I nternational D ictionary of F ilms and F ilmmakers- 1 FILMS FOURTH EDITION EDITORS TOM PENDERGAST SARA PENDERGAST I nternational D ictionary of F ilms and F ilmmakers-1 FILMS I nternational D ictionary of F ilms and F ilmmakers Volume 1 FILMS Volume 2 DIRECTORS Volume 3 ACTORS and ACTRESSES Volume 4 WRITERS and PRODUCTION ARTISTS Tom Pendergast, Sara Pendergast, Editors Michael J. Tyrkus, Project Coordinator Michelle Banks, Erin Bealmear, Laura Standley Berger, Joann Cerrito, Jim Craddock, Steve Cusack, Nicolet V. Elert, Miranda H. Ferrara, Kristin Hart, Melissa Hill, Laura S. Kryhoski, Margaret Mazurkiewicz, Carol Schwartz, and Christine Tomassini, St. James Press Staff Peter M. Gareffa, Managing Editor Maria Franklin, Permissions Manager Debra J. Freitas, Permissions Assistant Mary Grimes, Leitha Etheridge-Sims, Image Catalogers Mary Beth Trimper, Composition Manager Dorothy Maki, Manufacturing Manager Rhonda Williams, Senior Buyer Cynthia Baldwin, Product Design Manager Michael Logusz, Graphic Artist Randy Bassett, Image Database Supervisor Robert Duncan, Imaging Specialists Pamela A. Reed, Imaging Coordinator Dean Dauphinais, Senior Editor, Imaging and Multimedia Content While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, St. James Press does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. St. James Press accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion of any organization, agency, institution, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors or publisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and veri?ed to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions. This publication is a creative work fully protected by all applicable copyright laws, as well as by misappropriation, trade secret, unfair competition, and other applicable laws. The authors and editors of this work have added value to the underlying factual material herein through one or more of the following: unique and original selection, coordination, expression, arrangement, and classi?cation of the information. All rights to this publication will be vigorously defended. Copyright ? 2000 St. James Press 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331-3535 All rights reserved including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data International dictionary of ?lms and ?lmmakers / editors, Tom Pendergast, Sara Pendergast.—4th ed. p. cm. Contents: 1. Films — 2. Directors — 3. Actors and actresses — 4. Writers and production artists. ISBN 1-55862-449-X (set) — ISBN 1-55862-450-3 (v. 1) — ISBN 1-55862-451-1 (v. 2) — ISBN 1-55862-452-X (v. 3) — ISBN 1-55862-453-8 (v. 4) 1. Motion pictures—Plots, themes, etc. 2. Motion picture producers and directors—Biography— Dictionaries. 3. Motion picture actors and actresses—Biography—Dictionaries. 4. Screenwriters— Biography—Dictionaries. I. Pendergast, Tom. II. Pendergast, Sara. PN1997.8.I58 2000 791.43’03—dc2100-064024 CIP Cover photograph—Louise Brooks in Die Büchse der Pandora, courtesy the Kobal Collection Printed in the United States of America St. James Press is an imprint of Gale Group Gale Group and Design is a trademark used herein under license 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CONTENTS EDITORS’ NOTE vii BOARD OF ADVISERS ix CONTRIBUTORS xi LIST OF FILMS xiii FILMS 1 PICTURE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 1365 NOTES ON ADVISERS AND CONTRIBUTORS 1369 LIST OF FILMS BY DIRECTOR 1383 GEOGRAPHIC INDEX 1393 NAME INDEX 1401 vii EDITORS’ NOTE This is a revised edition of the 1st volume of the International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers, which also includes Volume 2, Directors, Volume 3, Actors and Actresses, and Volume 4, Writers and Production Artists. The book contains 683 entries, including 72 entries new to this edition. Each entry contains production information, lists of crew and cast, a selected bibliography of works about the ?lm, and a critical essay written by a specialist in the ?eld. Most of the entries from the previous edition have been retained here, and all have been thoroughly updated. Since ?lm is primarily a visual medium, the majority of entries are illustrated with a still. The selection of entries is once again based on the recommendations of the advisory board. It was not thought necessary to propose strict criteria for selection: the book is intended to represent the wide range of interests within North American, British, and West European ?lm scholarship and criticism. The variety in both the entries and the critical stances of the writers emphasizes the diversity within the ?eld of cinematic studies. Thanks are due to the following: Nicolet V. Elert and Michael J. Tyrkus at St. James Press, for their efforts in preparing this collection for publication; Michael Najjar, for his tireless efforts in researching the entries; our advisers, for their wisdom and broad knowledge of international cinema; and our contributors, for their gracious participation. We have necessarily built upon the work of the editors who have preceded us, and we thank them for the strong foundation they created. A Note on the Entries Non-English language ?lm titles are given in the original language or a transliteration of it, unless they are better known internationally by their English title. The country or countries where the ?lm originated is provided along with the year it was registered and the director. The section on production information can include such details as production company, ?lm stock, format, running time, sound type, length, date and location of release, dates and location of ?lming, and cost. The list of crew members identi?es the major participants in the making of the ?lm, but is not exhaustive. Similarly, the list of cast members indicates the major players in the ?lm, but may not account for all minor roles. Finally, the awards section lists major awards garnered by the ?lm, its creators, and its leading actors. ix BOARD OF ADVISERS Dudley Andrew Erik Barnouw Jeanine Basinger Ronald Bergan John Campbell Lewis Cole Gary Crowdus Robert von Dassanowsky Mike Downey John Durie Jack C. Ellis Susan Felleman Ben Gibson Beat Glur Rajko Grlic John Hopewell Andrew Horton Srdjan Karanovi? Robyn Karney Philip Kemp Satti Khanna Susan K. Larsen Audrey T. McCluskey Ib Monty Gary Morris Dan Nissen Julian Petley Christopher Pickard Dana B. Polan Don Ranvaud Tony Rayns Paul Shields Nicholas Thomas Frank P. Tomasulo Leonardo Garcia Tsao Aruna Vasudevan xi CONTRIBUTORS Charles Affron Mirella Jona Affron Anthony Ambrogio Dudley Andrew Roy Armes Dimitar Bardarsky Erik Barnouw Jeanine Basinger John Baxter Sandra L. Beck Audie Bock DeWitt Bodeen Ronald Bowers Stephen E. Bowles Michael Brashinsky Stephen Brophy Julianne Burton Fred Camper Scarlet Cheng Julie Christensen Michel Ciment Tom Conley David A. Cook Samantha Cook R. F. Cousins Thomas Cripps Robert von Dassanowsky Gertraud Steiner Daviau Pamala S. Deane Sara Corben De Romeo Charles Derry Wheeler Winston Dixon Rashmi Doraiswamy Mike Downey Clyde Kelly Dunagan Robert Dunbar Raymond Durgnat Rob Edelman Jane Ehrlich Jack C. Ellis Gretchen Elsner-Sommer Patricia Erens Thomas L. Erskine Mark W. Estrin Tamara L. Falicov Greg S. Faller Rodney Farnsworth Howard Feinstein Susan Felleman Annette Fern Warren French Barry A. Fulks Dan Georgakas Tina Gianoulis Jill Gillespie Verina Glaessner H. M. Glancy Val Golovskoy Douglas Gomery Joseph A. Gomez Viveca Gretton Josef Gugler Patricia King Hanson Stephen L. Hanson Ann Harris Louise Heck-Rabi Patrick Heenan Catherine Henry Andrew Higson John Hill Kyoko Hirano Deborah H. Holdstein Andrew Horton Peter Hutchings Dina Iordanova Nick James Timothy Johnson Stuart M. Kaminsky Joel E. Kanoff Dave Kehr Philip Kemp Satti Khanna Tammy Kinsey Katherine Singer Kovács Audrey E. Kupferberg Monique Lamontagne Joseph Lanza Daniel Leab Sharon Lee James L. Limbacher Richard Lippe Kimball Lockhart Janet E. Lorenz Glenn Lovell Ed Lowry Richard Dyer MacCann Andrew and Gina Macdonald G. C. Macnab Elaine Mancini Roger Manvell Gina Marchetti Gerald Mast Donald W. McCaffrey John McCarty Joseph McElhaney Vacláv Merhaut Russell Merritt Lloyd Michaels Joseph Milicia Norman Miller Ib Monty Donald R. Mott John Mraz Robert Murphy William T. Murphy Ray Narducy Dennis Nastav Kim Newman Dan Nissen Linda J. Obalil Liam O’Leary Tom Orman Kelly Otter R. Barton Palmer Sylvia Paskin Hannah Patterson Richard Pe?a Kris Percival Julian Petley Duncan Petrie Gene D. Phillips A. Pillai Marion Pilowsky Leland Poague Dana B. Polan Richard Porton Lauren Rabinovitz Maria Racheva Ashish Rajadhyaksha Herbert Reynolds Arthur G. Robson Sara Corben de Romero Jonathan Romney Chris Routledge Elliot Rubenstein Marie Saeli Barbara Salvage Stephanie Savage Curtis Schade Susana Schild Steven Schneider H. Wayne Schuth Michael Selig Lee Sellars Ella Shochat Robert Sickels Ulrike Sieglohr Charles L. P. Silet Scott Simmon P. Adams Sitney Josef ?kvorecky Anthony Slide Edward S. Small Eric Smoodin Thomas Snyder Cecile Starr Philip Strick Bob Sullivan Susan Tavernetti Stephen Teo Doug Tomlinson Lee Tsiantis Andrew Tudor Michael J. Tyrkus B. Urgo?íkova Ralph Anthony Valdez Ravi Vasudevan Ginette Vincendeau Iris Wakulenko William C. Wees CONTRIBUTORS FILMS, 4 th EDITION xii Paul Wells James Michael Welsh Dennis West M. B. White Daniel Williams Robert Winning Robin Wood Denise J. Youngblood xiii LIST OF FILMS A bout de souf?e A nous la liberté A propos de Nice Accattone Adam’s Rib The Adventures of Robin Hood The African Queen L’Age d’or Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes Ahfei zheng zhuan Ai no corrida Akaler sandhane Akasen chitai L’Albero degli zoccoli Alexander Nevsky All about Eve All Quiet on the Western Front All That Heaven Allows All the King’s Men Alphaville Alsino y el Condor L’America American Beauty American Graf?ti An American in Paris Der Amerikanische freund Amor de perdic&atilda;o And Life Goes On Andrei Rublev Angi Vera Angst essen Seele auf L’Année dernière à Marienbad Annie Hall Anticipation of the Night Ant?nio das Mortes The Apartment Apocalypse Now The Apu Trilogy Aranyer din Ratri L’Argent L’Arroseur arrosé Arsenal The Asphalt Jungle L’Atalante L’Avventura Awara Ba wang bie ji Bab el hadid Babettes Gaestebud Badlands Balada o soldate Le Ballet mécanique The Band Wagon Banshun Baron Prasil La Bataille du rail La Batalla de Chile: la lucha de un pueblo sin armas La Battaglia di Algeri Becky Sharp Belle de jour La Belle et la bête Berlin: Die Sinfonie der Grossstadt The Best Years of Our Lives La Bête humaine Bharat Mata Bhumika The Big Heat The Big Parade The Big Sleep The Birds The Birth of a Nation Biruma no tategoto Black Narcissus Black Sunday Blackmail Blade Runner The Blair Witch Project Der Blaue Engel Die Blechtrommel Die Bleierne Zeit Blow-Up The Blue Lamp Blue Velvet Bonnie and Clyde Das Boot Le Boucher Boudu sauvé des eaux Brazil Breakfast at Tiffany’s Breaking the Waves The Bride of Frankenstein Brief Encounter Bringing Up Baby Broken Blossoms Bronenosets Potemkin Die Büchse der Pandora Budjenje pacova Il Buono, il brutto, il cattivo Bye Bye Brasil Cabaret Cabiria La Caduta degli dei Camille O Cangaceiro Le Carrosse d’or Casablanca Casino Royale Casque d’or Cat People (1942) Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris Central do Brasil C’era una volta il west C’est arrivé près de chez vous El Chacal de Nahueltoro Le Chagrin et la pitié Chapayev Un Chapeau de paille d’Italie Le Charme discrèt de la bourgeoisie Charulata Chelovek s kinoapparatom LIST OF FILMS FILMS, 4 th EDITION xiv Chelsea Girls Un Chien andalou Chimes at Midnight Chinatown Chronik der Anna Magdalena Bach Chronique des années de braise Chronique d’un été Citizen Kane City Lights City of Sadness Cléo de cinq à sept A Clockwork Orange Close Encounters of the Third Kind Un Coeur en hiver Un Condamné à mort s’est échappé Il Conformista The Conversation La Coquille et le clergyman Cria Cuervos ... Le Crime de Monsieur Lange Cristo si e fermato a Eboli Cross?re The Crowd Csillagosok, katonák Cyrano de Bergerac Czlowiek z marmuru Dahong denglong gaogao gua Les Dames du Bois de Boulogne Dance, Girl, Dance Daoma zei Dawandeh Days of Heaven De cierta manera The Dead Dead of Night Dead Ringers The Deer Hunter Dekalog Deliverance La Dentellière Der var engang en krig Detour Deus e o diabo na terra do sol Deutschland im Herbst The Devil Is a Woman Le Diable au corps Les Diaboliques Dirty Harry Distant Voices, Still Lives Diva Do bigha zamin Do the Right Thing Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1932) Dr. Strangelove; or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb Dog Star Man Doktor Mabuse der Spieler; Das Testament des Dr. Mabuse La dolce vita Dom za vesanje Dona Flor e seus dois maridos Double Indemnity The Douglas Trilogy Dracula (1931) Dracula (1958) The Draughtsman’s Contract Die Dreigroschenoper Drifters Du Ri?? chez les hommes Duck Soup Duvidha East of Eden Easy Rider L’eclisse Die Ehe der Maria Braun Elippathayam Les Enfants du paradis Der Engel mit der Posaune Entotsu no mieru basho Entr’acte Eraserhead Eroica Erotikon Espiritu de la colmena Et ... Dieu créa la femme E.T.—The Extraterrestrial Der Ewige Jude Exotica Faces Fanny och Alexander Fantasia Fargo Farrebique La Femme du boulanger La Femme in?dèle Festen Feu Mathias Pascal Fièvre Film d’amore e d’anarchia Il Fiore delle mille e una notte Fires Were Started Five Easy Pieces Flaming Creatures Foolish Wives 42nd Street The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Frankenstein (1931) Freaks Fresa y Chocolate Fr?ken Julie From Here to Eternity Fukushu suru wa ware ni ari Funny Games Fury Os Fuzis Garam Hawa Il Gattopardo The General Gertie the Dinosaur Gertrud Giant Gilda The Godfather Trilogy Gojira The Gold Rush Gone With the Wind GoodFellas G?sta Berlings Saga The Graduate LIST OF FILMSFILMS, 4 th EDITION xv La Grande illusion The Grapes of Wrath The Great Dictator Great Expectations Greed Gregory’s Girl Guling jie shaonian sha ren shijian Gun Crazy Gycklarnas afton Hadaka no shima La Haine Haizi wang Hallelujah Hana-Bi A Hard Day’s Night Heavenly Creatures Heimat; Die Zweite Heimat He Liu Henry V Herr Arnes Pengar Higanbana High Noon High Sierra Der Himmel über Berlin Hiroshima mon amour His Girl Friday Hitler: Ein Film aus Deutschland Hoop Dreams La Hora de los hornos Howards End Huang tudi The Hustler I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang Idi i smotri Idioterne If... Igla Ikiru Im Lauf der Zeit In a Lonely Place India Song The Informer Intolerance Invasion of the Body Snatchers Istoria Asi Kliachinoi kotoraia lubila da nie vyshla zamuzh It Happened One Night It’s a Wonderful Life Ivan Grozny J’accuse Jana Aranya Jaws The Jazz Singer Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles Jeder für sich und Gott gegen alle Les Jeux interdits JFK Jigokumon Johnny Guitar Le Joli Mai Jonah qui aura 25 ans en l’an 2000 Le Jour se lève Journal d’un curé de campagne Journey of Hope Ju Dou Jud Süss Judex Jujiro Jules et Jim Kaagaz ke phool Das Kabinett des Dr. Caligari Kameradschaft Kanal Kaos La Kermesse héroique The Kid The Killers (1946) Kind Hearts and Coronets King Kong Kino-Pravda Kiss Me Deadly Klute Kommisar Kongi’s Harvest Konyets Sankt-Peterburga K?rkalen Korol Lir Koshikei Koziyat rog Kwaidan L.A. Con?dential Ladri di biciclette The Lady Eve The Lady from Shanghai The Lady Vanishes Lan fengzheng The Land Lásky jedné plavovlásky The Last Picture Show Last Tango in Paris The Last Wave Laura The Lavender Hill Mob Lawrence of Arabia Letter from an Unknown Woman Letyat zhuravli Der Letze Mann The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp Life Is Sweet Limite Little Caesar The Little Foxes Lola Lola Montès Lolita Lone Star The Lost Weekend Louisiana Story Lucia M Madame de ... M?dchen in Uniform The Magni?cent Ambersons Malcolm X Malenkaya Vera The Maltese Falcon Man of Aran LIST OF FILMS FILMS, 4 th EDITION xvi The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance Manhattan Marat/Sade The March of Time M?rchen vom Glück The Marius Trilogy M*A*S*H The Masque of the Red Death Mat Matka Joanna od aniolow The Matrix A Matter of Life and Death The Maxim Trilogy Mean Streets Meet Me in St. Louis Meg ker a nep Meghe dhaka tara Memorias del subdesarrollo Menilmontant Mephisto Le Mépris Meshes of the Afternoon Metropolis Midnight Cowboy Midnight Express Mildred Pierce Le Million Miracolo a Milano The Mis?ts Mr. Smith Goes to Washington Mrs. Miniver Modern Times Mona Lisa Die M?rder sind unter uns Morte a Venezia Moskva slezam ne verit Muerte de un Ciclista Mujeres al borde de un ataque de nervios The Music Box My Beautiful Laundrette My Brilliant Career My Darling Clementine My Name Is Joe The Naked City Naniwa ereji Nanook of the North Napoléon Narayama bushi-ko Nashville Neobychanye priklyucheniya Mistera Vesta v strane bolshevikov Nesto izmedju Die Nibelungen Nieuwe Gronden A Night at the Opera The Night of the Hunter Ningen no joken Ninotchka La Noire de . . . North by Northwest Nosferatu (1922) Notorious La notte 1900 (Novecento) Novyi Vavilon Now Voyager Noz w wodzie Nuit et brouillard Une Nuit sur le Mont Chauve Les Nuits fauves O slavnosti a hostech Obchod na korze Odd Man Out L’Odeur de la papaye verte Offret Oktiabr Los Olvidados Olympia On the Town On the Waterfront Once Upon a Time in America Once Upon a Time in the West One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest Ordet Orfeu Negro Orphée Ossessione Ostre sledované vlaky Otac na sluzbenom putu El Otro Francisco 8? Out of the Past Outomlionnye solntsem Paisà Paris, Texas Une Partie de campagne La Passion de Jeanne d’Arc Passport to Pimlico Paths of Glory Peeping Tom Pépé le Moko Persona The Phantom of the Opera Philadelphia The Philadelphia Story The Piano Pickpocket Picnic at Hanging Rock The Picture of Dorian Gray Pirosmani Pixote a lei do mais fraco A Place in the Sun The Player Playtime Pokaianie Popiol i diament Potomok Chingis-Khan La Primera carga al machete The Private Life of Henry VIII Le Procès Professione: Reporter Proshchanie Psycho The Public Enemy I Pugni in tasca Pulp Fiction Putyovka v zhizn Qiu Ju da Guansi Le Quai des brumes LIST OF FILMSFILMS, 4 th EDITION xvii Les Quatre cents coups Raging Bull Raiders of the Lost Ark Ran Rashomon Rear Window Rebel Without a Cause Red River The Red Shoes Red Sorghum Los Redes Règle du jeu Repulsion Reservoir Dogs Retrato de Teresa Ride the High Country Rien que les heures Rio Bravo The River Rocco e i suoi fratelli The Rocky Horror Picture Show Roma, città aperta La Ronde Room at the Top A Room with a View Rosemary’s Baby Saikaku ichidai onna Salaam Bombay! Le Salaire de la peur Salt of the Earth Salvatore Giuliano Samma no aji Samo jednom se ljubi Le Samourai Le Sang des bêtes Le Sang d’un poete Sans Soleil Sansho dayu Saturday Night and Sunday Morning Scarface: The Shame of a Nation The Scarlet Empress Schatten Schindler’s List Sciuscia Scorpio Rising The Searchers Secrets and Lies Seppuku The Servant Shaft Shakespeare in Love Shane She Done Him Wrong Sherlock, Jr. Shichinin no samurai Shoah Shonen Siberiade The Silence of the Lambs Singin’ in the Rain Det Sjunde inseglet Skuplijaci perja Smoke Smultronst?llet Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Sodom und Gomorrha Some Like It Hot Sommarnattens leende Song of Ceylon Souf?e au coeur The Southerner Soy Cuba The Spanish Earth Spoorloos Stachka A Star Is Born The Star Wars Saga Staré povesti ceské Steamboat Willie Sterne La Strada Strangers on a Train A Streetcar Named Desire Stromboli Der Student von Prag Sullivan’s Travels Sult Suna no onna Sunrise Sunset Boulevard The Sweet Smell of Success Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song Das Tagebuch einer Verlorenen Ta’m E Guilass Tampopo Taxi Driver Teni zabytykh predkov La terra trema The Texas Chainsaw Massacre Thelma and Louise Thérèse Desqueyroux They Live by Night O Thiasos The Thin Man Things to Come The Third Man 38 - Auch das war Wien The 39 Steps Tie?and Tire dié Tirez sur le pianiste Titanic Todo Sobre Mi Madre Tokyo monogatari Tom Jones Top Hat Touch of Evil Trainspotting The Treasure of the Sierra Madre Tretia Meshchanskaia Triumph des Willens Trois Couleurs Trouble in Paradise Turksib Twelve Angry Men 2001: A Space Odyssey Tystnaden LIST OF FILMS FILMS, 4 th EDITION xviii Udju Azul di Yonta Ugetsu monogatari Umberto D Underground Unforgiven Unsere Afrikareise Les Vacances de Monsieur Hulot Valahol Europaban Les Vampires Vampyr Il Vangelo secondo Matteo Variété El Verdugo Vertigo Viaggio in Italia Victim Vidas secas Viridiana Viskningar och rop I Vitelloni Vivre sa vie Vlak bez voznog reda To Vlemma Tou Odyssea Voina i mir Le Voyage dans la lune Vredens dag Walkabout Wandafuru Raifu Wavelength Le Weekend West Side Story White Heat Why We Fight The Wild Bunch The Wind The Wizard of Oz The Women W.R.: Mysterije Organizma Written on the Wind Wutai jiemei Xala Xiao cheng zhi chun Yaaba Yanzhi kou Yawar Mallku Yeelen Les Yeux sans visage Yojimbo Young Mr. Lincoln Z Zangiku monogatari Zaseda Zemlya Zerkalo Zéro de conduite 1 A A BOUT DE SOUFFLE (Breathless) France, 1959 Director: Jean-Luc Godard Production: Impéria Films, Société Nouvelle de Cinéma; black and white, 35mm; running time: 89 minutes. Released 16 March 1960, Paris. Filmed 17 August through 15 September 1959 in Paris and Marseilles; cost: 400,000 N.F. (about $120,000). Producer: Georges de Beauregard; screenplay: Jean-Luc Godard, from an original treatment by Fran?ois Truffaut; photography: Raoul Coutard; editors: Cécile Decugis with Lila Herman; sound: Jacques Maumont; music: Martial Solal from Mozart’s Clarinet Concerto, K.622; artistic and technical advisor: Claude Chabrol. Cast: Jean Seberg (Patricia Franchini); Jean-Paul Belmondo (Michel Poiccard, alias Laszlo Kovacs); Daniel Boulanger (Police Inspec- tor Vital); Henri-Jacques Huet (Antonio Berrutti); Roger Hanin (Carl Zombach); Van Doude (Journalist Van Doude); Liliane Robin (Liliane); Michel Favre (Plainclothes inspector); Jean-Pierre Mel- ville (Parvulesco); Claude Mansard (Used car dealer, Claudius); Jean Domarchi (Drunk); Jean-Luc Godard (Informer); André-S. Labarthe, Jean-Louis Richard, and Fran?ois Mareuil (Journalists); Richard Balducci (Tolmatchoff); Philippe de Broca; Michael Mourlet; Jean Douchet; Louiguy; Virginie Ullman; Emile Villon; José Bénazéraf; Madame Paul; Raymond Ravanbaz. Awards: Prix Jean Vigo, 1960; Best Direction, Berlin Film Festi- val, 1960. Publications Scripts: A bout de souffle (screenplay plus Truffaut’s original scenario and quotations from reviews) in L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), March 1968; also published separately, Paris, 1974. Books: Taylor, John Russell, ‘‘The New Wave: Jean-Luc Godard,’’ in Cinema Eye, Cinema Ear, New York, 1964. Egly, Max, Regards neufs sur le cinéma, Paris, 1965. Goldmann, Annie, Cinéma et société moderne: Le Cinéma de 1958 à 1968, Paris, 1971. Vaugeois, Gerard, and others, A bout de souffle, Paris, 1974. Monaco, James, The New Wave, New York, 1976. MacCabe, Colin, Godard: Images, Sounds, Politics, London, 1980. Walsh, Martin, The Brechtian Aspect of Radical Cinema, Lon- don, 1981. Lefèvre, Raymond, Jean-Luc Godard, Paris, 1983. Douin, Jean-Luc, La Nouvelle Vague 25 ans après, Paris, 1984. Bordwell, David, Narration in the Fiction Film, London, 1985. Weis, Elisabeth, and John Belton, Film Sound: Theory and Practice, New York, 1985. Godard, Jean-Luc, Godard on Godard: Critical Writings, edited by Jean Narboni and Tom Milne, New York, 1986. Loshitzky, Yosefa, The Radical Faces of Godard & Bertolucci, Detroit, 1995. Dixon, Wheeler W., The Films of Jean-Luc Godard, Albany, 1997. Sterritt, David, Jean-Luc Godard; Interviews, Jackson, 1998. Sterritt, David, The Films of Jean-Luc Godard; Seeing the Invisible, New York, 1999. Articles: Truffaut, Fran?ois, in Radio-Cinéma-Télévision (Paris), 1 Octo- ber 1959. Variety (New York), 4 February 1960. Le Monde (Paris), 18 March 1960. Sadoul, Georges, in Les Lettres Fran?aises (Paris), March-April 1960. Billard, Pierre, and others, ‘‘Petit lexique de la nouvelle vague,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), April 1960. Chevallier, J., in Image et Son (Paris), April 1960. Mopuller, Luc, ‘‘Jean-Luc Godard,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), April 1960. Marcorelles, Louis, ‘‘Views of the New Wave,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1960. Seguin, Louis, in Positif (Paris), no. 33, 1960. Crowther, Bosley, in New York Times, 8 February 1961. Kauffmann, Stanley, ‘‘Adventures of an Anti-Hero,’’ in New Repub- lic (New York), 13 February 1961. Croce, Arlene, in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Spring 1961. Gow, Gordon, in Films and Filming (London), August 1961. Steen, T. M. F., ‘‘The Sound Track,’’ in Films in Review (New York), August-September 1961. Pearson, Gabriel, and Eric Rhode, ‘‘Cinema of Appearance,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1961. Collet, Jean, and others, ‘‘Entretien avec Jean-Luc Godard,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), December 1962. Feinstein, Herbert, ‘‘An Interview with Jean-Luc Godard,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Spring 1964. Lefèvre, Raymond, and Jean-Paul Warren, in Image et son: Revue du Cinéma (Paris), September-October 1964. Solokov, Raymond, ‘‘The Truth 24 Times a Second,’’ in Newsweek (New York), 12 February 1968. A BOUT DE SOUFFLE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 2 A bout de souffle Barr, Charles, ‘‘A bout de souffle,’’ in The Films of Jean-Luc Godard, edited by Ian Cameron, London, 1969. Houston, Beverle, and Marsha Kinder, ‘‘Jean-Luc Godard: Breath- less,’’ in Close-Up, New York, 1972. Ropars, Marie-Claire, ‘‘The Graphic in Filmic Writing: A bout de souffle, or the Erratic . . . ,’’ in Enclitic (Minneapolis), Fall 1981- Spring 1982. Falkenburg, Pamela, ‘‘‘Hollywood’ and the ‘Art Cinema’ as a Bipo- lar Modeling System: A bout de souffle and Breathless,’’ in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), vol. 7, no. 3, 1985. ‘‘Godard Issue’’ of Revue Belge du Cinéma (Brussels), Summer 1986. Durgnat, Raymond, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), August 1988. Pulleine, Tim, in Films and Filming (London), August 1988. Jensen, G. H., ‘‘Filmvurdering,’’ in Z Filmtidsskrift (Oslo), no. 2, 1990. Kulset, S., ‘‘Teoretiker til siste andedrag?’’ in Z Filmtidsskrift (Oslo), no. 1, 1991. de Graaff, T., ‘‘Jongleren met ideeen,’’ in Skrien (Amsterdam), December-January 1992–93. ’’Parigi, a bout de souffle,’’ in Castoro Cinema, March/April 1996. *** A bout de souffle was the first feature directed by Jean-Luc Godard and one of the films introducing the French New Wave in the late 1950s. Godard had made several short films before A bout de souffle, but this feature established the international reputation of the director who is regarded as one of the most important filmmakers of the 1960s. The film’s story is fairly simple. Michel Poiccard (Jean-Paul Belmondo), a small time hood, casually kills a policeman. He goes to Paris to collect some money in order to leave the country, and tries to convince his American girlfriend Patricia Franchini (Jean Seberg) to go with him. She is less interested in accompanying him than she is in playing the role of an American intellectual in Paris. (She hawks the New York Herald Tribune on the Champs-Elysées while trying to establish herself as a journalist.) When Michel finally secures the money he needs and is ready to leave the city, Patricia betrays him to the police, and he is shot as he half-heartedly attempts to escape. This basic sequence of events is the minimal thread of continuity that holds the filmic narrative together. However, causal development and character motivation in the traditional sense are relatively loose. While the film does not reject narrative conventions as a whole, it goes a long way towards weakening the tight-knit structure and explanatory mechanisms affiliated with dominant narrative. The A NOUS LA LIBERTéFILMS, 4 th EDITION 3 film’s visual construction works even more aggressively against conventional film style. It systematically departs from the aesthetic guidelines and rules defined by continuity editing, relying variously on long-take sequences (often shot with hand-held camera) and jump cutting. The free-wheeling, almost casual, use of the camera is typical of the New Wave style. Within individual scenes the systematic use of jump cuts and depiction of rambling, repetitious conversations are a way of testing the limits of narrative film style. It often seems that scenes are conceived to show what can be done with cinema rather than to develop the story in a coherent fashion. While the film seems willfully to disregard the norms of commer- cial, studio filmmaking, it consistently refers to and plays with aspects of the American cinema. The main character, Michel, styles himself in the image of Humphrey Bogart. Early in the film he is seen standing by a movie poster admiring his hero’s picture; in comparison his own status as a modern ‘‘tough guy’’ is only a weak imitation. The police on Michel’s trail are similarly pale shadows of their predecessors in American films; they are bumbling, somewhat comical figures. The character of Patricia, and her portrayal by Seberg, refers to the role Seberg played in Otto Preminger’s Bonjour Tristesse. There are also scenes constructed to ‘‘quote’’ sequences from American films. In Patricia’s bedroom, Michel looks at her through a rolled-up poster. The camera zooms through the poster tube, followed by a cut to a close-up of Michel and Patricia kissing. These shots mimic a scene from Samuel Fuller’s Forty Guns (with a rifle barrel instead of a poster) described by Godard in a review of the film as a moment of pure cinema. The film’s playfulness extends beyond the inside jokes that refer to other films. The sometimes abrupt shifts in tone, style, and plot development within and between scenes are an investigation of (and challenge to) the medium, based on familiarity with and affection for its history. The opening of the film is instructive in this regard. Michel delivers a rambling monologue as he drives through the French countryside. He is speeding, and a policeman starts to follow him. Michel drives off the road, and when he is followed, shoots the policeman. The murder is casual in manner and lacking in clear motive. It becomes almosts a comic version of more serious crime dramas in which murders are fraught with tension and often defined as the act of ruthless or psychotic individuals. Because of his manner, the character of Michel is sometimes seen to exemplify the existentially alienated hero figure often found in New Wave films. Harsher critics condemn him as a character for his amoral, nihilistic behavior. However, this moralising attitude ignores the way in which the character derives from and parodies previous film hoodlums, and the appeal of the character as portrayed by Belmondo. In various ways the film exemplifies the conjunction of a number of factors contributing to the French New Wave cinema. This includes the use of relatively new cameras (a lightweight Eclair, easily handheld); working with low budgets, which promoted loca- tion shooting and stories with contemporary settings; and the use of new personnel, including the star Belmondo and cameraman Raoul Coutard. In addition Godard brought a set of attitudes to filmmaking shared by his fellow New Wave directors, derived from his experi- ence as a film critic in the 1950s. Among these was the belief that the director was the responsible creative individual behind a film, that film should be approached as a mode of personal expression, and a deep admiration for the visual style of many Hollywood films. Beyond its status as a ‘‘New Wave film,’’ A bout de souffle begins to define attitudes and concerns which are more fully developed in Godard’s subsequent work. A broad range of cultural imagery is an integral part of the film’s signifying material. Movie posters, art reproductions, and inserts of magazines and books not only function as elements of mise-en-scène, but also construct an image of contem- porary life in terms of cultural collage. In addition the strategy of narrative digression is important, incorporating lengthy scenes to explore issues which do not serve to develop the story per se. In A bout de souffle Patricia’s taking part in an interview with an author (played by French director Jean-Pierre Melville) functions in this way. Both of these practices testify to an interest in cinema as something more than a narrative medium in the conventional sense. As attention is directed to the ways in which filmic images and sounds create meaning, the very nature of cinematic signification becomes the central question for the director and his audience. —M. B. White A NOUS LA LIBERTé France, 1931 Director: René Clair Production: Tobis (Paris) and Filmsonor; black and white, 35mm, musical soundtrack with sound effects; running time: 97 minutes. Released 31 December 1931. Filmed 1931 in Tobis studios and around Paris. Producer: Frank Clifford; screenplay: René Clair; photography: Georges Périnal; editor: René le Hénaff; sound: Hermann Storr; art director: Lazare Meerson; music: Georges Auric; musical director: Armand Bernard; costume designer: René Hubert; assistant direc- tor: Albert Valentin. Cast: Henri Marchand (Emile); Raymond Cordy (Louis); Rolla France (Jeanne); Paul Ollivier (Paul Imaque, Jeanne’s uncle); Jac- ques Shelly (Paul); André Michaud (Foreman); Germaine Aussey (Maud, Louis’s mistress); Alexandre d’Arcy (Gigolo); William Burke (Leader of the gangsters); Vincent Hyspa (Speaker); Léon Lorin (Fussy official). Publications Scripts: Clair, René, A nous la liberté in L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), November 1968. A Nous La Liberté and Entr’Acte: Films by René Clair, New York, 1970. Books: Viazzi, G., René Clair, Milan, 1946. Bourgeois, J., René Clair, Geneva, 1949. A NOUS LA LIBERTé FILMS, 4 th EDITION 4 A nous la liberté Charensol, Georges, and Roger Régent, Un Ma?tre du cinéma: René Clair, Paris, 1952. Solmi, A., Tre maestri del cinema, Milan, 1956. De La Roche, Catherine, René Clair: An Index, London, 1958. Amengual, Barthélemy, René Clair, Paris, 1963; revised edition, 1969. Mitry, Jean, René Clair, Paris, 1969. Samuels, Charles, Encountering Directors, New York, 1972. McGerr, Celia, René Clair, Boston, 1980. Barrot, Olivier, René Clair; ou, Le Temps mesuré, Renens, Switzer- land, 1985. Greene, Naomi, René Clair: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1985. Dale, R. C., The Films of René Clair, Metuchen, New Jersey, 2 vols., 1986. Articles: Potamkin, Harry, ‘‘René Clair and Film Humor,’’ in Hound and Horn (New York), October-December 1932. Causton, Bernard, ‘‘A Conversation with René Clair,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1932–33. Jacobs, Lewis, ‘‘The Films of René Clair,’’ in New Theatre (New York), February 1936. ‘‘Clair Issue’’ of Bianco e Nero (Rome), August-September 1951. Connor, Edward, and Edward Jablonski, in Films in Review (New York), November 1954. Tallmer, Jerry, in Village Voice (New York), 16 November 1955. Ford, Charles, ‘‘Cinema’s First Immortal,’’ in Films in Review (New York), November 1960. Berti, V., ‘‘L’arte del comico in René Clair,’’ in Bianco e Nero (Rome), March-April 1968. Baxter, John, ‘‘A Conversation with René Clair,’’ in Focus on Film (London), Winter 1972. Pym, John, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), October 1977. Kramer, S. P., ‘‘René Clair: Situation and Sensibility in A nous la liberté,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), vol. 12, no. 2, 1984. *** The fear of a static theatrical cinema resulting from the invention of the sound film was very soon dissipated by liberators such as Ernst Lubitsch and René Clair. With a concentration on music and move- ment while maintaining strict control over dialogue the cinema began to move again. Clair, with his first two films, had already established a style, and the cycle of development from which this style emerged is curious in itself. The French comedian Max Linder was a direct influence on Chaplin and the whole slapstick school which in turn A PROPOS DE NICEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 5 inspired the young René Clair. And, as if the process of interchange of ideas seemed determined to go on, Chaplin in Modern Times drew inspiration from the assembly line sequence in Clair’s A nous la liberté. In this film Clair satirizes the industrial malaise which reduces man to the level of a machine. That satire may seem to weaken the human element but fun and joy take over as Clair falls so much in love with his characters that he passes that affection to the audience. One cannot even harbor a grudge against the villains because they too are ridiculously human. It is not difficult to see how the film failed to measure up to the demands of socially committed critics like Georges Sadoul. Two companions of a jail-break are the protagonists of this musical comedy. One, played with eccentric sympathy by Raymond Cordy, is clever and successful and quickly rises in the world of industry. The other, played by Henri Marchand, wanders innocently throughout the film, willing to accept the unexpected. Even the joy of his escape from prison arises from a potentially tragic situation. His courtship is as artless as everything else he does. Employing the talents of the brilliant art director Lazare Meerson, Clair uses the vast industrial complex to its fullest until it becomes a fun palace with plenty of room for chases and horseplay. Even the building is deflated. The joyful and carefree music of Georges Auric carries the film along, while Georges Périnal’s camera exploits the large white surfaces of the super-factory and the brightness of the walls. But it is not the technical excellence of the film which remains in one’s mind. It is the puncturing of pomposity, the rejection of dehumanizing technical processes, the statement of essential human values and an appreciation of the incongruities of human existence. It is a far cry from the world of Le Chapeau de paille d’Italie, but the child-like delight in the demolition of the pretentious in Clair is common to both films. Not for him the sighs of high romance or the exaggerations of grand opera. His heart is always with ordinary people and their simple predicaments. He sees the world through the eyes of the characters Louis and Emile. Maybe his idea of Utopia is naive and impractical but it is an ideal which has been thought of by many people. In an age of mass regimentation and super-states it remains a recurring vision. —Liam O’Leary A PROPOS DE NICE (On the Subject of Nice) France, 1930 Director: Jean Vigo Production: Black and white, 35mm; running time: about 25 min- utes. Premiered June 1930, Paris. Filmed winter 1929 through March 1930 in Nice. Scenario: Mr. and Mrs. Jean Vigo and Mr. and Mrs. Boris Kaufman; photography: Boris Kaufman; editor: Jean Vigo. Publications Script: Vigo, Jean, Oeuvre de cinéma: Films, scénarios, projets de films, texts sur le cinéma, edited by Pierre Lherminier, Paris, 1985. Books: Feldman, Harry, and Joseph Feldman, Jean Vigo, London, 1951. Smith, Jean, Jean Vigo, New York, 1971. Salles-Gomes, P. E., Jean Vigo, Paris 1957; revised edition, Los Angeles, 1971. Smith, John M., Jean Vigo, New York, 1962. Lherminier, Pierre, Jean Vigo, Paris, 1967. Barnouw, Erik, Documentary: A History of the Non-Fiction Film, New York, 1974. Simon, William G., The Films of Jean Vigo, Ann Arbor, Michi- gan, 1981. Salles-Gomes, P.E., Jean Vigo, New York, 1999. Articles: Calvalcanti, Alberto, ‘‘Jean Vigo,’’ in Cinema Quarterly (Edin- burgh), Winter 1935. Agee, James, ‘‘Life and Work of Jean Vigo,’’ in Nation (New York), 12 July 1947. Weinberg, H. G., ‘‘The Films of Jean Vigo,’’ in Cinema (Beverly Hills), July 1947. Barbarow, George, ‘‘The Work of Jean Vigo,’’ in Politics 5, Win- ter 1948. Amengual, Barthélemy, in Positif (Paris), May 1953. Chardère, Bernard, ‘‘Jean Vigo et ses films,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), March 1955. Mekas, Jonas, ‘‘An Interview with Boris Kaufman,’’ in Film Culture (New York), Summer, 1955. Ashton, Dudley Shaw, ‘‘Portrait of Vigo,’’ in Film (London), Decem- ber 1955. ‘‘Vigo Issue’’ of Etudes Cinématographiques (Paris), nos. 51–52, 1966. Beylie, Claude, in Ecran (Paris), July-August 1975. Liebman, S., in Millenium (New York), Winter 1977–78. Vigo, Jean, ‘‘Towards a Social Cinema,’’ in Millenium (New York), Winter 1977–78. Travelling (Lausanne), Summer 1979. Vinnichenko, E., ‘‘Po povodu Nitstsy, Frantsiia,’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), no. 3, 1989. Sidler, V.,’’Traeumer des Kinos, Rimbaud des Films,’’ in Filmbulletin (Winterthur, Switzerland), no. 4, 1992. *** Jean Vigo’s reputation as a prodigy of the cinema rests on less than 200 minutes of film. His first venture, a silent documentary 25 minutes long, was A propos de Nice, and in it one can see immediately the energy and aptitude of this great talent. But A propos de Nice is far more than a biographical curio; it is one of the last films to come out of the fertile era of the French avant-garde and it remains one of the best examples to illustrate the blending of formal and social impulses in that epoch. A PROPOS DE NICE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 6 A propos de Nice Confined to Nice on account of the tuberculosis both he and his wife were to die of, Vigo worked for a small company as assistant cameraman. When his father-in-law presented the young couple with a gift of $250, Jean promptly bought his own Debrie camera. In Paris in the summer of 1929 he haunted the ciné-club showings at the Vieux Colombier and at the Studio des Ursulines. There he met Boris Kaufman, a Russian émigré, brother of Dziga Vertov. Kaufman, already an established cameraman in the kino-eye tradition, was enthusiastic about Vigo’s plan to make a film on the city of Nice. During the autumn of 1929 Kaufman and his wife labored over a script with the Vigos. From his work Jean began to save ends of film with which to load the Debrie and by year’s end the filming was underway. Originally planned as a variant of the city symphony, broken into its three movements (sea, land, and sky) A propos de Nice was destined to vibrate with more political energy than did Berlin, Rien que les heures, Manhattan, or any of the other examples of this type. From the first, Vigo insisted that the travelogue approach be avoided. He wanted to pit the boredom of the upper classes at the shore and in the casinos against the struggle for life and death in the city’s poorer backstreets. The clarity of the script was soon abandoned. Unable to shoot ‘‘live’’ in the casinos and happy to follow the lead of their rushes, Vigo and Kaufman concentrated on the strength of particular images rather than on the continuity of a larger design. They were certain that design must emerge in the charged images themselves, which they could juxtapose in editing. The power of the images derives from two sources, their clearcut iconographic significance as social documents, and the high quality they enjoy as photographs, carefully (though not artfully) composed. Opposition is the ruling logic behind both these sources as they appear in the finished film, so that pictures of hotels, lounging women, wealthy tourists, and fancy roulette tables are cut against images of tenements, decrepit children, garbage, and local forms of back-street gambling. In the carnival sequence which ends the film, the power bursting within the city’s belly spills out onto the streets of the wealthy and dramatizes a conflict which geography can’t hide. Formally the film opposes a two-dimensional optical schema, used primarily for the wealthy parts of town, to a tactile, nearly 3-D approach. Aerial shots and the voyeurism of the ‘‘Promenade des Anglais’’ define the wealthy as indolent observers of sports, while deep in the town itself everyone, including the camera, participates in the carnal dance of life, a dance whose eroticism is made explicit toward the film’s end. Entranced by Surrealism (at the premiere of this film Vigo paid homage to Luis Bu?uel), the filmmakers used shock cuts, juxtaposing symbolic images like smokestacks and Baroque cemeteries. A woman is stripped by a stop-action cut and a man becomes a lobster. Swift tilts ACCATTONEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 7 topple a grand hotel. As he proclaimed in his address, this was to be a film with a documentary point of view. To him that meant hiding the camera to capture the look of things (Kaufman was pushed in a wheelchair along the Promenade cranking away under his blanket), and then editing what they collected to their own designs. A propos de Nice is a messy film. Full of experimental techniques and frequently clumsy camerawork, it nevertheless exudes the energy of its creators and blares forth a message about social life. The city is built on indolence and gambling and ultimately on death, as its crazy cemetery announces. But underneath this is an erotic force that comes from the lower class, the force of seething life that one can smell in garbage and that Vigo uses to drive his film. A propos de Nice advanced the cinema not because it gave Vigo his start and not because it is a thoughtfully made art film. It remains one of those few examples where several powers of the medium (as recorder, organ- izer, clarifier of issues, and proselytizer) come together with a strength and ingenuity that are irrespressible. The critics at its premiere in June 1930 were impressed and Vigo’s talent was generally recognized. But the film got little distribution; the age of silent films, even experimen- tal ones like this, was coming to an end. This is too bad. Every director should begin his or her career as Vigo did, with commitment, independence, and a sense of enthusiastic exploration. —Dudley Andrew ACCATTONE Italy, 1961 Director: Pier Paolo Pasolini Production: Cine de Duca-Arco Film; 35mm; running time: 120 minutes. Released 1961. Filmed 1960–61 in the slums of Rome. Producer: Alfredo Bini; screenplay: Pier Paolo Pasolini with dia- logue collaboration by Sergio Citti, from the novel Una vita violenta by Pasolini; photography: Tonino Delli Colli; editor: Nino Baragli; sound: Luigi Puri and Manlio Magara; art director: Flavio Mogherini; music director: Carlo Rustichelli; assistant directors: Bernardo Bertolucci and Leopoldo Savona. Cast: Franco Citti (Accatone/Vittorio); Franca Pasut (Stella); Silvana Corsini (Maddalena); Paola Guidi (Ascenza); Adriana Asti (Amore); Renato Capogna (Renato); Mario Cipriani (Balilla); Roberto Scaringella (Cartagine); Piero Morgia (Pio); Umberto Bevilacqua (The Neapoli- tan); Elsa Morante (Prisoner); Adele Cambria (Nannina); Polidor (Beechino); Danilo Alleva (Iaio); Luciano Conti (Il Moicano); Luciano Gonino (Piede d’Oro); Gabriele Baldini (Intellectual); Adrianno Mazelli and Mario Castiglione (Amore’s clients); Dino Frondi and Tommaso Nuevo (Cartagine’s friends); Romolo Orazi (Accattone’s father-in-law); Silvio Citti (Sabino); Adriana Moneta (Margheritona). Publications Script: Pasolini, Pier Paolo, Accattone, Rome, 1961. Books: Pasolini, Pier Paolo, Pasolini on Pasolini: Interviews with Oswald Stack, Bloomington, Indiana, 1969. Gervais, Marc, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Paris, 1973. Siciliano, Enzo, Vita di Pasolini, Milan, 1978; as Pasolini: A Biogra- phy, New York, 1982. Bertini, Antonio, Teoria e tecnica del film in Pasolini, Rome, 1979. Groppali, Enrico, L’ossessione e il fantasma: Il teatro di Pasolini e Moravia, Venice, 1979. Snyder, Stephen, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Boston, 1980. Bellezza, Dario, Morte di Pasolini, Milan, 1981. Bergala, Alain, and Jean Narboni, editors, Pasolini cinéaste, Paris, 1981. Gerard, Fabien S., Pasolini; ou, Le Mythe de la barbarie, Brus- sels, 1981. Boarini, Vittorio, and others, Da Accatone a Salò: 120 scritti sul cinema di Pier Paolo Pasolini, Bologna, 1982. Pasolini, Pier Paolo, Poems, New York, 1982. De Guisti, Luciano, I film di Pier Paolo Pasolini, Rome, 1983. Carotenuto, Aldo, L’autunno della coscienza: Ricerche psicologiche su Pier Paolo Pasolini, Turin, 1985. Michalczyk, John J., The Italian Political Film-makers, Cranbury, New Jersey, 1986. Pasolini, Pier Paolo, Lettere 1940–1954: Con una cronologia della vita e delle opere, edited by Nico Naldini, Turin, 1986. Schweitzer, Otto, Pier Paolo Pasolini: Mit Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten, Hamburg, 1986. Klimke, Cristoph, Kraft der Vergangenheit: Zu Motiven der Filme von Pier Paolo Pasolini, Frankfurt, 1988. Van Watson, William, Pier Paolo Pasolini & the Theatre of the Word, Lewiston, 1989. Rumble, Patrick, Pier Paolo Pasolini; Contemporary Perspectives, Toronto, 1993. Baranski, Zymunt G., Pasolini Old & New; Surveys & Studies, Dublin, 1999. Articles: Murray, William, ‘‘Letter from Rome,’’ in New Yorker, 21 April 1962. Cameron, Ian, in Movie (London), September 1962. Bean, Robin, in Films and Filming (London), 12 September 1962. Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey, in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1962. Bragin, John, ‘‘Interview with Pasolini,’’ in Film Culture (New York), Fall 1966. Conrad, Randall, in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1966–67. Kauffmann, Stanley, ‘‘Poet and the Pimp,’’ in New Republic (New York), 6 April 1968. Sarris, Andrew, in Village Voice (New York), 6 June 1968. MacDonald, Susan, ‘‘Pasolini: Rebellion, Art, and a New Society,’’ in Screen (London), May-June 1969. Bragin, John, ‘‘Pier Paolo Pasolini: Poetry as a Compensation,’’ in Film Society Review (New York), nos. 5–7, 1969. Purdon, Noel, ‘‘Pasolini: The Film of Alienation,’’ in Cinema (Lon- don), August 1970. Armes, Roy, ‘‘Pasolini,’’ in Films and Filming (London), June 1971. Séquences (Montreal), July 1973. ‘‘Pasolini Issues’’ of Etudes Cinématographiques (Paris), nos. 109–111, 1976, and nos. 112–114, 1976. ‘‘Pasolini Issue’’ of Cinéma (Zurich), no. 2, 1976. Gervais, M., in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), no. 4, 1977. ACCATTONE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 8 Accattone Téllez, T. L., in Contracampo (Madrid), December 1980. La Greca, A., in Cinema Nuovo (Bari), January-February 1986. Pezzotta, A., ‘‘Io sono una forza del passato,’’ in Filmcritica (Rome), October-November 1988. Thirard, P. L., ‘‘Se suicider, c’est l’idee la plus simple,’’ in Positif (Paris), September 1989. Beylot, Pierre, ‘‘Pasolini, du réalisme au mythe,’’ in CinémAction (Courbevoie), January 1994. Castoro Cinema, July/August 1994. Orr, Christopher, ‘‘Pasolini’s Accattone, or Naturalism and Its Discontents,’’ in Film Criticism (Meadville), Spring 1995. Campani, E.M., ‘‘Death and Narrative: an Itinerary,’’ in Blimp (Graz), no. 34, Summer 1996. Kino (Warsaw), July-August 1998. *** Himself an alien in Rome, isolated by his regional Friulian upbringing, his homosexuality, and his poverty, the young Pier Paolo Pasolini had felt an instant affinity with the young street kids of the crowded, war-ruined city when he arrived there in the winter of 1949. He quickly developed his taste for sexual rough trade among the ragazzi of the city, the sarcastic kids dispossessed and wised-up by post-war greed and the opportunism encouraged by the Marshall Plan. In 1955 Pasolini published his first novel, Ragazzi di vita, a picture of life in the shantytowns and among the pimping, petty- thieving boys he now knew well. Una vita violenta, four years later, explored the same ground through the brief, violent life of Tommaso, smart enough to sense fitfully the ruin of his future. Una vita violenta became the basis of Pasolini’s first film, and Tommaso the model for Vittorio, the delinquent his pals call Accattone. Fellini was to have backed the film but pulled out after Pasolini submitted some test footage in which he had overreached himself in trying to shoot in the style of Dreyer’s Trial of Joan of Arc. With Italian film heading away from neorealism towards a high style and elaborate production values mirroring the new wealth of the cities, Fellini was also dubious about Pasolini’s chosen location, a run-down street in the heart of the Roman slums. Nor had he any reason to believe that Franco Citti could carry the leading role; inexperienced, uncommunicative, Citti was the younger brother of the man who had been Pasolini’s adviser on Roman dialect for the script editing work he did on films by Fellini and Mauro Bolognini. It was Bolognini who, seeing stills from the test footage on Pasolini’s desk, understood what he was trying to do and interested producer Alfredo Bini in the project. The result was a film more characteristic of Pasolini’s temperament than of Italian cinema. To the music of Bach’s St. Matthew Passion, Citti moves around a Rome of decadent religious imagery, crumbling buildings, a city pervaded ADAM’S RIBFILMS, 4 th EDITION 9 by a sun-dazed, numbed sense of mortality. Dreams show the ragazzi buried half-naked in rubble, an evocative image of the ruin Pasolini saw reflected in both the morality and the architecture of his adopted city. Aiming for ‘‘an absolute simplicity of expression,’’ Pasolini in fact achieved a studied stylization that was to become typical of his films. Citti became a star, and Accattone established Pasolini as a star himself in yet another field, matching his eminence in poetry, fiction, and criticism. Today, with Pasolini dead at the hands of just such a boy as Vittorio, it is difficult to see the film as anything but an ironic signpost to the fate of this mercurial polymath. —John Baxter ADAM’S RIB USA, 1949 Director: George Cukor Production: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures Corp.; black and white, 35mm; running time: 101 minutes. Released 1949. Filmed at MGM studios. Producer: Lawrence Weingarten; screenplay: Ruth Gordon and Garson Kanin; photography: George J. Folsey; editor: George Boemler; art directors: Cedric Gibbons and William Ferrari; music: Miklos Rozsa. Cast: Spencer Tracy (Adam Bonner); Katharine Hepburn (Amanda Bonner); Judy Holliday (Doris Attinger); Tom Ewell (Warren Attinger); David Wayne (Kip Lurie); Jean Hagen (Beryl Caighn); Hope Emer- son (Olympia La Pere); Eve March (Grace); Clarence Kolb (Judge Reiser); Emerson Treacy (Jules Frikke); Polly Moran (Mrs. McGrath); Will Wright (Judge Marcasson); Elizabeth Flournoy (Dr. Margaret Brodeigh). Publications Script: Gordon, Ruth, and Garson Kanin, Adam’s Rib, New York, 1971. Books: Langlois, Henri, and others, Hommage à George Cukor, Paris, 1963. Domarchi, Jean, George Cukor, Paris, 1965. Deschner, Donald, The Films of Spencer Tracy, New York, 1968. Carey, Gary, Cukor and Company: The Films of George Cukor and His Collaborators, New York, 1971. Kanin, Garson, Tracy and Hepburn, New York, 1971. Dickens, Homer, The Films of Katharine Hepburn, New York, 1971. Lambert, Gavin, On Cukor, New York, 1972. Adam’s Rib Tozzi, Romano, Spencer Tracy, New York, 1973. Marill, Alvin H., Katharine Hepburn, New York, 1973. Cavell, Stanley, Pursuits of Happiness: The Hollywood Comedy of Remarriage, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1981. Phillips, Gene D., George Cukor, Boston, 1982. Carey, Gary, Katharine Hepburn: A Biography, London, 1983. Britton, Andrew, Katharine Hepburn: The Thirties and After, New- castle-upon-Tyne, 1984. Freedland, Michael, Katharine Hepburn, London, 1984. Morley, Sheridan, Katharine Hepburn: A Celebration, London, 1984. Bernadoni, James, George Cukor: A Critical Study and Filmography, Jefferson, North Carolina, 1985. Edwards, Anne, Katharine Hepburn: A Biography, London, 1986. Davidson, Bill, Spencer Tracy: Tragic Idol, London, 1987. Levy, Emanuel, George Cukor, Master of Elegance; Hollywood’s Legendary Director and His Stars, New York, 1994. McGilligan, George Cukor: The Book, New York, 1997. Articles: Crowther, Bosley, in New York Times, 24 December 1949. Houston, Penelope, ‘‘Cukor and the Kanins,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1955. Tozzi, Romano, ‘‘Katharine Hepburn,’’ in Films in Review (New York), December 1957. ‘‘Cukor Issue’’ of Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), February 1964. Tozzi, Romano, ‘‘Spencer Tracy,’’ in Films in Review (New York), December 1966. THE ADVENTURES OF ROBIN HOOD FILMS, 4 th EDITION 10 Gilliatt, Penelope, ‘‘The Most Amicable Combatants,’’ in New Yorker, 23 September 1972. Lynch, Anne Louise, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 1, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Tobin, Yann, in Positif (Paris), May 1985. Aarts, A., in Skrien (Amsterdam), September-October 1985. Detassis, P., ‘‘La costola di Adamo di George Cukor,’’ in Cineforum (Bergamo, Italy), October 1989. Shumway, D. R., ‘‘Screwball Comedies: Constructing Romance Mystifying Marriage,’’ in Cinema Journal (Austin, Texas), no. 4, 1991. Nacache, Jacqueline, ‘‘‘Madame porte la culotte’: maris et femmes,’’ in Mensuel du Cinéma, October 1993. *** Adam’s Rib represents a climax in the evolution of the classic Hollywood screwball comedy. In the 1930s, screwball comedies united antagonistic couples whose clashes revolved around egos, class conflicts, and attitudes about money and values. In the 1940s, screwball comedies replaced these conflicts with ones that revolved around egos and career-marriage decisions. In such films as His Girl Friday, Woman of the Year, Take a Letter, Darling, and They All Kissed the Bride, the comic crises hinged on the heroines’ decisions regarding their professional careers and domestic roles. In 1949, George Cukor’s Adam’s Rib took the familiar marriage-career crisis formula of the screwball comedy to its logical conclusion—a comic study of sex role stereotyping and the invalidity of narrowly defined sex roles. The film reunited Katharine Hepburn and Spencer Tracy, who had previously teamed on Woman of the Year, Keeper of the Flame, Without Love, and State of the Union, and whose successful on-screen romances seemed to radiate some of the genuine love and affection of their off-screen relationship. The film also features a brilliant screen- play by the husband-wife team Garson Kanin and Ruth Gordon. All the principals—director, stars, and writers—had proven track rec- ords, and in a financially bad year for Hollywood, their combined box-office appeal led to the three-way teaming on a film project that otherwise might not have been possible. The movie is about Adam and Amanda Bonner, husband and wife lawyers who find themselves on opposite sides of a courtroom case. The legal case in question concerns a woman (Judy Holliday) who has shot her adulterous husband (Tom Ewell). Defense attorney Amanda Bonner views her case as a woman’s rights issue, and she bases her defense on the premise that the husband would have been exempt from prosecution if the roles were reversed. In front of her district attorney husband, she turns the courtroom and the trial into a hilarious forum for a public debate on the ‘‘double standard’’ and the narrow- ness of sexual stereotypes. In the meantime, the courtroom competi- tion begins