons) Moorhead, Natalie (Thin Man) Moorti, Ram (Salaam Bombay) Moquette, Danny (Kongi’s Harvest) Mora, Jane (Vampyr) Mora, Manuel J. (Soy Cuba) Moradi, Abootaleb (Ta’m E Guilass) Moradi, Safar Ali (Ta’m E Guilass) Moraes, Vinicius de (Orfeu Negro) Morahan, Jim (Blue Lamp) Morales, Joe T. (Salt of the Earth) Moran, Frank (Sullivan’s Travels) Moran, Lois (Feu Mathias Pascal) Moran, Polly (Adam’s Rib) Morante, Elsa (Accattone) Morante, Giacomo (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Morante, Marcello (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Moravati, Ali Mohammad (Ta’m E Guilass) Moravia, Alberto (Conformista; Mèpris) Mordente, Tony (West Side Story) Mordyukova, Nonna (Kommisar) Moreau, Guy (Crime de Monsieur Lange) Moreau, Jean (Procès) Moreau, Jeanne (Chimes at Midnight; Jules et Jim; Notte; Quatre cents coups) Moreau, Lucien (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Morelembaum, Jacques (Central do Brasil) Morelli, Rina (Gattopardo) Moreno, Antonio (Searchers) Moreno, Dave (Reservoir Dogs) Moreno, Isabel (Soy Cuba) Moreno, Mario (Salaire de la peur) Moreno, Ricardo (Blair Witch Project) Moreno, Rita (Singin’ in the Rain; West Side Story) Moreno, Virginie (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Moretti, Agostino (Dolce vita) Morey, Larry (Snow White) Morgan, Alberto (Soy Cuba) Morgan, Frank (Wizard of Oz) Morgan, Harry (High Noon) Morgan, Ira (Modern Times) Morgan, Michèle (Quai des brumes) Morgenstern, Maia (Vlemma Tou Odyssea) Morgia, Piero (Accattone) Mori, Claudia (Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Mori, Kakuko (Zangiku monogatari) Mori, Kikue (Saikaku ichidai onna; Sansho dayu) Mori, Masayuki (Hana-Bi; Rashomon; Ugetsu monogatari) Mori, Mitsuhiro (Tokyo monogatari) Mori, Ogai (Sansho dayu) Mori, Shigeru (Ikiru) Moriccone, Ennio (Fiore delle mille e una notte) Morier-Genoud, Phillippe (Cyrano de Bergerac) Moriggi, Francesca (Albero degli zoccoli) Morigi, Tatiana Casini (Fiore delle mille e una notte) Morillère, Roger (Chronique d’un été) Morin, Albert (Casablanca) Morin, Edgar (Chronique d’un été) Morissey, Betty (Gold Rush) Moritz, Louisa (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Moritzen, Henning (Festen; Viskningar och rop) Morlacchi, Lucilla (Gattopardo) Morley, April (Funny Games) Morley, Karen (Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Morley, Robert (African Queen) Morley, Ruth (Annie Hall; Taxi Driver) Morlion, Felix (Stromboli) Moro-Giafferi, Fran?ois (Femme in?dèle) Moroder, Giorgio (Midnight Express) Morón, Manuel (Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Morozumi, Keijiro (Ningen no joken) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1470 Morphett, Tony (Last Wave) Morra, Mario (Battaglia di Algeri) Morricone, Ennio (1900; Battaglia di Algeri; Buono, il brutto, il cattivo; C’era una volta il west; Days of Heaven; Once Upon a Time in America; Pugni in tasca) Morris, Aubrey (Clockwork Orange) Morris, Edna (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Morris, Martha (Freaks) Morris, Oswald (Lolita) Morris, Phyllis (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Morris, Wayne (Paths of Glory) Morrison, Richard (Brazil) Morrissey, Paul (Chelsea Girls) Morroni, Renata (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Mors, V. (Idi i smotri) Morse, Helen (Picnic at Hanging Rock) Morse, Susan E. (Manhattan) Morse, Terrell O. (Gojira) Morsella, Fulvio (C’era una volta il west) Morton, Clive (Kind Hearts and Coronets; Lavender Hill Mob) Morton, Sarah (Howards End) Moschin, Gastone (Conformista) Mosconi, Willie (Hustler) Moseley, Simon (Howards End; Life Is Sweet) Mosjoukine, Ivan (Feu Mathias Pascal) Moskvin, Andrei (Ivan Grozny; Maxim Trilogy; Novyi Vavilon) Moss, Peter (My Brilliant Career) Moss, Stirling (Casino Royale) Mosten, Murray (Taxi Driver) Mostovoy, Leo (Casablanca) Motoki, Shojiro (Ikiru; Shichinin no samurai) Moulaert, René (Belle et la bête) Moulin, Charles (Femme du boulanger) Moumouni, Kinda (Yaaba) Mounier, Colin (Deutschland im Herbst) Mouque, Georges (Enfants du paradis) Moura, Gilberto (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Mourey, Jany (Et ... Dieu créa la femme) Mouries (Marius Trilogy) Mourlet, Michael (A bout de souf?e) Mouselle, J. (Vacances de Monsieur Hulot) Moussinac, Leon (Fièvre) Moussorgsky (Nuit sur le Mont Chauve) Moussy, Marcel (Quatre cents coups; Tirez sur le pianiste) Movin, Lisbeth (Vredens dag) Mowbray, Alan (Becky Sharp; My Darling Clementine) Mozart, Wolfgang (Kind Hearts and Coronets; Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Mo?i?, Jaroslav (Staré povesti ceské) Mozzato, Umberto (Cabiria) Mu, Fei (Xiao cheng zhi chun) Muang-Intata, Samui (Deer Hunter) Mucci, David (Unforgiven) Muelle, J. (Kermesse héroique) Mueller, Rolf (Blaue Engel) Mueller, Vladimir (Arsenal) Mueller-Stahl, Armin (Lola) Mugel, Jean-Paul (Der Himmel Uber Berlin; Paris, Texas; Yaaba) Mühe, Ulrich (Funny Games) Mui, Anita (Yanzhi kou) Muir, Linda (Exotica) Mukerjee, Hrishikesh (Do bigha zamin) Mukherjee, Gyanesh (Meghe dhaka tara) Mukherjee, Madhabi (Charulata) Mukherjee, Manisankar ‘‘Sankar’’ (Jana Aranya) Mukherjee, Pradip (Jana Aranya) Mukherjee, Sailen (Charulata) Mukoyama, Hiroshi (Gojira) Mules, Many (Searchers) Muller, Fritz (Chimes at Midnight) Muller, Gisela (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Müller, Hans Carl(Nibelungen) Müller, Martin (Im Lauf der Zeit) Muller, Martin (Paths of Glory) Muller, Paul (Viaggio in Italia) Müller, Robby (Amerikanische freund; Breaking the Waves; Im Lauf der Zeit; Paris, Texas) Müller Silva, Jorge (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Müller-Scherz, Fritz (Angst essen Seele auf) Mullin, Pat (Man of Aran) Mullins, Bartlett (Peeping Tom) Mulock, Al (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Mulvehill, Charles (Godfather Trilogy; Professione: Reporter) Mumtaz, Minoo (Kaagaz ke phool) Munaqqa, Munshi (Kaagaz ke phool) Munch, Charles (Enfants du paradis) Munden, Marc (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Mundin, Herbert (Adventures of Robin Hood) Mundwiller, Jean-Paul (Napoléon) Mune, Ian (Piano) Muni (Belle de jour; Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie) Muni, Paul (I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang; Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Munk, Andrzej (Eroica) Munk, Jonathan (Annie Hall) Munk, Kaj (Ordet) Mu?oz, Albert (Salt of the Earth) Mu?oz, Juan (Fresa y Chocolate) Mu?oz Sampedro, Matilde (Muerte de un Ciclista) Mu?oz Suay, R. (Viridiana) Munro (Douglas Trilogy) Munshin, Jules (On the Town) Munson, Ona (Gone With the Wind) Muqri (Bharat Mata) Mur, Leo (Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov) Mura, Corinna (Casablanca) Murai, Kunihiko (Tampopo) Murakami, Fuyuki (Gojira; Ikiru) Muraki, Shinobu (Ran) Muraki, Yoshiro (Ran) Muramatsu, Shofu (Zangiku monogatari) Murase, Zen (Tokyo monogatari) Murat, Jean (Kermesse héroique) Murata, Takeo (Gojira) Muratori, Giuseppe (Morte a Venezia) Muravyova, Irina (Moskva slezam ne verit) Murch, Walter (American Graf?ti; Apocalypse Now; Conversation; Godfather Trilogy) Muren, Dennis (Close Encounters of the Third Kind; E.T.—The Extraterrestrial; Star Wars) Mur?n, Jane (Women) Murnau, F. W. (Letze Mann; Nosferatu (1922novyi); Sunrise) Murphy, Donald (Dracula 1931) Murphy, Dudley (Ballet mécanique; Dracula 1931) Murphy, Michael (Manhattan; Nashville) Murray, Barbara (Passport to Pimlico) Murray, Betty (Klute) Murray, Chic (Casino Royale; Gregory’s Girl) Murray, Forbes (Laura) Murray, Jack (Searchers) Murray, James (Crowd) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1471 Murray, Ken (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Murray, Rosaleen (Blow-Up) Murray, Tom (Gold Rush) Murthy, V. K. (Kaagaz ke phool) Murton, Peter (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Musaus, Hans (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Muse, Clarence (Double Indemnity) Musidora (Judex; Vampires) Musin, Murat (Igla) Musique, Galaxie (Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie) Musson, Bernard (Belle de jour; Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie) Musu, Antonio (Battaglia di Algeri) Musuraca, Nicholas (Cat People; Out of the Past) Myasnikov, Gennady (Voina i mir) Myasnikova, Varvara (Chapayev) Mydolls, The (Paris, Texas) Myers, Amos (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Myers, Harry (City Lights) Myers, Ruth (L.A. Con?dential) Myers, Stanley (Deer Hunter) Myhrman, Dan (Fanny och Alexander; Offret) Mykhaylovsky (Arsenal) Myrick, Daniel (Blair Witch Project) Mzière, Myriam (Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Nabokov, Vladimir (Lolita) Nabor, Príncipe (Bye Bye Brasil) Nachtergaele, Matheus (Central do Brasil) Nada, Kogo (Tokyo monogatari) Nadarevic, Mustafa (Otac na sluzbenom putu) Nademsky, Mykola (Arsenal) Nademsky, Nikola (Zemlya) Naderi, Amir (Dawandeh) Nadoolman, Deborah (Raiders of the Lost Ark) Naegelen, Nicolas (Trois Couleurs) Nag, Adinath (Jana Aranya) Nag, Anant (Bhumika) Nagai, Tomoo (Ikiru) Nagaoka, Teruko (Tokyo monogatari) Nagata, Masaichi (Akasen chitai; Jigokumon; Rashomon; Ugetsu monogatari) Nagata, Nobu (Entotsu no mieru basho) Nagel, Conrad (All That Heaven Allows) Naidu, Chandrashekhar (Salaam Bombay) Nair, Mira (Salaam Bombay) Nair, Rajam K. (Elippathayam) Naish, J. Carrol (Southerner) Naito, Taketoshi (Ningen no joken) Najdi, Abdel (Bab el hadid) Nakadai, Tatsuya (Kwaidan; Ningen no joken; Ran; Seppuku; Yojimbo) Nakagawa, Yoshie (Jujiro) Nakai, Asakasu (Ikiru; Ran; Shichinin no samurai) Nakajima, Aoi (Ai no corrida) Nakajima, Haruo (Gojira) Nakajima, Masayuki (Koshikei; Shonen) Nakamu, Nobuo (Higanbana) Nakamura, Ganemon (Kwaidan) Nakamura, Katsuo (Kwaidan) Nakamura, Nobuo (Ikiru; Ningen no joken; Samma no aji; Tokyo monogatari) Nakamura, Tamao (Ningen no joken) Nakata, Masaichi (Sansho dayu) Nakaya, Ichiro (Seppuku) Nakaya, Noburo (Kwaidan) Nakumara, Ganjiro (Kwaidan) Nanbu, Syozo (Ugetsu monogatari) Nance, Jack (Blue Velvet; Eraserhead) Naniwa, Chieko (Higanbana; Sansho dayu) Nannuzzi, Armando (Caduta degli dei) Naoki, Tachikawa (Dahong denglong gaogao gua; City of Sadness) Naoumova, L. (Ivan Grozny) Nap, Harry (Hitler: Ein Film aus Deutschland) Naperkowska, Stacia (Vampires) Napier, Alan (Cat People) Napier, Charles (Philadelphia) Napoli, Stéphane Di (Femme in?dèle) Nar Sene, Momar (Noire de ...) Narcejac (Diaboliques; Yeux sans visage) Nargis (Awara; Bharat Mata) Narlay, R. (Passion de Jeanne d’Arc) Narusawa, Masashige (Akasen chitai) Nasarov, Youri (Andrei Rublev) Nascht, Nick (Douglas Trilogy) Nascimbene, Mario (Room at the Top) Nash, Florence (Women) Nash, Mary (Philadelphia Story) Nash, Simon (Brazil) Naskar, Gangadhar (Akaler sandhane) Nasková, Ru?ena (Staré povesti ceské) Nat, Lucien (Thérèse Desqueyroux) Natalucci, Giovanni (Once Upon a Time in America) Natanson, Jacques (Lola Montès; Ronde, La) Nathan, Vivian (Klute) Nathanson, Michael G. (L.A. Con?dential) Natheaux, Louis (Little Caesar) Nathensen, Zoe (Mona Lisa) Natheux, Louis (Modern Times) Natorp, Gull (Sommarnattens leende) Natot, Gilbert (Thérèse Desqueyroux; Yeux sans visage) Natsuki, Junpei (Gojira) Natwick, Grim (Snow White) Naumov, Georgi (Sterne) Naushad (Bharat Mata) Navabi, Seyyed Javad (Ta’m E Guilass) Navarette, Roberto (Chacal de Nahueltoro) Navarro, Jesus Garcia (Olvidados) Nawm, Tom (General) Nawrocka, Halina (Popiol i diament) Nay, Pierre (Règle du jeu) Nayak, Sheela (Bharat Mata) Nazarov, M. (Maxim Trilogy) Nazarov, Nickolai (Istoria Asi Kliachinoi kotoraia lubila da nie vyshla zamuzh) Nazarov, Yuri (Malenkaya Vera; Zerkalo) Nazvanov, M. (Ivan Grozny) N’Bissine Diop, Thérèse (Noire de ...) Neal, Edwin (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Neal, Patricia (Breakfast at Tiffany’s) Neal, Tom (Detour) Neame, Ronald (Great Expectations) Nebenzahl, Seymour (Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse; Dreigroschenoper; Kameradschaft; M) Necká?, Václav (Ostre sledované vlaky) Nedjar, Claude (Souf?e au coeur) Née, Louis (Vampyr) Needs, James (Dracula 1958) Neeson, Liam (Schindler’s List; Star Wars) Negley, Howard J. (Shane) Negoda, Natalya (Malenkaya Vera) Negro, Del (Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes) Negro, Giorno (Notte) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1472 Neher, Carola (Dreigroschenoper) Neiiendam, Sigrid (Vredens dag) Neikova, Maria (Koziyat rog) Neil, M. (Fantasia) Neill, Sam (My Brilliant Career; Piano) Neilson, David (Life Is Sweet) Nejad, Ali Reza Abdollah (Ta’m E Guilass) Nelson, Bill (Twelve Angry Men) Nelson, Charles (Big Heat; Gilda) Nelson, James (Badlands) Nelson, Mique (Snow White) Nelson, Ricky (Rio Bravo) Nelson, Sam (Lady from Shanghai) Nelsonn, Margaret (Picnic at Hanging Rock) Němec, Jan (O slavnosti a hostech) Němec, Ji?i (O slavnosti a hostech) Nemechek, B. (Balada o soldate) Nemeth, Andras (Csillagosok, katonák) Nemetz, Max (Nosferatu (1922novyi) Neny, J. (Lola Montès) Neri, Tommaso (Battaglia di Algeri) Nesbitt, Derren (Victim) Neschling, John (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Nest Polglase, Van (Citizen Kane) Nesterov, E. (Putyovka v zhizn) Nesterov, M. (Maxim Trilogy) Netto, Hadrian M. (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Neubert, Kurt (Olympia) Neudorfer, Sonja (Ehe der Maria Braun; Lola) Neumann, Birthe (Festen) Neumann-Viertel, Elizabeth (Cabaret) Neuner, Willy (Funny Games) Nevrig, Conrad (Wind) Newberry, Bill (Mis?ts) Newbrook, Peter (Lawrence of Arabia) Newcom, James E. (Gone With the Wind) Newcombe, Warren (Singin’ in the Rain) Newhouse, Miriam (Dead Ringers) Newlan, Paul (Sullivan’s Travels) Newlinsky, Michael von (Büchse der Pandora) Newman, Alfred (All about Eve; City Lights; Grapes of Wrath; Man Who Shot Liberty Valance; Modern Times; Why We Fight; Young Mr. Lincoln) Newman, Bernard (Top Hat) Newman, Christopher (Brazil; Godfather Trilogy; Howards End; Klute; Philadelphia; Silence of the Lambs) Newman, David (Bonnie and Clyde) Newman, Emil (Laura) Newman, Joan (Annie Hall) Newman, John (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Newman, Paul (Hustler) Newman, Peter (Smoke) Newman, Roger (Annie Hall) Newman, Thomas (American Beauty; Player) Newport, Michael (If...) Newson, Jeremy (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Newton, Robert (Henry V; Odd Man Out) Ney, Richard (Mrs. Miniver) Nezu, Jinpachi (Ran) Ng, Rosanna (Ahfei zheng zhuan) Ngoc Trung Tran (Odeur de la papaye verte) Nguyen Anh Hoa (Odeur de la papaye verte) N’hada, Sana na(Sans Soleil) Ni Zhen (Dahong denglong gaogao gua) Niang, Myriam (Xala) Nicholas, Kim (Black Sunday) Nicholls, Anthony (If...; Victim) Nicholls, Barbara (Sweet Smell of Success) Nicholls, George (Broken Blossoms) Nichols, Allan (Nashville; Player) Nichols, David (Taxi Driver) Nichols, Dudley (Bringing Up Baby; Informer) Nichols, Mike (Graduate) Nichols, Nick (Dead Ringers) Nicholson, Bill (Raging Bull) Nicholson, Bruce (Star Wars) Nicholson, Jack (Chinatown; Easy Rider; Five Easy Pieces; One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest; Professione: Reporter) Nickolary, Nick (Black Sunday) Nico (Chelsea Girls) Nico, Willard (Great Dictator) Nicola, Francesco De (Sciuscia) Nicolau, Ted (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Nicolson, Colin (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Niedashkovskaya, Raisa (Kommisar) Niedermoser, Otto (Engel mit der Posaune) Nie?nd, Dagmar (Blechtrommel) Niehaus, Lennie (Unforgiven) Nielsen, Gerda (Ordet) Nielsen, Gunnar (Sommarnattens leende) Nielsen, J?rgen (Gertrud) Nielsen, Lene (Idioterne) Nielsen, Marianne (Fanny och Alexander) Nielson, Kay (Fantasia) Niemczyk, Leon (Noz w wodzie) Niemoller, Dr. Heinz H. (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Niemszyk, Leon (Eroica) Nieto, José (Chimes at Midnight) Nigh, Jane (Laura) Nigmann, Hans (M?rchen vom Glück) Nigro, Antonio Lo (Sciuscia) Nihalani, Dayal (Bhumika) Nihalini, Govind (Bhumika) Nikandrov, V. (Oktiabr) Nikel, Hannes (Das Boot) Nikitin, Sergei (Moskva slezam ne verit) Nikitine, K. (Letyat zhuravli) Nikl, Katharina (Funny Games) Nikolaev, V. (Balada o soldate) Nikolaichuk, Ivan (Teni zabytykh predkov) Nikolic, Dragan (Nesto izmedju; Underground) Nikolic, Miodrag Mile (Vlemma Tou Odyssea) Nikonenko, Sergey (Csillagosok, katonák) Nikulin, Youri (Andrei Rublev) Niles, Ken (Out of the Past) Niloufer (Kaagaz ke phool) Nilsin, Vladimir (Oktiabr) Nilsson, Anna Q. (Sunset Boulevard) Nilsson, Axel (Herr Arnes Pengar) Nimmo, Derek (Casino Royale) Ninchi, Annibale (8?; Dolce vita) Ning, Chi (Xiao cheng zhi chun) Ninidze, Ia (Pokaianie) Ninidze, Merab (Pokaianie) Nipora, Maja (Vitelloni, I) Nirumand, Majid (Dawandeh) Nishizaki, Hideo (Koshikei; Kwaidan; Ningen no joken; Seppuku; Shonen) Nissen, Aud Egede (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Nissen, Brian (Henry V) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1473 Nitzsche, Jack (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Niven, David (Casino Royale; Matter of Life and Death) Noailles, Vicomte de (Sang d’un poete) Noble, Maurice (Snow White) Noble, Shaun (Black Narcissus) Noble, Thom (Thelma and Louise) Nobre, Marlos (Ant?nio das Mortes) Nobuhiro, Kubota (Tampopo) Nocher, Fran?ois (Quatre cents coups) Noda, Kogo (Banshun; Higanbana; Samma no aji) Noe, Magali (Du Ri?? chez les hommes) Noel, Francesila (Fiore delle mille e una notte) No?l, Magail (Z) Noel, Magali (Dolce vita) Noguera, Hector (Chacal de Nahueltoro) Noiret, Philippe (Thérèse Desqueyroux) Noizet, Madame (Age d’or) Nolan, James (Dirty Harry) Nolan, Jeanette (Big Heat; Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Nolley, Lance (Fantasia) Nolte, Nick (Player) Nomura, Takeshi (Ran) Noonan, Christine (If...) Noonan, Tommy (Star Is Born) Noori, Mir Hossein (Ta’m E Guilass) Noornaja?, Ali (Ta’m E Guilass) Norberg, Inger (Fr?ken Julie) Norby, Ghita (Babettes Gaestebud) Nordahl, Tommy (Offret) Norden, Arthur (Erotikon) Nordgren, Erik (Sjunde inseglet; Smultronst?llet; Sommarnattens leende) Nordli, Ernest (Fantasia) Nordlund, Soldeig (Amor de perdic?o) Nordrum, Lars (Sult) Nordstrum, Clarence (42nd Street) Nordwall, Yngve (Smultronst?llet) Norée, Eva (Smultronst?llet) Norgaard, Per (Babettes Gaestebud) Nori, Kikue (Ugetsu monogatari) Norkus, Alfred (M?rchen vom Glück) Norman, Ann (Blow-Up) Norman, Jay (West Side Story) Norman, Maide (Written on the Wind) Noro, Line (Pépé le Moko) Norris, Chet (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Norris, Frank (Greed) Norris, Patricia (Blue Velvet; Days of Heaven) North, Alex (Mis?ts; Streetcar Named Desire) Northrup, Harry (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Norton, Alex (Gregory’s Girl) Norton, Barry (Sunrise) Norton, Edgar (Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde) Norton, Rosanna (Badlands) Norwell, Sally (Paris, Texas) Nosek, Marian (Matka Joanna od aniolow) Nosler, Lloyd (River) Nossek, Ralph (Brazil) Notarianni, Pietro (Caduta degli dei; Gattopardo) Noti, Karl (Top Hat) Nounez, J. L. (Atalante) Nourredine, Cheik (Chronique des années de braise) Novak, Eva (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Novak, Kim (Vertigo) Nováková, Jana (Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Novarro (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Novello, Don (Godfather Trilogy) Novello, Ugo (Pugni in tasca) Novi, Angelo (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Novikoff, Rashel (Annie Hall) Novikov, Vasili (Alexander Nevsky) Novokshenov, I. (Potomok Chingis-Khan) Novotny, Vladimir (Obchod na korze) Novros, Lester (Fantasia) Nowak, Jerzy (Trois Couleurs) Nowak, Józef (Eroica) Nowak, Zygmunt (Matka Joanna od aniolow) Nowikov, Alexander (Putyovka v zhizn) Nozik, Michael (Salaam Bombay) Nú?ez, Eslinda (Lucia; Memorias del subdesarrollo) Nucci, Danny (Titanic) Nuevo, Tommaso (Accattone) Nugent, Eddie (42nd Street) Nugent, Frank S. (Searchers) Nugmanov, Murat (Igla) Nugmanov, Rashid (Igla) Nu?ez, Eslinda (Primera carga al machete) Nunn, Bill (Do the Right Thing) Nusvanon, Charan (Deer Hunter) Nuytten, Bruno (India Song) Nuzzi, Paolo (Strada) Nuzzo, Ferruccio (Vangelo secondo Matteo) N’Xumalo, Seipati (Yeelen) Nyberg, Mary Ann (Band Wagon; Star Is Born) Nyby, Christian (Big Sleep; Red River) Nye, Caroll (Gone With the Wind) Nyholm, Kristoffer (Idioterne) Nykjaer, Berit (Gertrud) Nykvist, Sven (Fanny och Alexander; Gycklarnas afton; Offret; Persona; Tystnaden; Viskningar och rop) Nyman, Michael (Draughtsman’s Contract; Piano) Nyswaner, Ron (Philadelphia) Oakie, Jack (Great Dictator) Oakland, Simon (Psycho; West Side Story) Oaks, Sue (West Side Story) Oates, Anne V. (Lawrence of Arabia) Oates, Warren (Badlands; Ride the High Country; Wild Bunch) Obe, Jean (Dentellière) Ober, Philip (From Here to Eternity; North by Northwest) Ober, Robert (Big Parade) Oberon, Merle (Private Life of Henry VIII) Obolensky, Leonid (Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov) Obolensky, V. (Konyets Sankt-Peterburga) Oboukhov, A. (Andrei Rublev) Obretenov, Ivan (Koziyat rog) O’Brien, Dean (Thelma and Louise) O’Brien, Denis (Mona Lisa) O’Brien, Edmond (Killers; Man Who Shot Liberty Valance; White Heat; Wild Bunch) O’Brien, George (Sunrise) O’Brien, Margaret (Meet Me in St. Louis) O’Brien, Pat (Some Like It Hot) O’Brien, Richard (Rocky Horror Picture Show) O’Brien, Sheila (Johnny Guitar) O’Brien, Tom (Big Parade) O’Brien, Valerie (Unforgiven) O’Brien, Vince (Annie Hall) O’Brien, Willis H. (King Kong) Obzina, Martin (Killers) Ochoa, Margarita (Muerte de un Ciclista) Ochsen, U. A. (Das Boot) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1474 Ocone, Enzo (Fiore delle mille e una notte) O’Connell, L. W. (Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) O’Connor, Derrick (Brazil) O’Connor, Donald (Singin’ in the Rain) O’Connor, Frances (Freaks) O’Connor, Kendall (Fantasia; Snow White) O’Connor, Simon (Heavenly Creatures) O’Connor, Una (Adventures of Robin Hood; Bride of Frankenstein; Informer) Odagiri, Miki (Ikiru) O’Dea, Dennis (Informer; Odd Man Out) Odell, Cary (From Here to Eternity) O’Dell, Denis (Hard Day’s Night) Odemar, Fritz (M) Odera, Kanahichi (Sansho dayu) Odets, Clifford (Sweet Smell of Success) O’Donnell, Cathy (Best Years of Our Lives; They Live by Night) O’Donovan, Edwin (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) O’Dowd, Mike (On the Waterfront) O’Driscoll, Martha (Lady Eve) O’Flaherty, Liam (Informer) Ogasawara, Kiyoshi (Koshikei) Ogata, Ken (Fukushu suru wa ware ni ari; Narayama bushi-ko) Ogawa, Mayumi (Fukushu suru wa ware ni ari) Ogawa, Seiko (Tampopo) Ogawa, Toranosuke (Akasen chitai; Gojira; Ikiru; Saikaku ichidai onna; Shichinin no samurai) Ogawa, Yukiko (Jujiro) Ogier, Bulle (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris; Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie) O’Grady, Gary (Piano) Ogunbiyi, J. K. (Kongi’s Harvest) Oguni, Hideo (Entotsu no mieru basho; Ikiru; Ran; Shichinin no samurai) Ogunyemi, Wale (Kongi’s Harvest) O’Halloran, George (Faces) O’Hara, Maureen (Dance, Girl, Dance) Ohashi, Fuminori (Gojira) O’Herlihy, Dan (Odd Man Out) Ohlsson, Bertil (Sult) Ohn, Gerald (African Queen) Ohno, Tadashi (Suna no onna) Oikawa, Takeo (Gojira) Oizumi, Akira (Saikaku ichidai onna) Oizumi, Hiroshi (Saikaku ichidai onna) Okabe, Tadashi (Gojira) Okada, Eiji (Hiroshima mon amour; Suna no onna) Okada, Kyoko (Ai no corrida) Okada, Mariko (Kwaidan; Samma no aji) Okada, Saburo (Naniwa ereji) Okamoto, Ken’ichi (Ai no corrida) Okay, Yaman (Journey of Hope) Okayasu, Hajime (Narayama bushi-ko) Okazaki, Robert (Blade Runner) Okazki, Hiro (Blade Runner) O’Keefe, Dennis (Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Okey, Jack (42nd Street; I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang; It’s a Wonderful Life; Out of the Past) Okhlupin, Igor (Siberiade) Okubo, Kiyoko (Naniwa ereji) Okumura, Yoshizaburo (Zangiku monogatari) Okun, Charles (Deer Hunter) Okura, Chiyoko (Naniwa ereji) Oladele, Francis (Kongi’s Harvest) Oland, Warner (Jazz Singer) Olbrychski, Daniel (Blechtrommel; Dekalog) Olczyk, Slavek (Shoah) Olden, Hans (M?rchen vom Glück) Oldman, Gary (JFK) Olin, Lena (Fanny och Alexander) Oliveira, Vinícius de (Central do Brasil) Oliver, Margaret (Jazz Singer) Oliver, Prudence (Brazil) Oliveri, Mariella (Blechtrommel) Oliveria, Lourdes de (Orfeu Negro) Olivier, Daniel (Yeelen) Olivier, Harry (Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Olivier, Laurence (Henry V) Olivier, Paul (Chapeau de paille d’Italie; Million) Olivier-Lacamp, Severine (Shoah) Ollive, Tim (Brazil) Ollivier, Paul (A nous la liberté) Olmi, Ermanno (Albero degli zoccoli) Olmos, Edward James (Blade Runner) Olsen, Carl (Badlands) Olsen, Moroni (Mildred Pierce; Snow White) Olson, Nancy (Sunset Boulevard) Olsson, Gunnar (Sjunde inseglet) Olsson, Marrit (Fanny och Alexander) O’Malley, Janice (Last Picture Show) O’Malley, Pat (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) On, Ley (Black Narcissus) O?a, Zolanda (Fresa y Chocolate) Onda, Seijiro (Gojira) Ondine(Chelsea Girls) Ond?í?ek, Miroslav (If...; Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Ondra, Anny (Blackmail) O’Neil, Barbara (Gone With the Wind) O’Neil, Robert (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) O’Neill, Kevin (Hoop Dreams) O’Neill, Maggie (Mona Lisa) Onikoyi, Rashidi (Kongi’s Harvest) Oota, Yoshinori (Hana-Bi) Opaliński, Kazimierz (Eroica) Ophuls, Marcel (Chagrin et la pitié) Ophüls, Max (Letter from an Unknown Woman; Lola Montès; Madame de ...; Ronde, La) Oppewall, Jeannine (L.A. Con?dential) Oppezzi, Alain (C’est arrivé près de chez vous) Oprey, Carol (Howards End) Opryatine, Constantin (Pirosmani) Orazi, Romolo (Accattone) Orbán, Tibor (Meg ker a nep) Orbom, Eric (All That Heaven Allows) Orchestra and Traditional Music Ensemble of Xi’an Academy of Music (Huang tudi) Ordway III, Frederick (2001: A Space Odyssey) O’Reilly, Fernando (Fresa y Chocolate) Orico, Vanja (Cangaceiro) Orlamond, William (Wind) Orlandini, Lucio (Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Orlov, Dmitri (Alexander Nevsky) Ormandy, Eugene (Louisiana Story) Ormonde, Czendi (Strangers on a Train) Ornagli, Luigi (Albero degli zoccoli) O’Roarke, Tommy (Man of Aran) Orry-Kelly (American in Paris; Casablanca; I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang; Maltese Falcon; Some Like It Hot) Orsini, Umberto (Caduta degli dei) Ortega, Sergio (Chacal de Nahueltoro) Orth, Frank (His Girl Friday) Ortion, Guilles (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1475 Ortiz, Manuel Angeles (Age d’or) Orton, Ray (Douglas Trilogy) Osaka, Shiro (Tokyo monogatari) Osborn, Paul (East of Eden) Osborne, John (Tom Jones) Oscar, Martin (Erotikon) Oscarsson, Per (Sult) Oser, Hans (Dreigroschenoper; Kameradschaft) Oshima, Nagisa (Ai no corrida; Koshikei; Shonen) Osiecka-Kuminek, Maria (Czlowiek z marmuru) Oskarsdottir, Valdis (Festen) O’Steen, Sam (Chinatown; Graduate; Rosemary’s Baby) Osterloh, Robert (Johnny Guitar; White Heat) Osugi, Ren (Hana-Bi) O’Sullivan, Maureen (Thin Man) O’Toole, Peter (Casino Royale; Lawrence of Arabia) Oswald, Maxim (Lola) Otani, Iwao (Sansho dayu; Ugetsu monogatari) Otegui, Juan José (Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Otensi, Bruno (Sciuscia) Otocka, Wies?awa (Matka Joanna od aniolow) Otomo, Yoshihide (Lan fengzheng) Otowa (Zangiku monogatari) Otowa, Nobuko (Hadaka no shima) Otten, Karl (Kameradschaft) Otterson, Jack (Killers) Ottiano, Rafaela (She Done Him Wrong) Ottieri, Ottiero (Eclisse) Otzhivaga, Nato (Pokaianie) Ouedraogo, Adama (Yaaba) Ouedraogo, Assita (Yaaba) Ouedraogo, Idrissa (Yaaba) Ouedraogo, Isma?l (Yaaba) Ouedraogo, Noufou (Yaaba) Ouedraogo, Rasmane (Yaaba) Ouedraogo, Sibidou (Yaaba) Ouedraogo, Zenabou (Yaaba) Oumansky, Andre (Outomlionnye solntsem) Ouralsky, V. (Stachka) Ouspenskaya, Maria (Dance, Girl, Dance) Ovchinnikov, Viacheslav (Istoria Asi Kliachinoi kotoraia lubila da nie vyshla zamuzh; Voina i mir) Overton, Tom (Last Picture Show) Oves, Zdenek (Ostre sledované vlaky) Ovtchinnikov, Viatcheslac (Andrei Rublev) Owe, Baard (Gertrud) Owen, Alun (Hard Day’s Night; Servant) Owen, Garry (Killers) Owen, Reginald (Mrs. Miniver) Owen, Seena (Intolerance) Oxley, Roy (Passport to Pimlico) Oyegunle, Dandy E. (Kongi’s Harvest) Oz, Frank (Star Wars) Ozanne, Robert (Pépé le Moko) Ozawa, Eitaro (Ningen no joken) Ozawa, Myoichiro (Jujiro) Ozawa, Sakae (Ugetsu monogatari) Ozawa, Shoichi (Narayama bushi-ko) Ozeki, Tatsuo (Hana-Bi) Ozenne, Jean (Ronde, La) Ozu, Yasujiro (Banshun; Higanbana; Samma no aji; Tokyo monogatari) Ozumi, Jun-ichi (Seppuku) Paatashvili, Levan (Siberiade) Pabst, G. W. (Büchse der Pandora; Dreigroschenoper; Kameradschaft; Tagebuch einer Verlorenen; Tie?and) Pachelbel (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Pachis, Stratos (Thiasos, O) Pacino, Al (Godfather Trilogy) Pack, Charles Lloyd (If...; Victim) Padamsee, Raisa (Duvidha) Paes, Jo?o (Amor de perdic?o) Pagano, Bartolomeo (Cabiria) Page, Alfred (Intolerance) Page, Geneviève (Belle de jour) Page, Ilse (Blechtrommel) Page, Joy (Casablanca) Page, Louis (Kermesse héroique) Page, Nicholas (If...) Paggi, Simona (America, L’) Pagiero, Marcello (Paisà; Roma, città aperta) Pagni, Eros (Film d’amore e d’anarchia) Pagnol, Marcel (Femme du boulanger; Marius Trilogy) Paillette, Laure (Playtime) Pain, Keith (Brazil) Painlevé, Jean (Farrebique; Sang des bêtes) Paiva, Nestor (Southerner) Pajer, Ivica (Vlak bez voznog reda) Pakula, Alan J. (Klute) Pakulnis, Maria (Dekalog) Pakulski, Krzysztof (Dekalog) Pal, Swadesh (Bhumika) Palance, Ines (Night at the Opera; Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Palance, Jack (Mèpris; Shane) Palau, Pierre (Enfants du paradis) Palekar, Amol (Bhumika) Palette, Eugene (Birth of a Nation) Palin, Michael (Brazil) Pallenberg, Rospo (Deliverance) Pallette, Eugene (Adventures of Robin Hood; Intolerance; Lady Eve; Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Palma, Carlo di (Blow-Up) Palma, Rossy de (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios) Palme, Ulf (Fr?ken Julie) Palmer, Art (Fantasia) Palmer, Belinda (Chinatown) Palmer, Corporal Thomas (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Palmero, Rafael (Cria Cuervos ...) Palnitkar, V. H. (Bharat Mata) Palone, John (Scorpio Rising) Palsey, Fred (Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Pan, Hermes (Top Hat) Pan Peicheng (Daoma zei) Panah, Hassan Yekta (Ta’m E Guilass) Panah, Kianoosh Zahedi (Ta’m E Guilass) Panaro, Alessandra (Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Pangborn, Franklin (Now Voyager; Sullivan’s Travels) Pangritz, Andrea (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Pani, Corrado (Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Papalios, Giorgos (Thiasos, O) Papamichael, Phedon (Faces) Papas, Irene (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli; Z) Pape, Lionel (Philadelphia Story) Papousěk, Jaroslav (Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Papp, Franti?ek (Obchod na korze) Papp, Veronika (Angi Vera) Pappaert, Nelly (C’est arrivé près de chez vous) Paquerette (Casque d’or) Paquin, Anna (Piano) Paradzhanov, Sergei (Teni zabytykh predkov) Parain, Brice (Vivre sa vie) Parasheles, Peter (Chimes at Midnight) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1476 Pardula, Rolf (Malcolm X) Parédes, Marisa (Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Parély, Mila (Belle et la bête; Règle du jeu) Parent, Valérie (C’est arrivé près de chez vous) Parès, Philippe (Million) Parfenov, Boris (Istoria Asi Kliachinoi kotoraia lubila da nie vyshla zamuzh) Parfey, Woodrow (Dirty Harry) Parguel, Paul (Coquille et le clergyman) Páris, Dominique (Udju Azul di Yonta) Paris, Richard (Exotica) Paris, Robin Mary (Annie Hall) Pariz, Lorival (Ant?nio das Mortes) Park, Ray (Star Wars) Parker, Alan (Midnight Express) Parker, Cecil (Lady Vanishes) Parker, Charlie (Souf?e au coeur) Parker, Claire (Nuit sur le Mont Chauve) Parker, Dorothy (Little Foxes) Parker, Max (Public Enemy) Parker, Ruth E. (Malcolm X) Parks, Gordon (Shaft) Parlo, Dita (Atalante; Grande illusion) Parmentier, Brigitte (Belle de jour) Parnell, Emory (Sullivan’s Travels) Parodi, Alejandro (Alsino y el Condor) Parrish, Leonard (Paisà) Parrish, Robert (All the King’s Men; Casino Royale; City Lights; Grapes of Wrath) Parrott, James (Music Box) Parry, Ivan (Red River) Parsley, Jay (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Parslow, Frederick (Last Wave) Parsonnet, Marion (Gilda) Parsons, Clive (Gregory’s Girl) Parsons, Estelle (Bonnie and Clyde) Partain, Paul A. (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Partleton, George (Clockwork Orange) Parvez, Yunus (Salaam Bombay) Paryla, Karl (Engel mit der Posaune) Parys, Georges van (Age d’or; Diaboliques) Pasca, Alfonsino (Paisà) Pascaud, Nathalie (Vacances de Monsieur Hulot) Pasetti, John (Carrosse d’or) Pasic, Mirza (Dom za vesanje; Otac na sluzbenom putu) Pasic, Zikrija (Otac na sluzbenom putu) Paskaléva, Katya (Koziyat rog) Pasolini, Pier Paolo (Accattone; Fiore delle mille e una notte; Vangelo secondo Matteo) Pasolini, Susanna (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Pasquier, Jean (Menilmontant) Passalia, Antonio (Boucher) Passarelli, Eduardo (Roma, città aperta) Passer, Ivan (Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Passos, John Dos (Devil Is a Woman) Pasternak, Boris (Korol Lir) Pasternak, Vladimir (Malenkaya Vera) Pastrone, Giovanni (Cabiria) Pasut, Franca (Accattone) Paszkowska, Halina (Noz w wodzie) Pásztor, Erzsi (Angi Vera) Pataki, Michael (Easy Rider) Patalas, Enno (Deutschland im Herbst; Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Patekar, Nana (Salaam Bombay) Patel, Amrit (Salaam Bombay) Paterson, Neil (Room at the Top) Paterson, William (Dirty Harry) Patil, Smita (Akaler sandhane; Bhumika) Patillo, Alan (Walkabout) Patin, Georges (Zéro de conduite) Patnaik, Ravi Shankar (Duvidha) Paton, Charles (Blackmail) Patrick, Lee (Maltese Falcon; Mildred Pierce; Now Voyager) Patsas, Giorgos (Vlemma Tou Odyssea) Patsas, Yorgos (Vlemma Tou Odyssea) Patten, Robert (Black Sunday) Patterson, Don (Fantasia) Patterson, Janet (Piano) Patterson, Kenneth (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Patterson, R. (Fantasia) Paul, Evelyne (Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles) Paul, Madame (A bout de souf?e) Paul, Raymond (Bonnie and Clyde) Paul, Reinhild (Heimat; Zweite Heimat) Pauléon (Bataille du rail) Pauleon, Leon (Casque d’or) Paull, Lawrence G. (Blade Runner) Paull, Morgan (Blade Runner) Paulsen, Arno (M?rder sind unter uns) Paulvé, André (Belle et la bête; Orphée) Pauly, Edgar (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Pavel, Paul (Vivre sa vie) Pavesi, Paolo (1900 (Novecento)) Pavey, Stan (Dead of Night) Pavlenko, Pyotr (Alexander Nevsky) Pavlík, Ji?í (O slavnosti a hostech; Ostre sledované vlaky) Pavlovic, Milena (Underground) Pavlovic, Zivojin (Budjenje pacova; Zaseda) Pawley, E. A. (Song of Ceylon) Pawlikowski, Adam (Kanal; Popiol i diament) Pawlinin, Helge (Lola Montès) Pawlowa, Vera (Tagebuch einer Verlorenen) Paxinou, Katina (Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Paxton, Bill (Titanic) Paxton, Brian (Mona Lisa) Paxton, John (Cross?re) Paylow, Clark L. (Conversation) Payne, David (Draughtsman’s Contract) Payvar, Homayoon (Ta’m E Guilass) Payvar, Homayun (And Life Goes On) Payzant, Charles (Fantasia) Paz, Senel (Fresa y Chocolate) Pearce, Guy (L.A. Con?dential) Pearce, Perce (Fantasia; Snow White) Pearl, Daniel (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Pearl, Dorothy (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Pearson, Virginia (Phantom of the Opera) Peasant Waistdrum Troupe of Ansai County (Huang tudi) Peaslee, Richard (Marat/Sade) Peck, Ann (Searchers) Peckinpah, Sam (Invasion of the Body Snatchers; Ride the High Country; Wild Bunch) Peclet, Georges (Grande illusion; Pépé le Moko) Pederson, Con (2001: A Space Odyssey) Pedi, Tom (Naked City) Pedoni, Anna (Sciuscia) Pedreira, Brutus (Limite) Pedroni, Emilio (Albero degli zoccoli) Pedroni, Lorenzo (Albero degli zoccoli) Pee, Po Pao (Deer Hunter) Peebles, Mario Van (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1477 Peebles, Melvin Van (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Peel, Dave (Nashville) Peet, Bill (Fantasia) Pegoraro, Lorenzo (Vitelloni, I) Pei Xiaonan (Ba wang bie ji) Peichev, Stefan (Sterne) Peil, Edward (Broken Blossoms) Peiqi, Liu (Qiu Ju da Guansi) Peirse, Sara (Heavenly Creatures) Peixoto, Mario (Limite) Pej?kova, Helena (O slavnosti a hostech) Pek, Albert (Staré povesti ceské) Pekny, Romuald (38 - Auch das war Wien) Pelegri, Jean (Pickpocket) Pelegri, Pierre (Fuzis) Pelegrini, Amalia (Roma, città aperta) Peleshian, Artur (Siberiade) Pellegrin, Georges (Samourai) Pellegrini, Ines (Fiore delle mille e una notte) Pellerani, Franco (Conformista) Pellow, Clifford (Hustler) Pema, Sefer (America, L’) Pempeit, Lila (Deutschland im Herbst) Pe?a, Candela (Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Pe?a, Elizabeth (Lone Star) Pe?a, Julio (Chimes at Midnight) Pendleton, Gaylord (Informer) Pendleton, Nat (Thin Man) Penella, Emma (Verdugo) Pénev, Milèn (Koziyat rog) Penn, Arthur (Bonnie and Clyde) Penn, Chris (Reservoir Dogs) Penn, Leonard (Star Is Born) Penna, Rosa Maria (Ant?nio das Mortes) Pennasilico, Amato (Avventura) Pennell, Peter (Blade Runner) Penner, Erdman (Fantasia) Pennick, Jack (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance; My Darling Clementine; Searchers) Pennington-Richards, C. (Fires Were Started) Penrose, John (Kind Hearts and Coronets) Pens Rode, Nina (Gertrud) Peoples, David (Blade Runner; Unforgiven) Peploe, Mark (Professione: Reporter) Peppard, George (Breakfast at Tiffany’s) Pérè, Marcel (Jour se lève) Pêra, Marilia (Central do Brasil) Pera, Marilia (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Perakis, Nikos (Blechtrommel) Perceval, Hugh (Third Man) Percy, Esme (Dead of Night) Pereira, Gilbert (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) Pereira, Hal (Double Indemnity; Man Who Shot Liberty Valance; Rear Window; Shane; Vertigo) Perès, Marcel (Quai des brumes) Pereverzeva, Valentina (Malenkaya Vera) Perez, Aricle (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Pérez, Conchita (Cria Cuervos ...) Perez, Elba (Memorias del subdesarrollo) Perez, Jeanne (Thérèse Desqueyroux) Perez, Jorge (Olvidados) Perez, Jose Ramon (Alsino y el Condor) Perez, Juan (Carrosse d’or) Perez, Marta Lorena (Alsino y el Condor) Perez, Rosie (Do the Right Thing) Perez, Vincent (Cyrano de Bergerac) Perfort, Holger (Der var engang en krig) Pergolese, Giovanni Battista (Zerkalo) Périer, Fran?ois (Orphée; Samourai) Périnal, Georges (A nous la liberté; Life and Death of Colonel Blimp; Million; Private Life of Henry VIII; Sang d’un poete) Perinal, Georges (Things to Come) Perkins, Anthony (Procès; Psycho) Perkins, Curtiss D. (Fantasia) Perkins, Osgood (Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Perkovíc, Aleksander (W.R.: Mysterije Organizma) Perl, Arnold (Malcolm X) Pernel, Florence (Trois Couleurs) Peroni, Geraldine (Player) Peronne, Denise (Jeux interdits) Perovic, Slobodan (Budjenje pacova) Perovic, Stjepan (Vlak bez voznog reda) Perpignani, Roberto (Kaos) Perrault, Louis (Vacances de Monsieur Hulot) Perri, Dan (Nashville) Perrin, Jacques (Z) Perrin, Nat (Duck Soup) Perrineau, Harold (Smoke) Perrot, Irma (Feu Mathias Pascal) Perry, George Sessions (Southerner) Persaud, Stephen (Mona Lisa) Persoff, Nehemiah (Some Like It Hot) Persson, Bo (Fanny och Alexander; Offret) Pértier, Fran?ois (Z) Perugorria, Jorge (Fresa y Chocolate) Pesci, Joe (GoodFellas; JFK; Once Upon a Time in America) Pesovár, Ferenc (Meg ker a nep) Pessin, Leo B. (Letter from an Unknown Woman) Pester, Jan (Gregory’s Girl) Petakovic, Gordana (Dom za vesanje) Petek, Ljubomir (Otac na sluzbenom putu) Peterman, Melissa (Fargo) Peters, Clarke (Mona Lisa) Peters, Hans (Picture of Dorian Gray) Peters, Karsten (Lola) Peters, Walter (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Petersen, Anne Marie (Vredens dag) Petersen, Else (Babettes Gaestebud) Petersen, Erik (Babettes Gaestebud) Petersen, Jan (Babettes Gaestebud) Petersen, Maria-Antoinette (Das Boot) Petersen, Wolfgang (Das Boot) Peterson, Robert (Big Heat; In a Lonely Place) Peterson-Berger, Wikee (Offret) Peticca, Sandro (Professione: Reporter) Petigk, Helmut (Lola) Petit, Jean-Claude (Cyrano de Bergerac) Petitgand, Laurent (Der Himmel Uber Berlin) Petitjean, Antoine (Casque d’or; Lola Montès) Petitjean, Arman (Jour se lève) Petito, Enzo (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Petitot, Georges (Et ... Dieu créa la femme) Petré, Gio (Smultronst?llet) Petrenko, Alexei (Korol Lir; Proshchanie) Petri (Hiroshima mon amour) Petri, Elio (Vlak bez voznog reda) Petrie, Hay (Great Expectations) Petrik, P. (Zemlya) Petritsky, Anatoly (Voina i mir) Petrone, Francisco (Tire dié) Petrov, Erqueni (Siberiade) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1478 Petrov, Ivan (Istoria Asi Kliachinoi kotoraia lubila da nie vyshla zamuzh) Petrov, Naicho (Sterne) Petrov, S. (Arsenal) Petrov, Viktor (Idi i smotri; Proshchanie) Petrova, Krasimira (Koziyat rog) Petrovic, Aleksandar (Skuplijaci perja) Petrucci, Giovanni (Avventura) Petrucelli, Rick (Annie Hall) Pettersson, P. O. (Persona; Sommarnattens leende) Pettet, Joanna (Casino Royale) Pettifer, Brian (If...) Pettitt, Frank (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning; Victim) Peverall, John (Deer Hunter) Pevtsov, I. (Chapayev) Peyrot, Yves (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli; Dentellière; Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Peyton, Claude (Night at the Opera) Pezzo, Mario Del (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Pezzoli, Edouard (Blechtrommel) P?aum, Dr. Walter (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) P?ug, Jo Ann (M*A*S*H) Phelan, Brian (Servant) Phelps, Lee (Philadelphia Story; Public Enemy) Philbin, Mary (Phantom of the Opera) Philipe, Gérard (Diable au corps) Philipe, Gerard (Ronde) Philipp, Gunther (M?rchen vom Glück) Philippe (Noire de ...) Philipsen, Betty (Lola Montès) Philliber, John (Double Indemnity) Phillippi, Charles (Fantasia; Snow White) Phillips, Carmen (Easy Rider; Ride the High Country) Phillips, Dorothy (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Phillips, Jonathan (Titanic) Phillips, Julia (Close Encounters of the Third Kind; Taxi Driver) Phillips, Mackenzie (American Graf?ti) Phillips, Michael (Close Encounters of the Third Kind; Taxi Driver) Phillips, Redmond (Tom Jones) Phillips, William (High Noon) Phipps, Kieron (Midnight Express) Phipps, William (Cross?re) Pia Luzi, Maria (Notte) Picabia, Francis (Entr’acte) Picardi, Cesarino Miceli (8?) Picazo, Miguel (Espiritu de la colmena) Piccioni, Piero (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli; Salvatore Giuliano) Piccoli, Michel (Belle de jour; Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie; Mèpris) Piccolo, Ottavia (Gattopardo) Piccone, Ugo (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Pichul, Vasili (Malenkaya Vera) Pickard, Ully (Diva) Pickely, Daniel Leonard (Fantasia) Pickens, Slim (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Pickler, Fred (Blue Velvet) Picolli, Henri (Playtime) Pidgeon, Walter (Mrs. Miniver) Pieczka, Franciszek (Matka Joanna od aniolow) Piedra, Emiliano (Chimes at Midnight) Pieplu, Claude (Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie) Pierce, Dale (Malcolm X) Pierce, Jack (Bride of Frankenstein; Frankenstein) Pierce, Jack P. (Dracula 1931) Pierce, Norman (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Pierre, Emile (Napoléon) Piersanti, Franco (America, L’) Pierson, Jane (Boudu sauvé des eaux) Piesiewicz, Krzystof (Dekalog; Trois Couleurs) Pietrangeli, Antonio (Ossessione) Pietschman, Roger (Taxi Driver) Piggot, Tempé (Greed) Pigott, Tempe (Devil Is a Woman) Pike, Don (Faces) Pike, Miles E. (Fantasia) Pileggi, Nicholas (GoodFellas) Pilenga, Franco (Albero degli zoccoli) Pilgrim, Elis (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Pin, Santiago Isidro (Spoorloos) Pinal, Silvia (Viridiana) Pincicoli, Renato (Avventura) Pinelli, Tullio (8?; Dolce vita; Strada; Vitelloni, I) Ping, Zhong (Lan fengzheng) Pingatore, Gene (Hoop Dreams) Pingitore, Carl (Dirty Harry) Pinkas, Avram (Sterne) Pinkovitch, Albert (Grande illusion) Pino, José (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Pinon, Dominique (Diva) Pinoteau, Claude (Lola Montès) Pinson, Henritte (Napoléon) Pinson, Mimi (Last Tango in Paris) Pinter, Harold (Servant) Pinter, Tomislav (Samo jednom se ljubi; Skuplijaci perja) Pinto, Ant?nio (Central do Brasil; Deus e o diabo na terra do sol) Pinto, José (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Pinto, Manoel (Cangaceiro) Piovani, Nicola (Kaos) Pirandello, Luigi (Feu Mathias Pascal; Kaos) Pirie, David (Breaking the Waves) Pironkov, Siméon (Koziyat rog; Sterne) Piscane, Carlo (Paisà) Piscopo, Franco (C’est arrivé près de chez vous) Pisier, Marie-France (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) Pisiewicz, Krzysztof (Trois Couleurs) Pistilli, Luigi (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Pisu, Mario (8?) Pitagora, Paola (Pugni in tasca) Pitaluga, Gustavo (Olvidados) Pitt, Brad (Thelma and Louise) Pitt, Chris (My Beautiful Laundrette) Pittaluga, Gustavo (Viridiana) Pittinger, William (General) Pitts, ZaSu (All Quiet on the Western Front; Greed) Pivar, Maurice (Dracula 1931; Phantom of the Opera) Placido, Michele (America, L’) Planer, Frank (Breakfast at Tiffany’s; Letter from an Unknown Woman) Planer, Nigel (Brazil) Platen, Karl (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse; M; Schatten) Platt, Edward (North by Northwest; Rebel Without a Cause; Written on the Wind) Platt, Polly (Last Picture Show) Plaza, Rodolfo (Soy Cuba) Plemiannikov, Helen (Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie) Pleshette, Suzanne (Birds) Pletniev, V. (Stachka) Pleyer, Marita (Lola) Ploberger, Isabella (Tie?and) Plotin, Monique (Lola Montès) Plowright, Hilda (Philadelphia Story) Plumb, Edward H. (Fantasia) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1479 Plummer, Amanda (Pulp Fiction) Plummer, Elmer (Fantasia) Plunkett, Walter (American in Paris; Gone With the Wind; Informer; King Kong) Podobed, Por?ri (Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov) Podvoisky, N. (Oktiabr) Poe, Edgar Allan (Masque of the Red Death) Poelvoorde, Beno?t (C’est arrivé près de chez vous) Poelvoorde-Pappaert, Jacqueline (C’est arrivé près de chez vous) Poff, Lon (Greed) Poggioni, Vera (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Pogorishnaya, Nadezhda (Proshchanie) Pogson, Kathryn (Brazil) Pohl, Klaus (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Pointer, Priscilla (Blue Velvet) Pointing, Richard (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Poiré, Alain (Condamné à mort s’est échappé) Pojar, B?etislav (Staré povesti ceské) Poktomski, Waldemar (Funny Games) Polack, Sydney (Player) Polaire, Hal (Ride the High Country) Polak, Hanus, Jr. (Funny Games) Polanah, Armando (Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes) Polanah, Rui (Fuzis) Polanski, Roman (Chinatown; Noz w wodzie; Repulsion; Rosemary’s Baby) Poledník, Emil (Staré povesti ceské) Poletto, Piero (Eclisse; Professione: Reporter) Polglase, Van Nest (Dance, Girl, Dance; Gilda; Informer; King Kong; Top Hat) Polidor (8?; Dolce vita) Polidori (Carrosse d’or) Polito, Lina (Film d’amore e d’anarchia) Polito, Sol (42nd Street; Adventures of Robin Hood; I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang; Now Voyager) Polk, Brigid (Chelsea Girls) Polk, Mimi (Thelma and Louise) Polk, Oscar (Gone With the Wind) Pollack, Gordon (City Lights) Pollard, Hoyt T. (Deliverance) Pollard, Michael J. (Bonnie and Clyde) Polletto, Piero (Avventura) Polley, Sarah (Exotica) Pollicand, Gérald (Playtime) Polo, Malvina (Foolish Wives) Polomska, Barbara (Eroica) Polony, Anna (Dekalog) Poltautseva, N. (Bronenosets Potemkin) Polyakova, Liudmila (Proshchanie) Pomme (Casque d’or) Pommer, Erich (Blaue Engel; Dance, Girl, Dance; Kabinett des Dr. Caligari; Letze Mann; Variété) Pommereulle, Daniel (Weekend) Pompeit, Lilo (Angst essen Seele auf) Pompeu, Joao Jose (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Pompiani (Notte) Pompili, Mirella (Morte a Venezia) Pondchevni, V. (Idi i smotri) Ponomarenko, M. (Teni zabytykh predkov) Pont, Miss Du (Foolish Wives) Ponte, María Luisa (Verdugo) Pontecorvo, Gillo (Battaglia di Algeri) Ponti, Carlo (Blow-Up; Cléo de cinq à sept; Mèpris; O slavnosti a hostech; Ostre sledované vlaky; Professione: Reporter; Strada) Ponto, Erich (Third Man) Ponturo, Giuseppe (Haine) Poole, Gilly (Titanic) Poon Kin-Kwan (Ahfei zheng zhuan) Poovah, Phyllis (Women) Pope, Dick (Life Is Sweet; Secrets and Lies) Pope, Steve (Blade Runner) Popescu, Petru (Last Wave) Popov, Gavrill (Chapayev) Popov, N. (Oktiabr) Popov, V. (Alexander Nevsky; Oktiabr; Stachka) Popovic, Pega (W.R.: Mysterije Organizma) Popovic, Srdan (Dom za vesanje) Poppe, Nils (Sjunde inseglet) Poppel, Ann (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Popvic, Gorica (Nesto izmedju) Popwell, Johnny (Deliverance) Porcasi, Paul (King Kong) Porporati, Andrea (America, L’) Portacio, Tony (Brazil) Portal, Michel (Yeelen) Portman, Clem (Cross?re; It’s a Wonderful Life; Notorious; Out of the Past) Portman, Natalie (Star Wars) Portman, Rachel (Life Is Sweet; Smoke) Portman, Richard (Godfather Trilogy) Porto, Settimo Di (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Portocarrero, René (Soy Cuba) Posier, Jean-Pierre (Samourai) Possardt, Werner (Deutschland im Herbst) Postec, Robert (Cléo de cinq à sept) Postec, Ziva (Shoah) Postlethwaite, Pete (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Potechina, Lydia (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Potel, Victor (Sullivan’s Travels) Potro, Nelson (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Potter, Betty (Matter of Life and Death) Poujouly, Georges (Et ... Dieu créa la femme; Jeux interdits) Pouret, Robert (Samourai) Pousen, Svend (Ordet) Powell, Andy (Distant Voices, Still Lives; Draughtsman’s Contract) Powell, Dick (42nd Street) Powell, Edward (Modern Times) Powell, Edward B. (My Darling Clementine) Powell, Michael (Black Narcissus; Life and Death of Colonel Blimp; Matter of Life and Death; Peeping Tom; Red Shoes) Powell, Russ (Public Enemy) Powell, William (Thin Man) Power, Hartley (Dead of Night) Powers, Len (Music Box) Powers, P. A. (Steamboat Willie) Powers, Richard (Cross?re) Powers, Tom (Double Indemnity) Pozo, Angel del (Professione: Reporter) Pracasi, Paul (Casablanca) Pracharová, Jana (O slavnosti a hostech) Prado, Marisa (Cangaceiro) Pradot, Marcelle (Argent; Feu Mathias Pascal) Prager, Edith (M?rchen vom Glück) Prakash (Elippathayam) Prasch, Herbert (Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes) Pratolini, Vasco (Paisà; Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Pratt, Amanda (My Brilliant Career) Pratt, Mike (Repulsion) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1480 Pratt, Purnell (Night at the Opera; Public Enemy; Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Pratt, Roger (Brazil; Mona Lisa) Pratt, Thomas (42nd Street) Pré ?ls (Chapeau de paille d’Italie) Prebil, Mladen (Dom za vesanje) Prechtel, Volker (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Predit, Masha (Morte a Venezia) Preisner, Zbigniew (Dekalog; Trois Couleurs) Préjean, Albert (Chapeau de paille d’Italie; Dreigroschenoper) Preminger, Ingo (M*A*S*H) Preminger, Otto (Laura) Presle, Micheline (Diable au corps) Presnell, Harve (Fargo) Pressburger, Emeric (Black Narcissus; Life and Death of Colonel Blimp; Matter of Life and Death; Red Shoes) Pressman, Edward R. (Badlands) Pressman, Lawrence (Shaft) Prévert, Jacques (Crime de Monsieur Lange; Enfants du paradis; Jour se lève; Quai des brumes) Prévert, Pierre (Age d’or) Previtali, Fernando (Ossessione) Price, Dennis (Kind Hearts and Coronets; Victim) Price, Vincent (Laura; Masque of the Red Death) Prickett, Maudie (North by Northwest) Priegel, Franz (Deutschland im Herbst) Priestley, Robert (Gilda) Priestley, Tom (Deliverance; Marat/Sade) Priggen, Norman (Servant) Prilutzkaya, L. (Kommisar) Prim, Monique (Diva) Prince, Ron (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Prince, Steven (Taxi Driver) Pringle, Aileen (Laura) Pringle, Bryan (Brazil; Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Prinz, Eddie (Gone With the Wind) Priolil, Angelo (Miracolo a Milano) Prip, Henrik (Idioterne) Pritchet, John (Player) Prival, Lucien (Bride of Frankenstein) Pro, Vladimir (Potomok Chingis-Khan) Prober, Yuri (Malenkaya Vera) Probyn, Brian (Badlands) Prochaska, Andreas (Funny Games) Prochnow, Jürgen (Das Boot) Proclemer, Anna (Viaggio in Italia) Proctor, Jack R. (Foolish Wives) Prokhorenko, Shanna (Balada o soldate) Proko?ev, Sergei (Alexander Nevsky; Ivan Grozny) Prokopenko (Bronenosets Potemkin) Pr?ller, Ingeborg (Ehe der Maria Braun) Pronin, Vasili (Putyovka v zhizn) Pront, Alex (Samourai) Protopopov (Bronenosets Potemkin) Proust, Colette (Playtime) Prout, Alex (Boucher) Prouty, Olive Higgins (Now Voyager) Proval, David (Mean Streets) Provensen, Martin (Fantasia) Provenzale, Enzo (Salvatore Giuliano) Prowse, David (Clockwork Orange; Star Wars) Pruchon, Gilbert (Zéro de conduite) Pruna (Age d’or) Prussac, Lola (Thérèse Desqueyroux) Prüzelius, G?sta (Fanny och Alexander; Sommarnattens leende) Pryce, Jonathan (Brazil) Przygodda, Peter (Amerikanische freund; Der Himmel Uber Berlin; Im Lauf der Zeit; Paris, Texas) Puccini, Gianni (Ossessione) Pucheux, Jorge (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas; Memorias del subdesarrollo) Puchkov, Yu (Proshchanie) Pucholt, Vladimir (Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Pudovkin, Vsevolod (Ivan Grozny; Konyets Sankt-Peterburga; Mat; Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov; Novyi Vavilon; Potomok Chingis-Khan) Puerto, Diana Iris del (Fresa y Chocolate) Puffy, Karl Huzar (Blaue Engel) Pugarowa, Halina (Czlowiek z marmuru) Puglia, Frank (Casablanca; Now Voyager; Star Is Born) Pujol, Eric (Haine) Pula, Narcisse (Professione: Reporter) Purcell, Glyn (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Purcell, Henry (Zerkalo) Puri, Amrish (Bhumika) Puri, Luigi (Accattone) Purnal, Sacher (Napoléon) Purviance, Edna (Kid) Purvis, Jack (Brazil; Mona Lisa) Pushkin (Konyets Sankt-Peterburga) Putnam, Thor (Fantasia) Putti, Lya de (Variété) Püttjer, Gustav (Dreigroschenoper; Kameradschaft) Puttnam, David (Midnight Express) Puzo, Mario (Godfather Trilogy) Pye, Merrill (Freaks; North by Northwest) Pyke, Hy (Blade Runner) Pyke, Trevor (Das Boot) Pyle, Denver (Bonnie and Clyde; Johnny Guitar; Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Pyott, Keith (Chimes at Midnight) Pyriev, Erik (Ivan Grozny) Qian Ming (Red Sorghum) Qiang, Liu (Huang tudi) Qiang Xiaolu (Haizi wang) Qianhong, Tan (Yanzhi kou) Qiu Fusheng (City of Sadness) Qu Xiaosong (Daoma zei; Haizi wang) Quackenbush, Stan (Snow White) Quad?ieg, Will (Lola Montès) Quaglio, Jose (Conformista) Quaid, Randy (Last Picture Show; Midnight Express) Qualen, John (Casablanca; Grapes of Wrath; His Girl Friday; Man Who Shot Liberty Valance; Searchers) Quanye, Liu (Huang tudi) Quanzin, Pu (Lan fengzheng) Quaranta, Gianni (Room with a View) Quaranta, Lidia (Cabiria) Quarrassi, Sarfuddin (Salaam Bombay) Quarshie, Hugh (Star Wars) Quayle, Anna (Casino Royale; Hard Day’s Night) Quayle, Anthony (Lawrence of Arabia) Quéant, Gilles (Année dernière à Marienbad; Vivre sa vie) Queensbery, Marchioness of (Things to Come) Queiroz, Walter (Ant?nio das Mortes) Querejeta, Elías (Cria Cuervos ...) Querejeta, Elias (Espiritu de la colmena) Querejeta, Francisco J. (Espiritu de la colmena) Quesada, Delia (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Quiedeville, Sophie (Haine) Quigley, Godfrey (Clockwork Orange) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1481 Quillan, Eddie (Grapes of Wrath; Young Mr. Lincoln) Quinn, Anthony (Lawrence of Arabia; Strada) Quinn, Patricia (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Quinn, William (Birds) Quirk, Charles (Shane) Quirke, Pauline (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Quispo, Ignacio (Yawar Mallku) Quitak, Oscar (Brazil) Qun, He (Huang tudi) Raab, Max L. (Clockwork Orange; Walkabout) Raawi, Raad (Mona Lisa) Rabal, Francisco (Belle de jour; Eclisse; Viridiana) Rabal, Teresa (Viridiana) Rabanne, Paco (Casino Royale) Raben, Peer (Ehe der Maria Braun; Lola) Rabenalt, A. (Kermesse héroique) Rabier, Jean (Boucher; Cléo de cinq à sept; Femme in?dèle) Rabin, Jack (Night of the Hunter) Rabinovitch, Grégor (Quai des brumes) Rachedi, Hamed (Z) Racon, Josette (Argent) Rada, Ricardo (Yawar Mallku) Radburn, Veronica (Annie Hall) Radclyffe, Sarah (My Beautiful Laundrette) Rader, Jack (Black Sunday) Radeva, Evgeniya (Koziyat rog) Radford, Basil (Dead of Night; Lady Vanishes; Passport to Pimlico) Radiguet, Raymond (Diable au corps) Radke, Elzbieta (Trois Couleurs) Radmilovíc, Zoran (W.R.: Mysterije Organizma) Radványi, Géza (Valahol Europaban) Radzinya, Elsa (Korol Lir) Radziwilowicz, Jerzy (Czlowiek z marmuru) Rafelson, Bob (Five Easy Pieces) Rafelson, Toby (Five Easy Pieces) Rafferty, Tom (Big Sleep) Raft, George (Casino Royale; Scarface: The Shame of a Nation; Some Like It Hot) Ragályi, Elemér (Journey of Hope) Ragowska, Felicja (Matka Joanna od aniolow) Rai, Ramesh (Salaam Bombay) Raimu (Femme du boulanger; Marius Trilogy) Rain, Douglas (2001: A Space Odyssey) Raine, Norman Reilly (Adventures of Robin Hood) Rainer, Leon (Deutschland im Herbst) Rainer, Luis (Tie?and) Raines, Christina (Nashville) Rainey, Ford (White Heat) Rainger, Ralph (Devil Is a Woman; She Done Him Wrong) Rains, Claude (Casablanca; Lawrence of Arabia; Mr. Smith Goes to Washington; Notorious; Now Voyager) Rake, Denis (Chagrin et la pitié) Rakhals, Vasili (Bronenosets Potemkin; Tretia Meshchanskaia) Rakhas, Vasili (Stachka) Rakovsky, M. (Teni zabytykh predkov) Raksin, David (Laura; Modern Times) Ralph, Hanna (Nibelungen) Ralph, Jessie (Camille) Ralph, John (Howards End) Ralston, Ken (Star Wars) Rama, S. V. (Kaagaz ke phool) Rambaldi, Carlo (Close Encounters of the Third Kind) Rametta, Guido (Last Wave) Ramey, Ed (Deliverance) Ramezani, Gholam Reza (Dawandeh) Ramezani, Reza (Dawandeh) Ramírez, Mario (Olvidados) Ramírez, Pepe (Soy Cuba) Ramon, Laon (Wind) Ramon, Mitsusaburo (Ugetsu monogatari) Ramos, Gracialano (Vidas secas) Ramos, Richard (Klute) Rampling, Charlotte (Caduta degli dei) Rand, John (City Lights; Gold Rush) Randall, Glenn (Raiders of the Lost Ark) Randall, Mónica (Cria Cuervos ...) Randall, Steven (Young Mr. Lincoln) Randall, William (Dirty Harry) Randion (Freaks) Randisi, Massimo (Ladri di biciclette) Randle, Theresa (Malcolm X) Randolf, Anders (Jazz Singer) Randolph, Jane (Cat People) Randone, Salvo (Salvatore Giuliano) Ranvaud, Donald (Central do Brasil) Rapee, Erno (Little Caesar) Raphaelson, Samson (Jazz Singer; Trouble in Paradise) Raposeiro, Victor (Bye Bye Brasil) Rapp, Larry (Once Upon a Time in America) Rappdée, Ern? (Variété) Rappeneau, Jean-Paul (Cyrano de Bergerac) Rapper, Irving (High Sierra; Now Voyager) Ras, Eva (Otac na sluzbenom putu) Rasch, Kai (Gertrud) Raschig, Krafft (Büchse der Pandora; Dreigroschenoper) Rasenack, Karin (Heimat; Zweite Heimat, Die) Rasmussen, Erik (Cangaceiro; Vredens dag) Rasp, Fritz (Dreigroschenoper; Metropolis; Schatten; Das Tagebuch einer Verlorenen) Rasputin, Valentin (Proshchanie) Rassimov, Rada (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Rasskazov, A. (Proshchanie) Rath, Franz (Bleierne Zeit) Rathbone, Basil (Adventures of Robin Hood) Rathery, Isabelle (Central do Brasil) Rathje, Gustav (M) Ratra, V. (Kaagaz ke phool) Rauch, Ellen (Blue Velvet) Raulet, Georges (Million) Rauth, Heloise (Haine) Rauzena (Bataille du rail) Ravanbaz, Raymond (A bout de souf?e) Ravel, Jean (Chronique d’un été) Ravesco, M. (Strada) Ravet (Passion de Jeanne d’Arc) Ravi (Elippathayam) Rawlings, Terry (Blade Runner) Rawlins, Adrian (Breaking the Waves) Ray, Antonia (Klute) Ray, Man (Ballet mécanique; Entr’acte) Ray, Natalia (Viaggio in Italia) Ray, Nicholas (Amerikanische freund; In a Lonely Place; Johnny Guitar; Rebel Without a Cause; They Live by Night) Ray, Nicole (Playtime) Ray, Robin (Hard Day’s Night) Ray, Satyajit (Apu Trilogy; Aranyer din Ratri; Charulata; Jana Aranya) Raymond, Cyril (Brief Encounter) Raynor, Sheila (Clockwork Orange) Rayns, Tony (Huang tudi) Raza, S. Ali (Bharat Mata) Rea, Bill (Titanic) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1482 Rea, Elena (Umberto D) Rea, Stephen (Life Is Sweet) Read, Jan (Blue Lamp) Rebbot, Sady (Vivre sa vie) Rebuffet, Jean-Jacques (Farrebique) Redden, Billy (Deliverance) Redeker, Quinn K. (Deer Hunter) Red?eld, William (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Redgrave, Jemma (Howards End) Redgrave, Lynn (Tom Jones) Redgrave, Michael (Dead of Night; Lady Vanishes) Redgrave, Vanessa (Blow-Up; Howards End) Redman, Joyce (Tom Jones) Redmond Jr., Harry (King Kong) Redon (Bataille du rail; Yeux sans visage) Redon, Jean (Yeux sans visage) Redzepi, Ajnur (Dom za vesanje) Reed, Alan (Breakfast at Tiffany’s) Reed, Carol (Odd Man Out; Third Man) Reed, Donna (From Here to Eternity; It’s a Wonderful Life; Picture of Dorian Gray) Reed, Gus (Sullivan’s Travels) Reed, John (Oktiabr) Reed, John F. (Fantasia) Reed, Tom (Phantom of the Opera) Reed, Tracy (Casino Royale; Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Reeves, George (Gone With the Wind) Reevis, Steve (Fargo) Refn, Anders (Breaking the Waves) Régent, Benoit (Trois Couleurs) Reggiani, Serge (Casque d’or; La Ronde; Gattopardo) Regnault, Nicole (Dames du Bois de Boulogne) Rehfeld, Curt (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Rehkopf, Paul (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse; Variété) Rehm, Werner (Blechtrommel) Rehman, Waheeda (Kaagaz ke phool) Rei, Faciana (Limite) Rei, Taciana (Limite) Reiber, Ludwig (Paths of Glory) Reich, Hanns Leo (Metropolis) Reichel, Susi (Ehe der Maria Braun) Reicher, Frank (King Kong) Reichmann, Wolfgang (Procès) Reid, Carl Benton (Little Foxes) Reid, Cliff (Bringing Up Baby; Informer) Reid, Sheila (Brazil) Reid, Wallace (Birth of a Nation) Reidy, Joseph (GoodFellas) Reilly, Joan (Rosemary’s Baby) Reimann, Walter (Kabinett