to threaten the Bonner’s marriage. Much of the film’s humor arises from the many sex-role reversals. Through such reversals, the movie simultaneously comments on how traditional social roles are defined by stereotypes of masculinity and femininity. The film literally takes this notion to its extreme when it depicts what the unwitting husband, wife, and lover (Jean Hagen), who are the subjects of the trial, would be like if their sexes were reversed. Meanwhile, the Bonner’s crumbling marriage, one based on mutual respect and liberation from sexual stereotypes, requires a se- ries of further role reversals to be put back together again. Adam wins his wife’s sympathies by crying; Amanda apologizes by sending her husband a new hat. Amanda ultimately wins her case and husband without giving up her principles. Adam learns about humility without losing his mascu- linity. But when the reconciled Bonners finally fall into bed together behind a curtain, the on-screen veil and their final unresolved argu- ment about sex roles, competition, and sex differences cinematically deny their absolute integration as a unified couple. Like many screwball comedies that preceded it, Adam’s Rib ends with a marital reconciliation that establishes the couple’s unity without resolving the individuals’ ongoing differences. The writing, acting, and directing team that made Adam’s Rib a success reunited in 1952 for a screwball comedy about a manager and his professional female athlete in Pat and Mike. The successful story formula from Adam’s Rib further inspired a 1973 television series with the same name. —Lauren Rabinovitz THE ADVENTURE See L’AVVENTURA THE ADVENTURES OF ROBIN HOOD USA, 1938 Directors: Michael Curtiz and William Keighley Production: Warner Bros. Pictures Inc.; Technicolor, 35mm; run- ning time: 102 minutes. Released 1938. Filmed at Warner Bros. studios. Producer: Hal Wallis; screenplay: Norman Reilly Raine and Seton I. Miller from the Robin Hood legends; photography: Tony Gaudio, Sol Polito, and W. Howard Green; editor: Ralph Dawson; art director: Carl Weyl; music: Eric Wolfgang Korngold, with orches- trations by Hugo Friedhofer and Milan Roder; costume designer: Milo Anderson. Cast: Errol Flynn (Robin Hood, or Sir Robin of Locksley); Olivia de Havilland (Lady Marian Fitzwalter); Basil Rathbone (Sir Guy of Gisbourne); Claude Rains (Prince John); Alan Hale (Little John); Eugene Pallette (Friar Tuck); Ian Hunter (King Richard the Lion- Hearted); Melville Cooper (High Sheriff of Nottingham); Patric Knowles (Will Scarlett); Herbert Mundin (Much the Miller’s son); Una O’Connor (Bess); Montagu Love (Bishop of Black Canon). Awards: Oscars for Interior Decoration, Best Original Score, and Best Editing, 1938. THE ADVENTURES OF ROBIN HOODFILMS, 4 th EDITION 11 The Adventures of Robin Hood Publications Script: Raine, Norman Reilly, and Seton I. Miller, The Adventures of Robin Hood, edited by Rudy Behlmer, Madison, Wisconsin, 1979. Books: Martin, Pete, Hollywood Without Makeup, New York, 1948. Flynn, Errol, My Wicked, Wicked Ways, New York, 1959. Parish, James Robert, editor, Errol Flynn, New York, 1969. Thomas, Tony, Rudy Behlmer, and Clifford McCarty, The Films of Errol Flynn, New York, 1969. Canham, Kingsley, Michael Curtiz, Raoul Walsh, Henry Hathway, London, 1973. Thomas, Tony, Cads and Cavaliers: The Film Adventurers, New York, 1973. Rosenzweig, Sidney, Casablanca and Other Major Films of Michael Curtiz, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1982. Valenti, Peter, Errol Flynn: A Bio-Bibliography, Westport, Connecti- cut, 1984. Kinnard, Roy, and R. J. Vitone, The American Films of Michael Curtiz, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1986. Behlmer, Rudy, Inside Warner Brothers; Nineteen Thirty-Five to Nineteen Fifty-One, New York, 1987. Robertson, James, The Casablanca Man; The Career of Michael Curtiz, New York, 1993. Articles: Thomas, Anthony, ‘‘Errol Flynn,’’ in Films in Review (New York), January 1960. Callenbach, Ernest, ‘‘Comparative Anatomy of Folk-Myth Films: Robin Hood and Ant?nio das Mortes,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berke- ley), Winter 1969–70. Nolan, Jack Edmund, ‘‘Michael Curtiz,’’ in Films in Review (New York), November 1970. Gow, Gordon, ‘‘Swashbuckling,’’ in Films and Filming (London), January 1972. Carcedo, J., in Image et Son (Paris), September 1978. Chevasu, F., in Image et Son (Paris), February 1978. Eyquem, O., ‘‘Sherwood, USA (A propos des Aventures de Robin des Bois),’’ in Positif (Paris), April 1978. Renaud, T., in Cinéma (Paris), February 1978. Morsberger, Robert, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 1, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Raynes, D., in Soundtrack (Hollywood), March 1984. Sayre, Nora, ‘‘Curtiz: A Man for All Genres. . . ,’’ in New York Times, 29 November 1992. Holt, Wesley G., ‘‘The Adventures of Robin Hood,’’ in Filmfax (Evanston), April-May 1993. Télérama (Paris), 13 September 1995. *** The Adventures of Robin Hood, a Warner Brothers studio produc- tion, reveals many facets and details of the studio system. The film was originally planned as a vehicle for James Cagney following the success of Midsummer Night’s Dream, but contract problems with Cagney and the success of Captain Blood prompted the studio to cast Errol Flynn as the rogue outlaw. Once production on the film began, a directorial change occurred after the original director, William Keighley, led the production over budget and behind schedule. He was replaced by Michael Curtiz, though both men share the direc- tor’s credit. The film reflects the studio’s plan to produce a more prestigious product than the musicals and gangster films of the early 1930s. Even so, the film does show the studio’s frequent thematic concern with common folk banding together to achieve a goal of correcting an injustice, economic or otherwise. The film’s cast members have generally been acclaimed for matching the literary image of their characters. Even the supporting characters such as Alan Hale’s Little John and Eugene Pallette’s Friar Tuck seem to be perfectly suited for their roles. Under the direction of Curtiz and Keighley, the principal actors play off each other and promptly reveal much of their characters in this straight-forward narrative. Claude Rains portrays Prince John as a schemer, a man with a thirst for power; while Basil Rathbone’s Sir Guy, with his good looks and his sinister bearing, makes an equal adversary for Flynn’s Robin. Olivia de Havilland as Marian seems to be a pure aristocrat whether in the court or in the forest, or when facing death or confessing her love for Robin. Errol Flynn’s Robin is a man of action but also of wit. Following Douglas Fairbanks’s silent film portrayal of Robin, Flynn’s Robin engages in daring deeds but not on such a large scale (in part due to Warner’s tight budget). The film also follows Fairbanks’s lead in THE AFRICAN QUEEN FILMS, 4 th EDITION 12 giving Robin a sense of humor as Robin throws verbal arrows at any villains in sight. Even in the love scenes, Robin can joke with and tease Marian. The Adventures of Robin Hood, a very successful film when first released, has become something more than an accomplished film from the 1930s. For many, the influence of this film is immense. There is, for example, a great deal of similarity between the action of Robin’s men in the forest capturing a gold shipment and the attack of the Ewoks against the Stormtroopers in Return of the Jedi. Not only does it remain one of the quintessential films of the swashbuckling genre but it is also the definitive Robin Hood legend for scores of film-goers and television viewers. Much like that of The Wizard of Oz, Robin Hood’s audience has grown through repeated and success- ful television screenings. TV Guide once listed it as one of the top five films on television as selected by station programmers. —Ray Narducy THE AFRICAN QUEEN USA, 1951 Director: John Huston Production: Horizon Romulus Productions; Technicolor, 35mm; running time: 103 minutes. Released 1951. Filmed at various film studios in London; exteriors shot along the Ruiki River in the Belgian Congo and what was then the British protectorate of Uganda. Producer: Sam Spiegel; screenplay: James Agee and John Huston with Peter Viertel, from the novel by C. S. Forester; photography: Jack Cardiff; editor: Ralph Kemplen; sound engineer: John Mit- chell; art director: John Hoesli; music: Allan Gray, executed by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra under the direction of Norman del Mar; special effects: Cliff Richardson; costume designer: Doris Langley Moore. Cast: Katharine Hepburn (Rose Sayer); Humphrey Bogart (Charlie Allnut); Robert Morley (Rev. Samuel Sayer); Peter Bull (Captain of the Luisa); Theodore Bikel (1st Officer of the Luisa); Walter Cotell (2nd Officer of the Luisa); Gerald Ohn (Officer of the Luisa); Peter Swanwick (1st Officer of the Shoona); Richard Marner (2nd Officer of the Shoond). Awards: Oscar, Best Actor (Bogart), 1951; American Film Insti- tute’s ‘‘100 Years, 100 Movies,’’ 1998. Publications Scripts: Agee, James, Agee on Film 2: Five Film Scripts, foreword by John Huston, New York, 1960. Books: Davay, Paul, John Huston, Paris, 1957. Allais, Jean-Claude, John Huston, Paris, 1960. Nolan, William F., John Huston: King Rebel, Los Angeles, 1965. Gehman, Richard, Bogart, Greenwich, Connecticut, 1965. Michael, Paul, Humphrey Bogart: The Man and His Films, Indian- apolis, 1965. McCarty, Clifford, Bogey: The Films of Humphrey Bogart, New York, 1965. Benayoun, Robert, John Huston, Paris, 1966; revised edition, 1985. Dickens, Homer, The Films of Katharine Hepburn, New York, 1971. Barbour, Alan, Humphrey Bogart, New York, 1973. Marill, Alvin H., Katharine Hepburn, New York, 1973. Benchley, Nathaniel, Humphrey Bogart, Boston, 1975. Kaminsky, Stuart M., John Huston, Maker of Magic, Boston, 1978. Madsen, Axel, John Huston, New York, 1978. Huston, John, An Open Book, New York, 1980. Giannetti, Louis, Masters of the American Cinema, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1981. Pettigrew, Terence, Bogart: A Definitive Study of His Film Career, London, 1981. Carey, Gary, Katharine Hepburn: A Biography, London, 1983. Britton, Andrew, Katharine Hepburn: The Thirties and After, New- castle-upon-Tyne, 1984. Freedland, Michael, Katharine Hepburn, London, 1984. Morley, Sheridan, Katharine Hepburn: A Celebration, London, 1984. Hammen, Scott, John Huston, Boston, 1985. Winkler, Willi, Humphrey Bogart und Hollywoods Schwarze Serie, Munich, 1985. Edwards, Anne, Katharine Hepburn: A Biography, London, 1986. McCarty, John, The Films of John Huston, Secaucus, New Jer- sey, 1987. Hepburn, Katharine, The Making of ‘‘The African Queen’’; or, How I Went to Africa with Bogart, Bacall, and Huston and Almost Lost My Life, New York and London, 1987. Brill, Lesley, John Huston’s Filmmaking, New York, 1997. Cunningham, Ernest W., Ultimate Bogie, Los Angeles, 1999. Articles: ‘‘Life Goes on Location in Africa,’’ in Life (New York), 7 Septem- ber 1951. Reisz, Karel, ‘‘Interview with Huston,’’ in Sight and Sound (Lon- don), January-March 1952. ‘‘Huston Issue’’ of Positif (Paris), January 1952. Hart, Henry, in Films in Review (New York), February 1952. Bowen, Clarissa, in Sight and Sound (London), April-June 1952. Sadoul, Georges, in Lettres Fran?aises (Paris), 10 April 1952. Demeure, Jacques, and Michel Subiela, ‘‘The African Queen, John Huston, and Humphrey Bogart,’’ in Positif (Paris), August 1952. ‘‘Huston Issue’’ of Positif (Paris), January 1957. ‘‘Special Issue’’ of Bianco e Nero (Rome), April 1957. Archer, Eugene, ‘‘A Monograph on John Huston,’’ in Films and Filming (London), September and October 1959. Jones, DuPre, ‘‘Beating the Devil: 30 Years of John Huston,’’ in Films and Filming (London), January 1973. THE AFRICAN QUEENFILMS, 4 th EDITION 13 The African Queen de Selva, L., in Image et Son (Paris), 331 bis, 1978. Snyder, Ellen J., in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 1, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Fultz, J. R., ‘‘A Classic Case of Collaboration . . . The African Queen,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), vol. 19, no. 1, 1982. Eyquem, O., ‘‘Entretien avec Peter Viertel, scenariste,’’ in Positif (Paris), May 1990. Rasmussen, S., ‘‘Tykhuder,’’ in Levende Billeder (Copenhagen), June 1990. Brill, Lesley, ‘‘The African Queen and John Huston’s Filmmaking,’’ in Cinema Journal (Austin), Winter 1995. *** From the beginning, director John Huston insisted that The African Queen be shot on location. To find a river identical to the one in C. S. Forester’s novel, he logged 25,000 flying miles criss-crossing Africa until he settled on the Ruiki in the then Belgian Congo. At a time (1951) when on-location shooting was nowhere near as common as today, traveling 1,100 miles up the Congo to make what is essentially a filmed dialogue must have seemed fanatical. And subsequent encounters with blood flukes, crocodiles, soldier ants, wild boars, stampeding elephants, malaria, and dysentery were hardly reassuring. Yet The African Queen is more than a simple encounter between a man and a woman. It is a story of two very different people growing to love and respect one another after sharing and surviving severe hardships. Huston maintained that on-location shooting was the only way to make that suffering and subsequent romance believable and authentic. At Huston’s insistence even the scenes shot off location were filmed under realistic conditions. For example, although Hum- phrey Bogart actually emerged from London rather than Ugandan waters (after pulling the African Queen), the leeches that covered him were the genuine article. Bogart’s revulsion and shivering during that particular scene are convincing arguments for Huston’s point-of-view. Indeed, The African Queen’s main strength is the acting of the two principal players—Humphrey Bogart as the seedy Canadian boat captain, Charlie Allnut, and Katharine Hepburn as the ‘‘Psalm- singing skinny old maid,’’ British missionary Rose Sayer. According to Huston, although Bogart initially resisted and didn’t like his character, after mimicking the director’s gestures and expressions, L’AGE D’OR FILMS, 4 th EDITION 14 ‘‘all at once he got under the skin of that wretched, sleazy, absurd, brave little man.’’ Hepburn, too, had trouble at the beginning; her portrayal was brittle, cold, and humorless. However, once Huston suggested that she play her part as if she were that Grand Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, she became both funny and refined, and a humor inherent in neither the novel nor the screenplay emerged between the two characters. The humor is essential to the success of the film not because it makes the film more entertaining, but because it arises out of the equality and individuality of two eccentric and strong-willed adver- saries. They may end up falling in love, but not without an often hysterical struggle. Bogart’s character begins as a self-indulgent drunk who mimics the missionary’s prim ways; she, on the other hand, frowns upon his drinking and cowardice, disagreeing with his lax views on human nature: ‘‘Nature is what we were put on earth to rise above.’’ But in courageously facing and solving problems together, the two head towards a middle ground. Allnut stops drinking (Rose has thrown his gin overboard) and shaves, while Rose changes her mind about human nature. After encountering her first rapids, for example, she ecstatically exclaims, ‘‘I never dreamed any mere physical experience could be so stimulating! . . . I don’t wonder you love boating, Mr. Allnut.’’ Finally, after escaping both the Germans and the allegedly uncrossable rapids, the two impulsively embrace and fall in love. The humor does not stop here, however. After their first tender night together, Rose shyly asks Allnut, ‘‘Dear, what is your first name?’’ Their mutual delight in his response is completely captivating. Our captivation with the two characters allows us to accept many of the film’s more improbable moments—the quick dispatch of Brother Samuel Sayer, the sun shining in the eyes of a German sharpshooter as naively predicted by Rose, heavy rains freeing the mired African Queen after Rose prays to God, and the deus ex machina ending. In fact, the ending had been changed several times. Writer James Agee hadn’t written it yet when he suffered a heart attack, so Huston tried to write one with Peter Viertel; before the fourth and final ending was conceived, three others were apparently considered: (1) a British warship rescues Rose and Charlie after a heroic battle with the Louisa, (2) Rose proposes marriage before the first available British consul, (3) Charlie remembers the wife he had left behind in England and hadn’t thought of for 20 years. The first and second endings combined were similar to what occurred in the original novel (that is, Forester’s second ending—even he had prob- lems resolving the plot). Huston’s fourth and happy ending—which miraculously saves Rosie and Charlie from their postnuptial death by hanging—is atypical, as are other elements in the script. Many of Huston’s previous films had a bleaker view of humanity and ended unhappily (e.g. The Maltese Falcon, The Treasure of the Sierra Madre). Both Charlie and Rose exhibit an honesty and integrity at odds with such Hustonian liars and tricksters as Sam Spade, Brigid O’Shaughnessy, Rick Leland, and Dobbs. The two survive because of an internal nobility that Huston’s seedier characters outwardly lack. Huston’s new optimism/idealism struck the right note with the public. The African Queen became one of 1952’s top moneymakers, having been nominated for Best Actor (Bogart won), Best Actress, Best Direction, and Best Screenplay. British readers of Picturegoer voted Bogart the year’s best actor, and Hepburn experienced the greatest box office hit of her career. A film that began as a vehicle for Charles Laughton and Elsa Lanchester, and later Bette Davis and David Niven, had found the perfect couple for its improbable romance. —Catherine Henry AFTER LIFE See WANDAFURU RAIFU L’AGE D’OR (The Golden Age) France, 1930 Director: Luis Bu?uel Production: Black and white, 35mm; running time: 60 minutes (some French sources list 80 minutes). Released 28 November 1930, Paris. Filmed in Studios Billancourt-Epinay, France. Producer: Charles Vicomte de Noailles; screenplay: Luis Bu?uel and Salvador Dalí; photography: Albert Duverger; editor: Luis Bu?uel; production designer: Pierre Schilzneck; original music: Van Parys, montage of extracts from Mozart, Beethoven, Mendels- sohn, Debussy, and Wagner. Cast: Lya Lys (The Woman); Gaston Modot (The Man); Max Ernst (Bandit Chief); Pierre Prévert (Péman, a Bandit); Caridad de Labaerdesque; Madame Noizet; Liorens Artigas; Duchange Ibanez; Lionel Salem; Pancho Cossio; Valentine Hugo; Marie Berthe Ernst; Jacques B. Brunius; Simone Cottance; Paul Eluard; Manuel Angeles Ortiz; Juan Esplandio; Pedro Flores; Juan Casta?e; Joaquin Roa; Pruna; Xaume de Maravilles. Publications Scripts: Bu?uel, Luis, and Salvador Dali, L’Age d’or, and Un Chien andalou, New York, 1968. Bu?uel, Luis, and Salvador Dali, L’Age d’or, in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), November 1983. Books: Brunius, Jacques B., En marge du cinéma fran?ais, Paris, 1947. Kyrou, Ado, Le Surréalisme au cinéma, Paris, 1953; revised edi- tion, 1963. Moullet, Luc, Luis Bu?uel, Brussels, 1957. L’AGE D’ORFILMS, 4 th EDITION 15 L’age d’or Kyrou, Ado, Luis Bu?uel, Paris, 1962. Grange, Frédéric, and Charles Rebolledo, Luis Bu?uel, Paris, 1964. Aranda, Francisco, Luis Bu?uel: Biografia critica, Madrid, 1969. Durgnat, Raymond, Luis Bu?uel, Berkeley, 1968; revised edition, 1977. Breton, André, Manifestoes of Surrealism, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1969. Buache, Freddy, Luis Bu?uel, Lyons, 1970; as The Cinema of Luis Bu?uel, New York and London, 1973. Matthews, J. H., Surrealism and the Film, Ann Arbor, Michi- gan, 1971. Harcourt, Peter, ‘‘Luis Bu?uel: Spaniard and Surrealist,’’ in Six European Directors, London, 1974. Aranda, José Francisco, Luis Bu?uel: A Critical Biography, London and New York, 1975. Cesarman, Fernando, El ojo de Bu?uel, Barcelona, 1976. Hammond, Paul, editor, The Shadow and Its Shadow: Surrealist Writings on Cinema, London, 1978. Mellen, Joan, editor, The World of Luis Bu?uel: Essays in Criticism, New York, 1978. Higginbotham, Virginia, Luis Bu?uel, Boston, 1979. Bazin, André, The Cinema of Cruelty: From Bu?uel to Hitchcock, New York, 1982. Edwards, Gwynne, The Discreet Art of Luis Bu?uel: A Reading of His Films, London, 1982. Bu?uel, Luis, My Last Breath, London and New York, 1983. Rees, Margaret A., editor, Luis Bu?uel: A Symposium, Leeds, 1983. Lefèvre, Raymond, Luis Bu?uel, Paris, 1984. Vidal, Agustin Sanchez, Luis Bu?uel: Obra Cinematografica, Madrid, 1984. Aub, Max, Conversaciones con Bu?uel: Seguidas de 45 entrevistas con familiares, amigos y colaboradores del cineasta aragones, Madrid, 1985. Bertelli, Pino, Bu?uel: L’arma dello scandalo: L’anarchia nel cin- ema di Luis Bu?uel, Turin, 1985. Oms, Marcel, Don Luis Bu?uel, Paris, 1985. De la Colina, Jose, and Tomás Pérez Turrent, Luis Bu?uel: Prohibido asomarse al interior, Mexico, 1986. Sandro, Paul, Diversions of Pleasure: Luis Bu?uel and the Crises of Desire, Columbus, Ohio, 1987. Williams, Linda, Figures of Desire; A Theory and Analysis of Surrealist Film, Berkeley, 1992. De La Colina, Jose, Objects of Desire; Conversations with Luis Bu?el, New York, 1993. L’AGE D’OR FILMS, 4 th EDITION 16 Evans, Peter W., The Films of Luis Bu?uel; Subjectivity & Desire, New York, 1995. Hammond, Paul, L’Age D’Or, London, 1998. Baxter, John, Bu?uel, New York, 1999. Articles: Chavance, Louis, ‘‘Les Influences de L’Age d’or,’’ in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), 1 January 1931. Miller, Henry, in New Review (Paris), 1931; reprinted in Spanish in Contracampo (Madrid), October-November 1980. Aranda, Francesco, ‘‘Surrealist and Spanish Giant,’’ in Films and Filming (London), October 1961. ‘‘Bu?uel Issue’’ of La Méthode (Paris), January 1962. Durgnat, Raymond, in Films and Filming (London), April 1962. ‘‘Manifeste des surréalistes à propos de L’Age d’or,’’ in L’Avant- Scène du Cinéma (Paris), 15 July 1963. Lyon, E. H., ‘‘The Process of Dissociation in Three Films,’’ in Cinema Journal (Evanston, Illinois), Fall 1973. Tena, Jean, ‘‘L’Age d’or à l’ombre du Teide,’’ in Cahiers de la Cinémathèque (Perpignan), Summer-Autumn 1980. Logette, L., ‘‘Surréalisme et cinéma,’’ in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), April-May 1981. Magny, Joel, ‘‘L’Age d’or: Un Manifeste de la subversion devenu pièce de musée,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), July-August 1981. Bonnet, Jean-Claude, in Cinématographe (Paris), July 1981. Bonitzer, P., ‘‘Un documentaire anamorphique,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), September 1981. Kral, P., ‘‘L’Age d’or aujourd’hui,’’ in Positif (Paris), October 1981. Logette, L., ‘‘Un Film irrécupérable: L’Age d’or,’’ in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), October 1981. Logette, L., ‘‘Sur un film de Bu?uel peu connu,’’ in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), January-February 1991. Fieschi, J.-A., ‘‘L’oeil tranche,’’ in Revue Belge du Cinéma (Brus- sels), no. 33–34-35, 1993. Perry, J. W., ‘‘L’Age d’or and Un Chien andalou,’’ in Filmfax (Evanston, Illinois), August-September 1993. Rabourdin, D., ‘‘Souvenirs de L’Age d’or,’’ in Positif (Paris), Octo- ber 1993. Douin, Jean-Luc, ‘‘Mécènes du désordre,’’ in Télérama (Paris), 20 October 1993. Logette, Lucien, and Luis Bu?uel, ‘‘Un cachet de philosophie souriante,’’ in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), January 1994. Cinémathèque, Autumn 1994. *** L’Age d’or represents a key moment in surrealist filmmaking, indeed in the history of the experimental cinema. It is also important because it formally initiated the long and distinguished career of its director, Luis Bu?uel. Both these strands are inexorably intertwined in any history of European filmmaking. Bu?uel met the artist Salvador Dalí at the University of Madrid in the early 1920s, and after working with Fritz Lang and Jean Epstein, made his first film (with Dalí), the noted surrealist short Un Chien andalou (1928). After this, Bu?uel threw himself completely into the surrealist movement and its guerrilla campaign against the conven- tional and repressive. But he needed funds for filmmaking activities. It was thus crucial when he met a wealthy patron, the Vicomte de Noailles, who had taken to commission a film every year for his wife’s birthday. (In 1930 it would be Jean Cocteau’s Blood of a Poet.) In short order Bu?uel had a million francs to make any film he wanted. Dalí and Bu?uel tried to work together, but failed. (Dalí’s credit as co-screenwriter for what would become L’Age d’or amounted to but a few suggestions.) L’Age d’or truly stands as Bu?uel’s first film. The plot of L’Age d’or is remarkably simple; two lovers (Gaston Modot and Lya Lys) declare war on a bourgeois French society intent on thwarting the fulfillment of their desires. And the film did not lack for name talent. For example, the lead, Gaston Modot, was a longtime French film star, who started with Gaumont in 1909 and worked for all the great directors of the French cinema: Louis Delluc in Fièvre (1921), René Clair in Sous les toits de Paris (1930), Marcel Carné in Les Enfants du paradis (1945), and Jean Renoir in La Règle du jeu (1939) and La Grande Illusion (1937). L’Age d’or features moment after moment of surrealist juxtapositions. A poor beggar is savagely beaten, a proud dowager is slapped, a father shoots his son. The themes of the film follow the concerns of Un Chien andalou: frustrated love, society’s repression of sexuality, the constancy of physical violence, attacks on the clergy. But L’Age d’or, a longer work, is far more complex. Although the actions of the frustrated lovers are central, the film goes off in all sorts of directions. Indeed it opens with documentary footage of scorpions. This leads into incidents on a rocky seashore where a gang of bandits (led by surrealist painter Max Ernst) are invaded by first a group of chanting bishops and then dignitaries who ‘‘have come to found the Roman Empire.’’ The film ends with a sequence of a cross in the snow, covered tresses blowing in the wind to the tune of a paso doble. Ironically for Bu?uel, when L’Age d’or was first shown it attracted the interest of a European agent for the Hollywood studio MGM. He signed Bu?uel to a six-month contract at $250 a week for what was then Hollywood’s most powerful studio. Bu?uel left for the United States in December 1930, just as the furore around L’Age d’or was about to begin. Late in 1930 L’Age d’or opened to the public at Studio 28 in Paris. (Studio 28 had been founded two years earlier and was exclusively devoted to the screening of avant garde films.) At the premiere two right-wing vigilante groups, the Patriots’ League and the Anti-Jewish League, stormed Studio 28, hurling ink and rotten eggs at the screen, setting off tear gas and stink bombs, and clubbing members of the audience with cries of ‘‘Death to the Jews.’’ Later the police instructed the theatre’s director to cut two scenes and the conservative press initiated a campaign to have this ‘‘porno- graphic’’ film banned completely. Le Figaro decried L’Age d’or as ‘‘an exercise in Bolshevism.’’ By mid-December the film had been banned and all copies confiscated. For the next 50 years the film was a tantalizing memory for only a few. Celebrations such as that by the noted film historian Georges Sadoul, present at the premier, declared that L’Age d’or was a ‘‘mas- terpiece in its violence, its purity, its lyric frenzy, its absolute sincerity.’’ Only in 1980 (in New York, a year later in Paris) was the film again re-released. By then its shock value had worn off, and the film was seen more as a precedent for Bu?uel’s later work than a work attacking the core values of western civilization. —Douglas Gomery AGUIRRE, DER ZORN GOTTESFILMS, 4 th EDITION 17 AGUIRRE, DER ZORN GOTTES (Aguirre, The Wrath of God) West Germany, 1973 Director: Werner Herzog Production: Werner Herzog Filmproduktion; Eastmancolor, 35mm; running time: 93 minutes. Released 1973. Filmed in the jungles of Peru, along the Amazon. Producer: Werner Herzog; screenplay: Werner Herzog, from the journal of Gaspar De Carvajal; photography: Thomas Mauch; editor: Beate Mainka-Jellinghaus; sound: Herbert Prasch; music: Popol Vuh; special effects: Juvenal Herrera and Miguel Vasquez. Cast: Klaus Kinski (Don Lope de Aguirre); Helena Rojo (Inez de Atienza); Ruy Guerra (Pedro de Ursua); Del Negro (Caspar de Carvajal); Don Fernando de Guzman (Peter Berling); Cecilia Rivera (Flores de Aguirre); Dany Ades (Perucho); Armando Polanah (Armando); Edward Roland (Okello); Daniel Farafan, Alejandro Chavez, Antonio Marquez, Julio Martinez, and Alejandro Repulles (The Indians); and 270 Indians from the Cooperative of Lauramarca. Publications Script: Herzog, Werner, ‘‘Aguirre, The Wrath of God,’’ in 3 Screenplays, New York, 1980. Books: Schutte, Wolfram, and others, Herzog/Kluge/Straub, Vienna, 1976. Greenberg, Alan, Heart of Glass, Munich, 1976. Sandford, John, The New German Cinema, Totowa, New Jersey, 1980. Franklin, James, New German Cinema: From Oberhausen to Ham- burg, Boston, 1983. Phillips, Klaus, editor, New German Filmmakers: From Oberhausen Through the 1970s, New York, 1984. Corrigan, Timothy, The Films of Werner Herzog; Between Mirage and History, New York, 1986. Gabrea, Radu, Werner Herzog et la mystique rhénane, Lausanne, 1986. Articles: Baxter, Brian, ‘‘Werner Herzog,’’ in Film (London), Spring 1969. Ghali, Noureddine, ‘‘Werner Herzog: ‘Comme un rêve puissant. . . ,’’’ in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), September-October 1974. Ghali, Noureddine, ‘‘Werner Herzog: Le Réel saisi par le rêve,’’ in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), November 1974. Combs, Richard, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), January 1975. Elley, Derek, in Films and Filming (London), February 1975. Zimmer, J., in Image et Son (Paris), March 1975. Gauthier, G., and Derek Elley, in Films and Filming (London), April 1975. Simsolo, No?l, in Ecran (Paris), April 1975. Rayns, Tony, in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1974–75. Oudart, J. P., in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), July-August 1975. Schlepelern, P., in Kosmorama (Copenhagen), no. 132, 1976. Garel, A., in Image et Son (Paris), September, 1976. Clarembeaux, M., in Revue Belge du Cinéma (Brussels), June 1977. McCreadie, M., in Films in Review (New York), June-July 1977. Dorr, J. H., ‘‘The Enigma of Werner Herzog,’’ in Millimeter (New York), October 1977. ‘‘Aguirre Issue’’ of Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), 15 June 1978. Coursen, D., ‘‘Two Films by Werner Herzog,’’ in Cinemonkey (Portland, Oregon), no. 1, 1979. Fritze, R., ‘‘Werner Herzog’s Adaptation of History in Aguirre, The Wrath of God,’’ in Film and History (Newark, New Jersey), December 1985. Stiles, V. M., ‘‘Fact and Fiction: Nature’s Endgame in Werner Herzog’s Aguirre, The Wrath of God,’’ in Literature/Film Quar- terly (Salisbury, Maryland), no. 3, 1989. Génin, Bernard, ‘‘L’enfer vert,’’ in Télérama (Paris), 5 April 1995. *** Aguirre der Zorn Gottes is Werner Herzog’s hypnotic epic of megalomania and delusional myths. The story concerns the search of Spanish conquistadors for El Dorado in the jungles of South America. The journey is made with the assistance of native slaves over mountains and down an uncharted river. Initiated under the aegis of the Spanish crown, the expedition experiences progressive disinte- gration. Aguirre, originally named second-in-command, usurps con- trol in pursuit of a golden territory to rule on his own. At the same time, the very instruments and characters sustaining the journey are gradually eliminated. Food, rafts, supplies, and crew members are lost; the landscape changes until there is no land properly speaking to conquer, only river and swamps. In the face of desolation. Aguirre maintains obsessive faith in the reality of his dreams, weaving tales of his future glory. This journey, with its imaginary goal, is presented in the guise of an historical account. An opening title explains that the events come from a journal kept by a monk during the course of the expedition. The diary provides the text of a voice-over narration which intermit- tently comments on events. But El Dorado—the goal of the journey, purpose of the expedition, and subject of the diary—is a known fiction, an external dream destined to failure. Moreover, the journal is described as the remaining record of an expedition which disappeared in the depths of the Amazonian jungle; it cannot, in fact, exist. Thus from the outset the film defines its subject as a doomed journey and spurious history. Indeed, history is immediately construed in terms of myth. As the film posits this mythical history and a goal-less journey, Aguirre transforms its world into a realm of hallucination. Crew members are attacked by arrows and darts from invisible sources. When the monk is struck by an arrow near the end of the film he denies its very being, ‘‘This is no arrow.’’ The monk and Okello, one AHFEI ZHENG ZHUAN FILMS, 4 th EDITION 18 Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes of the native slaves, also deny the existence of a boat hull (‘‘There is no boat’’) which is shown suspended in a tree. In the face of an uncontrollable phenomenal world what counts above all else is the faith one sustains in fictions of one’s own making. And it is this quality that defines Aguirre as a hero. The greatest and only believer in the myths of his own creation, he stands as the quintessential heroic figure of history. With its striking images the film successfully constructs an impression of having entered an unworldly territory. The opening is particularly effective, as the expedition is seen in extreme long shots weaving its way down the mountains through the fog to the banks of the river. The audience is positioned with the expedition throughout the journey. What lies beyond the river on its overgrown banks—a source of beauty, monotony, and danger—remains a mystery throughout the film. The final shot of the film reinforces the tenacity of the journey’s confining vision, as the camera circles rapidly around the raft. Littered with dead bodies, overrun with monkeys, the raft is locked into an aimless drift as the hero and self-proclaimed ‘‘great traitor’’ asserts his power for the last time: ‘‘I am the wrath of God.’’ —M. B. White AHFEI ZHENG ZHUAN (Days of Being Wild) Hong Kong, 1991 Director: Wong Kai-Wai Production: In-Gear Film; Colour, 35mm; running time: 94 minutes. Producer: Rover Tang; executive producer: Alan Tang; screen- play: Wong Kai-Wai; photography: Christopher Doyle; editor: Kai Kit-wai; assistant directors: Rosanna Ng, Johnny Kong, Tung Wan- Wai, Tsui Pui-Wing, Poon Kin-Kwan; production design: William Chang Suk-ping; sound: Steve Chan Wai-hung; music: Chan Do-ming. Cast: Leslie Cheung (Yuddy); Maggie Cheung (Su Li-zhen); Tony Leung Chiu-wei (Smirk); Karina Lau (Leong Fung-yung); Andy Lau (Tide); Jacky Cheung (Sab); Rebecca Pan Dihua (Rebecca); Carina Lau (Mimi). AHFEI ZHENG ZHUANFILMS, 4 th EDITION 19 Awards: Hong Kong Film Awards for Best Film, Best Director, Best Actor (Leslie Cheung), Best Cinematographer, and Best Art Director. Publications Articles: James, Caryn, ‘‘Days of Being Wild,’’ The New York Times, 23 March 1991. Variety (New York), 1 April 1991. Ho, Sam, ‘‘The Withering Away of the Family,’’ The 15th Hong Kong International Film Festival (catalogue), May 1991. Shu, Kei, ‘‘Notes on Hong Kong Cinema 1990,’’ The 15th Hong Kong International Film Festival (catalogue), May 1991. Rayns, T., Sight and Sound (London), December 1994. Lehtinen, L., ‘‘Katoamatonta aikaa tekemassa,’’ in Filmihullu (Helsinki), no. 5, 1996. Stephens, C. ‘‘Wong Kar-Wai and the Persistence of Memory,’’ in Film Comment (New York), January/February 1996. Ahfei zheng zhuan Jousse, T., ‘‘Boy Meets Girl,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), March 1996. Niogret, H., ‘‘Nos annees sauvages,’’ in Positif (Paris), March 1996. Morsiani, A., ‘‘I capolavori di Hong Kong,’’ in Segnocinema (Vicenza), July/August 1996. *** A young man strolls down a corridor, stops at a refreshment stand, and takes a bottle of Coke from an ice chest. He leans over the counter and catches the attention of the sales clerk, telling her, quite casually, ‘‘From this moment on, we can become one-minute friends.’’ They turn their faces to the wall clock and watch the second hand scroll over the markers. One, two, three, four, five seconds . . . sixty seconds pass. Soon they become lovers. They meet for an hour each day in his apartment, sharing aimless conversation, and cigarettes. Wong Kar-wai’s desultory tale of 1960s Hong Kong has a nostal- gic and bittersweet lyricism. Its antihero is a callow young man, Yuddy (Leslie Cheung), around whom hapless friends and lovers AI NO CORRIDA FILMS, 4 th EDITION 20 spin. The Chinese title is ‘‘The Story of an Ah Fei’’—‘‘ah fei’’ being a Chinese version of a teddy boy. Cocky and narcissistic, Yuddy is the pretty boy that all the young women fall for, but he never falls for them. As he says, ‘‘In this life I will like many, many women, but to the end I won’t know whom I love most.’’ Failing to get any commitment from him, Su Li-zhen (Maggie Cheung), the sales clerk, threatens to leave. When she walks out, he continues slicking back his hair, gazing placidly into the medicine chest mirror. However, Li-zhen keeps coming back, lurking in corridors and outside the apartment, even after he begins an affair with a pretty dancehall girl, Mimi (Carina Lau). The young policeman who walks the beat (Andy Lau) has noticed the odd goings-on in the second-room flat. Late one night he takes pity on Li-zhen, chatting with her and loaning her cab fare to get home. Before they part he points to a nearby phone booth and remarks, ‘‘Every night I’m here at this time.’’ He waits there night after night, but he never hears from her. One day she leaves town, and eventually, so does he. Some vague reason for Yuddy’s misogyny is provided: Long ago, his real mother gave him over to a friend (played by old time chanteuse Pan Dihua) to raise. And the stepmother, an aging dowager with a penchant for young gigolos, has steadfastly refused to reveal his real mother’s identity to Yuddy. They torment each other with this game constantly. He wants to know; she refuses to tell him. He hates her. And she replies, tartly, ‘‘I just want you to hate me, then at least you won’t forget me.’’ But one day she tires of the game. She’s planning to emigrate, and she finally reveals what he has long wanted to know. With the information, Yuddy takes off to find his real mother in the Philippines. He goes to her mansion but is refused entrance. He walks quickly away, not giving her the satisfaction (somehow he knows she is watching him from behind) of looking back. In town, he gets drunk and is about to be robbed in the street but a stranger, a man from Hong Kong, comes to his rescue. Unbeknown to Yuddy, this fellow is the policeman who used to walk his street, who has now fulfilled his lifelong dream to become a sailor, and is waiting to join his ship. The outstanding cinematography is by Christopher Doyle, a fre- quent collaborator with the Wong Kar-wai, and one the most famous scenes in contemporary Chinese cinema is the long tracking shot towards the end of the film. We travel down a street, go through the doorway of a colonial-style building, and up a stairway into the waiting room of a train station. There we find an inebriated Yuddy posed over a jukebox. He turns away and does a jig. He finds his newfound friend slumped at a table. Cutting away to the backroom, Yuddy is pulling a scam on a local. When caught, guns are pulled out and people are shot. Yuddy and the sailor make a run for it, over the roofs, jumping into a train headed they know not where. At this point the sailor says in disgust, ‘‘Not everyone’s like you— nothing better to do in life!’’ The dreamy, tall jungles of Philippines pass by, pass by. ‘‘I’ve heard of bird, a bird without legs, that flies and flies and never lands,’’ says the wounded Yuddy. ‘‘It only lands once in his life—and that’s when he dies.’’ The movie ends with a non sequitur in a small, low-ceiled flat, a dapper fellow (Tony Leung Chiu-wei) finishes filing his nails, gets dressed, and tucks cigarettes and a huge wad of bills into his pockets. He turns off the lights and exits. We have never seen this character before. This is the gambler—who was supposed to feature in part two of Days of Being Wild, but since part one went overtime and overbudget, part two was never made. Though Days of Being Wild is a pleasure to watch and carries one along its melancholic, fragmented rhythm, one feels a certain empti- ness after it’s over. The film is more style than substance, favouring mood and mannerisms over plot and characterization. The work announced Wong as one of the outstanding film stylist to emerge from Hong Kong in this decade. Commercially, it proved a flop, but it won five awards at the Hong Kong Film Awards, including Best Film, Best Director, Best Actor for Leslie Cheung, Best Cinematographer for Christopher Doyle, and Best Art Direction for William Cheung. On the international film festival circuits, it has become a cult favourite. —Scarlet Cheng AI NO CORRIDA (In the Realm of the Senses) France-Japan, 1976 Director: Nagisa Oshima Production: Argos Films (Paris), Oshima Productions (Tokyo), and Océanique Productions (some sources list Shibatu Organization as one of the production companies involved); Eastmancolor, 35mm, Vistavision; running time: 110 minutes, some versions 115 minutes. Released 1976. Filmed in Japan. Producer: Anatole Dauman; screenplay: Nagisa Oshima; photog- raphy: Hideo Itoh; editor: Keiichi Uraoka; art director: Shigemasa Toda; music: Minoru Miki; lighting: Ken’ichi Okamoto. Cast: Tatsuya Fuji (Kichizo); Eiko Matsuda (Sada Abe); Aoi Nakajima; Taiji Tonoyama (Tramp); Kanae Kobayashi; Akiko Koyama; Naomi Shiraishi; Machiko Aoki; Kyoko Okada; Yasuko Matsui; Katsue Tomiyama. Awards: Best Director, Cannes Film Festival, 1978. Publications Books: Bock, Audie, Japanese Film Directors, New York, 1978; revised edition, Tokyo, 1985. Oshima, Nagisa, Ecrits (1956–1978): Dissolution et jaillissement, Paris, 1980. Tessier, Max, editor, Le cinéma Japonais au présent 1959–1979, Paris, 1980. AI NO CORRIDAFILMS, 4 th EDITION 21 Ai no corrida Sato, Tadao, Currents in Japanese Cinema (in English), Tokyo, 1982. Magrelli, Enrico, and Emanuela Martini, Il rito, il rivolta: Il cinema di Nagisa Oshima, Rome, 1984. Polan, Dana B., The Political Language of Film and the Avant-Garde, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1985. Danvers, Louis, and Charles Tatum, Nagisa Oshima, Paris, 1986. Turim, Maureen, The Films of Nagisa Oshima; Images of a Japanese Iconoclast, Berkeley, 1998. Articles: Bonitzer, P., in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), March-April 1976. Positif (Paris), May 1976. Bernheim, N. L., ‘‘Entretien avec Nagisa Oshima,’’ in Cinématographe (Paris), June 1976. Monty, Ib, in Kosmorama (Copenhagen), no. 132, 1976. Zimmer, J., in Image et Son (Paris), September 1976. ‘‘Special Issue’’ of Filmcritica (Rome), September 1976. Cinema Papers (Melbourne), September-October 1976. Bonitzer, P., ‘‘L’Essence du pire,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), September-October 1976. Rayns, Tony, in Film Comment (New York), September-October 1976. Eder, Richard, in New York Times, 1 October 1976. Interview with Nagisa Oshima in New York Times, 3 October 1976. Bonnet, J. C., in Cinématographe (Paris), October-November 1976. Passek, J. L., in Cinéma (Paris), November 1976. McCormick, R., in Cineaste (New York), Winter 1976–77. Silverman, M., in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1976–77. Bouras, J., ‘‘In the Realm of the Censors,’’ in Film Comment (New York), January-February 1977. Berman, B., in Take One (Montreal), March 1977. Heath, Stephen, ‘‘The Question Oshima,’’ in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), no. 1, 1978. High, P. B., ‘‘Oshima: A Vita Sexualis on Film,’’ in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), no. 4, 1978. Dawson, Jan, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), May 1978. Oshima, Nagisa, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), May 1978. Grossini, G., in Cinema Nuovo (Turin), June 1979. Oshima, Nagisa, ‘‘Le Drapeau de l’eros flotte dans les cieux,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), March 1980. Garroni, E., and A. Balzola, ‘‘Le funzioni della critica e la critica dell’ erotismo,’’ in Cinema Nuovo (Bari), April 1980. AKALER SANDHANE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 22 Oshima, Nagisa, and others, in Contracampo (Madrid), July— August 1980. Frias, I. Leon, ‘‘El ascetismo erotico de El imperio de los sentidos,’’ in Hablemos de Cine (Lima), May 1982. Polan, Dana, ‘‘Politics as Process in Three Films by Nagisa Oshima,’’ in Film Criticism (Meadville, Pennsylvania), Fall 1983. Tesson, C., ‘‘L’Image et son écho,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), April 1984. Lehman, P., ‘‘Oshima,’’ in Filmihullu (Helsinki), no. 5. 1989. Novielli, R., ‘‘L’impero dei dissensi nei film di Nagisa Oshima,’’ in Quaderni di Cinema (Florence), May-August 1989. Turim, Maureen, ‘‘Wie es ist, nicht mehr jung zu sein: Sex, Tod und Leben,’’ in Frauen und Film (Frankfurt am Main), June 1991. Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), July 1992. Breillat, Catherine, ‘‘L’empire des sens: Nagisa Oshima,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), 1993. Piazzo, Philippe, ‘‘Le scandaleux de Tokyo,’’ in Télérama (Paris), 2 October 1996. Marran, Christine, ‘‘Cinematic Sexualities: The Two Faces of Abe Sada in Japanese ‘poruno’ films,’’ in Asian Cinema (Drexel Hill), vol. 8, no. 2, Winter 1996–1997. *** The first film to break down the barriers between the commercial art film and hard-core pornography, the all-explicit Ai no corrida was for Japanese director Nagisa Oshima both a political and a psycho- cultural exploration. In keeping with his consistent treatment of sensitive issues in the guise of dramatic films, Oshima conceived this project at the suggestion of French producer Anatole Dauman to do a hard-core film. Immediately subsequent to the abolition of anti- obscenity laws in France, Corrida was the sensation of the 1976 Cannes International Film Festival, where an unprecedented thirteen screenings were mounted to meet the demand. Shot entirely in Japan, where police ordinarily seize in the developing laboratory films revealing so much as a pubic hair, the exposed footage was sent to France for processing. When re-imported to Japan as a French production, with every explicit scene air-brushed into white haze by the censors, it was nevertheless hailed as the first porno film for women. Oshima was therefore arrested and prosecuted for obscenity in the screenplay, which had been published in book form in Japan. After four years in court, he was found innocent by the supreme court, but he did not succeed in overturning the legal concept of obscenity. Like all of Oshima’s films, Corrida is based on a true story, the apprehension of Sada Abe, who strangled her lover with his consent and then cut off his genitals in 1936, months before Japan’s full-scale aggression against China would open World War II. The appearance of Japanese flags and marching soldiers elucidate a background theme of sexuality as escape from political and social oppression, one of Oshima’s persistent concerns. Corrida is an exploration of the limits of sexuality. Sada (Eiko Matsuda) and Kichizo (Tatsuya Fuji) gradually reject the outside world in order to pursue the ultimate in sexual pleasure. Couched in a linear narrative with few but important stylistic deviations from a conventional exposition, the sexual exploits quickly lose any prurient quality. These lovers are too analytical; they comment too much; they allow and seek out too much intrusion upon their acts. Finally, they develop too much need for violence to stimulate themselves as over-indulgence dulls the pleasure. The desire to possess another person ends in Kichizo’s death. The major reversal of the conventions of the porno film lie in Kichizo’s aim of giving pleasure to Sada. She gradually changes from addressing him as ‘‘master’’ (of the inn where she has worked as a maid) to adopting male speech and giving him orders. Some psychiatrists have seen this as a calculated role reversal, in which Kichizo takes on first a passive quality, then a maternal aspect for Sada. Indeed Sada becomes the aggressor, initiator and possessor in every sense. But Oshima characteristically ends the film without any comment but the historical facts: Sada was arrested with Kichizo’s genitalia on her person, tried and jailed for murder. But she became celebrated as a folk heroine. Aside from the universal interest of the possession urge in sexuality, Oshima layers his film with cultural references. He uses the formula of the Kabuki theater, the lovers’ journey (michiyuki, as they go to the inn that will be their refuge and site of the murder) to presage a doomed alliance. He taps the rich pornographic history of feudal Japan in the voyeurism, exploitation, and sado-masochistic play of the geisha and maids at the inns, and he mocks the elaborate ritual of the Japanese wedding ceremony. Use of traditional Japanese musical instruments on the sound track, lush color photography even in the confinement of the small inn room, and superb acting from non-stars and amateurs add to the disturbing appeal of this psychological landmark of the cinema. —Audie Bock AKALER SANDHANE (In Search of Famine) India, 1981 Director: Mrinal Sen Production: D.K Films Enterprise; colour; running time: 131 min- utes (also 124 minute and 115 minute version); language: Bengali. First public screening 12 February 1982. Filmed on location in Hatui and neighboring villages, Bengal. Producer: Dhiresh Kumar Chakraborty; screenplay: Mrinal Sen, from a novel by Amalendu Chakraborty; photography: K.K. Mahajan; editor: Gangadhar Naskar; art direction: Suresh Chandra; music: Salil Chowdhury. Cast: Dhritiman Chaterjee (Director); Smita Patil (Actress); Sreela Majumdar (Woman); Gita Sen (Widow); Dipankar Dey (Star). Awards: Silver Bear, Berlin 1981. Publications Script: Sen, Mrinal, In Search of Famine: a film by Mrinal Sen, script reconstructed and translated by Bandyopadhyay, Samik: Cal- cutta, 1983. AKALER SANDHANEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 23 Akaler Sandhane AKASEN CHITAI FILMS, 4 th EDITION 24 Books: Bandyopadhyay, Samik, editor, In Search of Famine, Calcutta, 1983. Cunha, Uma da, The New Generation: 1960–1980, New Delhi, 1981. Hood, John W., Chasing the Truth, Calcutta, 1993. Mukhopadhyay, Deepankar, Maverick Maestro Mrinal Sen, Indus Publishing Company, 1995. Articles: Guha, Jagannath, ‘‘Films and Famine: On Mrinal Sen’s Search for Famine’’ in Maadhyam (New Delhi), March/April 1981. Hoberman, Jim, ‘‘New Delhi’s Film Bazaar’’ in American Film (New York), Vol. 6 no. 7, May 1981. Chakravarty, Sumita S., ‘‘An Interview with Mrinal Sen’’ in Cine- Tracts (Quebec), Summer/Autumn 1981. Malcolm, Derek, ‘‘Guerilla Fighter: Mrinal Sen’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1981. Ciment, Michel, ‘‘Entretien avec Mrinal Sen’’ in Positif (Paris), January 1982. Sen, Mrinal, ‘‘Towards Another Moment of Truth’’ interview with Swapan Mullick in Cinema in India, Vol. 1 no. 4, October- December 1987. *** Mrinal Sen’s self-critical film, and one of his best known 1980s productions, shows the experiences of a contemporary film unit going into a Bengali village to fictionally reconstruct the 1943 man-made Bengal famine. The director describes that tragedy: ‘‘. . . in our country, in Bengal, still undivided, not a shot was fired, not a bomb burst. And yet in a year five million people starved to death. They just starved and dropped dead.’’ The 1943 Bengal famine—one of pre-independent India’s most horrifying human disasters—has been the subject of considerable literature and several plays and films. One of the reasons for so much literature is that, in a real sense, the event remains impossible to assimilate or even understand. An estimated five million people died through starvation (official figures in 1945 put the figure at 1.5 million). It was as a consequence of war profiteering, a complacent state administration that refused to acknowledge a crisis until the famine was a reality, and a quiescent peasantry that refused to rise up in revolt. In 1943 the Indian Peoples’ Theatre Association made its debut with the epochal production of Bijon Bhattacharya’s Nabanna, ad- dressing the famine. This play, staged by Sombhu Mitra, remains one of the landmarks for the modern Indian theatre. In 1960 Mrinal Sen himself made a film set in the famine, Baishey Shravana (The Wedding Day), and in 1973 Satyajit Ray adapted a Bibhutibhushan Bandyopadhyay story to make Ashani Sanket (Distant Thunder). This was not the only famine to hit the region, as Akaler Sandhaney’s film unit shows when they play the game of guessing from photographs which year the corpses could have come from. But the extent of the literature, theatre and cinema that address the 1943 event is an important sub-text for the film, which critiques that body of work as much as it critiques itself and its maker. There are three sets of histories that weave into the plot: the film unit arrives in Hatui on 7 September (presumably the day Sen’s own unit began filming) and quickly has problems. The unit’s own professional unconcern for the issues their production seeks to address culminate in the actress Devika plucking her eyebrows and cutting her hair short, and being summarily expelled from the cast. The second history features the village itself, invaded by mass culture including a Communist Jatra (Bengal has had a Communist govern- ment in power since 1967) which has taken to ‘‘Hitler, Lenin and Stalin’’ in the words of Haren, loudspeakers advertising The Guns of Navarone, and the film unit which promptly buys up all the food from the village and is accused of starting a new famine. Some villagers, led by Haren (played by noted filmmaker Rajen Tarafdar), try to cooperate with the crew, but divisions erupt when Haren tries to get Chatterjee’s daughter to replace the expelled Devika as an actress (because the role is that of a woman reduced to prostitution during the famine). The schoolmaster has to remind Chatterjee, and other local notables, that they were themselves descendants of 1943 war profi- teers. The third, and the most poignant, is that of the dying Zamindar and his wife, in whose abandoned mansion the crew lives: this story is juxtaposed with that of Durga, who forms the only living memory of the tragedy of 1943, and whose intimations of the future—the ‘‘flash- forward’’ death of her son—making up the end of the film (as the crew returns to Calcutta, their film unfinished). Mrinal Sen is of course best known for his late 1960s and 1970s style, of a freewheeling, politically involved and didactic cinema using numerous alienation-effects that he once described as ‘‘playing around with tools as often as I could, as a child plays with building blocks. Partly out of sheer playfulness, partly out of necessity, also partly to shock a section of our audiences [to violate the] outrageously conformist . . . mainstream of our cinema.’’ (‘‘Towards Another Moment of Truth,’’ 1987). The style changed dramatically with Ek Din Pratidin (1979), a relatively straightforward tale with a minimal plot—in which a middle-class woman ‘‘disappears’’ for a night—into a realist idiom usually set in Calcutta’s middle-class, where a large number of characters would respond in various tell-tale ways to an event that disrupts their lives and values for the brief period (Chaalchitra, 1981; Kharij, 1982) before normalcy returns. Akaler Sandhaney is the most ambitious of this genre. The story here too is straightforward, but the numerous disruptions on the soundtrack, the playful effects of several Bengali and Hindi (Smita Patil) actors and Sen regulars playing themselves, and the freeze- frame ending on Durga, is more reminiscent of his late 1970s Calcutta trilogy, more inclined to break out of linear dramatic idioms. —Ashish Rajadhyaksha AKASEN CHITAI (Street of Shame) Japan, 1956 Director: Kenji Mizoguchi Production: Daiei Kyoto; black & white; running time: 94 minutes. Released 18 March 1956, Japan. Filmed at Daiei Studios in Tokyo. Producer: Masaichi Nagata; screenplay: Masashige Narusawa, from the short story ‘‘Susaki No Onna’’ by Yoshiko Shibaki; photogra- phy: Kazuo Miyagawa; sound: Mitsuo Hasagawa; art director: Hiroshi Mizutani; music: Toshiro Mayuzumi. AKASEN CHITAIFILMS, 4 th EDITION 25 Akasen Chitai Cast: Machiko Kyo (Mickey); Aiko Mimasu (Yumeko); Ayako Wakao (Yasumi); Michiyo Kogure (Hanae); Yasuko Kawakami (Shizuko); Eitoro Shindo (Kurazo Taya); Kenji Sugawara (Eikoh); Bontaro Miake (Patrolman); Toranosuke Ogawa (Mickey’s father); Kumeko Urabe (Otane); Sadako Sawamura (Tatsuko Taya); Hiroko Machida (Yorie). Publications Books: Mesnil, Michel, Mizoguchi Kenji, Paris, 1965. Douchet, Jean, Connaissance de Kenji Mizoguchi, Paris, 1978. McDonald, Keiko, Kenji Mizoguchi, Boston, 1984. Serceau, Daniel, Mizoguchi: de la revolte aux songes, Paris, 1983. Andrew, Dudley, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema - Foreign Language Films, volume 6, edited by Magill, Frank, New Jersey, 1985. Articles: Yamauchi, Matsuo, ‘‘Street of Shame and Objective Depiction’’ in Eiga Hyoron (Tokyo), June 1956. Variety (New York), 25 July 1956. Takizawa, Osamu, ‘‘Watered-down Sake: Kenji Mizoguchi’s Street of Shame’’ in Eiga Geijutsu (Tokyo), September 1956. Izawa, Jun, in Shinario (Tokyo), October 1956. Lane, John Francis, in Films and Filming (London), November 1956. Rhomer, Eric, ‘‘Rue de la Honte’’ in Arts (Paris), no. 642, 1957. Demonsablon, Phillipe, ‘‘Plus de Lumiere’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), December 1957. Gillett, John, in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1958. Gortori, Carlos, in Film Ideal (Madrid), January 1965. Tessier, Max, ‘‘La Rue de la Honte’’ in Image et Son (Paris), September 1980. Magny, Joel, ‘‘Le Testament de Mizoguchi?’’ in Cinéma (Paris), October 1980. Masson, Alain, ‘‘L’ordre du bordel’’ in Positif (Paris), Novem- ber 1980. Burdeau, Emmanuel & others, ‘‘Mizoguchi encore,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), July-August 1996. *** Everyone interested in Japanese film must be deeply indebted to Noel Burch’s To the Distant Observer: Form and Meaning in Japanese Cinema—but indebted more for the questions his strictly formalist analyses raise than for the tendentious and problematic answers. At their root is Burch’s antagonism to Hollywood and American cultural imperialism: films are valued or not according to their deviation from the shooting/editing codes of classical Holly- wood cinema. As far as Mizoguchi is concerned, Burch’s interest is restricted to certain films of the 30s and 40s; everything subsequent is dismissed. Street of Shame, Mizoguchi’s last film, raises interesting questions about the relation between form and meaning: it reverts to the thematics of the 30s and 40s, realized in the stylistics of the 50s. Clearly well outside Burch’s range of interest, it contains not a single shot that would be out of place in a classical Hollywood movie (while retaining the dominant characteristics of Mizoguchi’s late period: fairly long takes, with much use of camera movement, depth of field, and much use of foreground/background simultaneous action). My own position is that a film should be evaluated not according to its formal devices (deviant or otherwise) but according to its totality: the richness and complexity of meaning that has been realized in the interaction of all its elements, thematic, stylistic, political. Street of Shame is the last in the series of impassioned feminist protests that (in forms varying sharply from period to period) traverses Mizoguchi’s entire career as far as we can know it (many early films are lost). One may compare it, then, with two earlier films: Sisters of the Gion (1936, admired by Burch) and My Love Has been Burning (1949, ignored, hence presumably dismissed). The former is built upon a system of extremely long takes, mainly in long shot, mainly static, employing only one or two brief camera movements whose function is to hold us back from, rather than draw us toward, the characters. The latter also employs very long takes, often se- quence-shots, but their function is entirely different: there is a great deal of camera movement, much less camera distance, and most of the scenes end with the camera leading us in toward the heroine, the scene embodying a lesson she has learned and that we share with her. The earlier film is built upon distanciation (there is no character with whom we can identify, we are to see all of them, male and female, trapped within and corrupted by a specific social system); the latter is built upon a subtle and beautifully realized form of identification, the heroine being an exemplary feminist figure whose progress toward a full awareness of the oppression of women within patriarchal culture we are invited to share. L’ALBERO DEGLI ZOCCOLI FILMS, 4 th EDITION 26 Street of Shame, rather than restrict itself to an imposed formal system, adopts the relative freedom and flexibility (within certain limitations, certain agreed or defined rules, without which communi- cative art is not possible) of classical Hollywood: the camera is free to move from character to character, position to position (so long as the basic rules are not shattered), in the interests of maximum expressivity. The result (common in classical Hollywood) is the achievement of a balance between distance and identification. We follow, over a period of a few months, the lives of five women working as prostitutes in a brothel in Tokyo’s Yoshiwara district. All are pre- sented with varying degrees of sympathy, but the constant movement among the various characters and plot-threads forbids full identifica- tion, leaving us a degree of freedom of judgment. That sympathy is not (or is only barely) extended to the male characters is a logical consequence of the rigorous and unrelenting way in which every manifestation of women’s oppression is exposed. Hanae works to support her tubercular husband and their infant son; the husband (the least unsympathetic of the male characters) rewards her efforts to hold the family together by attempting suicide. Yumeko has resorted to prostitution to see her son through college; her reward is his shame and rage, and his total rejection of her when (entering middle age) she suggests they live together. Yorie leaves the brothel to marry, only to discover that her husband treats her as an unpaid servant; Mickey, outwardly tough, gum-chewing, western- ized, is rebelling against a father who sees women merely as the adjuncts of ‘‘respectability’’ to aid his rise in the business world. When he visits the brothel to bring her home (he has married one of his numerous mistresses within months of his wife’s death, and needs Mickey to reconstruct a family), her facade collapses and she ex- presses her vulnerability and rage, finally offering herself to him for money as the ultimate expression of contempt. Only Yasumi escapes the brothel, through a process of cultivating total ruthlessness, ex- ploiting not only men but the women she works with in order to build up the capital she needs. The last minutes of the film introduce a new character, a teenage country girl whose father has become paralyzed after a mining accident. She is at first naively delighted by the food she is given, unlike any she has eaten before. The film ends with her night of initiation (replacing Yasumi, who has bought up a bankrupt clothing business). We watch her being dressed, groomed, made up, her innocent young face vanishing behind a mask of paint and powder. The film’s devastating last image, and its only single-character close- up, has her hovering, terrified, behind a pillar, trying to find the courage to signal to her first prospective customer. —Robin Wood L’ALBERO DEGLI ZOCCOLI (The Tree of the Wooden Clogs) Italy, 1978 Director: Ermanno Olmi Production: RAI (Rete I)-Italnoleggio Cinematografico; Gevacolor, 35mm; running time: 175 minutes. Released 1978, Cannes Film Festival. Filmed on location in Lombardy, Italy; cost: lire 320,000,000. Producer: Attilio Torricelli; screenplay: Ermanno Olmi; photogra- phy: Ermanno Olmi; editor: Ermanno Olmi; sound: Amedeo Casati; art director: Enrico Tovaglieri; music: J. S. Bach, executed on the organ by Fernando Germani; costume designer: Francesca Zucchelli. Cast: Luigi Ornagli (Batisti); Francesca Moriggi (Baptisti’s wife); Omar Brignoli (Minek, the son); Antonio Ferrari (Toni); Teresa Brecianini (Widow Runc); Giuseppe Brignoli (Grandpa Anselmo); Carlo Rota (Peppino); Pasqualina Brolis (Teresina); Massimo Fratus (Pierino); Francesca Villa (Annetta); Maria Grazia Caroli (Bettina); Battista Trevaina (Finard); Giuseppina Sangaletti (Mrs. Finard); Lorenzo Pedroni (Grandpa Finard); Felice Cervi (Usti); Pierangelo Bertoli (Secondo); Brunella Migliaccio (Olga); Franco Pilenga (Stefano, Maddalena’s husband); Guglielmo Badoni and Laura Locatelli (Stefano’s parents); Carmelo Silva (Don Carlo); Mario Brignoli (Landowner); Emilio Pedroni (Farm Bailiff); Vittorio Cappelli (Frichi); Francesca Bassurini (Suor Maria); Lina Ricci (Woman of the ‘‘Segno’’). Awards: Palme d’Or, Cannes Film Festival, 1978; David of Donatello special plaque award to Olmi, Italy, 1978; New York Film Critics Award, Best Foreign Film, 1979. Publications Script: ‘‘A facida faja: rezletch a forzatokonyvbol’’ (script extract), in Filmkultura (Budapest), January-February 1979. Books: Olmi, Ermanno, L’albero degli zoccoli, Bergamo, 1979. Dell’Acqua, Gian Piero, L’albero degli zoccoli nell’Italia 1978, Milan, 1979. Dillon, Jeanne, Ermanno Olmi, Florence, 1986. Articles: Ahlander, L., ‘‘Traskor och diktatorer Rapport fran Cannes 78,’’ in Chaplin (Stockholm), no. 157, 1978. Devillers, M., and others, ‘‘Ermanno Olmi,’’ in Cinématographe (Paris), no. 40, 1978. Prono, F., in Cinema Nuovo (Bari), July-August 1978. Masson, A., and others, in Positif (Paris), September 1978. Zambetti, S., ‘‘La realta contadina del Bergamasco nel film di Olmi e nei dati storici,’’ in Cineforum (Bergamo), November 1978. Borseno, C., in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), series 23, 1979. McCormick, R., in Cineaste (New York), no. 4, 1979. Bonneville, L., in Séquences (Montreal), April 1979. Salje, G., in Film und Ton (Munich), May 1979. Coleman, John, in New Statesman (London), 11 May 1979. Castell, D., in Films Illustrated (London), June 1979. D’Elia, G., ‘‘Angeli e peccatori nell’ Albero degli zoccoli,’’ in Cineforum (Bergamo), June 1979. Pym, John, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), June 1979. Seesslen, G., ‘‘Das Land verliert, die Stadt gewinnt, der Bauer wird vertrieben,’’ in Film und Ton (Munich), June 1979. Canby, Vincent, in New York Times, 1 June 1979. L’ALBERO DEGLI ZOCCOLIFILMS, 4 th EDITION 27 L’Albero degli zoccoli ALEXANDER NEVSKY FILMS, 4 th EDITION 28 Kauffmann, Stanley, ‘‘Curious Career,’’ in New Republic (New York), 2 June 1979. Sarris, Andrew, in Village Voice (New York), 4 June 1979. Kroll, Jack, ‘‘An Italian Classic,’’ in Newsweek (New York), 4 June 1979. Gill, Brendan, in New Yorker, 18 June 1979. Martin R., in Films in Review (New York), August-September 1979. Simon, John, ‘‘The Soil and the Soiled,’’ in National Revue (New York), 3 August 1979. Gladych, Michael B., in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1980–81. Hirshfield, C., in Film and History (Newark, New Jersey), Febru- ary 1981. Leigh, Mike, ‘‘L’arbre aux sabots,’’ in Positif (Paris), June 1994. *** At the same time, Italy produced two films about peasant life at the turn of the century: Bertolucci’s 1900 and Olmi’s Tree of the Wooden Clogs, yet Olmi’s work received more unqualified praise and caused more fierce debate than did the opus of his younger colleague. After Tree won the Golden Palm at Cannes, there were those who declared it a masterpiece, a supreme vision of beauty and poetry, a profoundly humanist testament. The film didn’t deal directly with history; it was history. Other critics viewed it as an egocentric and myopic vision, dealing with personal nostalgia, negating historical and social issues, and taking refuge in a strict Catholicism. Everyone, no matter what their ideological bias, did agree that it was an exceedingly beautiful work of formal perfection. With this, his ninth feature, Olmi shared the limelight that had not been his since the time of Il posto and I fidanzati. Tree of the Wooden Clogs belongs to the finest works of the tradition of cinematic realism. Olmi has stated that the masters who had greatly influenced him were Robert Flaherty (especially Louisi- ana Story and Man of Aran) and Roberto Rossellini. One could add Georges Rouquier’s study of French Catholic farmers in Farrebique and Luchino Visconti’s epic-length film on Sicilian fishermen, La terra trema. In regard to this tradition, Olmi’s film has both similari- ties and differences. Like all the above, Olmi feels a deep dedication to his work and often spends years carefully choosing his subject matter and planning each film project. Olmi had conceived the idea 20 years before he realized this film; he had based his subject on stories told to him by his grandfather. For the film, like Visconti, Olmi spent months living in villages and interviewing thousands of peasants, a score of which became the principal actors of the film. Olmi began without a definite script; the actions and dialogue came from the actors themselves. Rare to Italian cinema, Olmi insisted upon shoot- ing with direct sound and utilizing only the Bergamesque dialect, although, like Visconti in 1948, marketing difficulties demanded that Olmi produce a version in Italian as well. In this case, however, the Italian version was dubbed by the actors themselves. Olmi obtained a completely natural performance from his characters who are all framed in centrally based compositions in the film. Although there are many close-ups, the eyes of the characters are rarely aimed directly at the camera and thus do not confront the spectator. The richly saturated colors—russets, deep greens, browns, and tans—are earth tones natural to the countryside and peasant life. Except in a few isolated cases, the Italian cinema has rarely dealt directly with the peasantry, but Olmi has added nothing extra to what would normally occur in the pre-industrial countryside. As in the best of the realist tradition, all shooting was done on location and natural lighting prevails. Contrary to Rossellini and Visconti, and much closer to Rouquier, for example, is the fact that almost nothing happens in the film. Given its episodic nature that follows seasonal changes in the lives of five families in Lombardy, the highlights are the birth of a baby, the slaughtering of a pig, the discovery of a gold coin in the dirt, a couple’s honeymoon trip on a barge to Milan, and a father who cuts down a tree in order to make a sandal for his son, from whence comes the film’s title. One particular scene caused much of the divided critical opinion—the miracle of the cow. A woman’s cow is ill; she prays for it and it miraculously regains its health. Olmi here stressed the primacy of religious faith; a Catholicism which offered a world of culture and learning to the peasantry as well as providing a source of magic and myth, symbols and stories. —Elaine Mancini ALEXANDER NEVSKY USSR, 1938 Director: Sergei Eisenstein Production: Mosfilm; black and white, 35mm; length: 3044 meters. Released 23 November 1938. Filmed June through November 1938 in Moscow. Scenario: Sergei Eisenstein and Pyotr Pavlenko; collaborating director: D. J. Vasiliev; photography: Edward Tisse; editor: Sergei Eisenstein; sound: B. Volsky and V. Popov; production design: Isaac Shpinel, Nikolai Soloviov, and K. Yeliseyev from Eisenstein’s sketches; music: Sergei Prokofiev; costume designers: Isaac Shpinel, Nikolai Soloviov, and K. Yeliseyev from Eisenstein’s sketches; consultant on work with actors: Elena Telesheva. Cast: Nikolai Cherkasov (Prince Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky); Nikolai Okhlopkov (Vasili Busali); Alexander Abrikosov (Gavrilo Oleksich); Dmitri Orlov (Ignat, Master Armorer); Vasili Novikov (Pavsha, Governor of Pskov); Nikolai Arsky (Domash Tverdislavich); Vera Ivasheva (Olga, a Novogorod girl); Varvarra Massalitinova (Amelfa Timofeyevna); Anna Danilova (Vasilisa, a girl of Pskov); Vladimir Yershov (Von Blak, Grand Master of the Livonian Order); Sergei Blinnikov (Tverdilo, traitorous Mayor of Pskov); Ivan Lagutin (Ananias); Lev Fenin (Bishop); Naum Rogozhin (Black-robed Monk). Awards: Order of Lenin award, Soviet Union, 1939. Publications Script: Eisenstein: 3 Films, edited by Jay Leyda, New York, 1974. Books: Rotha, Paul, and others, Eisenstein 1898–1948, London, 1948. Eisenstein, Sergei, Film Form, New York, 1949. Eisenstein, Sergei, Notes of a Film Director, London, 1959. Leyda, Jay, Kino, London, 1960. ALEXANDER NEVSKYFILMS, 4 th EDITION 29 Alexander Nevsky Mitry, Jean, S. M. Eisenstein, Paris, 1961. Konlecher and Kubelka, editors, Sergei Michailowitsch Eisenstein, Vienna, 1964. Moussinac, Léon, Sergei Eisenstein, New York, 1970. Martin, Marcel, and others, The Complete Works of Sergei Eisenstein, New York, 1971. Barna, Yon, Eisenstein, Bloomington, Indiana, 1974. Fernandez, Dominique, Eisenstein, Paris, 1975. Sudendorf, W., and others, Sergei M. Eisenstein: Materialien zu Leben und Werk, Munich, 1975. Weise, E., editor, Sergei M. Eisenstein in Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten, Reinbek, 1975. Eisenstein, Sergei, Film Sense, New York, 1975. Swallow, Norman, Eisenstein: A Documentary Portrait, New York, 1977. Seton, Marie, Sergei Eisenstein, London, 1978. Leyda, Jay, and Zina Vovnow, Eisenstein at Work, New York, 1982. Eisenstein, Sergei, Immortal Memories: An Autobiography, Bos- ton, 1983. Marshall, Herbert, Masters of the Soviet Cinema: Cripplied Creative Biographies, London, 1983. Polan, Dana B., The Political Language of Film and the Avant-Garde, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1985. Aumont, Jacques, Montage Eisenstein, London, 1987. Eisenstein, Sergei, Selected Works 1: Writings 1922–1934, edited by Richard Taylor, London, 1988. Jassenjawsky, Igor, Von Eisenstein bis Tarkovskij; Die Malerei der Filmregisseure Russlands, Munchen, 1990. Goodwin, James, Eisenstein, Cinema, & History, Champaign, 1993. Taylor, Richard, S.M. Eisenstein: Writings, 1934–47, London, 1996. Bergan, Ronald, Sergei Eisenstein: A Life in Conflict, New York, 1999. Articles: Nugent, Frank S., in New York Times, 23 March 1939. Kunitz, J., ‘‘Eisenstein’s Resurgence,’’ in New Republic (New York), 29 March 1939. Weinberg, Herman, in Sight and Sound, (London), Spring 1939. Hoellering, F., ‘‘Eisenstein Has Been Subordinated to the Orders of the Monolithic State,’’ in Nation (New York), 8 April 1939. Maddow, Ben, ‘‘Eisenstein and the Historical Films,’’ in Hollywood Quarterly, October 1945. Soliski, Waclaw, ‘‘The End of Sergei Eisenstein: Case History of an Artist under Dictatorship,’’ in Commentary (New York), March 1949. Kawicki, Dennis, in Cineaste (New York), Fall 1968. Jurenev, R., ‘‘Cuvstvo Rodiny,’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), Novem- ber 1973. ALEXANDER NEVSKY FILMS, 4 th EDITION 30 Levaco, R., ‘‘The Eisenstein-Prokofiev Correspondence,’’ in Cinema Journal (Iowa City), Fall 1973. Kjorup, S., in Kosmorama (Copenhagen), no. 136, 1977. Roberts, P. D., ‘‘Prokofiev’s Score and Cantata for Eisenstein’s Alexander Nevsky,’’ in Semiotica (New York), nos. 1–2, 1977. Gallez, Douglas W., ‘‘The Prokofiev-Eisenstein Collaboration: Nevsky and Ivan Revisited,’’ in Cinema Journal (Evanston, Illinois), no. 2, 1978. Balter, L., Film Culture (New York), nos. 70–71, 1983. Guilbert, Pierre, ‘‘Ou vitrail à la scène,’’ in Cahiers de la Cinémathèque (Perpignan), 1986. Turner, George, ‘‘Alexander Nevsky Comes Back in Style,’’ in American Cinematographer (Los Angeles), November 1987. Firstenberg, Jean Picker, ‘‘Alexander Nevsky: A Classic Collabora- tion,’’ in American Film (Washington, D.C.), November 1987. Guneratne, A. R., ‘‘History as Propaganda: The Portrait of Stalin as Medieval Hero and its Epic Frame,’’ in Cinefocus (Bloomington, Indiana), no. 2, 1990. Furie, K., ‘‘Nevsky Alive and Well,’’ in New York Times, 20 Octo- ber 1991. Merritt, Russell, ‘‘Recharging Alexander Nevsky: Tracking the Eisenstein-Prokofiev War Horse,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1994. Saada, N., ‘‘Serguei Prokofiev: Alexandre Nevski,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), nos. 127–128, 1995. Vallerand, F., ‘‘Musiques pour Eisenstein,’’ in Séquences (Haute- Ville), no. 183, March/April 1996. *** The cinematic works of Sergei Eisenstein demonstrate a continu- ous effort to explore and develop the elements of his theory of montage. Two marked phases of style and technique are evident in this development. The first phase consists of Eisenstein’s silent films of the 1920s, the second is associated with his 1930s and 1940s sound films. In the first phase of his cinematic career Eisenstein introduces the formal concepts of intellectual montage, mise-en-scène, and a revolutionary new narrative concept: the portrayal of the mass as hero. With Alexander Nevsky Eisenstein enters a second phase in which the individual within the collective dominates the narrative, while vertical montage and pictorial composition replace intellectual montage as the primary formal devices in his films. These new techniques are not totally divorced from Eisenstein’s early film methods, but have evolved from them. The emphasis upon the individual within the collective in Alexan- der Nevsky can be seen as the maturing of the earlier concept in which the mass is portrayed as hero. Reflecting upon Soviet silent cinema, Eisenstein writes that the films are flawed in that they fail to fully represent the concept of collectivity: ‘‘collectivism means the maxi- mum development of the individual within the collective . . . Our first mass films missed this deeper meaning.’’ In the depiction of ‘‘the general-revolutionary slogan’’ of the 1920s, the mass as hero func- tioned well, but to convey the more specific Communist message of the 1930s, images of leading individuals were needed. In Alexander Nevsky the theme of the Russian people’s patriotism is emphasized through such exemplary characters as Prince Alexan- der, Busali, and Gavrilo Oleksich. Even though this narrative ap- proach resembles that of more traditional cinema, Eisenstein’s char- acters embody patriotic ideals in such an extreme way that they become symbols rather than simple heroic personalities. The story of Alexander Nevsky lends itself to this larger-than-life treatment of its characters. It presents historical figures and events of such mythic proportions that, while the viewer may sympathize with the charac- ters, he does not easily identify with them, and so the viewer is not distracted from the general theme of the film. It is intended that the ideas the characters represent will be remembered rather than their individual personalities. The characters must support, even succumb to, the dominant theme of the strength and patriotism of the Rus- sian people. Structuring a film so that all its individual elements are controlled by the theme is a formal concern common to both silent and sound film in Eisenstein’s work. In the early silent films this formal method was referred to as overtonal montage, and dictated that all the visual images of a film, which have been developed through the use of intellectual, metric, rhythmic, and tonal montage, serve to reveal and illustrate the dominant theme. The controlling formal method in Alexander Nevsky, vertical montage, is much the same as overtonal, but with the additional element of sound. Vertical montage, according to Eisenstein, links different spheres of feeling—particularly the visual image with the sound image—to create a single, unified effect. The audio and visual elements are not only governed by the dominant theme of the film, but work together to convey that theme in a strongly emotional manner. The attack of the German wedge on the Russian army in ‘‘The Battle on the Ice’’ sequence in Alexander Nevsky demonstrates this appeal to the emotions. The musical score contributes greatly to the pacing and emotional tone of the sequence. Changes in the pace of pictorial movement are accompanied by a corresponding rhythmic or melodic change. In addition, Eisenstein uses the combination of sound and image to suggest to the viewer things that cannot actually be seen on screen. Although this approach resembles that of intellec- tual montage, it functions on a more poetic or metaphorical level. For example, Eisenstein causes us to experience the leaping and pounding of horses’ hooves as equivalent to the beating of an agitated heart, a heart experiencing the increasing terror of the battle on the ice. The most obvious use of vertical montage in Alexander Nevsky is in the relationship throughout the film between the musical score and the pictorial composition. This relationship was developed through several different methods. For some sequences the music was written with a general theme or idea in mind. In other sequences the music was written for an already assembled visual episode. In yet other sequences, the visual images were edited to music already on the sound track. The final result of these editing methods is a connection between the visuals and the musical score that goes beyond the enhancement of the mood of a sequence. Throughout Alexander Nevsky Eisenstein strives for a complete correspondence between the movement of the music and the movement of the eye over the lines of the plastic composition. The same motion found within the image composition of a shot sequence can be found in the complementary musical score for that sequence. That is, the ascending or descending shape of the notes of the written musical score correspond directly to the movement of the eye over the planes of the composition within each shot of a film sequence. Although the details of this complex sound-image relationship may not be apparent while viewing Alexan- der Nevsky, what is apparent is the solidity this relationship lends to the film. The sound and visual elements combine to create a unified whole. Eisenstein states that, in comparison to the films of the 1920s, the new Soviet sound cinema appeared more traditional ‘‘and much ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONTFILMS, 4 th EDITION 31 closer to the foreign cinema than those films that once declared war to the death against its (the foreign cinema’s) very principles and methods.’’ Two elements that contribute to the traditional appearance of Alexander Nevsky are its story and pictorial composition which are based in conventional techniques drawn from literature and painting. In the 1930s Eisenstein had become interested in the application of other art forms to film. Literature, he felt, offered ‘‘the dramatics of subject.’’ Cinema should again be concerned with story and plot— concepts Eisenstein had condemned in the 1920s—but this was not a call for a return to conventional content. Eisenstein felt that conventional forms could be utilized to present fresh content. The new story would not be centered around a traditional bourgeois hero, but would instead feature modern protagonists who represent the individual within the collective. These individuals, as we see in Alexander Nevsky, would embody the ideology of the proletariat. In contrast to the photographic quality of Eisenstein’s earlier films, the individual frames of Alexander Nevsky are reminiscent of painted battle scenes and landscapes. This is why the battle scenes may appear unrealistic: they are highly stylized, like paintings. An example of this approach is the creation of ‘‘The Battle on the Ice.’’ Not only was the composition of individual shots stylized, but the landscape itself was totally simulated. The winter battle scene was actually shot in the heat of July; the ice and snow were created with melted glass, alabaster, chalk, and salt. The appearance of the summer sky was altered with the use of a filter on the camera lens. The scene was almost literally painted on a blank canvas. Although some critics were disappointed with Eisenstein’s varia- tions on, or departure from, his earlier methods, Alexander Nevsky was a success upon its release in 1938. Probably Eisenstein’s most commercially popular film in his own country, it also survived the scrutiny of Joseph Stalin, earning the symbol of official government approval, the Order of Lenin, in February of 1939. Soviet and foreign critics alike applauded the film as the work which, after more than six years of unproductivity, not all of it voluntary, returned Eisenstein to his former status as one of the foremost creative talents of the Soviet cinema. Alexander Nevsky is viewed in much the same manner today as it was upon its original release. It is not considered Eisenstein’s best film but its epic qualities and cinematic achievement, and particularly the ‘‘Battle on the Ice’’ sequence, are appreciated. The concept of vertical montage, however, has come under closer scrutiny than in past years. Although critics may disagree on the extent to which the sound-image unity of vertical montage is at work in this particular film, they do seem to agree on the importance of Eisenstein’s theoretical effort: he was one of the first to attempt an articulation of the relationship between sound and image in cinema. —Marie Saeli ALI: FEAR EATS THE SOUL See ANGST ESSEN SEELE AUF ALL ABOUT MY MOTHER See TODO SOBRE MI MADRE ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONT USA, 1930 Director: Lewis Milestone Production: Universal Pictures Corp.; Moviestone sound, black and white, 35mm (also silent version with synchronized music); running time: 140 minutes; length: 14 reels, 12,423 feet (with synchronized music 15 reels). Released April 1930, Los Angeles. Re-released 1939 but reduced to 10 reels; re-released 1950 in the United States; re- released 1963 in France. Filmed 1930 in Universal Studio backlots; battle scenes shot at Irvine Ranch, California. Producer: Carl Laemmle, Jr.; screenplay: Dell Andrews, Maxwell Anderson, and George Abbott; titles: Walter Anthony, from the novel by Erich Maria Remarque; photography: Arthur Edeson, Karl Freund, and Tony Gaudio; editors: Edgar Adams and Milton Carruth; sound technician: William W. Hedgecock; art directors: Charles D. Hall and William Schmidt; music and synchronization: David Broekman; recording engineer: C. Roy Hunter; special effects: Frank Booth; dialogue director: George Cukor. Cast: Louis Wolheim (Katczincky); Lew Ayres (Paul Baumer); John Wray (Himmelstoss); George (Slim) Summerville (Tiaden); Russell Gleason (Muller); Raymond Griffith (Gerard Duval); Ben Alexander (Kemmerich); Owen Davis, Jr. (Peter); Beryl Mercer (Mrs. Baumer; in silent version ZaSu Pitts is Mrs. Baumer); Joan Marsh (Poster girl); Yola d’Avril (Suzanne); Arnold Lucy (Kantorek); Scott Kolk (Leer); Walter Browne Rogers (Behm); Richard Alexander (Westhus); Renee Damonde and Poupee Andriot (French girls); Edwin Maxwell (Mr. Baumer); Harold Goodwin (Detering); Marion Clayton (Miss Baumer); G. Pat Collins (Lieutenant Berlenck); Bill Irving (Ginger); Edmund Breese (Herr Mayer); Heinie Conklin (Hammacher); Bertha Mann (Sister Libertine); William Bakewell (Albert); Bodil Rosing (Watcher); Tom London (Orderly); Vince Barnett (Cook); Fred Zinnemann (Man). Awards: Oscars for Best Picture and Best Direction, 1929/30; American Film Institute’s ‘‘100 Years, 100 Movies,’’ 1998. Publications Script: Andrews, Dell, Maxwell Anderson, and George Abbott, All Quiet on the Western Front, in Best American Screenplays 1, edited by Sam Thomas, New York, 1982. Books: Rotha, Paul, Celluloid: The Film Today, London, 1931. Higham, Charles, and Joel Greenberg, The Celluloid Muse: Holly- wood Directors Speak, Chicago, 1969. ALL QUIET ON THE WESTERN FRONT FILMS, 4 th EDITION 32 All Quiet on the Western Front Tuska, John, editor, ‘‘Lewis Milestone,’’ in Close Up: The Contract Director, New Jersey, 1976. Millichap, Joseph R., Lewis Milestone, Boston, 1981. Articles: Dean, Loretta K., in American Cinematographer (Hollywood), March 1930. Close Up (London), March 1930. Variety (Hollywood), 7 May 1930. Beaton, Welford, ‘‘Should Old Acquaintance Be Forgot?’’ in Holly- wood Spectator, 25 September 1937. Reisz, Karel, ‘‘Milestone and War,’’ in Sequence (London), 1950. Jones, Dorothy, ‘‘War Without Glory,’’ in Quarterly of Film, Radio, and Television (Berkeley), Spring 1954. Cutts, John, in Films and Filming (London), April 1963. Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), 15 November 1963. Spears, Jack, ‘‘Louis Wolheim,’’ in Films in Review (New York), March 1972. Diehl, Digby, ‘‘An Interview with Lewis Milestone,’’ in Action (Los Angeles), July-August 1972. Canham, Kingsley, ‘‘Lewis Milestone,’’ in Henry King, Lewis Mile- stone, Sam Wood, by Canham and others, London, 1974. Schlech, Eugene P. A., ‘‘All Quiet on the Western Front: A History Teacher’s Reappraisal,’’ in Film and History, December 1978. Fox, J., in Films and Filming (London), April 1980. Pym, John, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), May 1980. Weemaes, G., in Filme en Televisie (Brussels), May-June 1981. Mitchell, G. J., ‘‘Making All Quiet on the Western Front,’’ in American Cinematographer (Hollywood), September 1985. Kelly, Andrew, ‘‘All Quiet on the Western Front: ‘Brutal cutting, stupid censors and bigoted politicos’,’’ in Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television (Abingdon), vol. 9, no. 2, June 1989. Whiteclay Chambers, John, III, ‘‘All Quiet on the Western Front (1930): The Anti-war Film and the Image of the First World War,’’ in Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television (Abingdon), vol. 14, no. 4, October 1994. *** All Quiet on the Western Front made Lew Ayres a star and was responsible for the start of George Cukor’s screen career and the ALL THAT HEAVEN ALLOWSFILMS, 4 th EDITION 33 establishment of Lewis Milestone as a director of international repute. Milestone directed four further films concerned with war, notably A Walk in the Sun, but none measured up to All Quiet, and, indeed, the director never achieved the same success as this film brought. The film also boded well for the production career of Carl Laemmle, Jr., a much derided executive, who turned out a surprising number of major artistic features at his father’s studio in the early through mid-1930s. A passionate portrayal of the horror of war, the film was the first to depict the ‘‘Hun’’ as simply a scared boy. All Quiet can be divided into four distinct parts. The first details the enlistment of the young recruits; the second their arrival at the front; the third the various incidents of war; and, finally, the hero Paul Baumer’s homecoming, his hastened return to the front, and his death. The film remains faithful to the Erich Maria Remarque novel. It was the most success- ful of a trio of features released at this time which take a pacifist approach to World War I, the other two being the British Journey’s End and the German Westfront 1918. All Quiet on the Western Front was the first sound film to use a giant mobile crane, particularly for filming the realistically-staged battle sequences, and one of the first talkies to boast a mobility of camerawork in general. Credit for this must, of course, go to Lewis Milestone, but George Cukor’s contribu- tion to the film should not be—as it is so often—overlooked. It was Cukor who rehearsed the actors and established a neutrality to their accents which is of inestimable value in putting across the produc- tion’s emotional message. There are no real stars in All Quiet, with each actor giving a passionate cameo performance, be it Louis Wolheim as the brusque yet sympathetic Katczinsky, Raymond Griffith as the French soldier killed by Baumer, William Bakewell as Baumer’s pal, Albert, or Beryl Mercer as Baumer’s mother (a role played in the silent version by ZaSu Pitts). Released initially in a 140-minute version. All Quiet on the Western Front has been successively cut through the years, until most prints today run as short as 90 or 110 minutes. These truncated versions fail to capture the film’s momentum as the recruits become more and more involved in the war and its horrors. The most extraordinary edited version of the feature, however, was a 1939 reissue which included an anti-Nazi narration. —Anthony Slide ALL THAT HEAVEN ALLOWS USA, 1955 Director: Douglas Sirk Production: Universal-International; Technicolor; running time: 89 minutes; released October 1955. Producer: Ross Hunter; screenplay: Peg Fenwick, from a story by Edna L. Lee and Harry Lee; photography: Russell Metty; editors: Frank Gross, Fred Baratta; sound: Leslie I. Carey, Joe Lapis; art director: Alexander Golitzen, Eric Orbom; music supervisor: Joseph Gershenson. All That Heaven Allows Cast: Jane Wyman (Cary Scott); Rock Hudson (Ron Kirby); Agnes Moorehead (Sara Warren); Conrad Nagel (Harvey); Virginia Grey (Alida Anderson); Gloria Talbott (Kay Scott); William Reynolds (Ned Scott); Jacqueline de Wit (Mona Plash); Charles Drake (Mick Anderson) Publications Books: Halliday, Jon, Sirk on Sirk, London, 1971; New York, 1972. Bourget, Jean-Loup, Douglas Sirk, Paris, 1984. Althen, Michael, Rock Hudson: Seine Filme, sein leben, Munich, 1986. Hudson, Rock, and Sara Davidson, Rock Hudson: His Story, Lon- don, 1986. Quirk, Lawrence J., Jane Wyman, the Actress and the Woman: An Illustrated Biography, New York, 1986. Gledhill, Christine, editor, Home is Where the Heart Is: Studies in Melodrama and the Woman’s Film, London, 1987. L?ufer, Elisabeth, Skeptiker des Lichts: Douglas Sirk und seine Filme, Frankfurt, 1987. Articles: Variety (New York), 26 October 1955. Monthly Film Bulletin (London), October 1955. Comolli, Jean-Louis, ‘‘L’Aveugle et le miroir; ou, L’Impossible Cinéma de Douglas Sirk,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), April 1967. ALL THAT HEAVEN ALLOWS FILMS, 4 th EDITION 34 Willemen, Paul, ‘‘Distanciation and Douglas Sirk,’’ in Screen (Lon- don), Summer 1971. Elsaesser, Thomas, ‘‘Tales of Sound and Fury: Observations on the Family Melodrama,’’ in Monogram (London), no. 4, 1972. Willemen, Paul, ‘‘Towards an Analysis of the Sirkian System,’’ in Screen (London), Winter 1972–73. McCourt, J., ‘‘Douglas Sirk: Melo Maestro,’’ in Film Comment (New York), November-December 1975. Fassbinder, Rainer Werner, ‘‘Fassbinder on Sirk,’’ in Film Comment (New York), November-December 1975. Thousand Eyes Magazine (New York), January 1976. Creed, Barbara, ‘‘The Position of Women in Hollywood Melodra- mas,’’ in Australian Journal of Screen Theory (Kensington, New South Wales), no. 3, 1977. Mulvey, Laura, ‘‘Notes on Sirk and Melodrama,’’ in Movie (Lon- don), Winter, 1977–78. Kleinhans, Chuck, ‘‘Notes on Melodrama and the Family under Capitalism,’’ in Film Reader (Evanston, Illinois), no. 3, 1978. Film Psychology Review (New York), Summer-Fall 1980. McNiven, R. D., ‘‘The Middle-Class American Home of the Fifties,’’ in Cinema Journal (Chicago), Summer 1983. Kuiper, E., ‘‘Douglas Sirk: Analyse op de montagetafel,’’ in Skoop (Amsterdam), June-July 1985. Hunter, Ross, in American Film (Washington, D.C.), April 1988. Poppe, E., ‘‘Reflexions sur le role thematique: la veuve dans All That Heaven Allows, de D. Sirk,’’ in Iris (Iowa City), no. 2, 1988. Klasen, B., ‘‘Het voordeel van de twijfel,’’ in Versus (Am Nijmegen), 1, 1989. Babington, Bruce and Evans, P., ‘‘All That Heaven Allowed,’’ in Movie, 34–35, Winter 1990. Metz, W.C., ‘‘Pomp(ous) Sirk-umstance: Intertextuality, Adaptation, and All That Heaven Allows,’’ in Journal of Film and Video (Atlanta), vol. 45, no. 4, Winter 1993. Reimer, Robert C., ‘‘Comparison of Douglas Sirk’s All That Heaven Allows and R. W. Fassbinder’s Ali: Fear Eats the Soul; or, How Hollywood’s New England Dropouts Became Germany’s Marginalized Other,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury), vol. 24, no. 3, 1996. *** With the politicizing of film criticism in the early 1970s, Douglas Sirk and his films took on a major importance. Already a distin- guished theatre and film director before fleeing Nazi Germany for America, Sirk, who held leftist sympathies, had been influenced by Brechtian aesthetic theory. Of his Hollywood films, Sirk’s 1950s melodramas were of particular interest: on the one hand, he was under an obligation to the studio to fulfil the viewer’s expectations regard- ing the genre’s dictates; on the other, Sirk, through formal strategies (lighting, decor, colour, etc., and the foregrounding of conventions) introduced disruptive and distancing elements into his films. As he readily acknowledged in interviews, his ‘‘excessive’’ presentation of the material was intended to make the ideological assumptions and values underpinning the films’ concerns more fully apparent and, therefore, open to a critical scrutiny. Under contract to Universal-International throughout the 1950s, Sirk most often worked with the producer Ross Hunter who gravitated towards the ‘‘woman’s film’’ in order to provide vehicles for more mature female stars. All That Heaven Allows was made in response to the highly popular Magnificent Obsession which teamed Jane Wyman and Rock Hudson who, because of the film, became a major star. In addition to All That Heaven Allows, There’s Always Tomorrow, and Imitation of Life are particularly notable Hunter-produced Sirk films. There’s Always Tomorrow, which is one of Sirk’s finest works, has not received the amount of critical attention it deserves. This may have occurred because the film is not Sirk at his most audacious— there is, for instance, nothing in the film that approaches the famous scene in All That Heaven Allows in which Wyman’s children, after being instrumental in breaking up her relationship with Hudson, present her with a television on Christmas Eve so that she can ‘‘experience’’ life at her finger tips. This extraordinary sequence ends with a shot of Wyman’s reflection on the television’s blank screen. Sirk faced a major constraint with the All That Heaven Allows project in that the film had to have a happy ending in which Wyman and Hudson are reunited as they were at the conclusion of their previous film. Conceivably, the demand contributes to the awkward- ness of the film’s resolution. On the other hand, the film’s subject matter gave Sirk a particularly strong opportunity to mount a scathing critique, which is astonishingly direct, of middle-class American society in which class and gender oppression are the structuring principles. Wyman, a 40-ish widow of prominent social position living in a small New England town, is rejected by her peers when she becomes romantically involved with Hudson who, in addition to being considerably younger, practises gardening, i.e., labouring, to help finance his plan to own a nursery. Preceding Wyman’s relation- ship with Hudson, the film indicates what is expected of her: the devoting of her remaining years to her husband’s memory and the taking care of their children who are already young adults; alterna- tively, if she should remarry, it would be solely for the purpose of companionship. Yet, in the first country club sequence, Wyman experiences an attempted physical seduction and is offered a clandes- tine affair; and, in the second sequence, in which she tries formally to introduce Hudson into her social circle, she is subjected to verbal derision. (In the latter sequence, the occasion being celebrated is a middle-aged man’s engagement to a much younger woman.) Sirk uses both of these sequences to present the bourgeoisie as hypocriti- cal, emotionally bankrupt, and vicious when it comes to maintaining their social elitism. In addition to the external pressures, Wyman is also rebuked by her children who are totally committed to their middle-class identities and fear, as she does, social ostracism. Although Sirk takes full advantage of these aspects of the material, he has difficulty in providing an alternative to the dominant ideology, given the genre’s dictates and Hollywood’s ideological imperatives. Hudson, who is associated with nature, self-definition, and the rejection of social status, offers Wyman a retreat, visually represented by the abandoned mill which he converts into their ‘‘new’’ home, into a mythic vision of what America represents. Interestingly, Hudson’s position prefigures the counter-culture movements of the 1960s but, like those, it doesn’t have a coherent political platform and, as such, is an inadequate solution. Most likely Sirk was obliged to find an alternative within American culture which accounts for the Thoreau references; presumably, to signal the failure of such an endeavour, Sirk repeatedly defines the Wyman/Hudson relationship in relation to the fragile: for example, Wyman accidentally smashes the Wedg- wood tea pot which Hudson has reconstructed but, more tellingly, the film concludes with Hudson being incapacitated. In the film’s am- biguous final shot, the fawn, which has been previously associated with Hudson, is seen through a window which separates the couple from nature. (The Christmas Eve sequence is introduced with a shot of Wyman peering out from a window watching carol singers and ALL THE KING’S MENFILMS, 4 th EDITION 35 children. Again, the image suggests confinement and isolation.) As a result, although Sirk clearly intends the film’s happy-ending con- vention to be less than satisfying, the specific reason for his undercut- ting of the film’s resolution remains inarticulated. Wyman’s screen persona is well used. Thoughout the film’s initial sequences, she conveys both the character’s passive identity and her unformulated resistance (given expression through the red dress she wears to the country club) to the life she is supposed to be content with. And, with this film, Hudson fully established his screen persona— while exerting a masculine image of inner strength, he also convinc- ingly suggests, in the intimate sequences with Wyman in the aban- doned mill, a strong emotional vulnerability which challenges tradi- tional gender-role expectations. Although the formal aspects of Sirk’s work led to the initial critical attention, his films, as melodramas, have been equally of interest to the concerns of feminist film criticism. As an analysis of a middle-class woman’s oppression, All That Heaven Allows is an extremely powerful statement. —Richard Lippe ALL THE KING’S MEN USA, 1949 Director: Robert Rossen Production: Columbia Pictures Corp.; black and white, 35mm; running time: 109 minutes. Released 1949. Filmed in Columbia studios. Producer: Robert Rossen; screenplay: Robert Rossen from the novel by Robert Penn Warren; photography: Burnett Guffey; edi- tors: Al Clark and Robert Parrish; production designers: Sturges Carne and Louis Diage; music: Louis Gruenberg and Morris Stoloff; costume designer; Jean Louis; consultant: Robert Parrish. Cast: Broderick Crawford (Willie Stark); Joanne Dru (Anne Stanton); John Ireland (Jack Burden); John Derek (Tom Stark); Mercedes McCambridge (Sadie Burke); Sheppard Strudwick (Adam Stanton); Anne Seymour (Lucy Stark); Raymond Greenleaf (Judge Stanton); Ralph Dumke (Tiny Duffy); Katherine Warren (Mrs. Burden); Walter Burke (Sugar Boy); Will Wright (Dolph Pillsbury); Grandon Rhodes (Floyd McEvoy); H. C. Miller (Pa Stark); Richard Hale (Hale); William Bruce (Commissioner). Awards: Oscars for Best Film, Best Actor (Crawford), and Best Supporting Actress (McCambridge), 1949; New York Film Critics’ Awards for Best Film and Best Actor (Crawford), 1949. Publications Script: Rossen, Robert, All the King’s Men, edited by Steven Rossen, in Three Screenplays, New York, 1972. Books: Callenbach, Ernest, Our Modern Art: The Movies, Chicago, 1955. Casty, Alan, The Films of Robert Rossen, New York, 1969. Ireland, John A., Living in Hollywood & Other Crimes of Passion; An Intimate Biography of Actor John Ireland, Fresno, 1997. Articles: Hitchcock, Peggy, in Films in Review (New York), February 1950. Winnington, Richard, in Sight and Sound (London), June 1950. Rossen, Robert, ‘‘The Face of Independence,’’ in Films and Filming (London), August 1962. ‘‘Rossen Issue’’ of Films in Review (New York), June-July 1962. Noames, Jean-Louis, ‘‘Lessons Learned in Combat: Interview with Robert Rossen,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma in English (New York), January 1967. Dark, C., ‘‘Reflections of Robert Rossen,’’ in Cinema (London), August 1970. Mellen, Joan, ‘‘Fascism in the Contemporary Film,’’ in Film Quar- terly (Berkeley), Summer 1971. Wald, M., ‘‘Robert Rossen,’’ in Films in Review (New York), August-September 1972. Milne, Tom, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), February 1986. Combs, Richard, in Listener (London), 7 July 1988. *** All the King’s Men is one of the best political films of all time. It is based on Robert Penn Warren’s Pulitzer Prize-winning novel of the same name which became a major best-seller, and has retained its reputation as one of the great works of American fiction. The film is a riveting account of the career of Willie Stark, a character loosely based on Louisiana’s notorious governor Huey Long, the ‘‘kingfish’’ of Southern politics in the 1920s and 1930s. Although Warren’s novel also concerns the career of Stark, who rises from small-town lawyer to governor, Stark himself is a secondary character. The protagonist as well as narrator of the novel is newspaper reporter Jack Burden whose life, thoughts, and reactions to the political goings-on are related with frequent jumps back and forth in time. In Rossen’s film version, Willie Stark becomes the main character and Burden, although still the narrator, is much less important. The film also tells the story in chronological sequence, thus relying on a more traditional type of plot. Although in recent years many films have successfully used devices such as flashbacks and flashforwards without regard to traditional chronological story progression, in 1949 this would have been startling and probably unsuccessful. By shifting the emphasis to the central character and restructuring the narrative, Rossen was able to retain the spirit of the Warren novel while still making a highly dramatic and entertaining film. Unlike many adapta- tions, of the novels of Ernest Hemingway or F. Scott Fitzgerald, for example, which have often been unsuccessful because they were either too close to or too removed from the original, All the King’s Men as a film is different from, but equally as effective as the novel. Another major reason for the success of the film is the quality of the acting. As Stark, Broderick Crawford gives a dynamic perform- ance in the only major starring role of his career. His Academy Award ALPHAVILLE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 36 All the King’s Men for Best Actor of the year was well deserved; he is equally convincing as the meek, naive country lawyer trying to help the members of his small community and as the spellbinding, power-hungry governor. The shift in his character’s personality could have been a major problem with the film yet Crawford’s acting makes both sides of the man believable. Mercedes McCambridge also won an Academy Award for her performance as the hard-shelled Sadie Burke. Others, including John Ireland as Jack Burden, are also very good, though they lack the opportunity afforded Crawford and McCambridge for a great performance. While many films which make political or sociological statements tend to date badly in a few years. All the King’s Men still seems fresh and powerful. The contradictory character of Stark, a man who wants to do good, but who succumbs to the temptation of power and the demands of his own ambition, becoming the embodiment of corrupt politics, is as relevant today as in 1949. The character of the demagogue has been known in literature for centuries, but few works have examined that figure as thoroughly and successfully as All the King’s Men. —Patricia King Hanson ALPHAVILLE France-Italy, 1965 Director: Jean-Luc Godard Production: Chaumiane (Paris) and Filmstudio (Rome); black and white, 35mm; running time: 98 minutes (some sources list 100 minutes). Released 1965. Filmed January through February 1965 in Paris. Producer: Andre Michelin; screenplay: Jean-Luc Godard, based on a character created by Peter Cheyney; assistant directors: Charles Bitsch, Jean-Paul Savignac, and Helene Kalouguine; photography: Raoul Coutard; editor: Agnes Guillemot; sound: Rene Levert; music: Paul Misraki. Cast: Eddie Constantine (Lemmy Caution); Anna Karina (Natasha von Braun); Howard Vernon (Professor von Braun); Akim Tamiroff (Henri Dickson); Laszlo Szabo (Chief Engineer); Michel Delahaye ALPHAVILLEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 37 (von Braun’s Assistant); Jean-André Fieschi (Professor Heckell); Jean-Louis Comolli (Professor Jeckell); Alpha 60 (Itself). Awards: Best Film, Berlin Film Festival, 1965. Publications Script: Godard, Jean-Luc, Alphaville, London, 1966; New York, 1968. Books: Roud, Richard, Jean-Luc Godard, New York, 1967. Mussman, Tony, editor, Jean-Luc Godard: A Critical Anthology, New York, 1968. Cameron, Ian, editor, The Films of Jean-Luc Godard, London, 1969. Collet, Jean, editor, Jean-Luc Godard, New York, 1970. Brown, Royal, editor, Focus on Godard, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1972. Alphaville Godard, Jean-Luc, Godard on Godard, edited by Tom Milne, Lon- don, 1972; revised edition, New York, 1986. Farassino, Alberto, Jean-Luc Godard, Florence, 1974. Parrish, James Robert, The Great Spy Pictures, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1974. Monaco, James, The New Wave, New York, 1976. MacCabe, Colin, Godard: Images, Sounds, Politics, London, 1980. Walsh, Martin, The Brechtian Aspect of Radical Cinema, Lon- don, 1981. Lefèvre, Raymond, Jean-Luc Godard, Paris, 1983. Bordwell, David, Narration in the Fiction Film, London, 1985. Weis, Elisabeth, and John Belton, Film Sound: Theory and Practice, New York, 1985. Loshitzky, Yosefa, The Radical Faces of Godard and Bertolucci, Detroit, 1995. Dixon, Wheeler W., The Films of Jean-Luc Godard, Albany, New York, 1997. Sterritt, David, Jean-Luc Godard; Interviews, Jackson, Missis- sippi, 1998. Sterritt, David, The Films of Jean-Luc Godard; Seeing the Invisible, New York, 1999. ALSINO Y EL CONDOR FILMS, 4 th EDITION 38 Articles: New Yorker, 21 August 1965. Roud, Richard, ‘‘Anguish: Alphaville,’’ in Sight and Sound (Lon- don), Autumn 1965. Jacob, Gilles, and Claire Clouzot, in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1965. Mekas, Jonas, in Village Voice (New York), 16 September 1965. Coutard, Raoul, ‘‘Light of Day,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1965–66. Sarris, Andrew, in Village Voice (New York), 3 November 1965. Bond, Kirk, in Film Society Review (New York), March 1966. Gow, Gordon, in Films and Filming (London), May 1966. Thomas, John in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Fall 1966. Federman, Raymond, ‘‘Jean-Luc Godard and Americanism,’’ in Film Heritage (Dayton, Ohio), Spring 1968. Nolan, Jack Edmund, ‘‘Eddie Constantine,’’ in Films in Review (New York), August-September 1968. Crofts, Stephen, ‘‘The Films of Jean-Luc Godard,’’ in Cinema (London), June 1969. Kozloff, Max, in Film Culture (New York), Winter/Spring 1970. Ropars-Wuilleumier, Marie-Claire, ‘‘Loss of Language,’’ in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), no. 3, 1976. Maclean, R., ‘‘Wittgenstein and Godard’s Alphaville,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1977–78. Blanchet, C., in Cinéma (Paris), May 1983. Pinciroli, G., ‘‘La completezza del gesto in Alphaville,’’ in Cineforum (Bergamo, Italy), December 1989. Darke, Chris, ‘‘It All Happened In Paris,’’ in Sight & Sound (Lon- don), vol. 4, no. 7, July 1994. Castoro Cinema, no. 176, March-April 1996. Brown, R.S., ‘‘Alphaville,’’ in Cineaste (New York), vol. 22, no. 1, 1996. Marek, Petr, in Film a Doba (Prague), vol. 42, no. 4, Winter 1996. *** Since the early 1950s a tendency has begun to manifest itself in the genre of the science-fiction film as an increasing number of important directors use the sci-fi form to express their views on society, mankind, the present and the future. One of these is Jean-Luc Godard, whose 1965 Alphaville takes place in a utopian world of the future. Godard’s world is not one of joy and happiness; Alphaville is governed by a totalitarian system in which the individual counts for almost nothing, and its alienated people have no use for art, love, or even thought. People are reduced essentially to the level of robots, identified only by numbers, without a will of their own, with no ideas or feelings. Even though it belongs in the category of science fiction, Godard’s film does not closely follow the conventional patterns of the genre. As a member of the French New Wave, Godard has held, since his debut, an individual and well-defined view of the cinema. One of the most important features of his work is his emphasis on the contemporary world. All of his films deal with modern man; we do not find a return to the past in his entire work. The stamp of the present can also be seen in his sole excursion into the future. Alphaville, which is less about what the world will be like tomorrow than what it is like today, and what it is gradually becoming before our very eyes without our realizing it. In the present and the past Godard sees the potential seeds of a future world, and therefore the story has an admonitory subtext. From this thematic interpretation flows the film’s realization, its formal execution and visual aspect. The viewer encounters on the screen nothing that appears to be unusual or extraordinary, and Godard even forgoes any futuristic mise-en-scène. His Alphaville of the future is the Paris of 1965, in which a dehumanizing atmosphere is expressed through the camera work of Raoul Coutard, who shoots buildings of concrete and glass in high contrast, alternates positive and negative images in very short takes, and makes particularly effective use of Paris by night. The most unusual aspect of the film is the sound, particularly the monotonous voice of the central brain governing Alphaville, a voice in contrast to the somewhat ingratiating music of Paul Misraki. A characteristic feature of the entire French New Wave was a certain admiration for the American cinema—its perfect craftsman- ship and its ability to entertain, move, or thrill with suspense. In Alphaville, Godard’s affinity for popular film can be seen, for example, in the choice of Eddie Constantine for the starring role— viewers know him chiefly from gangster films—and in the dramatic structure influenced by both film serials of the 1930s and by comic strips. Another striking feature of Godard’s direction is his free use of ideas and resources borrowed from other films and other art forms; Godard summons these according to his own needs. In Alphaville we find links with the work of Jean Cocteau in the sequence in which Lemmy converses with Alpha 60; the labyrinthine passages recall the phantasmic world of the novels of Franz Kafka; and we find a refer- ence to the ancient myth of Eurydice and the Biblical story of Lot’s wife. There are also references to the unforgotten Fascist past, as in the tattooed numbers worn by the city’s inhabitants, the name of the designer of the central brain, Professor von Braun, or the use of actual rooms of the Parisian Hotel Continental, where the Gestapo was quartered during the Occupation. These references in the film are not incidental; they are utilized intentionally to broaden and deepen the picture and shift the story to another, more relevant level. However, they do not destroy the integrity and unity of the film even when the viewer is aware of them. Godard’s films of the 1960s were often received by a portion of the public and by some critics with an enthusiasm that was almost excessive. In the course of time, some of these films have lost their appeal. This has not happened in the case of Alphaville, which remains part of a valuable current of science fiction while holding its place in the history of cinema. —B. Urgosíková ALSINO Y EL CONDOR (Alsino and the Condor) Nicaragua, 1982 Director: Miguel Littin Production: Nicaraguan Film Institute, Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art and Industry, Latin American Production of Mexico, Costa Rican Cinematographic Co-Operative; colour, 35mm; running time: 89 minutes. Filmed on location in Nicaragua. L’AMERICAFILMS, 4 th EDITION 39 Producers: Lilia Alfaro, Jose Ramon Perez; executive producer: Herman Littin; screenplay: Miguel Littin, Isadora Aguirre, Tomas Turrent; photography: Jorge Herrera, Pablo Martinez; editor: Mir- iam Talavera; sound: Germinal Hernandez; art director: Elly Menz; music: Leo Brower. Cast: Alan Esquivel (Alsino); Dean Stockwell (Frank); Carmen Bunster (Mama Buela); Alejandro Parodi (Garin); Delia Casanova (Rosario); Marta Lorena Perez (Lucia); Reinaldo Miravalles (Don Nazario); Marcelo Gaete (Lucia’s Grandfather). Awards: 1st Nicaraguan Fiction Feature. Publications Script: Littin, Miguel, and others, Alsino y el Condor, Nicaragua, 1982. Articles: Variety (New York), 9 February 1983. Valdes, Zoe, ‘‘Alsino: Las Alas del Sueno’’ in Cine Cubano (Ha- vana), number 106, 1983. Canby, Vincent, New York Times, 1 May 1983. Fernandez, Enrique, Village Voice (New York), 10 May 1983. Denby, David, New Yorker, 16 May 1983. Perez, Marta, Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), December 