des Dr. Caligari) Reimers, Georg (Sodom und Gomorrha) Reinach, Edward (Foolish Wives) Reinecke, Vally (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Reinhard, Arthur (Metropolis) Reinhardt, Betty (Laura) Reinl, Harald (Tie?and) Reis, Irving (Spanish Earth) Reisch, Walter (Ninotchka) Reisner, Charles (Gold Rush) Reisner, Chuck (Kid) Reisz, Karel (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Reiter, Andrzej (Blechtrommel) Reiter, Markus (Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Reiter, Robert (Blade Runner) Reitherman, Wolfgang (Fantasia; Snow White) Reitmeier, Werner (Funny Games) Reitz, Christian (Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Reitz, Edgar (Deutschland im Herbst; Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Relph, Michael (Blue Lamp; Dead of Night; Victim) Relyea, Robert E. (West Side Story) Remoleux, Jean-Claude (Procès) Remsen, Bert (Nashville) Remy, Albert (Enfants du paradis) Rémy, Albert (Quatre cents coups; Tirez sur le pianiste) Rémy, Jean-Jacques (Thérèse Desqueyroux) Renard, Jacques (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) Renard, Katja Miehe (Der var engang en krig) Renault, Yamamoto, and Rene (Hiroshima mon amour) Renavent, George (Sullivan’s Travels) Rennahan, Ray (Becky Sharp; Gone With the Wind) Rennie, James (Now Voyager) Renoir, Claude (Bête humaine; Carrosse d’or; Grande illusion; Règle du jeu; Partie de campagne) Renoir, Jean (Bête humaine; Boudu sauvé des eaux; Carrosse d’or; Crime de Monsieur Lange; Grande illusion; Partie de campagne; Règle du jeu; Southerner) Renoir, Marguerite (Boudu sauvé des eaux; Casque d’or; Crime de Monsieur Lange; Partie de campagne; Bête humaine) Renoir, Pierre (Enfants du paradis) Renot, Delphine (Les Vampires) Renoux, René (Le Salaire de la peur) Renzi, Maggie (Lone Star) Repulles, Alejandro (Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes) Rerberg, Georgy (Istoria Asi Kliachinoi kotoraia lubila da nie vyshla zamuzh; Zerkalo) Resetarits, Lukas (38 - Auch das war Wien) Resh, Gabe and Robert (Chinatown) Resnais, Alain (Année dernière à Marienbad; Hiroshima mon amour; Nuit et brouillard) Restorick, Elsie (Douglas Trilogy) Restorick, Hughie (Douglas Trilogy) Revela, Rita (Greed) Revere, Anne (Place in the Sun) Revere, Carla (Roma, città aperta) Reville, Alma (39 Steps; Lady Vanishes) Revuelta, Raquel (Lucia; Soy Cuba) Revueltas, Rosaura (Salt of the Earth) Revueltas, Silvestre (Los Redes) Revutsky, Leonid (Zemlya) Rex, Eugen (Schatten) Rex, Martin (Draughtsman’s Contract) Rey, Fernando (Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie; Chimes at Midnight; Viridiana) Rey, Loris (Fires Were Started) Rey, Pedro del (Viridiana) Rey, Rosa (Gilda) Reynders, John (Blackmail) Reynolds, Ben (Foolish Wives; Greed) Reynolds, Burt (Deliverance; Player) Reynolds, Debbie (Singin’ in the Rain) Reynolds, Michael J. (Black Sunday) Reynolds, Norman (Raiders of the Lost Ark; Star Wars) Reynolds, William (All That Heaven Allows; Godfather Trilogy) Reynolds-Wasco, Sandy (Pulp Fiction) Rezaei, Ali Mohammad (Ta’m E Guilass) Rezai, Rahman (Ta’m E Guilass) Rezende, Rui (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Reznikov, Ye?m (Malenkaya Vera) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1483 Rhames, Ving (Pulp Fiction) Rhee, Susan (Blade Runner) Rhett, Alicia (Gone With the Wind) Rhodes, Erik (Top Hat) Rhodes, Grandon (All the King’s Men; Star Is Born) Rhodes, Leah (White Heat) Rhys-Davies, John (Raiders of the Lost Ark) Ribeiro, Emiliano (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Ribeiro, Maria (Vidas secas) Ribeiro, Milton (Cangaceiro) Ricard, Albert René (Chelsea Girls) Ricard, Sergio (Deus e o diabo na terra do sol) Ricardo, Sérgio (Ant?nio das Mortes) Riccardini, Michele (Ossessione) Ricci, Lina (Albero degli zoccoli) Ricci, Nora (Morte a Venezia) Ricci, Renzo (Avventura) Ricci, Rinaldo (Gattopardo) Ricci, Valentina (Caduta degli dei) Ricciardi, Mirella (Eclisse) Rice, Milt (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Richard, Dick (Snow White) Richard, Edmond (Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie; Chimes at Midnight; Procès) Richard, Frida (Nibelungen; Tie?and) Richard, Jean-Louis (A bout de souf?e; Jules et Jim) Richard, Jér?me (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) Richard, Philippe (Pépé le Moko) Richards, Thomas (Maltese Falcon) Richardson, Cliff (African Queen; Casino Royale) Richardson, Ed (Badlands) Richardson, Ian (Brazil; Marat/Sade) Richardson, Ralph (Chimes at Midnight; Things to Come) Richardson, Robert (JFK) Richardson, Sallye (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Richardson, Tony (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning; Tom Jones) Richers, Herbert (Vidas secas) Richman, Charles (Becky Sharp) Richmond, Irene (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Richter, Daniel (2001: A Space Odyssey) Richter, J?rg (Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Richter, Klaus (Student von Prag) Richter, Paul (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse; Nibelungen) Richter, Ralph (Das Boot) Rici, Nora (Caduta degli dei) Rickards, Jocelyn (Blow-Up) Rickman, Kathy (Deliverance) Riddle, Nelson (Lolita) Rideout, Ranson (Hallelujah) Ridgely, John (Big Sleep) Ridgley, Robert (Philadelphia) Riedl, Hans (M?rchen vom Glück) Riefenstahl, Leni (Olympia; Tie?and; Triumph des Willens) Riegauer, Gerd (Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Riege, Ernst (Schatten) Riento, Virgilio (Miracolo a Milano) Riera, Albert (Zéro de conduite) Ries, Irving G. (Singin’ in the Rain) Riesenfeld, Dr. Hugo (Sunrise) Riesner, Dean (Dirty Harry) Rifahi, Hocine (And Life Goes On) Rifbjerg, Klaus (Der var engang en krig) Rifkin, Ron (L.A. Con?dential) Rignault, Alexandre (Yeux sans visage) Riis, Anne-Grethe Bjarup (Idioterne) Riley, Penny (Casino Royale) Rimbaldi, Carlo (E.T.—The Extraterrestrial) Rimmer, Shane (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Rimmington, Tony (Brazil) Rimski-Korsakov (Nuit sur le Mont Chauve) Ring, Cyril (Laura) Ringler, Uwe (Lola) Ringwood, Bob (Draughtsman’s Contract) Rino (Carrosse d’or) Rioli, Riccardo (Carrosse d’or) Rios, Hector (Chacal de Nahueltoro) Rios, Lalo (Touch of Evil) Rioton, Louise (Femme in?dèle) Ripley, Arthur D. (Foolish Wives) Ripoll, Antonio (Tire dié) Rippy, Frazier (8?;) Rique, Newton (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Riquenes, Roberto (Memorias del subdesarrollo) Risbjerg Thomsen, Grethe (Gertrud) Risdon, Elizabeth (High Sierra) Riskin, Robert (It Happened One Night) Rissone, Giuditta (8?;) Ristovski, Lazar (Underground) Ritchard, Cyril (Blackmail) Ritchie, Gary (Raging Bull) Rittau, Günther (Blaue Engel; Metropolis; Nibelungen) Ritter, Tex (High Noon) Ritter, Thelma (Mis?ts; Rear Window) Rittner, Rudolf (Nibelungen) Riva, Emanuelle (Trois Couleurs) Riva, Emmanuele (Thérèse Desqueyroux; Hiroshima mon amour) Rivera, Cecilia (Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes) Rivero, Enrico (Sang d’un poete) Rivette, Jacques (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) Riveyre, Jean (Journal d’un curé de campagne) Rizzoli, Angelo (8?; Dolce vita) Rizzone, Francesco (Miracolo a Milano) Roa, Joaquin (Age d’or) Roach, Bert (Crowd; Thin Man) Roanne, Andre (Das Tagebuch einer Verlorenen) Robards, Jason (C’era una volta il west; Philadelphia) Robards, Sam (American Beauty) Robb, Lotus (Star Is Born) Robbe-Grillet, Alain (Année dernière à Marienbad) Robbie, Joseph (Black Sunday) Robbins, Clarence Tod (Freaks) Robbins, Jerome (On the Town; West Side Story) Robbins, Leroy (Easy Rider) Robbins, Rex (Shaft) Robbins, Richard (Howards End; Room with a View) Robbins, Tim (Player) Robert, Paulette (Journal d’un curé de campagne) Robert, Yves (Cléo de cinq à sept) Roberts, Alice (Büchse der Pandora) Roberts, Ben (White Heat) Roberts, Bill (Fantasia; Snow White) Roberts, Bob (Matter of Life and Death) Roberts, Florence (Top Hat) Roberts, Iris (Nibelungen) Roberts, Julia (Player) Roberts, Leona (Gone With the Wind) Roberts, Mike (Mona Lisa) Roberts, Nancy (Black Narcissus) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1484 Roberts, Rachel (Picnic at Hanging Rock; Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Roberts, Rick (Unforgiven) Roberts, Roy (My Darling Clementine) Roberts, Tony (Annie Hall) Roberts, Tony-Pierce (Howards End; Room with a View) Robertson, Hugh A. (Midnight Cowboy; Shaft) Robertson, Malcolm (Last Wave) Robertson, Willard (I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang; Sullivan’s Travels) Robey, George (Henry V) Robillard, Hayward (Easy Rider) Robin, Leo (Devil Is a Woman) Robin, Liliane (A bout de souf?e) Robinski, Ina (Bleierne Zeit) Robinson, Amy (Mean Streets) Robinson, Andy (Dirty Harry) Robinson, Bernard (Dracula 1958) Robinson, Casey (Now Voyager) Robinson, Dewey (She Done Him Wrong; Sullivan’s Travels) Robinson, Edward G. (Double Indemnity; Little Caesar; Some Like It Hot) Robinson, Karen (Picnic at Hanging Rock) Robinson, Madeleine (Procès) Robinson, Peter (Freaks) Robinson, Tina (My Brilliant Career) Robison, Arthur (Schatten) Robson, Flora (Black Narcissus) Robson, Jack W. (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Robson, Mark (Cat People; Citizen Kane) Robson, May (Bringing Up Baby) Roby, Lavelle (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Rocca, Alain (Haine) Rocco, Lyla (Viaggio in Italia) Rocco, Rossana Di (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Rocha, Glauber (Ant?nio das Mortes; Deus e o diabo na terra do sol) Rochat, Maitre Henri (Chagrin et la pitié) Roché, Henri-Pierre (Jules et Jim) Rochelle, Niva (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Rochester, Art (Conversation) Rock, Ben (Blair Witch Project) Rockwell, E. A. (Salt of the Earth) Rockwell, William (Salt of the Earth) Rocky Twins (Argent) Rodakiewicz, Henwar (Los Redes) Rode, Ebbe (Gertrud) Roderich, Olga (Freaks) Rodes, Leah (Strangers on a Train) Rodgers, Aggie Guerard (Conversation; Star Wars) Rodgers, Agnes (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Rodionov, Alexei (Idi i smotri; Proshchanie) Rodis-Jamero, Nilo (Star Wars) Rodriguez, Estelita (Rio Bravo) Rodriguez, Luis (Espiritu de la colmena) Rodriguez, Matías (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Rodríguez, Nelson (Lucia; Memorias del subdesarrollo; Otro Francisco; Primera carga al machete ) Rodriguez, Raymond (Touch of Evil) Rodriguez, Roberto and Joselito (Redes, Los) Rodriquez, Celia (Soy Cuba) Rodway, Norman (Chimes at Midnight) Roeg, Nicolas (Lawrence of Arabia; Masque of the Red Death; Walkabout; Casino Royale) Roeg, Waldo (My Beautiful Laundrette) Roemheld, Heinz (Lady from Shanghai) Roger, Odette (Femme du boulanger) Rogers, Ginger (42nd Street; Top Hat) Rogers, Jimmy (Rien que les heures) Rogers, Mimi (Player) Rogers, Walter Browne (All Quiet on the Western Front) Rogozhin, Naum (Alexander Nevsky) Rogozovskaya, Z. (Idi i smotri) Rogozovskiy, Yuri (Csillagosok, katonák) Rohrbach, Günter (Das Boot) R?hrig, Walter (Kabinett des Dr. Caligari; Letze Mann) Rojas, Rodrigo (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Roland, Edward (Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes) Roland, Gilbert (She Done Him Wrong) Roland, Jeanne (Casino Royale) Rolf, Tom (Taxi Driver) Rolfe, Alan (Peeping Tom) Rolfe, Tom (Black Sunday) Roll, Gernot (Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Rolla, Michele (Les Vacances de Monsieur Hulot) Rolla, Philippe (Napoléon) Rollins, Jack (Annie Hall) Rollmer, Frank (Grande illusion) Romadin, Michael (Istoria Asi Kliachinoi kotoraia lubila da nie vyshla zamuzh) Roman, Eugene (Playtime) Roman, Ric (Big Heat) Roman, Ruth (Strangers on a Train) Roman, Shenda (Chacal de Nahueltoro) Romand, Anny (Diva) Romanes, Muriel (Gregory’s Girl) Romano, Carlo (Vitelloni) Romano, Pasquale (Caduta degli dei) Romans., Alain (Les Vacances de Monsieur Hulot) Romanus, Richard (Mean Streets) Romay, Alicia (Muerte de un Ciclista) Romberg, Sigmund (Foolish Wives) Romero, Anselmo Suárez y (Otro Francisco) Romero, Cesar (Devil Is a Woman; Thin Man) Romero, Ernesto A. (Treasure of the Sierra Madre) Romilly, France (Playtime) Rommel, Manfred (Deutschland im Herbst) Romo, Marcelo (Chacal de Nahueltoro) Ronan, Robert (Klute) Ronchetti, Mario (Carrosse d’or) Ronconi, George (Days of Heaven) Rondi, Brunello (8?; Dolce vita; Strada) Ronet, Maurice (Femme in?dèle) Ronjat, Louis (Coquille et le clergyman) Ronna (Chelsea Girls) Ronsard, Maurice (Menilmontant) Rooker, Michael (JFK) Rooker, Tom (Unforgiven) Room, Abram (Tretia Meshchanskaia) Rooney, Mickey (Breakfast at Tiffany’s) Roos, Camilla Overbye (Titanic) Roos, Fred (Conversation; Godfather Trilogy) Roose, Thorkild (Vredens dag) Roosevelt, Buddy (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Ropes, Bradford (42nd Street) Rophe, Guy (Chronique d’un été) Roquemore, Larry (West Side Story) Roques, Jean-Pierre (Odeur de la papaye verte) Roquevert, No?l (Diaboliques) Rory, Rosanna (Eclisse) Rosa, José (Vidas secas) Rosa, Milton (Deus e o diabo na terra do sol) Rosander, Oscar (Smultronst?llet; Sommarnattens leende) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1485 Rosati, Giuseppe (Ossessione) Rosay, Fran?oise (Kermesse héroique) Rose, Alexander (Hustler) Rose, Clifford (Marat/Sade) Rose, Helen (On the Town) Rose, Reginald (Twelve Angry Men) Rose, Ruth (King Kong) Rose, Steve (Silence of the Lambs) Rosen, Charles (Taxi Driver) Rosen, Robert L. (Black Sunday) Rosenberg, Drew Ann (L.A. Con?dential; Philadelphia) Rosenberg, Fred (GoodFellas) Rosenblatt, Cantor Josef (Jazz Singer) Rosenblatt, Martin (Annie Hall) Rosenblum, Ralph (Annie Hall; Louisiana Story) Rosenfelderová, Marie (Obchod na korze) Rosenman, Leonard (East of Eden; Rebel Without a Cause) Rosenthal, Harry (Sullivan’s Travels) Roseville, D. de (Belle de jour) Rosher, Charles (Sunrise) Rosi, Francesco (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli; Salvatore Giuliano; Terra trema) Rosier, Cathy (Le Samourai) Rosing, Bodil (All Quiet on the Western Front; Sunrise) R?sner, Willy (Lola Montès) Ross, Annie (Player) Ross, Dennis (Singin’ in the Rain) Ross, Guy (If...) Ross, Katharine (Graduate) Ross, Lee (Secrets and Lies) Ross, Monty (Do the Right Thing) Rossellini, Isabella (Blue Velvet) Rossellini, Renzo (Paisà; Roma, città aperta; Stromboli; Viaggio in Italia) Rossellini, Roberto (Paisà; Roma, città aperta; Stromboli; Viaggio in Italia) Rossen, Harold (On the Town) Rossen, Robert (All the King’s Men; Hustler) Rossi, Giovanni (Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Rossi, Lucca (Room with a View) Rossi, Salvatore (Kaos) Rossignon, Christophe (Haine; Odeur de la papaye verte) Rossington, Norman (Hard Day’s Night; Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Rossiter, Leonard (2001: A Space Odyssey) Rossitto, Angelo (Freaks) Rosson, Harold (Asphalt Jungle; Singin’ in the Rain; Wizard of Oz) Rosson, Richard (Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Rostami, Karim (Ta’m E Guilass) Rostand, Edmond (Cyrano de Bergerac) Rosza, Miklos (Asphalt Jungle) Rota, Carlo (Albero degli zoccoli) Rota, Nino (8?; Dolce vita; Film d’amore e d’anarchia; Gattopardo; Godfather Trilogy; Rocco e i suoi fratelli; Strada; Vitelloni) Roters, Ernst (M?rder sind unter uns) Roth, Cecilia (Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Roth, Frank (Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Roth, Hans (Blaue Engel) Roth, Richard (Blue Velvet) Roth, Rolf (Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Roth, Tim (Pulp Fiction; Reservoir Dogs) Rothe, Bendt (Gertrud) Rothgardt, Wanda (Herr Arnes Pengar) Rotter, Sylvia (Draughtsman’s Contract) Rotunno, Giuseppe (Film d’amore e d’anarchia; Gattopardo; Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Rouc, Hans (Sodom und Gomorrha) Rouch, Jean (Chronique d’un été) Roudakoff, Nicholas (Chapeau de paille d’Italie) Roudenko, Vladimir (Napoléon) Rouffe, Alida (Femme du boulanger; Marius Trilogy) Rougeul, Jean (8?;) Rouleau, Raymond (Argent) Roumnev, A. (Ivan Grozny) Roundtree, Richard (Shaft) Rouquier, Georges (Farrebique) Rourke, Hayden (American in Paris) Rousselot, Philippe (Diva) Roustom, Hind (Bab el hadid) Routh, Jonathan (Casino Royale) Rouxel, Jacques (Cyrano de Bergerac) Rouze, Marcel (Casque d’or; Dames du Bois de Boulogne) Rouzenat (Belle et la bête) Rovensky, Josef (Das Tagebuch einer Verlorenen) Rovere, Marcella (Strada) Rowe, Greg (Last Wave) Rowe, Jeremy (Chimes at Midnight) Rowland, Henry (Casablanca) Rowlands, Gena (Faces) Rowlands, Patsy (Tom Jones) Rowley, George (Fantasia; Snow White) Roxo, Gastao (Fièvre) Roy, Bimal (Do bigha zamin) Roy, Fernande (Jeux interdits) Roy, Geetali (Charulata) Roy, Niranjan (Meghe dhaka tara) Roy, Nirum (Do bigha zamin) Roy, Nitish (Salaam Bombay) Roy, Soumendu (Aranyer din Ratri; Jana Aranya) Royer (Young Mr. Lincoln) Roylance, Suzanne (My Brilliant Career) Royne (Zéro de conduite) Rozkopal, Zdenek (Baron Prasil) Rozov, Victor (Letyat zhuravli) Rozsa, Miklos (Adam’s Rib; Double Indemnity; Killers; Lost Weekend; Naked City) Ruadh, Patch (Man of Aran) Ruban, Al (Faces) Rubens, Alma (Intolerance) Rúbia, Mara (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Rubien, Howard Nelson (Caduta degli dei; Gattopardo) Rubin, Barry (Scorpio Rising) Rubin, Robert (Dirty Harry) Rubinek, Saul (Unforgiven) Rubottom, Wade B. (Philadelphia Story) Ruby, Harry (Duck Soup; Night at the Opera) Rud, Ove (Ordet) Ruddy, Albert S. (Godfather Trilogy) Rudel, Roger (Boucher) Rudina, Vera (Soy Cuba) Rudloff, Tex (Taxi Driver) Rudnick, Franz (Bleierne Zeit) Rudnieva, Lyubov (Outomlionnye solntsem) Rudolf, Gene (Raging Bull) Rudolph, Alan (Player) Rudolph, Claude-Olivier (Das Boot) Rudolph, Verena (Bleierne Zeit) Rudrüd, Kristin (Fargo) Rudzki, Kazimierz (Eroica) Rue, Ed (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Rue, Frank La (Laura) Ruello, Emile (Blackmail) Ruffo, Elenora (Vitelloni) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1486 Rufus (Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Ruggiero, Gene (Ninotchka) Ruggles, Charles (Bringing Up Baby; Trouble in Paradise) Rugiens, Solange (Fièvre) Ruh, Jean-Pierre (Diva) Ruitang, Zhu (Yanzhi kou) Ruiz, Anna (Shoah) Rukow, Mogens (Festen) Ruksana, Baby (Bhumika) Rumann, Sig (Night at the Opera; Ninotchka) Rumsey, Digby (Douglas Trilogy) Runacre, Jenny (Professione: Reporter) Rund, Sif (Smultronst?llet) Runkle, Theodora Van (Bonnie and Clyde) Ruomo, Piao (Yanzhi kou) Rupé, Katja (Deutschland im Herbst) Ruschel, Alberto (Cangaceiro) Rushbrook, Claire (Secrets and Lies) Ruskin, Dan (Annie Hall) Ruskin, Shimen (Shaft) Ruspoli, Esmeralda (Avventura) Russek, Jorge (Wild Bunch) Russell, Autumn (Sweet Smell of Success) Russell, Duke (Fantasia) Russell, Elizabeth (Cat People) Russell, Harold (Best Years of Our Lives) Russell, Henry (Star Is Born) Russell, John (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington; Rio Bravo) Russell, John L. (Psycho) Russell, Lewis R. (Lost Weekend) Russell, Peter (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Russell, Rosalind (His Girl Friday; Women) Russell, William (Birds; Psycho) Russell Spencer, J. (Great Dictator) Russo, James (Once Upon a Time in America) Rust, Henri (Dreigroschenoper; Enfants du paradis; Le Salaire de la peur) Rustichelli, Carlo (Accattone) Ruth, Ann (Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Rutherford, Ann (Gone With the Wind) Rutherford, Margaret (Chimes at Midnight; Passport to Pimlico) Rutledge, Robert R. (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Ruttenberg, Joseph (Fury; Gone With the Wind; Mrs. Miniver; Philadelphia Story) Ruttmann, Walter (Berlin: Die Sinfonie der Grossstadt; Triumph des Willens; Nibelungen) Ruzzolini, Giuseppe (Fiore delle mille e una notte) Ryan, John (Five Easy Pieces) Ryan, Kathleen (Odd Man Out) Ryan, Madge (Clockwork Orange) Ryan, Robert (Cross?re; Wild Bunch) Ryan, Tim (Detour) Ryazanova, Raissa (Moskva slezam ne verit) Ryder, Winston (2001: A Space Odyssey; Lawrence of Arabia; Lolita) Rydstrom, Gary (Titanic) Rye, Jack (Napoléon) Rye, Preben Lerdorff (Ordet) Rye, Stellan (Student von Prag) Ryen, Richard (Casablanca) Ryerson, Florence (Wizard of Oz) Ryghe, Ulla (Persona; Tystnaden) Ryman, Herbert (Fantasia) Rypdal, Terje (Journey of Hope) Ryskind, Morrie (Night at the Opera) Ryu, Chishu (Banshun; Higanbana; Ningen no joken; Tokyo monogatari; Samma no aji) Ryu, Daisuke (Ran) Rzeszewska, Lidia (Czlowiek z marmuru) Saadi, Yacef (Battaglia di Algeri) Sabat, James (Annie Hall) Sabatier, William (Casque d’or) Sabo, Joseph (Fantasia) Sabu (Black Narcissus) Saburi, Shin (Higanbana) Sacha, Alexander (Laura) Sachs, Sharon (Kongi’s Harvest) Sada, Keiji (Higanbana; Ningen no joken; Samma no aji) Safonova, M. (Ivan Grozny) Sagalevitch, Dr. Anatoly M. (Titanic) Sagalle, Jonathan (Schindler’s List) Sagan, Leontine (M?dchen in Uniform) Sagara, Hisashi (Kwaidan; Seppuku) Sagrary, Elena (Fièvre) Sahara, Kenji (Gojira) Sahni, Balraj (Do bigha zamin; Garam Hawa) Saidi, Saad (And Life Goes On) Saiid, Master (Bharat Mata) Sailes, Bobby (Star Is Born) Sainpolis, John (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse; Phantom of the Opera) Sainsbury, Peter (Draughtsman’s Contract) Saint, Eva Marie (North by Northwest; On the Waterfront) Saint-Bris, Richard (Thérèse Desqueyroux) Saint-Isles, Henri (Crime de Monsieur Lange) Sainteve, Louis (Jeux interdits) Sainval, Claude (Kermesse héroique) Saito, Ichiro (Saikaku ichidai onna; Ugetsu monogatari) Saito, Masami (Hana-Bi) Saito, Taizo (Tokyo monogatari) Saito, Takanobu (Samma no aji; Tokyo monogatari) Saito, Takao (Ran) Saito, Takayori (Higanbana) Sakai, Sachio (Gojira) Sakakida, Keiji (Shichinin no samurai) Sakall, S. Z. (Casablanca) Sakamoto, Sumiko (Narayama bushi-ko) Sakara, M. (Ossessione) Sakara, Michele (Ladri di biciclette) Saki, Ryuzo (Fukushu suru wa ware ni ari) Sakura, Kinzo (Tampopo) Sakura, Mutsuko (Tokyo monogatari) Sala, Oskar (Birds) Sala?ová, Marie (Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Salcedo, Jose (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios) Salem, El Hedi ben (Angst essen Seele auf) Salem, Lionel (Age d’or) Salerno, Enrio Maria (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Salerno, Thea (Easy Rider) Salgues, André (Le Samourai) Sali, Elvira (Dom za vesanje) Salina, Michel (Grande illusion) Salinas, Vicente (Yawar Mallku) Salinger, Conrad (On the Town; Singin’ in the Rain) Salke, Curtis Ivan (Büchse der Pandora) Salkind, Alexander (Procès) Salkind, Miguel (Procès) Salles, Maurilo (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Salles, Walter (Central do Brasil) Sallid, Otis (Malcolm X) Salmonova, Lida (Student von Prag) Salou, Louis (Enfants du paradis) Salt, Jennifer (Midnight Cowboy) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1487 Salt, Waldo (Midnight Cowboy; Philadelphia Story) Saltamerenda, Gino (Ladri di biciclette) Saltzman, Harry (Dom za vesanje; Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Salvage, Mark (Caduta degli dei) Salvatori, Renato (Rocco e i suoi fratelli; Z) Salvatori, Vinivius (Ant?nio das Mortes) Samakar, Mehdi (Ta’m E Guilass) Samaniegos, Ramon (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Samb, Senn (Xala) Sambrell, Aldo (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Samollova, Tatyana (Letyat zhuravli) Sampson, Will (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Sams, Craig (Lolita) Samuel, Lili (Fièvre) Samulekine, Alexandre (Outomlionnye solntsem) San Juan, Antonia (Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Sancha, Jose (Sterne) Sanchez, Alina (Otro Francisco) Sánchez, Angela (Salt of the Earth) Sánchez, Eduardo (Blair Witch Project) Sanchez, Jaime (Wild Bunch) Sánchez, Mayte (Cria Cuervos ...) Sanchez, Rodolfo (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Sánchez, Sandra (Blair Witch Project) Sanchini, Rae (Titanic) Sanda, Dominique (1900 (Novecento); Conformista) Sander, Clare (Mrs. Miniver) Sander, Otto (Der Himmel Uber Berlin) Sanders, George (All about Eve; Picture of Dorian Gray; Things to Come; Viaggio in Italia) Sanders, Jay O. (JFK) Sanders, Ronald (Dead Ringers) Sanderson, William (Blade Runner) Sandford, Erskine (Letter from an Unknown Woman) Sandford, Stanley (City Lights; Modern Times) Sandrelli, Stefania (1900 (Novecento); Conformista) Sandrich, Mark (Top Hat) Sands, Julian (Room with a View) Sanford, Erskine (Citizen Kane; Lady from Shanghai) Sanga, Fatimata (Yaaba) Sangaletti, Giuseppina (Albero degli zoccoli) Sangare, Aoua (Yeelen) Sangare, Koke (Yeelen) Sangster, Jimmy (Dracula 1958) Sanjinés, Jorge (Yawar Mallku) Sanjo, Teruko (Jujiro) Sannachan, Douglas (Gregory’s Girl) Sanogo, Niamanto (Yeelen) Sansom, W. (Fires Were Started) Sanson, Yvonne (Conformista) Santacana, Alfonso (Verdugo, El) Santesso, Walter (Dolce vita) Santillo, Frank (Ride the High Country) Santon, Penny (West Side Story) Santoni, Reni (Dirty Harry) Santos, Angel Fernandéz (Espiritu de la colmena) Santos, Carmen (Limite) Santos, Moacyr (Fuzis) Santos, Zenildo Oliveira (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Sanyal, Pahadi (Aranyer din Ratri) Sapienza, Johnny (Scorpio Rising) Sarada (Elippathayam) Sarandon, Susan (Player; Rocky Horror Picture Show; Thelma and Louise) Sardà, Rosa María (Todo Sobre Mi Madre) Sarfrazian, Sadika (And Life Goes On) Sargent, Anne (Naked City) Sargent, Michael (Touch of Evil) Sarkar, Sujit (Aranyer din Ratri) Sarkeshi, Hojatolah (Ta’m E Guilass) Sarkissyan, Sos (Andrei Rublev) Sarossy, Paul (Exotica) Sarr, Ismaila (Yeelen) Sarraute, Anne (Hiroshima mon amour) Sartov, Hendrick (Broken Blossoms) Sarver, Francis M. (Out of the Past) Sarvig, Ole (Gertrud) Sarvis, David (Salt of the Earth) Sasaki, Mamoru (Koshikei) Sa?ek, Václav (Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Sathe, V. P. (Awara) Sathyu, M.S. (Garam Hawa) Satie, Erik (Entr’acte) Sato, Kei (Koshikei; Ningen no joken; Seppuku) Sato, Masaru (Yojimbo) Satomi, Ton (Higanbana) Satter?eld, Paul (Fantasia) Sauers, Joseph (Informer) Sauguet, Henri (Farrebique) Saul’s, Oscar (Streetcar Named Desire) Saulnier, Jacques (Année dernière à Marienbad) Saunders, Russ (High Sierra) Saunders, Sydney (King Kong) Saura, Carlos (Cria Cuervos ...) Saussure, Marie-Thérèse (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) Sautet, Claude (Coeur en hiver; Yeux sans visage) Sauvage, Arlette (Vitelloni) Savage, Ann (Detour) Savage, Carlos (Olvidados) Savage, John (Deer Hunter; Godfather Trilogy) Savage, Peter (Raging Bull) Savegar, Brian (Room with a View) Savelieva, Era (Balada o soldate) Savelyeva, Ludmilla (Voina i mir) Savic, Sonja (Nesto izmedju) Savident, John (Clockwork Orange) Savignac, Jean-Paul (Alphaville) Savina, Carlo (Film d’amore e d’anarchia) Savitsky, Alexander (Mat) Savoca, John (Twelve Angry Men) Savona, Leopoldo (Accattone) Savvina, Iia (Istoria Asi Kliachinoi kotoraia lubila da nie vyshla zamuzh) Sawadogo, Ousmane (Yaaba) Sawamura, Ichiisaburo (Ugetsu monogatari) Sawamura, Sadako (Akasen chitai; Saikaku ichidai onna) Sawyer, Gordon (Best Years of Our Lives) Sawyer, Joseph (Gilda) Saxon, Edward (Philadelphia; Silence of the Lambs) Sayed, Djenkis (And Life Goes On) Sayers, Michael (Casino Royale) Sayers, Stan (Black Narcissus) Sayles, John (Lone Star) Sazanka, Kyu (Ningen no joken; Yojimbo) Sazio, Carmela (Paisà) Scacchi, Greta (Player) Scaccia, Mario (Film d’amore e d’anarchia) Scaccianoce, Luigi (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Scaife, Ted (Black Narcissus) Scal, Mme. (Pickpocket) Scala, Domenico (Ossessione) Scaldaferri, Sante (Ant?nio das Mortes) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1488 Scaldati, Franco (Kaos) Scales, Hubert (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Scales, Prunella (Howards End) Scalia, Pietro (JFK) Scammer, Roy (Clockwork Orange) Scanlon, Steve (Philadelphia) Scarborough, Dorothy (Wind) Scarchilli, Claudio (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Scarchilli, Sandro (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Scar?otti, Ferdinando (Conformista; Last Tango in Paris; Morte a Venezia) Scaringella, Roberto (Accattone) Scarpelli, Age (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Scavarda, Aldo (Avventura) Scavarida, Aldo (Viaggio in Italia) Schaad, Dieter (Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Schade, Doris (Bleierne Zeit) Schaefer, Billy Kent (Wind) Schaefer, Jack (Shane) Sch?fer, Martin (Im Lauf der Zeit) Schaffer, Laszlo (Berlin: Die Sinfonie der Grossstadt) Scharf, Sabrina (Easy Rider) Scharf, Werner (Kermesse héroique) Schary, Dore (Cross?re; They Live by Night) Schatz, Hans-Jürgen (Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Schatz, William (Lola Montès) Schayer, Richard (Hallelujah) Scheib, Hans (Olympia) Scheid, Francis J. (Casablanca) Scheider, Roy (Jaws; Klute) Scheitz, Clemens (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Schell, Maria (Engel mit der Posaune) Schenck, Joseph M. (Sherlock, Jr.; General) Scherer, Norbert (Ehe der Maria Braun) Scheumann (Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas) Scheydt, Karl (Angst essen Seele auf) Schicchi, Giani (Pugni in tasca) Schierbeck, Poul (Ordet; Vredens dag) Schiffrin, Simon (Argent; Quai des brumes) Schifrin, Lalo (Dirty Harry) Schildt, Peter (Fanny och Alexander) Schiller, Hans Dieter (Ewige Jude) Schiller, Joel (Rosemary’s Baby) Schilling, Gus (Citizen Kane; Lady from Shanghai) Schilzneck, Pierre (Age d’or; Chien andalou) Schlesinger, John (Midnight Cowboy) Schlettow, Hans Adalbert (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Schlichter, Hedwig (M?dchen in Uniform) Schlickenmayer, Harold (Laura) Schlitze (Freaks) Schlodorff, Volker (Blechtrommel) Schl?ndorff, Volker (Année dernière à Marienbad; Blechtrommel) Schl?ndorff, Volker (Deutschland im Herbst) Schlumberger, Eric (Vivre sa vie; Z) Schlumberger, Guylaine (Vivre sa vie) Schlüssel, Edith (Gertrud; Ordet; Vredens dag) Schmid, Daniel (Amerikanische freund) Schmidbauer, Tania (Deutschland im Herbst) Schmidinger, Walter (Deutschland im Herbst) Schmidt, Arthur (Some Like It Hot; Sunset Boulevard) Schmidt, Dr. Paul (Chagrin et la pitié) Schmidt, Erich (Sterne) Schmidt, Vladislav (Koziyat rog) Schmidt, William (All Quiet on the Western Front) Schmidt-Gentner, Willy (Engel mit der Posaune) Schmidt-Reitwein, J?rg (Deutschland im Herbst; Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Schmiedl, Walter (Engel mit der Posaune) Schmitt, Henri (Vacances de Monsieur Hulot, Les) Schmitz, Sibylle (Vampyr) Schnee, Anne (Paris, Texas) Schnee, Charles (Red River; They Live by Night) Schneeberger, Hans (Blaue Engel) Schneider, Bert (Easy Rider; Five Easy Pieces; Last Picture Show) Schneider, Gerhard (Deutschland im Herbst) Schneider, Harold (Days of Heaven) Schneider, Maria (Last Tango in Paris; Nuits fauves; Professione: Reporter) Schneider, Romy (Procès) Schneider, Rudolf (Schatten) Schnell, G. H. (Nosferatu (1922novyi)) Schnitzler, Arthur (Ronde, La) Schnoor, Raul (Limite) Schoedsack, Ernest B. (Greed; King Kong) Schoengarth, Russell (Written on the Wind) Scho?eld, Andrew (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Sch?ler, Paul (Im Lauf der Zeit) Schollin, Christina (Fanny och Alexander) Scholz, Alexander (Die Heimat; Zweite Heimat, Die) Schommer, Peter (Last Tango in Paris) Sch?n, Margarethe (Nibelungen) Schonborn, Michael (Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Schonborn, Peter-Udo (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Sch?ne, Wolfgang (Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach) Sch?nhals, Albrecht (Caduta degli dei) Sch?nherr, Dietmar (Journey of Hope) Schoonmaker, Thelma (GoodFellas; Raging Bull) Sch?rg, Gretl (M?rchen vom Glück) Schorm, Evald (O slavnosti a hostech) Schorr, Maurice (Sunset Boulevard) Schrader, Paul (Raging Bull; Taxi Driver) Schrager, Sheldon (Five Easy Pieces) Schreck, Max (Nosferatu; 1922novyi) Schreiber, Hilde (M?rchen vom Glück) Schreicker, Frederick (Third Man) Schrock, Raymond (Phantom of the Opera) Schr?der, Greta (Nosferatu; 1922novyi) Schroeder, Barbet (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris) Schroeder, Kurt (Private Life of Henry VIII) Schroeter, Renata (Dentellière) Schubert, Heinz (Hitler: Ein Film aus Deutschland) Schubert, Peter (Deutschland im Herbst) Schüfftan, Eugen (Hustler; Yeux sans visage; Metropolis; Quai des brumes) Schulberg, Budd (On the Waterfront) Schulkey, Curt (Reservoir Dogs) Schultze-Mittendorff, Walter (Metropolis) Schumann, Walter (Night of the Hunter) Schündler, Rudolf (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse; Im Lauf der Zeit) Schünzel, Reinhold (Dreigroschenoper) Schunzel, Reinhold (Notorious) Schurer, Heinz (Das Boot) Schutz, Maurice (Passion de Jeanne d’Arc; Vampyr) Schwadorf, Willi (Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Schwanneke, Ellen (M?dchen in Uniform) Schwartz, Arthur (Band Wagon) Schwartz, Hans Dieter (Bleierne Zeit) Schwartz, Zack (Fantasia) Schwarzenberger, Xaver (Lola) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1489 Schwarzwald, Milton (Naked City) Schweickhardt, Kurt (Fargo) Schwippert, Ute (Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Schygulla, Hanna (Ehe der Maria Braun) Scibor-Rylski, Aleksander (Czlowiek z marmuru) Scize, Noemi (Fièvre) Scize, Pierre (Entr’acte) Scob, Edith (Thérèse Desqueyroux; Yeux sans visage) Scoppa Jr., Justin (Annie Hall) Scorsese, Martin (GoodFellas; Mean Streets; Raging Bull; Taxi Driver) Scott, Adrian (Cross?re) Scott, Alan (Cléo de cinq à sept) Scott, Allan (Top Hat) Scott, Deborah Lynn (Titanic) Scott, George C. (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb; Hustler) Scott, Jane (My Brilliant Career) Scott, Margaretta (Things to Come) Scott, Pippa (Searchers) Scott, Randolph (Ride the High Country) Scott, Ray (Brazil) Scott, Ridley (Blade Runner; Thelma and Louise) Scott, Robert (Gilda) Scott, Tim (Days of Heaven) Scott, Wally (Killers) Scott, Walter M. (All about Eve) Scott, Zachary (Mildred Pierce; Southerner) Scotto, Vincent (Femme du boulanger; Marius Trilogy; Pépé le Moko) Scoular, Angela (Casino Royale) Scourby, Alexander (Big Heat) Scruggs, Earl (Bonnie and Clyde) Scutt, David (Brazil) Seabourne, John (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp) Sears, Heather (Room at the Top) Sears, Ted (Snow White) Sebáek, Josef (Lásky jedné plavovlásky) Seberg, Jean (A bout de souf?e) Sebo, Ferenc (Meg ker a nep) Sebris, Karl (Korol Lir) Seck, Donta (Xala) Seck, Markhouredia (Xala) Secombe, Andrew (Star Wars) Sedan, Rolfe (Night at the Opera; Ninotchka; Thin Man) Sedgwick, Edie (Chelsea Girls) Sedgwick, Edward (Phantom of the Opera) Sedgwick, Katrina (Last Wave) Sedlmayer, Walter (Angst essen Seele auf) Seeber, Guido (Student von Prag) Seeberg, Peter (Sult) Seebohm, Alison (Hard Day’s Night; Servant) Seel, Charles (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Seelig, Eric (Deer Hunter) Segal, Ken (Reservoir Dogs) Segall, Beatriz (Pixote a lei do mais fraco) Segawa, Hiroshi (Suna no onna) Segui, Pierre (Deer Hunter) Seidi, Mohamed Lamine (Udju Azul di Yonta) Seidner, Albert (Sterne) Seif, Samir (Malcolm X) Seignier, Louis (Eclisse) Seitz, Franz (Blechtrommel) Seitz, John F. (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse; Lost Weekend; Sunset Boulevard; Sullivan’s Travels) Seki, Cheiko (Entotsu no mieru basho) Seki, Kyoko (Ikiru) Seki, Misao (Jujiro) Sekkai, Larbi (Chronique des années de braise) Sekula, Andrzej (Pulp Fiction; Reservoir Dogs) Selander, Concordia (Herr Arnes Pengar; K?rkalen) Selander, Hjalmar (Herr Arnes Pengar) Selby, Norman (Broken Blossoms) Self, Billie (Red River) Selkirk, Jamie (Heavenly Creatures) Selland, Marie (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Sellers, Peter (Casino Royale; Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb; Lolita) Sellmer, Erna (M?rder sind unter uns) Selmeczi, Gy?rgy (Angi Vera) Selver, Veronica (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Selznick, David O. (Gone With the Wind; King Kong) Sembene, Ousmane (Noire de ...; Xala) Semenova, E. (Idi i smotri) Semenova, Liudmila (Tretia Meshchanskaia) Semmelrogge, Martin (Das Boot) Semmelrogge, Willy (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Semprun, Jorge (Z) Sen, Aparna (Aranyer din Ratri; Jana Aranya) Sen, Gita (Akaler sandhane) Sen, Mrinal (Akaler sandhane) Senade, Daniel (Farrebique) Senaj, Eugen (Obchod na korze) Senda, Koreya (Jigokumon) Seng, Lilian (M?rder sind unter uns) Sengen, Seizo (Shonen) Sengoku, Noriko (Shichinin no samurai) Sengvilia, Somsak (Deer Hunter) Senia, Jean-Marie (Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris; Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Senior, Anna (My Brilliant Career) Seno, Yoshisaburo (Higanbana) Senoo, Yoshisaburo (Samma no aji) Sensi, Ennio (Umberto D) Sera?n, Enzo (Viaggio in Italia) Serandrei, M. (Ossessione) Serandrei, Mario (Battaglia di Algeri; Carrosse d’or; Gattopardo; Rocco e i suoi fratelli; Salvatore Giuliano; Terra trema) Serebrennikov, Sergei (Kommisar) Seresin, Michael (Midnight Express) Sergienko, S. (Teni zabytykh predkov) Sergueiev, Nikolai (Andrei Rublev) Sermoneta, Alessandro (America, L’) Sernas, Jacques (Dolce vita) Serrador, Cia (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Serran, Leopoldo (Bye Bye Brasil; Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Serrano, Julieta (Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios) Serrault, Michel (Diaboliques) Serre, Henri (Jules et Jim) Serrone, Christopher (GoodFellas) Sersen, Fred (Laura; My Darling Clementine) Servais, Jean (Du Ri?? chez les hommes) Sessions, Almira (Sullivan’s Travels) Sesso, Paula Cezar (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Sestili, Otello (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Seth, Chiman (Bharat Mata) Seth, Roshan (My Beautiful Laundrette) Setouridzé, Nino (Pirosmani) Seven, Johnny (Apartment) Sevenich, Anke (Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Severn, Christopher (Mrs. Miniver) Severo, Marieta (Bye Bye Brasil) Sewell, Blanche (Wizard of Oz) Sewell, Hazel (Snow White) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1490 Seweryn, Andrzej (Schindler’s List) Sewruk, Aleksander (Popiol i diament) Seybert, Charlie (Last Picture Show) Seydoux, Michel (Cyrano de Bergerac; Outomlionnye solntsem) Seye, Tierno (Xala) Seye, Younouss (Xala) Seyedi, Ali Asghar (Ta’m E Guilass) Seyfried, Michael (Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Seymour, Anne (All the King’s Men) Seymour, Dan (Big Heat; Casablanca) Seymour, Harry (North by Northwest; Sullivan’s Travels) Seymour, Heather (Brazil) Seymour, James (42nd Street) Seyrig, Delphine (Année dernière à Marienbad; Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie; India Song; Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles) Seyrig, Francis (Année dernière à Marienbad) Shad, Marion (My Brilliant Career) Shadur, M. (Csillagosok, katonák) Shah, Naseeruddin (Bhumika) Shah, V. J. (Bharat Mata) Shaikh, Faroukh (Garam Hawa) Shailendra (Awara) Shakespeare, William (Henry V; Korol Lir) Shakourov, Sergei (Siberiade) Shamberg, Michael (Pulp Fiction) Shambudan (Duvidha) Shangguan Yunzhu (Wutai jiemei) Shankar (Awara) Shankar, Ravi (Apu Trilogy) Shannon, Harry (Citizen Kane; High Noon; Lady from Shanghai; Touch of Evil; Written on the Wind) Shaolin, Deng (Yanzhi kou) Shaolong, Zhou (Yanzhi kou) Shaorong, Lin (Yanzhi kou) Shapiro, Melvin (Taxi Driver) Sharaff, Irene (American in Paris; Meet Me in St. Louis) Sharif, Omar (Lawrence of Arabia) Sharma, Chanda (Salaam Bombay) Sharma, Murari (Salaam Bombay) Sharman, Graham (If...) Sharman, Jim (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Sharock, Harry (Freaks) Sharoy, V. (Kommisar) Sharp, Anthony (Clockwork Orange) Sharp, Henry (Crowd; Duck Soup) Sharp, Neil (Brazil) Sharpsteen, Ben (Fantasia; Snow White) Sharun, Vladimir (Soy Cuba) Shaw, Annabel (Gun Crazy) Shaw, Brinsley (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse) Shaw, Francis (Room with a View) Shaw, Robert (Black Sunday; Jaws; Lavender Hill Mob) Shaw, Sebastian (Star Wars) Shawlee, Joan (Apartment; Star Is Born) Shawlee, John (Some Like It Hot) Shay, Mildred (Women) Shayne, Robert (North by Northwest) Shchelkovsky, M. (Maxim Trilogy) Shea, William (Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde) Shearer, Douglas (Asphalt Jungle; Hallelujah; Night at the Opera; Ninotchka; Philadelphia Story; Picture of Dorian Gray; Singin’ in the Rain; Thin Man; Wizard of Oz; Women) Shearer, Moira (Peeping Tom; Red Shoes) Shearer, Norma (Women) Sheekman, Arthur (Duck Soup) Sheeley, E. E. (Foolish Wives) Sheen, Martin (Apocalypse Now; Badlands) Shelley, Mary (Bride of Frankenstein) Shelley’s, Mary (Frankenstein) Shelly, Jacques (A nous la liberté) Shen Fengjuan (Wutai jiemei) Shen Hao (Wutai jiemei) Shendrikova, Valentina (Korol Lir) Shengelaya, Georgy (Pirosmani) Shengwei, Li (Xiao cheng zhi chun) Shenna, Leila (Chronique des années de braise) Shenson, Walter (Hard Day’s Night) Shepard, Sam (Days of Heaven; Paris, Texas) Sheperd, Peter (Fiore delle mille e una notte) Sheperd, Richard (Breakfast at Tiffany’s) Shephard, Merrill (Last Picture Show) Shepherd, Cybill (Last Picture Show; Taxi Driver) Shepherd, Sandra (Brazil) Shepitko, Larissa (Proshchanie) Shepley, Michael (Henry V) Sheppard, Gerald (Five Easy Pieces) Sher, Jack (Shane) Sher, Stacey (Pulp Fiction) Sherer, Gertrud (Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Sheridan, Ann (Treasure of the Sierra Madre) Sheriff, Paul (Henry V) Sherman, Aaron (Brazil) Sherman, Lowell (She Done Him Wrong) Shermet, Hazel (Star Is Born) Sherriff, R. C. (Odd Man Out) Sherwin, David (If. . ) Sherwood, Robert (Best Years of Our Lives) Sheybal, Vladek (Casino Royale) Sheybal, W?dys?a (Kanal) Shibaki, Yoshiko (Akasen chitai) Shields, James (Hustler) Shields, Peter (Clockwork Orange) Shields, Robert (Conversation) Shiganoya, Benkei (Zangiku monogatari) Shiina, Rinzo (Entotsu no mieru basho) Shikita, Ryuichi (Zangiku monogatari) Shilton, Len (Lolita) Shimazaki, Yukiko (Shichinin no samurai) Shimizu, Gen (Shichinin no samurai) Shimizu, Masao (Ikiru; Saikaku ichidai onna; Sansho dayu) Shimogahara, Tomoo (Entotsu no mieru basho) Shimonaga, Hisashi (Gojira; Yojimbo) Shimura, Takashi (Gojira; Ikiru; Kwaidan; Rashomon; Shichinin no samurai; Yojimbo) Shindo, Eitaro (Naniwa ereji; Saikaku ichidai onna; Sansho dayu; Akasen chitai) Shindo, Kaneto (Hadaka no shima) Shine, Bill (Red Shoes) Shinganoya, Benkei (Naniwa ereji) Shinichi (Sansho dayu) Shipton, Susan (Exotica) Shirai, Nobutaro (Zangiku monogatari) Shiraishi, Naomi (Ai no corrida) Shiraishi, Sueko (Koshikei; Shonen) Shire, David (Conversation) Shire, Talia (Godfather Trilogy) Shirley (Flaming Creatures) Shklovsky, Victor (Turksib; Tretia Meshchanskaia) Shkurat, Stepon (Chapayev; Zemlya) Shnitke, Alfred. (Proshchanie; Kommisar) Shohan, Naomi (American Beauty) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1491 Shooting Star, Percy (Searchers) Shore, Howard (Dead Ringers; Philadelphia; Silence of the Lambs) Shore, Maydra (Procès) Shore, Roberta (Lolita) Shoring, Mike (Howards End) Short, Gertrude (Thin Man) Short, Jean (Red Shoes) Shostakovich, Dmitri (Korol Lir; Maxim Trilogy; Novyi Vavilon) Shpinel, Isaac (Alexander Nevsky; Arsenal) Shubin, Zhang (Huang tudi) Shuck, John (M*A*S*H) Shufton, Gene (Hustler) Shuken, Leo (Sullivan’s Travels) Shull, Jennifer (Conversation) Shull, Richard (Klute) Shull, W. N. (Fantasia) Shulman, Irving (Rebel Without a Cause) Shultis, Jackie (Days of Heaven) Shunbao, Wei (Xiao cheng zhi chun) Shuskin, Vasily (Kommisar) Shuzui, Masako (Suna no onna) Shvorin, A. (Letyat zhuravli) Sibirskaia, Nadia (Crime de Monsieur Lange; Menilmontant) Siciliano, Enzo (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Sickerts (Amerikanische freund) Sickner, Roy N. (Wild Bunch) Sid, Jan (Vlak bez voznog reda) Siddiqui (Bharat Mata) Sidibé, Adamé (Yaaba) Sidibé, Marian (Yaaba) Sidney, Sylvia (Fury) Sidran, Abdulah (Otac na sluzbenom putu) Sidran, Ben (Hoop Dreams) Sieber, Maria (Scarlet Empress) Siedow, Jim (Texas Chainsaw Massacre) Siegel, Bernard (Phantom of the Opera) Siegel, Don (Casablanca; Dirty Harry; Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Siegel, Jerome M. (West Side Story) Siegman, George (Birth of a Nation; Intolerance) Siemion, Wojciech (Eroica) Sievernich, Chris (Paris, Texas) Sigayev, A. (Chapayev) Signoret, Simone (Casque d’or; Diaboliques; Joli Mai; Ronde, La; Room at the Top) Silberman, Irene (Diva) Silberman, Serge (Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie; Ran) Silenti, Vira (Vitelloni) Siletti, Mario (East of Eden) Sillitoe, Alan (Saturday Night and Sunday Morning) Silva, Carmelo (Albero degli zoccoli) Silva, Enrico de (Sciuscia) Silva, Lídio (Deus e o diabo na terra do sol) Silvagni, Giorgio (Vlemma Tou Odyssea) Silvain, Eugéne (Passion de Jeanne d’Arc) Silvani, Al (Raging Bull) Silvani, Aldo (Strada) Silvart, Andres (Shoah) Silvera, Darrell (Notorious; Out of the Past) Silvera, René (Playtime) Silvers, Louis (It Happened One Night; Jazz Singer) Silvestri, Umberto (Conformista) Silvi, Franca (Professione: Reporter) Simák, J. (Ostre sledované vlaky) Simi, Carlo (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo; C’era una volta il west; Once Upon a Time in America) Simjanovic, Zoran (Nesto izmedju; Otac na sluzbenom putu) Simkie, Madame (Awara) Simm, Ray (Hard Day’s Night) Simmons, G. (Fantasia) Simmons, Georgia (8?;) Simmons, Jack (Rebel Without a Cause) Simmons, Jean (Black Narcissus; Great Expectations) Simon, Abe (On the Waterfront) Simon, Francois (Cristo si e fermato a Eboli) Simon, Michel (Atalante; Boudu sauvé des eaux; Feu Mathias Pascal; Passion de Jeanne d’Arc; Quai des brumes) Simon, Paul (Annie Hall; Graduate) Simon, Robert F. (Man Who Shot Liberty Valance) Simon, S. S. (Greed) Simon, Simone (Bête humaine; Cat People; Ronde, La) Simone (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Simonet, Eva (Z) Simonet, Monique (India Song) Simonov, Nikolai (Chapayev) Simova, Ileana (Umberto D) Simpson, Micky (My Darling Clementine) Simpson, Peggy (39 Steps) Simpson, Robert (Grapes of Wrath) Simpson, Russell (Grapes of Wrath; My Darling Clementine; Young Mr. Lincoln) Sinanos, Andreas (Vlemma Tou Odyssea) Sinatra, Frank (From Here to Eternity; On the Town) Sindici, Carlo (Roma, città aperta) Singelis, James (Once Upon a Time in America) Singer, Adam (Hoop Dreams) Singh, Doris (North by Northwest) Singh, K. N. (Awara) Singh, Rana (Salaam Bombay) Sinkel, Bernhard (Deutschland im Herbst) Sinniger, Al? (Journey of Hope) Siodmak, Robert (Killers) Sipperly, Ralph (Sunrise) Sira, Gurdial (My Beautiful Laundrette) Sirk, Douglas (All That Heaven Allows; Written on the Wind) Siruauev, Kirill (Csillagosok, katonák) Siska (Fièvre) Sissel, Sandi (Salaam Bombay) Sistrom, Joseph (Double Indemnity) Sitz, John F. (Double Indemnity) Siv, Mikhail (Balada o soldate) Sivan (Elippathayam) Sivas, Emin (Journey of Hope) Sivel, William (Mépris) Sivel, William-Robert (Diaboliques) Sivero, Frank (GoodFellas) Siwani, Abu (Garam Hawa) Sj?berg, Alf (Fr?ken Julie) Sj?man, Lick? (Fanny och Alexander) Sj?str?m, Victor (K?rkalen; Smultronst?llet; Wind) Sj?strand, Per (Smultronst?llet) Skager, Mona (Conversation) Skarsg?rd, Stellan (Breaking the Waves) Skelton, Geoffrey (Marat/Sade) Skeppstedt, Carl-Olav (Gycklarnas afton) Skerritt, Tom (M*A*S*H) Skhirtladze, Yuri (Proshchanie) Skinner, Carole (My Brilliant Career) Skinner, Claire (Life Is Sweet) Skinner, Frank (Naked City; Written on the Wind) Skipworth, Alison (Becky Sharp; Devil Is a Woman) Skirigin, Olga (Zaseda) Skiroyama, Kazuki (Tampopo) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1492 Skj?r, Henry (Ordet; Der var engang en krig) Skjellerup, Ben (Heavenly Creatures) Sklar, Zachary (JFK) Skobotseva, Irina (Voina i mir) Skoczkowska, Ewa (Schindler’s List) Skolimowski, Jerzy (Noz w wodzie) Skolmen, Ada (Sult) Skolsky, Sidney (Sunset Boulevard) Skorik, M. (Teni zabytykh predkov) Skot-Hansen, Mogens (Vredens dag) Skowroński, Zbigniew (Popiol i diament) Skraup, Karl (Tie?and) Skrigin, Olga (Budjenje pacova) Skurski, Grzegorz (Czlowiek z marmuru) Skvor, Karel (Obchod na korze) Skvorecká, Zdena (O slavnosti a hostech) Slabnjewitsch, Igor (Moskva slezam ne verit) Slavin, Lev (Maxim Trilogy) Slavinski, Yevgeni (Turksib) Slesinger, Tess (Dance, Girl, Dance) Sletov, S. (Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov) Slezak, Walter (Sodom und Gomorrha) Slivková, Hana (Obchod na korze) Sloan, Edward Van (Dracula 1931; Frankenstein; Scarlet Empress) Sloane, Everett (Citizen Kane; Lady from Shanghai) Slocombe, Douglas (Close Encounters of the Third Kind; Dead of Night; Kind Hearts and Coronets; Lavender Hill Mob; Raiders of the Lost Ark; Servant) Sloss, John (Lone Star) Sluizer, Anouk (Spoorloos) Sluizer, George (Spoorloos) Sly?eld, C. O. (Fantasia) Smailov, Vladimir (Siberiade) Smal, Ewa (Dekalog) Small, Marya (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Small, Michael (Klute) Smallens, Alexander (River) Smalley, Phillip (Night at the Opera) Smeaton, Bruce (Picnic at Hanging Rock) Smelsky (Oktiabr) Smirnova, Marina (Igla) Smith, Amber (L.A. Con?dential) Smith, Ann (Douglas Trilogy) Smith, Art (In a Lonely Place; Letter from an Unknown Woman) Smith, Brooke (Silence of the Lambs) Smith, C. Aubrey (Scarlet Empress; Trouble in Paradise) Smith, Charles (General) Smith, Charles Martin (American Graf?ti) Smith, Chuck (Reservoir Dogs) Smith, Daniel (Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Smith, Dick (Deer Hunter) Smith, Earl (Hoop Dreams) Smith, Gordon (Dead Ringers) Smith, Harry (Salt of the Earth) Smith, Howard (Breakfast at Tiffany’s) Smith, Irby (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Smith, Jack (Flaming Creatures) Smith, Jack Martin (M*A*S*H; Meet Me in St. Louis; On the Town) Smith, James (Birth of a Nation; Broken Blossoms) Smith, Jean Taylor (Douglas Trilogy) Smith, Kent (Cat People) Smith, Lois (East of Eden; Five Easy Pieces) Smith, Maggie (Room with a View) Smith, Oliver (Band Wagon) Smith, Paul (Midnight Express; Snow White; Third Man) Smith, Philip (Godfather Trilogy) Smith, Queenie (Killers; Sweet Smell of Success) Smith, Rose (Intolerance) Smith, Selden (Blue Velvet) Smith, T. P. (Fires Were Started) Smith, Ted (High Sierra) Smith, Tucker (West Side Story) Smith, Webb (Fantasia; Snow White) Smith Jr., Delos V. (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Smith;, Paul Martin (Star Wars) Smordoni, Irene (Sciuscia) Smordoni, Rinaldo (Sciuscia) Smyth, Zelda (My Brilliant Career) Snell, David (Women) Snelling, Alan (Silence of the Lambs) Snider, Barry (Klute) Snider, Norman (Dead Ringers) Snipes, Jon Jon (Blue Velvet) Snow, Michael (Wavelength) Snow, Terry Ackland (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Snyder, Allan (Rosemary’s Baby) Snyder, David (Blade Runner) Snyder, William (Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Soares, Jofre (Ant?nio das Mortes; Bye Bye Brasil; Vidas secas) Sobczyk, Boguslaw (Czlowiek z marmuru) Sobocinski, Piotr (Dekalog; Trois Couleurs) Sobolevskii, Piotr (Novyi Vavilon) Socrate, Mario (Vangelo secondo Matteo) S?derbaum, Kristina (Jud Süss) S?derberg, Hjalmar (Gertrud) S?ensen, Hans W. (Der var engang en krig) Sofaer, Abraham (Matter of Life and Death) Sofr, Jaromír (O slavnosti a hostech; Ostre sledované vlaky) Sokolov, Andrei (Malenkaya Vera) Sokolov, Vladimir (Dreigroschenoper) Sokolova, G. (Proshchanie) Sokolova, Liubov (Istoria Asi Kliachinoi kotoraia lubila da nie vyshla zamuzh) Sokolovic, Zijah (Samo jednom se ljubi) Sola, Catherine (Last Tango in Paris) Solal, Martial (A bout de souf?e) Solanas, Fernando E. (Hora de los hornos) Solange, Madame (Chagrin et la pitié) Solaru, Banjo (Kongi’s Harvest) Solás, Humberto (Lucia) Solaya, Marilyn (Fresa y Chocolate) Soldevilla, Lady (Espiritu de la colmena) Solinas, Franco (Battaglia di Algeri; Salvatore Giuliano) Solntseva, Julia (Zemlya) Solntseva, Julia (Ioulya; Zemlya) Solomina, Vitaly (Siberiade) Solomon, Jack (Graduate; Sweet Smell of Success) Solomon, Murray (Godfather Trilogy) Solonitzine, Anatoli (Andrei Rublev) Soloviov, Nikolai (Alexander Nevsky) Solovyov, Vasily (Voina i mir) Solt, Andrew (In a Lonely Place) Solti, Bertalan (Meg ker a nep) Soma, Ippei (Jujiro) Somedo, Odete (Udju Azul di Yonta) Somen, Branko (Samo jednom se ljubi) Somlay, Arthur (Valahol Europaban) Somló, Tamás (Csillagosok, katonák) Sommer, Josef (Dirty Harry) Sommers, Suzanne (American Graf?ti) Somr, Josef (Ostre sledované vlaky) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 1493 Sonan (Elippathayam) Sophie (Noire de ...) Sordi, Alberto (Vitelloni) Sorel, Jean (Belle de jour) Soria, Oscar (Yawar Mallku) Sorkin, Marc (Tagebuch einer Verlorenen) Sorvino, Paul (GoodFellas) Sosa, Rafael (Memorias del subdesarrollo) Sotira, Liliana (America, L’) Soto Rangel, A. (Treasure of the Sierra Madre) Sotoconil, Ruben (Chacal de Nahueltoro) Soul, Brer (Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song) Soumanou Vieyra, Paulin (Xala) SoundStorm (L.A. Con?dential) Souplet (Chapeau de paille d’Italie) Sousa, Paulo de (Udju Azul di Yonta) Sousselier, Brigitte (Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000) Southern, Eve (Intolerance) Southern, Terry (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb; Easy Rider) Sowders, Edward (Foolish Wives; Greed) Soyinka, Wole (Kongi’s Harvest) Spaak, Charles (Grande illusion; Kermesse héroique) Spacek, Sissy (Badlands; JFK) Spacey, Kevin (American Beauty; L.A. Con?dential) Spadare, Giuseppe (Sciuscia) Spadaro, Odoardo (Carrosse d’or) Spadaro, Umberto (Ladri di biciclette) Spadola, Pasquale (Kaos) Spain, Mark (My Brilliant Career) Spall, Timothy (Life Is Sweet; Secrets and Lies) Spalla, Ermino (Miracolo a Milano) Sparks, Ned (42nd Street) Sparks, Robert (Out of the Past) Spaziani, Elio (Vangelo secondo Matteo) Speak, James (High Noon) Spears, General Sir Edward (Chagrin et la pitié) Spector, Phil (Easy Rider) Speer, Albert (Triumph des Willens) Spence, Tim (Brazil) Spencer, Al (Night of the Hunter) Spencer, Dorothy (My Darling Clementine) Spencer, Douglas (Shane) Spencer, Fred (Snow White) Spencer, J. Russell (Modern Times) Spencer, Nilda (Dona Flor e seus dois maridos) Spencer, Norris (Thelma and Louise) Spender, Elizabeth (Brazil) Spengler, Pierre (Underground) Spengler, Volker (Ehe der Maria Braun) Speroni, Roberta (Notte) Sperr, Martin (Hitler: Ein Film aus Deutschland) Spiegel, Ed (Salt of the Earth) Spiegel, Sam (African Queen; Lawrence of Arabia; On the Waterfront) Spielberg, Steven (Close Encounters of the Third Kind; E.T.—The Extraterrestrial; Jaws; Raiders of the Lost Ark; Schindler’s List) Spier, Carol (Dead Ringers) Spies, Corinna (Deutschland im Herbst) Spies, Manfred (Professione: Reporter) Spijk, Cor (Spoorloos) Spiker, Ray (Shane) Spikings, Barry (Deer Hunter) Spillane, Mickey (Kiss Me Deadly) Spinetti, Victor (Hard Day’s Night) Spinotti, Dante (L.A. Con?dential) Spira, Camilla (Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse) Spira, Fran?oise (Année dernière à Marienbad) Spivak, Murray (West Side Story; King Kong) Spivey, Victoria (Hallelujah) Splet, Alan (Blue Velvet; Eraserhead) Spohr, Walter (Belle de jour) Sponza, Mario (Stromboli) Spottiswoode, Raymond (Paisà) Spradlin, G. D. (Apocalypse Now) Sproule, Peter (If...) Squarciapino, Franca (Cyrano de Bergerac) Squire, Anthony (Casino Royale) Squires, Scott (Star Wars) Srámek, Bohuslav (Staré povesti ceské) Srámek, Dobroslac (Obchod na korze) Srinivasan, M. B. (Elippathayam) Srivastava, Anjan (Salaam Bombay) St. Helier, Ivy (Henry V) St. Jensward, Louise (Professione: Reporter) St. John, Christopher (Shaft) St. John, Jill (Player) St. John, William (One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) St. Laurent, Cecil (Lola Montès) Stack, Robert (Written on the Wind) Stack, William (Becky Sharp) Stafford, Dinaz (Salaam Bombay) Stafford, Double Battery (Salaam Bombay) Stafford, Henry (Blackmail) Stahl, Francis E. (Bonnie and Clyde) Stahl, Richard (Five Easy Pieces) Stahl-Nachbaur, Ernst (M) Staikov, Gani (Sterne) Staiola, Enzo (Ladri di biciclette) Stalens, Marion (Trois Couleurs) Stalling, Carl (Steamboat Willie) Stallings, George (Fantasia) Stallings, Laurence (Big Parade) Stalmaster, Lynn (Black Sunday) Stamp, Terence (Star Wars) Stander, Lionel (C’era una volta il west) Standing, Joan (Dracula 1931; Greed) Stanford, Thomas (West Side Story) Stanhope, Ted (High Noon) Stanley, Max?eld (Birth of a Nation; Intolerance) Stanton, Harry Dean (Paris, Texas) Stanwyck, Barbara (Double Indemnity; Lady Eve) Stapleton, Jean (Klute) Stapleton, Marie (Jazz Singer) Stapleton, Oliver (My Beautiful Laundrette) Stapp, Terrell (Fantasia; Snow White) Staquet, Georges (Weekend) Staritsky, Vladimir (Ivan Grozny) Stark, Graham (Casino Royale) Stark, Koo (Rocky Horror Picture Show) Stark, Leonard (Salt of the Earth) Starke, Michael (Distant Voices, Still Lives) Starke, Pauline (Intolerance) Starkey, Bert (Scarface: The Shame of a Nation) Starr, Ringo (Hard Day’s Night) Starr, Ronald (Ride the High Country) Starski, Allan (Czlowiek z marmuru; Schindler’s List) Stateman, Wylie (JFK) Staudte, Wolfgang (M?rder sind unter uns) Staunton, Dick (Salt of the Earth) Stawiński, Jerzy Stefan (Eroica; Kanal) FILM TITLE INDEX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 1494 Stayuta, Stefaniya (Proshchanie) Steadman, Alison (Life Is Sweet) Stearns Clancy, Carl (Nanook of the North) Stears, John (Star Wars) Steege, Johanna Ter (Spoorloos) Steele, Barbara (8?;) Steele, Bob (Big Sleep; Rio Bravo) Steen, Ole (Der var engang en krig) Steen, Paprika (Festen) Steenburgen, Mary (Philadelphia) Steers, Larry (Little Caesar) Stefanelli, Benito (Buono, il brutto, il cattivo) Stefano, Joseph (Psycho) Steiger, Rod (On the Waterfront; Player) Stein, Franz (M) Stein, John (Paths of Glory) Steinbach, Peter F. (Deutschland im Herbst; Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) Steinbeck, John (East of Eden; Grapes of Wrath) Steiner, Jack (Marat/Sade) Steiner, Max (Big Sleep; Casablanca; Gone With the Wind; Informer; King Kong; Mildred Pierce; Now Voyager; Searchers; Treasure of the Sierra Madre; White Heat) Steiner, Walter (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Steinfeldt-Levi, Irene (Shoah) Steinhoff, Ninon (Dreigroschenoper) Steinmeier, Mac (Funny Games) Steinmetz, Herbert (Lola) Stell, Aaron (Touch of Evil) Stensgaard, Hanna (Babettes Gaestebud) Stensgaard, Molly Malene (Idioterne) Stěpánek, Zdeněk (Staré povesti ceské) Stepanov, I. (Putyovka v zhizn) Stephens, Harvey (North by Northwest) Stephens, Roy (Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb) Stephenson, Anson (Hallelujah) Stephenson, Cynthia (Player) Sterling, Jack (Shane) Sterling, M. (Kermesse héroique) Stern, Jeff (GoodFellas) Stern, Stewart (Rebel Without a Cause) Sternad, Rudolph (High Noon) Sterne, Robert (Repulsion) Sterner, Robert (Fantasia) Stevens, C. C. (Life and Death of Colonel Blimp; Matter of Life and Death; Peeping Tom) Stevens, Charles (Birth of a Nation; My Darling Clementine) Stevens, Eileen (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) Stevens, George (Giant; Place in the Sun; Shane) Stevens, Joe (Lone Star) Stevens, Landers (Little Caesar; Public Enemy) Stevens, Naomi (Apartment) Stevens, Roy (Lawrence of Arabia; Servant) Stevens, Ruthelma (Scarlet Empress) Stevens, C. C. (Victim) Stevenson, Edward (Citizen Kane; Dance, Girl, Dance; It’s a Wonderful Life; Magni?cent Ambersons) Stevenson, Robert Louis (Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde) Stevenson, Scott (Haine) Stewart, Charlotte (Eraserhead) Stewart, Dave (Close Encounters of the Third Kind) Stewart, Donald (Red River) Stewart, Donald Ogden (Philadelphia Story) Stewart, Elaine (Singin’ in the Rain) Stewart, Ewan (Titanic) Stewart, Jack (Tom Jones) Stewart, James (It’s a Wonderful Life; Man Who Shot Liberty Valance; Mr. Smith Goes to Washington; Philadelphia Story; Rear Window; Vertigo) Stewart, James G. (Citizen Kane; Magni?cent Ambersons) Stewart, Martha (In a Lonely Place) Stewart, McLaren (Fantasia; Snow White) Stewart, Paul (Citizen Kane; Kiss Me Deadly) Stewart, Sally (Lady Vanishes) Stewart, Sophie (Things to Come) Stiller, Mauritz (Erotikon; G?sta Berlings Saga; Herr Arnes Pengar) Stimac, Slavko (Underground) Stine, Clifford (Written on the Wind) Stine, Harold E. (M*A*S*H) Stinnes, Hugo (Napoléon) Stock, Dennis (Lolita) Stock, Nigel (Victim) Stockdale, Carl (Intolerance) Stocklassa, Erik (Herr Arnes Pengar) Stockton, Philip (GoodFellas) Stockwell, Dean (Alsino y el Condor; Blue Velvet; Paris, Texas; Player) Stockwell, Harry (Snow White) Stojkovic, Danilo ‘‘Bata’’ (Underground) Stoker, Bram (Dracula 1931; Nosferatu; 1922novyi) Stokes, Robert (Fantasia; Snow White) Stokes, Sewell (Tom Jones) Stoler, Shirley (Deer Hunter; Klute) Stoleru, Josiane (Cyrano de Bergerac) Stoll, E. (Ewige Jude) Stoll, George (Meet Me in St. Louis) Stoll, John (Lawrence of Arabia) Stollyar, Yakov (Putyovka v zhizn) Stoloff, Morris (All the King’s Men; Gilda; His Girl Friday; Mr. Smith Goes to Washington) Stolper, Alexander (Putyovka v zhizn) Stoltz, Eric (Pulp Fiction) Stommer, Franziska (Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat) St?mmer, Franziska (Im Lauf der Zeit) Stone, Arthur (Fury) Stone, Dave (Reservoir Dogs) Stone, George E. (42nd Street; Little Caesar; Some Like It Hot) Stone, Marianne (Hard Day’s Night; Lolita) Stone, Milburn (Young Mr. Lincoln) Stone, Oliver (JFK; Midnight Express) Stone, Philip (Clockwork Orange) Stone, Jr., N. B. (Ride the High Country) Stoneman, John (Casino Royale) Stoppa, Paolo (C’era una volta il west; Gattopardo; Miracolo a Milano; Rocco e i suoi fratelli) Stoppard, Tom (Brazil) Storaro, Vittorio (Apocalypse Now; Conformista; Last Tango in Paris) Storch, Gisela (Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle) Storck, Henri (Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles; Zéro de conduite) Storm, Olaf (Letze Mann; Metropolis) Stormare, Peter (Fargo) Storr, Hermann (A nous la liberté; Kermesse héroique) St?ssel, Ludwig (Casablanca) Stossel, Ludwig (Dance, Girl, Dance) Stothart, Herbert (Camille; Mrs. Miniver; Night at the Opera; Picture of Dorian Gray) St?tzner, Ernst (Underground) Stovaro, Vittorio (1900 (Novecento)) Stovin, Jerry (Lolita) Stovitz, Ken (Blue Velvet) Str??t, Hans (Fanny och Alexander) Straat, Hans (Sommarnattens leende) FILM TITLE INDEXFILMS, 4