1983. Positif (Paris), April 1984. Bassan, Raphael, ‘‘Alsino et le Condor—Une Allegorie pour un Pays Neuf’’ in Image et Son (Paris), May 1984. Jaros, J., Film A Doba (Prague), May 1984. Dunnage, G., ‘‘Nicaragua: L’enfant qui voulait voler’’ in Jeune Cinema (Paris), June 1984. *** Miguel Littin, Chilean director in exile and former head of Chile Films, flirted with magic Realism, a style increasingly popular in fiction and following on from this, cinema, in the 1970s, with El Recurso del Metodo, and then returned to the Chileans-in-exile theme of direct criticism and allegories of the political events in Chile with Alsino y el Condor. Nearly all those involved in Chile Films during Allende’s brief tenure in office in the country were thrown out of Chile after Pinochet’s takeover of power in 1973 (some after a period of imprisonment), and despite money difficulties, some managed to keep up a form of film production. Those who did so were mostly in Socialist regimes—the Soviet Union or Cuba—but because of his contacts in the Mexican film business, Miguel Littin was able to continue his career there. This mass exodus of filmmakers from Chile who actually managed to continue filmmaking, and provide an alternative point of view to the very small number of films produced under Pinochet at this time, lead to the peculiar situation of almost an entire country’s film output being made in exile. Alsino y el Condor made at the time of the Sandanista overthrow of the Somoza regime in Nicaragua, is an allegory of the Nicaraguan people rising up to meet their oppressor. The film is a Mexican- Cuban-Nicaraguan co-production, yet despite this, it has the distinc- tive Littin touch. Littin’s shortest film to this point was criticized by some for its too blatant use of political allegory. The hero of the film is 10-year-old Alsino, a dreamer. He lives with his mamabuela, an old lady shrouded in the mystery of her past, who bewitches Alsino with travel tales of her dead sailor-husband and shows him old postcards from Amsterdam. There is a contrast between Alsino’s dreams and the realities of his country as it heads towards revolution. Alsino likes to climb trees and to imagine himself flying. His dreams are ignited by the US Army helicopter that begins to hover over his head. Alsino wants to fly. The fact that the helicopter is fighting the very people who want to liberate his own people is lost on him. Alsino’s dreams are the dreams of his people, although as he is a child he cannot realize this and it is only after he falls from the tree and becomes hunchbacked that he becomes conscious of reality. After meeting the guerilla he returns home to find his town abandoned and his mamabuela dead, the Dutch post- cards burnt and scattered to the wind, like his dreams. Alsino becomes one of the guerillas himself. Finally understanding the war and foreign aggression he can fly on the wings of his dreams of freedom. The very obvious allegories here are the illusion of liberty through flying, and real dictatorial oppression and North American aggression expressed by the helicopter. Cultural domination is expressed by Alsino’s wanting to possess the foreign object, the helicopter—even though it represents aggression. The film is full of symbols—in fact it could be said that there is not one real character in the film, merely symbols and emblems. There are birds unable to fly because their wings have been clipped, and Alsino becomes hunchbacked because he falls from a tree and only then begins to see things in a differ- ent light. This film was respected in the West and even nominated for an Academy Award for best foreign film, although its obvious and heavy-handed political allegory was too much for the North Ameri- can critics. Cine Cubano, however, loved it, and praised it for the beauty of using the innocent eyes of childhood awakening to political consciousness as the medium for the message. One could say, however, that Littin’s vision has never been so schematized before and presents a very simplified vision of a country’s problems. —Sara Corben de Romero THE AMBUSH See ZASEDA L’AMERICA Italy, 1994 Director: Gianni Amelio Production: Alia Film/Cecchi Gori Group Tiger. Color, 35mm, Cinemascope; running time: 120 mins. Released 1994. Filmed be- tween August and December 1993, and in June 1994, in Albania. L’AMERICA FILMS, 4 th EDITION 40 Producer: Mario Cecchi Gori and Vittorio Cecchi Gori; screenplay: Gianni Amelio, Andrea Porporati, Alessandro Sermoneta; photogra- phy: Luca Bigazzi; editor: Simona Paggi; sound: Alessandro Zanon; music: Franco Piersanti; set designer: Giuseppi M. Gaudino; cos- tumes: Liliana Sotira, Claudia Tenaglia. Cast: Enrico Lo Verso (Gino); Michele Placido (Fiore); Carmelo di Mazzarelli (Spiro); Piro Milkani (Selimi); Elida Janushi (Selimi’s Cousin); Sefer Pema (Prison Warden); Nikolin Elezi (Boy Who Dies); Artan Marina (Ismail); Besim Kurti (Policeman); Esmeralda Ara (Little Girl). Awards: Best Director, Venice Film Festival; Felix Award, Best European Film; Nastri D’Argento, Best Picture and Director. Publications Articles: Young, Deborah, in Variety (New York), 12 September, 1994. Menashe, Louis, in Cineaste (New York), vol. 21, no. 4, 1995. Maslin, Janet, in New York Times, 4 October 1995. Carr, Jay, in Boston Globe, 20 December 1995. Wilmington, Michael, in Chicago Tribune, 24 December 1995. Crowdus, Gary and Richard Porton, ‘‘Beyond Neorealism: Preserv- ing a Cinema of Social Conscience,’’ in Cineaste (New York), vol. 21, no. 4, 1995. Agovino, Michael J., ‘‘His Mind Fixed on the Moment, Eyes on the Past,’’ in New York Times, 17 December 1995. James, Caryn, ‘‘The Little Things Mean a Lot,’’ in New York Times, 17 December 1995. *** Gianni Amelio’s L’America is a biting, profoundly moving drama that illustrates how the downtrodden of society, beneath the hoopla of political change and the redistribution of power, are fated to do little more than shift from one kind of exploitation to another. The specifics of the scenario relate to the downfall of communism in Europe. The year is 1991, and Albania has been liberated from the iron hand of the hammer and sickle. The Albanian people are hungry and desperate; thousands of them are determined to make their way to Italy, where they hope to find employment. In the decades leading up to the events in the film, political dissidents in Albania were incarcer- ated in labor camps. One of them is seventy-year-old Spiro Milkami (Carmelo di Mazzarelli), a bedraggled, feeble-minded man who is ironically not Albanian but an Italian farmer who had deserted the army in the 1940s. Spiro becomes the pawn in a scheme concocted by two Italian businessmen, Gino (Enrico Lo Verso) and Fiore (Michele Placido), who plan to purchase a shoe factory, with the assistance of an unscrupulous government official, and set up a fraudulent corpora- tion that will allow them to squeeze a fortune out of Albania’s economic chaos. In order to observe the rules of privatization, an Albanian must be involved in the venture. Fiore has discovered Spiro, who seems the perfect tool and fool: a passive, mindless old man who can be fitted into a suit and paraded about whenever necessary. Confused and senile, Spiro is caught in a time warp: he thinks he is still twenty years old and is obsessed with returning to Italy, and to his wife, because it is time to harvest his olives. If she is not already dead, Spiro’s wife is now an elderly woman—but in his mind she remains as young as when he last saw her. The crux of L’America centers on the relationship between Spiro and Gino, the younger of the businessmen. Spiro escapes from the orphanage where he had been left by Gino and Fiore, and Gino sets out after him across the barren Albanian countryside. Along the way, this insolent young capitalist is stripped of his jeep and belongings— and even his clothing. He comes to know the feeling of poverty and statelessness and develops an affinity for the plight of the Albanian people, as well as sympathy for Spiro’s hopeless quest. Gino eventu- ally is arrested and jailed because of his alliance with the corrupt official. He has been deserted by Fiore, who has left the country. Gino’s passport is impounded, and he finds himself one of the nameless, faceless masses of refugees desperate to reach Italy. At the finale, he and the ever-hopeful Spiro are reunited on a refugee ship. Gino comes to recognize the force of Spiro’s confidence, and the potency of his dreams. L’America is a film in the neorealist tradition in that Amelio’s concerns are profoundly political and humanist. The scenario con- demns the abuse of power by the avaricious businessmen; back in the 1940s, Gino and Fiore would have been fascists rather than capital- ists. Similar to the neorealist classics of Rossellini and De Sica, in L’America Amelio spotlights the individual’s thirst for the barest necessities amid a landscape of political, economic, and moral disorder. While he has not made a documentary, his film reflects a heightened sense of reality derived from the experience of life. The film was shot on location and mixes professional actors (Lo Verso and Placido) with non-professionals (di Massarelli, an eighty-year-old retired fisherman-laborer-janitor making his screen debut). What distances L’America from the earlier neorealist films lies in the questions the film poses. Some are practical to the individual: What will the Albanian refugee who does make it to Italy find there? Is Italy truly a promised land? Or is the quality of life more reflective of the inane programs constantly broadcast on Italian television? These queries are answered by the declaration that it is better to wash dishes in Italy than to starve in Albania. In Italy, the film flatly states, young men only die in car accidents. But L’America poses other questions that are more elusive, and more universal: Have Albanians (or, for that matter, Romanians, East Germans, or Poles) found freedom, after decades under communist rule? Or, has a new kind of tyranny, that of capitalism and greed, replaced the old? Finally, in L’America Amelio touchingly captures the feeling of what it must be like to be a refugee. His is a story of the dreams and aspirations of people who, in reality, are so downtrodden that they have no logical reason to latch onto hope. It is Amelio’s contention that, in the end, all the powerless have to cling to are their dreams. Even if they are irreversibly unrealistic, as is the case with Spiro, dreams still must be grasped onto because they are all that will help sustain life. —Rob Edelman AMERICAN BEAUTYFILMS, 4 th EDITION 41 AMERICAN BEAUTY USA, 1999 Director: Sam Mendes Production: DreamWorks SKG; 35 mm, color (DeLuxe); running time: 121 minutes; DTS/Dolby Digital/SDDS. Released September 1999 USA. Filmed in 1998 and 1999 in Los Angeles and Sacramento, California, and at Warner Brothers Studios in Burbank, California; additional scenes shot at South High School, Torrance, California; cost: $15,000,000 (US). Producers: Alan Ball, Bruce Cohen, Dan Jinks, and Stan Wlodkowski; screenplay: Alan Ball; photography: Conrad L. Hall; assistant directors: Tony Adler, Rosemary Cremona, Carey Dietrich, and Chris Edmonds; editors: Tariq Anwar and Chris Greenbury; super- vising sound editor: Scott Martin Gershin; art director: David S. Lazan; production designer: Naomi Shohan; costume designer: Julie Weiss; set designer: Jan K. Bergstrom; music: Original score by Thomas Newman; additional songs by Pete Townshend; special effects: CFC/MVFX, Los Angeles. Cast: Kevin Spacey (Lester Burnham); Annette Bening (Carolyn Burnham); Thora Birch (Jane Burnham); Wes Bentley (Ricky Fitts); Mena Suvari (Angela Hayes); Peter Gallagher (Buddy Kane); Chris Cooper (Colonel Frank Fitts); Allison Janney (Barbara Fitts); Scott Bakula (Jim Olmeyer); Sam Robards (Jim Berkley); Barry Del Sherman (Brad Dupree). Awards: Oscars for Best Actor (Kevin Spacey), Best Director (Sam Mendes), Best Picture (Bruce Cohen and Dan Jinks), Best Original Screenplay (Alan Ball), and Best Cinematography (Con- rad L. Hall), 2000; British Academy Awards for Best Film, Best Actress, Best Actor, Achievement in Film Music (Thomas Newman), Cinematography, and Editing (Tariq Anwar and Christopher Greenbury), 2000; Broadcast Film Critics Association Awards for Best Director, Best Picture, and Best Original Screenplay, 2000; Chicago Film Critics Association Awards for Best Actor, Best Director, Best Picture, and Most Promising Actor (Wes Bentley), 2000; Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures (Sam Mendes, et al.), 2000; Golden Globes for Best Director—Motion Picture, Best Motion Picture— Drama, and Best Screenplay—Motion Picture, 2000; London Critics Circle Awards for Actor of the Year (Kevin Spacey), Actress of the Year (Annette Bening), Director of the Year, Film of the Year, and Screenwriter of the Year, 2000; Screen Actors Guild Awards for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Theatrical Motion Picture, Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Leading Role (Annette Bening) and Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Leading Role (Kevin Spacey), 2000; Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards for Best Director, 1999; National Board of Review Award (USA) for Breakthrough Performance by an Actor (Wes Bentley), 1999; National Society of Film Critics Awards (USA) for Best Cinematography, 1999. Publications: Script: Ball, Alan, American Beauty: The Shooting Script (introduction by director Sam Mendes), New York, 1999. Articles: Weinraub, Bernard, ‘‘A Wunderkind Discovers the Wonders of Film,’’ in New York Times, 12 September 1999. McCarthy, Todd, ‘‘‘American’ Dream, Worked Over,’’ in Variety (Los Angeles) 13 September 1999. Maslin, Janet, ‘‘Dad’s Dead, and He’s Still a Funny Guy,’’ in New York Times, 15 September 1999. Denby, David, ‘‘Transcending the Suburbs: American Beauty Goes from Satire to a Vision of the Sublime,’’ in New Yorker, 20 September 1999. Marshall, Alexandra, ‘‘What’s Wrong with this Picture?,’’ in Ameri- can Prospect (Princeton, NJ), 6 December 1999. Kemp, Philip, ‘‘Sam Mendes’ American Beauty: The Nice Man Cometh,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), January 2000. Jackson, Kevin, ‘‘American Beauty,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), February 2000. *** Not since Mike Nichols’ Who’s Afraid of Virginia Wolfe (1966) has a theatre director made as auspicious a leap to the silver screen as Sam Mendes. Mendes came to Hollywood by way of the London stage, where he directed such hits as The Rise and Fall of Little Voice and The Blue Room. Mendes was hand picked to direct American Beauty by Steven Spielberg, whose DreamWorks SKG (controlled by Spielberg, Jeffrey Katzenberg, and David Geffen) owned the rights to Alan Ball’s original screenplay. Although seemingly an odd choice, Mendes’ beautifully crafted, superbly acted, and critically acclaimed film proves Spielberg an astute judge of directorial potential. American Beauty tells the story of Lester Burnham, a mid-level ad man going through a mid-life melt down. Lester lives in the suburbs in a two story house surrounded by a white picket fence. But despite the exterior sheen, all is not well in the Burnham household. Lester is burned out, tired of conforming to the expectations of the American middle class. His wife Carolyn is an emasculating shrew, apparently more concerned about appearing ‘‘normal’’ than being happy. Their daughter Jane is a confused and embittered teen who is saving up for breast enhancement surgery despite already being well endowed. The neighbors on one side are the Fitts family, consisting of the Colonel, a homophobic ex-marine, his wife Barbara, a shattered person, and their son Ricky, a drug dealing video voyeur. On the other side live Jim Olmeyer and Jim Berkley, a gay couple who, ironically, are by far the most ‘‘normal’’ people in the neighborhood. Early in the film Lester meets Jane’s friend Angela, on whom he develops a crush that becomes the catalyst for the remainder of the action. The film’s scathing portrayal of American suburbia is neither groundbreaking nor innovative as the suburbs have been the subject of artistic contempt dating back to at least John Cheever’s short fiction of the early 1950s. In cinema the suburbs have been skewered for years in exemplary films such as The Graduate (Nichols, 1967), Blue Velvet (Lynch, 1986), and The Ice Storm (Lee, 1997). Further- more, many of the narrative lines in American Beauty recall earlier AMERICAN BEAUTY FILMS, 4 th EDITION 42 American Beauty films; for example, Lester’s voice over from beyond the grave is reminiscent of Joe Gillis’ (William Holden) in Sunset Boulevard (Wilder, 1950); his infatuation with Angela has echoes of Lolita (Kubrick, 1962); and Ricky Fitts’ video voyeurism is a contemporary version of L.B. ‘‘Jeff’’ Jefferies’ (Jimmy Stewart) window watching in Rear Window (Hitchcock, 1954). Despite its stereotypical treat- ment of suburban malaise and at times derivative narrative, American Beauty is a riveting film; what makes it so is Conrad L. Hall’s poetic cinematography, which alternates between Lester’s reality and his surreal visions of life as he would like it to be, and its across-the-board phenomenal acting. While all involved turn in stellar work, two performances in particular stand out: Annette Bening as Carolyn and Kevin Spacey as Lester. Carolyn Burnham is a problematic character for a variety of reasons, not the least of which is the script’s inherent misogyny towards her. Carolyn is all shrew, an impossible-to-like screaming control freak. And yet she is in the same position as Lester; life has not at all turned out as she had hoped and the costs extracted have left her hollow on the inside. Just as Lester does, so too does Carolyn deviate from expectations in search of something that will fulfill her. She ends up in an affair with Buddy Kane, a fabulously smarmy real estate ‘‘king,’’ and takes up pistol shooting as a hobby. As written, we’re set up to hate her for her transgressions, whereas when Lester deviates we can’t help but root for him. Bening nevertheless manages to find in Carolyn something redeeming; her humane portrayal of this uni- formly unsympathetic character is a tour de force. Conversely, the script’s sympathy is heavily weighted towards Lester. After meeting Angela, Lester says, ‘‘I feel like I’ve been in a coma for the past twenty years. And I’m just now waking up.’’ His ‘‘waking up’’ involves trading in his Lexus for a 1970 Pontiac Firebird, quitting his ad agency job in favor of counter work at a fast food restaurant, beginning a physical training program that will enable him to ‘‘look good naked,’’ which he hopes will make him more attractive to Angela, drinking beer at all hours of the day, a resumption of the pot smoking he loved as a teen, and, most importantly, his reasserting himself as the unquestioned authority figure in the Burnham household. Lester’s reversion to a young-girl- loving, beer-swilling jerk is a rehabilitation of the American male as defined by Larry Flynt. But when at one point in the film he defiantly shoves his fist in the air and says, ‘‘I rule,’’ audience members, both male and female, cheer; this reaction is a testament to Spacey’s interpretation of Lester. He goes beyond what was written and finds in AMERICAN GRAFFITIFILMS, 4 th EDITION 43 Lester a heart; Spacey’s sensitive delivery of Lester’s lines, accompa- nied by telling facial expressions and body language, renders what could have been an irredeemable character a lovable everyman. In accepting the Academy Award for Best Actor, Spacey himself summed up why the award was so richly deserved when he said, ‘‘And that’s why I loved playing Lester, because we got to see all of his worst qualities and we still grew to love him.’’ In the end Lester is redeemed, and so too is the film, which because of the craftsmanship of the actors and crew manages to rise well above its stereotypical subject matter. In addition, American Beauty will likely be remembered for three reasons. First, in winning the Academy Award for Best Picture the film legitimized DreamWorks SKG as a studio to be reckoned with. Next, it marked Sam Mendes as filmmaker to watch in coming years. And finally, Kevin Spacey’s performance in American Beauty cemented his position as one of the finest actors of his generation. —Robert Sickels THE AMERICAN FRIEND See DER AMERIKANISCHE FREUND AMERICAN GRAFFITI USA, 1972 Director: George Lucas Production: A Universal-Lucasfilm Ltd.-Coppola Production; color, 35mm; running time: 110 minutes. Released 1973. Filmed 1972 in Petaluma and San Rafael, California; cost: about $700,000. Producers: Francis Ford Coppola and Gary Kurtz; screenplay: George Lucas, Gloria Katz, and Willard Huyck, from an idea by George Lucas; photography: Ron Eveslage and Jan D’Alquen; editors: Verna Fields and Marcia Lucas; sound: Walter Murch; musical score comprised of original versions of several rock-and-roll ‘‘classics’’ from early 1960s. Cast: Richard Dreyfuss (Curt Henderson); Ron Howard (Steve Bolander); Paul Le Mat (John Milner); Charles Martin Smith (Terry Fields); Cindy Williams (Laurie Henderson); Candy Clark (Debbie); Mackenzie Phillips (Carol); Suzanne Sommers (Girl in T-Bird); Wolfman Jack (Disc jockey); Harrison Ford (Drag racer). Awards: New York Film Critics Award, Best Screenwriting, 1973; American Film Institute’s ‘‘100 Years, 100 Movies,’’ 1998. Publications Script: Lucas, George, and others, American Graffiti: A Screenplay, New York, 1973. Books: Pollock, Dale, Skywalking: The Life and Films of George Lucas, New York, 1983. Mabery, D.L., George Lucas, Minneapolis, 1987. Champlin, Charles, George Lucas; The Creative Impulse: Lucasfilm’s First Twenty Years, New York, 1997. Kline, Sally, George Lucas; Interviews, Jackson, 1999. White, Dana, George Lucas, Minneapolis, 1999. Articles: Dempsey, M., in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Fall 1973. Ney, J., in Interview (New York), September 1973. New York Times, 7 October 1973. Houston, Beverle, and Marsha Kinder, in Film Heritage (Dayton, Ohio), Winter 1973–74. Combs, Richard, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), February 1974. Sturhahn, Larry, ‘‘The Filming of American Graffiti,’’ in Filmmakers’ Newsletter (Ward Hill, Massachusetts), March 1974. Dawson, Jan, in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1974. Farber, Steven, ‘‘George Lucas: The Stinky Kid Hits the Big Time,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Spring 1974. Rosenthal, S., in Focus on Film (London), Spring 1974. Warner, A., in Films and Filming (London), May 1974. Segond, J., ‘‘Lettre de Londres,’’ in Positif (Paris), September 1974. Sodowsky, A., and others, ‘‘The Epic World of American Graffiti,’’ in Journal of Popular Culture (Bowling Green, Ohio), vol. 4, no. 1, 1975. MacCabe, Colin, ‘‘Theory of Film: Principles of Realism and Pleas- ure,’’ in Screen (London), no. 3, 1976. ‘‘George Lucas,’’ in Current Biography Yearbook, New York, 1978. Fairchild, Jr., B. H., ‘‘Songs of Innocence and Experience: The Blakean Vision of George Lucas,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), no. 2, 1979. Pye, M., and L. Myles, ‘‘The Man Who Made Star Wars,’’ in Atlantic Monthly (Boston), March 1979. Prouty, Howard H., in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 1, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Harmetz, Aljean, ‘‘George Lucas—Burden of Dreams,’’ in American Film (Washington, D.C.), June 1983. Douin, Jean-Luc, ‘‘à toute berzingue,’’ in Télérama (Paris), 26 May 1993. Speed, Lesley, ‘‘Tuesday’s Gone: The Nostalgic Teen Film,’’ in Journal of Popular Film and Television (Washington, D.C.), vol. 26, no. 1, Spring 1998. *** If Star Wars is George Lucas’s idealized dream of the future, American Graffiti is his idealized dream of the past, a past in which optimism and naiveté were cherished sentiments before cynicism became a national past time. What joins these two films, however, is a devotion to entertainment, to the depiction of glorious worlds in which adventure is triumphant. AMERICAN GRAFFITI FILMS, 4 th EDITION 44 American Graffiti With the assistance of Francis Ford Coppola, Lucas’s remem- brance of teenage life in his home town of Modesto, California was brought to the screen, ushering in a wave of nostalgia for the music and lifestyle of an era ten years past, an era which subsequently became a staple of television situation comedies such as Happy Days and Laverne and Shirley, Ron Howard and Cindy Williams moving easily from this film to their television roles. The central organizing device of this film is the musical score, permissions for which totalled $80,000 of the $700,000 budget. Music, which functions as the narrator of teen dreams and frustra- tions, as omnipresent companion, and as motivator of lifestyle, joins the various narrative threads and the three central locales: the hop where you danced to a band, the diner where you played the jukebox, and the strip where you listened to Spiritual Father Wolfman Jack on the car radio. To accentuate the overriding function of the music, Lucas strove for a visual quality which resembled the aura of a 1962 ‘‘Hot-Rods-to-Hell’’ jukebox. For many growing up is a musical experience and, along with Barry Levinson’s Diner, American Graf- fiti is the best evocation of that idea. The narrative of American Graffiti is that of a day in the life of four central male characters coming of age after indulging in a series of misadventures. Lucas located a mood of optimism and naiveté by setting the film in 1962, the period immediately prior to the Kennedy assassination and the resultant politicization of American youth and music. Naive optimism was so firmly entrenched that individuals refused to admit the necessity for personal development. Curt, whose avowed dream is to shake the hand of JFK, almost succumbs to the complacent notion of ‘‘why leave home to find a new home?’’ At the end of the film, after much indecisiveness, he does leave in pursuit of a future beyond the confines of family and home town. As such he is representative of those students of the sixties who overcame their innocence and ventured forth. In Lucas’s sentimental view of growing up, he lovingly portrayed the innocence and freedom of life-before-twenty and perhaps unwit- tingly, the seductive mythology of the teen dream. Audiences bought the dream overwhelmingly. American Graffiti grossed over $50 million in its first year, making it, to that point, the most successful film made for under $1 million. Its release in Japan helped foster a booming business there in American musical and fashion nostalgia. —Doug Tomlinson AN AMERICAN IN PARISFILMS, 4 th EDITION 45 AN AMERICAN IN PARIS USA, 1950 Director: Vincente Minnelli Production: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Picture Corp.; Technicolor, 35mm; running time: 113 minutes. Released 1950. Filmed 1 August 1950 through fall 1950 at MGM studios, Culver City, California; also on location in Paris. Producer: Arthur Freed; screenplay: Alan Jay Lerner; photogra- phy: Al Gilks and John Alton (final ballet); editor: Adrienne Fazan; art directors: Preston Ames and Cedric Gibbons; set decorators: Keogh Gleason and Edwin B. Willis; music: George Gershwin and Ira Gershwin; music directors: Johnny Green and Saul Chaplin; costume designers: Orry-Kelly, Walter Plunkett (Beaux-Arts Ball costumes), Irene Sharaff (final ballet costumes); choreography: Gene Kelly. Cast: Gene Kelly (Jerry Mulligan); Leslie Caron (Lise Borvier); Oscar Levant (Adam Cook); Georges Guetary (Henri Baurel); Nina Foch (Milo Roberts); Eugene Borden (Georges Mattieu); Martha Bamattre (Mathilde Mattieu); Mary Young (Old woman dancer); Ann Codee (Therese); George Davis (Francola); Hayden Rourke (Tommy Baldwin); Paul Maxey (John McDowd); Dick Wessel (Ben Macrow). Awards: Oscars for Best Picture, Story and Screenplay, Cinematography—Color, Art Direction—Color, Scoring, Costume Design—Color, 1951; American Film Institute’s ‘‘100 Years, 100 Movies,’’ 1998. Publications Books: de la Roche, Catherine, Vincente Minnelli, Wellington, New Zealand, 1959; reprinted in Film Culture (New York), June 1959. Griffith, Richard, The Cinema of Gene Kelly, New York, 1962. Truchaud, Fran?ois, Vincente Minnelli, Paris, 1966. Springer, John, All Talking, All Singing, All Dancing, New York, 1966. Kobal, John, Gotta Sing, Gotta Dance, New York, 1970. Burrows, Michael, Gene Kelly: Versatility Personified, St. Austell, Cornwall, 1971. Thomas, Lawrence B., The MGM Years, New Rochelle, New York, 1972. Knox, Donald, The Magic Factory: How MGM Made ‘‘An American in Paris,’’ New York, 1973. Hirschhorn, Clive, Gene Kelly: A Biography, London, 1974; revised edition 1984. Stern, Lee Edward, The Movie Musical, New York, 1974. Delameter, James, Dance in the Hollywood Musical, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1981. Guerif, Fran?ois, Vincente Minnelli, Paris, 1984. Brion, Patrick, and others, Vincente Minnelli, Paris, 1985. Minnelli, Vincente, I Remember it Well, Hollywood, 1990. Harvey, Stephen, Directed by Vincente Minnelli, New York, 1990. Naremore, James, The Films of Vincent Minnelli, New York, 1993. Yudkoff, Alvin, Gene Kelly; A Life of Dance and Dreams, New York, 1999. Articles: Jablonski, Edward, in Films in Review (New York), October 1951. Harcourt-Smith, Simon, in Sight and Sound (London), January- March 1952. Johnson, A., ‘‘The Films of Vincente Minnelli,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1958 and Spring 1959. Minnelli, Vincente, ‘‘The Rise and Fall of the Film Musical,’’ in Films and Filming (London), January 1962. Behlmer, Rudy, ‘‘Gene Kelly,’’ in Films in Review (New York), January 1964. Cutts, John, ‘‘Dancer, Actor, Director,’’ in Films and Filming (Lon- don), August-September 1964. Truchaud, Fran?ois, in Télérama (Paris), 13 December 1964. Steinhauer, W., ‘‘Ruekblende,’’ in Film und Ton (Munich), March 1973. Classic Film Collector (Indiana, Pennsylvania), Fall 1976. Johnson, Julia, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 1, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Verstraten, P., in Skrien (Amsterdam), February-March 1984. Medhurst, Andy, ‘‘The Musical,’’ in The Cinema Book, edited by Pam Cook, London, 1985. Dalle Vacche, A., ‘‘A Painter in Hollywood: Vincente Minnelli’s An American in Paris,’’ in Cinema Journal (Austin, Texas), no. 1, 1992. Blaney, Dorothy Gulbenkian, ‘‘Gene Kelly and the Melting Pot,’’ in USA Today (Arlington, Virginia), 3 August 1992. Sharaff, Irene, ‘‘Un Américain à Paris,’’ in Positif (Paris), July- August 1996. Zetterberg, Anna, in Chaplin (Stockholm), vol. 38, no. 2, 1996. Cohen, Clélia, ‘‘Un Américain à Paris,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), December 1997. *** An American in Paris, one of the most successful and popular musicals in the history of film, is also one of the few Technicolor musicals to be taken seriously by critics during the Golden Age of Hollywood when many such films were made. Its grand finale, a 17- minute ballet, focused attention on the fact that films did not have to contain a serious message to be worthy examples of the art form. An American in Paris won the Academy Award for Best Picture of 1951, captured five other Academy Awards, and was placed on most lists of best films for that year. It stands as a prime example of a type of musical collaboration made during the studio system. Difficult critical questions arise regarding the complicated assign- ing of credit involved in evaluating such movies. First of all, An American in Paris is an example of ‘‘producer cinema,’’ being one of a list of musicals made by the famous Arthur Freed unit at Metro- Goldwyn-Mayer. The Freed unit was also responsible for The Band- wagon, Singin’ in the Rain, The Pirate, Meet Me in St. Louis, and many others. Secondly, the creative input of star Gene Kelly, who did the choreography of the ballet, is undeniable, as are the myriad contributions made by MGM’s outstanding roster of technicians— costume designer Irene Sharaff, cinematographer John Alton, art director Preston Ames, musicians Johnny Green and Saul Chaplin, and many more. Finally, it is most certainly a film by director AN AMERICAN IN PARIS FILMS, 4 th EDITION 46 An American in Paris Vincente Minnelli as it contains his recurring theme of characters in pursuit of their dreams, as well as his typical use of color, costume, and decor. Minnelli’s musicals are among the most elegant and polished of the MGM musicals and his flair for camera movement, elaborately constructed long takes, and richly styled backgrounds contribute much to the film. The opening scenes of An American in Paris, in which its characters wake up in ‘‘this star called Paris’’ and go about their daily routines, constitute an homage to Rouben Mamoulian’s 1932 film Love Me Tonight. In addition to the famous ballet, the innovative musical numbers contain a subjective characterization of Leslie Caron, presented through music, dance, and color. As she is de- scribed, images of her appear on screen, each with a different Gershwin tune, different color, costume, setting and color-coordi- nated background. She is portrayed as sexy, studious, demure, athletic, etc., while the style of dance interprets her inner quality. Other musical numbers include the pas de deux ‘‘Our Love Is Here to Stay,’’ which is a beautiful blend of music, setting, costume, and dance, photographed simply with a tight frame around the two dancers as the camera follows their movements. The old-fashioned ‘‘I’ll Build a Staircase to Paradise’’ is a tribute to an earlier tradition, the Ziegfeld Follies musical number. The musical highlight of the film is the ballet itself, which is based visually on a series of famous paintings by Dufy, Utrillo, Toulouse-Lautrec, and others. The ballet’s story parallels the film’s narrative in an oblique manner. An ex-G.I., who has stayed on in Paris after the war, meets a young French girl, falls in love with her, and loses her. Following the ballet, a brief scene depicts a reconciliation, allowing for the inevitable happy ending. An American In Paris has undergone something of a critical devaluation in the past decade. Other Minnelli musicals (Meet Me in St. Louis, The Pirate, The Bandwagon) are considered superior works, and the Kelly/Stanley Donen Singin’ in the Rain is more popular with general audiences. An American in Paris is frequently criticized as being too sentimental, too romantic and, because of the ballet, too pretentious. Nevertheless, the film undoubtedly contrib- uted to the maturing process of the musical genre. By challenging the idea that audiences would not understand or accept a long ballet deeply linked to the narrative of the film it helped to free the dance visually and to expand the horizons of viewers as well as the creative possibilities for the artists making musical films. —Jeanine Basinger DER AMERIKANISCHE FREUNDFILMS, 4 th EDITION 47 DER AMERIKANISCHE FREUND (The American Friend) West Germany-France, 1977 Director: Wim Wenders Production: Road Movies Filmproduktion GmbH (Berlin), Les Films du Losange (Paris), Wim Wenders Produktion (Munich), and Westdeutschen Rundfunk (Cologne); Eastmancolor, 35mm; running time: 123 minutes (some sources list 127 minutes). Released 1977. Filmed in Paris. Producer: Wim Wenders; screenplay: Wim Wenders, from the novel Ripley’s Game by Patricia Highsmith; photography: Robby Müller; editor: Peter Przygodda; art director: Sickerts; music: Jürgen Knieper. Cast: Bruno Ganz (Jonathan Zimmerman); Dennis Hopper (Tom Ripley); Lisa Kreuzer (Marianne Zimmerman); Gérard Blain (Raoul Minot); Nicholas Ray (Derwatt); Samuel Fuller (The American); Peter Lilienthal (Marcangelo); Daniel Schmid (Ingraham); Jean Eustache (Man in restaurant); Sandy Whitelaw (Man in Paris); Wim Wenders (Mafia member); Lou Castel (Rodolphe); Andreas Dedecke (Daniel). Publications Books: Dawson, Jan, Wim Wenders, Toronto, 1976. Sandford, John, The New German Cinema, Totowa, New Jersey, 1980. Geist, Kathe, The Cinema of Wim Wenders 1967–1977, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1981. Johnston, Sheila, Wim Wenders, London, 1981. Boujut, Michel, Wim Wenders, Paris, 1982; 3rd edition, 1986. Buchka, Peter, Augen kann man nicht Kaufen: Wim Wenders und seine Filme, Munich, 1983. Franklin, James, New German Cinema: From Oberhausen to Ham- burg, Boston, 1983. Grob, Norbert, Die Formen des filmische Blicks: Wenders: Die fruhen Filme, Munich, 1984. Phillips, Klaus, editor, New German Filmmakers: From Oberhausen Through the 1970s, New York, 1984. Devillers, Jean-Pierre, Berlin, L.A., Berlin: Wim Wenders, Paris, 1985. Geist, Kathe, The Cinema of Wim Wenders: From Paris, France, to Paris, Texas, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1988. Wenders, Wim, The Logic of Images: Essays and Conversations, translated by Michael Hofmann, London, 1991. Kolker, Robert Phillip, The Films of Wim Wenders: Cinema as Vision and Desire, New York, 1993. Wenders, Wim, Written in the West, London, 1996. Cook, Roger F., and Gerd Gemünden, editors, The Cinema of Wim Wenders: Image, Narrative, and the Postmodern Condition, Detroit, 1997. Articles: Dahan, L., ‘‘Wim Wenders,’’ in Cinématographe (Paris), June 1977. Moskowitz, G., in Variety (New York), 8 June 1977. Niogret, H., in Positif (Paris), July-August 1977. Canby, Vincent, in New York Times, 23 September 1977. Clarens, C., ‘‘King of the Road: Wim Wenders Interviewed,’’ in Film Comment (New York), September-October 1977. Masson, A., ‘‘Le Romanesque et le spectaculaire,’’ in Positif (Paris), October 1977. Masson, A., and H. Niogret, ‘‘Entretien avec Wim Wenders,’’ in Positif (Paris), October 1977. Dawson, Jan, ‘‘Filming Highsmith,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1977–78. Sauvaget, D., in Image et Son (Paris), November 1977. Narboni, Jean, ‘‘Traquenards,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), Novem- ber 1977. McCreadie, M., in Films in Review (New York), December 1977. Jaehne, K., in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1978. Winter, L. D., ‘‘De emotionele reizen van Wim Wenders,’’ in Skrien (Amsterdam), April 1978. Schlunk, J. D., ‘‘The Image of America in German Literature and in the New German Film: Wim Wenders Der amerikanische Freud,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), no. 3, 1979. Kinder, Marsha, in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), no. 2, 1979. ‘‘Im Laden ces Bilderrahmers,’’ in Film und Ton (Munich), Decem- ber 1979. Niogret, H., in Positif (Paris), May 1982. Torres, A. R., in Cinema Novo (Porto), July-August 1982. Linville, S., and K. Casper, ‘‘Imitations, Dreams and Origins in Wim Wenders’ The American Friend,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), October 1985. Snyder, Stephen, ‘‘Wim Wenders: The Hunger Artist in America,’’ in Post Script (Jacksonville, Florida), Winter 1987. Benoit, C., ‘‘L’Ami Americain,’’ in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), Decem- ber 1989. Rush, J. S., ‘‘Who’s In On the Joke: Parody as Hybridized Narrative Discourse,’’ in Quarterly Review of Film and Video (New York), nos. 1–2, 1990. Schreckenberg, E., ‘‘Wenn Filme Texte sind,’’ in Filmbulletin (Winterthur), no. 5, 1994. Barral, M.A., in Nosferatu (San Sebastian), October 1994. Medina de la Serna, R., in Dicine, November/December 1995. Saada, N., in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), Hors serie no. 126, 1995. *** While marketing forged paintings in Hamburg, American expatri- ate Tom Ripley is introduced to picture-framer Jonathan Zimmermann. Suspecting something of Ripley’s shady background, Jonathan snubs him. Ripley is hurt, and when he discovers that Jonathan is suffering from leukaemia, he gives his name to Raoul Minot, a gangster who is looking to pay someone with a clean record to wipe out his rivals. Anxious that his wife Marianne and small son Daniel will have enough to live on after his death, Jonathan accepts Monot’s offer. But by this time Ripley, who really wants to be friends with Jonathan, regrets what he has done. However, it is too late, and both become caught up in an increasingly nightmarish scenario involving gang- sters, murder, and pornography. DER AMERIKANISCHE FREUND FILMS, 4 th EDITION 48 Der Amerikanische Freund The American Friend continues the twin themes of Kings of the Road: male friendship and the relationship between Germany and America, especially in the area of cinema. This is a film absolutely drenched in cinematic resonances: the animosity-turned-friendship between Ripley and Jonathan is reminiscent of a whole host of romantic Hollywood comedies; the film is based (very loosely) on a novel by Patricia Highsmith, who wrote Strangers on a Train, the plot of which is echoed in the Jonathan/Minot deal; not only is Ripley played by Dennis Hopper, but there are also cameo roles from Sam Fuller and Nicholas Ray, thus evoking the kind of Hollywood cinema loved by European cineastes and cinephiles (Godard’s Made in USA was dedicated to Ray and Fuller, and the latter also appeared in it). The Nouvelle Vague connection is further strengthened by Minot being played by Gerard Blain from Truffaut’s Les Mistons and Chabrol’s Les Cousins, and by a curious similarity with Pierrot le Fou in that both films end with explosions on deserted beaches and a surviving character named Marianne. Jonathan’s home contains a model of a Maltese cross (one of the inventions that made cinema possible), a zoetrope, and a lampshade which animates a picture of the locomotive made famous by Buster Keaton’s The General. Modern cinema, meanwhile, is represented by the pornographic films (co-productions, naturally) in which the gangsters are involved. And so on. The American Friend is perhaps best described as a contemporary Franco-German film noir in colour. Like most of its earlier American counterparts it’s firmly set in the city, but here the cityscape is European (Hamburg, Paris, Munich) and only briefly American (New York), though one can’t but help being reminded of the States when the Sam Fuller character is pushed downstairs in an echo of the famous murder by Richard Widmark in Henry Hathaway’s Kiss of Death. And then again, all the cities look alike—that is, American— anyway, inhabited, or rather, passed through, by dislocated, rootless characters with an increasingly shaky sense of personal identity. Wenders himself has explained that he chose a combination of film stock and lenses to ‘‘obtain a certain strange, artificial atmosphere’’ and ‘‘an image close to hyperrealism,’’ and in this he and his cameraman Robby Müller were quite strikingly successful. One is reminded both of Edward Hopper and Hitchcock, and again Wenders has said that he used Hitchcockian framing in order to achieve ‘‘archetypes of images that are at the same time realist and artificial.’’ Indeed, part of the undoubted fascination of The American Friend lies in its extraordinary combination of elements that one associates with AMOR DE PERDIC?OFILMS, 4 th EDITION 49 the Hollywood cinema and the European art cinema. Wenders has described it as ‘‘really dialectical in its attitude to the American cinema: it’s full of love and hatred,’’ and Timothy Corrigan has elaborated on this point, noting that, on the one hand, there is a ‘‘rigorous decomposition of shots throughout the film, a kind of dissecting and emptying . . . whereby the visual excess of so many deep-focus, Hollywood films becomes a flat Wendersian exactitude’’ whilst, on the other, many shots ‘‘recreate the textual brilliance that intentionally echoes and reproduces the texture of so many American films.’’ Similarly, although the film is superficially a thriller and part of the crime genre, it is visually devoid of conventional psychological explanations, the characters are for the most part extremely ambigu- ous and hard to read, and the gangster plot lines convoluted to the point of absurdity. Clearly, then, The American Friend is not just about the uneasy relationship between a particular German and a particular American. It also concerns the relationship between Germany and America. Fears of Americanisation in Germany go back into the nineteenth century (as indeed they do in Britain), and of course the American colonization of the German subconscious has always been a consis- tent Wenders theme. But this, like his other films, is no simple anti- American parable like Herzog’s Stroszek. Jonathan, like many a Wenders hero, and indeed like the director himself, clearly likes a good deal about American culture and, as Kathe Geist has observed, ‘‘far from being a man with no culture, Ripley possesses a rich and vibrant culture which Wenders enthusiastically shows us in Ripley’s dress (blue jeans, cowboy boots, and cowboy hat) and furnishings (a jukebox, Coca-Cola machine, pool table, and neon Canada Dry sign).’’ If there is American exploitation here it is, to a large extent, accepted and even welcomed. As Corrigan has put it, the relationship between Ripley and Jonathan in the film, like the relationship between the American and German film industries, is less a matter of exploitation and ‘‘more accurately described as a series of shared twists, contradictions, and compromises in which one’s responses encourage the other’s actions.’’ In both the film and the industry, the friendship develops around mutual need, admiration and resentment; in both the film and the industry, the friendship is inherently, to borrow Jean Varboni’s phrase, ‘‘a malady of love.’’ This analogy works extremely well, especially when one considers the prob- lems Wenders faced with Hammett, where he played Jonathan to Coppola’s Ripley. —Julian Petley AMOR DE PERDIC?O (Doomed Love) Portugal, 1978 Director: Manoel de Oliveira Production: Instituto Portuguese de Cinema; color, originally shot in 16mm; running time: 260 minutes. Released 1978. Filmed in Portugal. Producer: Anabela Goncaldes; screenplay: Manoel de Oliveira, from the novel by Camilo Castelo Branco; photography: Manuel Costa e Silva; editor: Soldeig Nordlund; art director: Antonio Casmiro; music: Jo?o Paes and Handel. Cast: Antonio Sequeira Lopes (Sim?o Botelho); Cristina Hauser (Tereza); Elsa Wallencamp (Mariana da Cruz); Antonio Costa (Juao de Cruz); Pedro Dinheiro and Manuela de Melo (Narrators). Publications Books: Manoel de Oliveira, Lisbon, 1981. Franca, J. A., and others, Introdu??o à de M. de Oliveira, Lis- bon, 1982. Articles: Desclimont, B., in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), series 23, 1979. Daney, S., ‘‘Manoel de Oliveira and Amour de perdition,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), June 1979. Bassan, R., in Ecran (Paris), 15 June 1979. Bonnet, J. C., in Cinématographe (Paris), July 1979. Frenais, J., in Cinéma (Paris), July-August 1979. Bachellier, E., in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), September 1979. Lopes, Jo?o, ‘‘O voto de Sim?o e Teresa,’’ in Diário de Noticias (Lisbon), November 1979. Ramasse, F., ‘‘M. de Oliveira: Le Passé et le present,’’ in Positif (Paris), March 1980. Holloway, D., in Variety (New York), 15 October 1980. Alnaee, K., ‘‘Det stillst?ende kamera,’’ in Film & Kino (Oslo), no. 4, 1981. Zunsunegui, S., ‘‘Artificio, enunciácion, emocion: La obra de M. de Oliveira,’’ in Contracampo (Madrid), January 1981. Clarens, C., ‘‘Manoel de Oliveira and Doomed Love,’’ in Film Comment (New York), May-June 1981. Gillett, John, ‘‘Manoel de Oliveira,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1981. Tesson, C., and J. C. Biette, interview with Oliveira, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), October 1981. Fonseca, M. S., ‘‘M. de Oliveira, o cinema e a crueldade,’’ in Expresso (Lisbon), October 1981. Bonnet, J. C., and E. Decaux, interview with Oliveira, in Cinématographe (Paris), November 1981. Coelho, E. P., ‘‘Amor de perdicao,’’ in Revue Belge du Cinéma (Brussels), no. 26, 1989. Scarpetta, Guy & Rollet, Sylvie, ‘‘Manoel de Oliveira,’’ in Positif (Paris), September 1998. Avant-Scène Cinéma, January-February 1999. *** At the age of 70 Manoel de Oliveira completed Amor de perdic?o, a 260-minute version of Camilo Castelo Branco’s 19th-century, AMOR DE PERDIC?O FILMS, 4 th EDITION 50 Amor de perdic?o hyper-romantic novel of the same name. It was the twelfth film in the career of Portugal’s most famous filmmaker, a career which be- gan in 1931. As meticulously as the novel, the film renders events in a proces- sion of extremely long sequence-shots, often between five and ten minutes each. Amor de perdic?o consciously occupies a precarious historical position: in a style wholly characteristic of the advanced cinema of the 1970s, with a startling original use of the zoom lens, it depicts events of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, mediated by the deliberately anachronistic language of the 1861 novel. The film resonates with allusions to the Iberian pictorial tradition (Velázquez and Goya are the most obvious references), yet it calls attention to the modalities of camera position, shot duration, illusionary movement created by the zoom, and the artificiality of its museum-like sets and occasional painted backdrops. Oliveira is indebted to the major historical films of the previous decade, especially La Prise du pouvoir de Louis XIV, Il gattopardo, and Barry Lyndon in his use of the zoom and his historical distanciation, but he is far more systematic and abstract than his major predecessors. More obviously, he follows Robert Bresson in his cool resistance to imitating the histrionics of the text he adapts; but he avoids the truly radical deflation of drama typical of the later films of Straub and Huillet. Yet, perhaps he has learned something from their early work; for the breathtaking pace with which the Botelho family history is recounted, in elliptical jumps, in the first half hour of the film, recalls the most disorienting moments of Nicht versont. The novel and the film recount the miseries of the star-crossed lovers, Sim?o Botelho and his neighbor Tereza, whose father forbids their marriage because of a family feud. In an intricate plot, which would be long in summary, Sim?o goes to jail for killing the man Tereza’s father wants her to marry. In jail he is attended by the peasant girl, Mariana da Cruz, whose devotion to him takes the form of obsessive love. Eventually Sim?o dies en route to the Indies, as a penal worker; Tereza, already withdrawn into a con- vent, dies as his boat passes; and Mariana jumps overboard to her death. Only Oliveira’s genius transmutes this morbid excess into a cinema of sustained beauty and restraint. Though he shot the film in 16mm because he couldn’t afford 35mm for the first time in his career, he exploited the loss of definition and the grain brilliantly. His compositions are consistently artificial, evoking enlarged indoor spaces by posing the characters far from the camera or, following the examples of Velázquez’s Las Meninas, using a mirror to reflect offscreen depths. The continual interlacing of AND LIFE GOES ONFILMS, 4 th EDITION 51 the voice-overs of narrators Sim?o and Tereza bring a stylistic device already abstracted by Bresson and Hanoun to a new level of intensity and abstraction. The very duration of the film, its plethora of information spread over so many nearly static compositions, the extended meditation on confinement, and the beauty of its deliberate rhythms and composi- tions make Amor de perdic?o one of the most impressive films of the 1970s, and one of the very greatest historical fiction films. —P. Adams Sitney AND ... GOD CREATED WOMAN See ET ... DIEU CREA LA FEMME AND LIFE GOES ON (Zendegi Edame Darad; Life and Nothing More) Iran, 1992 Director: Abbas Kiarostami Production: Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults; color, 35 mm; running time: 91 minutes (95 in Iran; 108 in Canada); sound: mono. Filmed in Koker and Poshteh, Iran. Producer: Ali Reza Zarrin; screenplay: Abbas Kiarostami; cinematographer: Homayun Payvar; editor: Abbas Kiarostami; assistant director: Hassen Afakrimi, Alirfa Akbari, Behram Kadhemi; production supervisor: Nemet Allah Yahifi, Khada Dad Ahmed, Mahrem Fifi; production manager: Sadika Sarfrazian; costume design: Hassan Zahidi; artistic supervisor: Ferched Bachirzada, Djalil Chaabani, Saad Saidi; sound: Abbas Kiarostami, Djenkis Sayed. Cast: Farhad Kheradmand (Film Director); Buba Bayour (Puya); Hocine Rifahi; Ferhendeh Feydi; Marhem Feydi; Bahrovz Aydini; Mohamed Hocinerouhi; Hocine Khadem; Maassouma Berouana; Mohamed Reda Berouana; Chahrbanov Chefahi; Youssef Branki; Chahine Ayzen; Mohamed Bezdani; and others. Publications Articles: Libiot, Eric, review in Première (Paris), November 1992. ?ngstr?m, Anna, ‘‘Livet efter katastrofen,’’ in Svenska Dagbladet (Sweden), 3 June 1994. James, Nick, review in Sight and Sound (London), October 1996. *** And Life Goes On is the middle film of a trilogy, preceded by Where Is the Friend’s Home? and followed by Through the Olive Trees. The three films (rightly regarded as among the great achieve- ments of contemporary world cinema) are intricately interconnected; only the first might be considered self-sufficient. Briefly, Where Is the Friend’s Home? is a straightforward neo-realist film about the predicament of two small boys in an adult world too preoccupied with its own problems to listen to children. And Life Goes On is set in the same district of Iran a year or so later: the great earthquake has intervened, and the director of the first film (played by an actor, and never named within the film) journeys by car with his young son to find out whether the two children who acted the main roles in the previous film have survived. Through the Olive Trees carries the self- reflexiveness even further, at times into quite dizzying convolutions: Kiarostami (played this time by a different actor, though now named) returns again to the area to make a film about the filming of And Life Goes On, partly involving the reconstruction of scenes from that film; at one point, then, we have Kiarostami himself (off screen) directing an actor playing Kiarostami directing the actor who played him in And Life Goes On. With this in mind, it may seem paradoxical to add that the most obvious characteristic of Kiarostami’s films is their simplicity. The complications are in the material, never in its filmic realization. If one also wishes to describe his filmmaking as virtuoso, that is again not really a contradiction: the music of Mozart (with which Kiarostami’s work, in its emotional delicacy and complexity, might be felt to have an affinity) might also be described as at once simple and virtuosic. Consider, for example, the now famous last shots of both And Life Goes On and Through the Olive Trees, the moments often referred to as ‘‘epiphanies’’: what could be simpler than simply placing the camera in the necessary viewing position and refusing to move it or cut throughout a lengthy action shown in extreme long-shot? And the action itself is as simple as possible: a car trying to climb a steep hill, a young man running to catch up with the woman he loves to propose one last time. Yet the suspense is edge-of- your-seat, the end a whole new beginning, such is the emotional investment asked of the spectator. Kiarostami’s aesthetic roots are in Italian neo-realism (one notes a particular affinity with the greatest of the neo-realists, making it especially appropriate that he was given the Rossellini prize at an Italian film festival). The self-reflexivity comes perhaps from the French New Wave, especially Godard, though it seems so natural to Kiarostami, to arise so logically from his work, that one wonders whether he invented it independently. Where Is the Friend’s Home? never calls its (fictional) reality into question. And Life Goes On remains faithful to the basic neo-realist principles, with everything shot on location using non-professional actors (‘‘real people’’), yet it is also the interrogation of neo-realism: the figure of the filmmaker now appears in the film, the previous film is revealed as a film, a fiction, and the ‘‘real people’’ were in fact acting: one of them, encountered en route, complains that Kiarostami made him dress and behave quite differently from his everyday self. We are of course free to ask whether Kiarostami told him to say this, especially in retrospect from Through the Olive Trees, in which we see the director insist (against all odds) that the recalcitrant actors speak the lines they have been given. Yet the levels never cancel each other out. If we are aware of a dislocation between fiction and reality, we are also constantly aware ANDREI RUBLEV FILMS, 4 th EDITION 52 And Life Goes On of their close relationship. As the director drives through devastated landscapes, we know that the rubble is real, that the earthquake was a fact, that the two boys could have died, even while we know that we are watching a carefully constructed film and are at liberty to reflect that Kiarostami must already have known whether they were alive or not. We care about finding the boys because we know they are ‘‘real’’ boys from that area, but also because they were the characters from the previous film (which is, after all, how we know them), still bearing their (fictional) emotional weight. Kiarostami demonstrates that it is possible to be completely honest about the fabricated nature of filmmaking (all filmmaking, even documentary) without jeopardiz- ing the possibility of the emotional involvement we look for in fiction. The self-reflexivity functions more as counterpoint than as contradiction. —Robin Wood ANDALUSIAN DOG See UN CHIEN ANDALOU ANDREI RUBLEV USSR, 1969 Director: Andrei Tarkovsky Production: Mosfilm Studio (Moscow); black and white with a color sequence, 35mm, Cinemascope; running time: 185 minutes; length: 5180 meters. Released 1969 in France; not released in USSR until 1972 though the film had been screened in Moscow in 1965. The film was censored and re-edited (not by Tarkovsky) several times between production and release in 1969. Filmed 1965. Screenplay: Andrei Mikhalkov-Konchalovsky and Andrei Tarkov- sky; photography: Vadim Youssov; editors: N. Beliaeva and L. Lararev; sound: E. Zelentsova; production designer: Eugueni Tcheriaiev; music: Viatcheslac Ovtchinnikov. Cast: Anatoli Solonitzine (Rubliov); Ivan Lapikov (Dirill); Nikolai Grinko (Daniel the Black); Nikolai Sergueiev (Theophanes the Greek); ANDREI RUBLEVFILMS, 4 th EDITION 53 Irma Raouch Tarkovskaya (Deaf-mute); Nikolai Bourliaiev (Boriska); Youri Nasarov (Grand Duke); Rolan Bykov (Buffoon); Youri Nikulin (Patrikey); Mikhail Kononov (Fomka); S. Krylov; Sos Sarkissyan; Bolot Eichelanev; N. Grabbe; B. Beijenaliev; B. Matisik; A. Oboukhov; Volodia Titov. Awards: Cannes Film Festival, International Critics Award, 1969. Publications Script: Tarkovsky, Andrei, Andrei Rublev, Paris, 1970. Books: Vronskaya, Jeanne, Young Soviet Film Makers, London, 1972. Cohen, Louis H., The Cultural-Political Traditions and Development of the Soviet Cinema: 1917–1972, New York, 1974. Stoil, Michael Jon, Cinema Beyond the Danube: The Camera and Politics, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1974. Liehm, Mira and Antonin, The Most Important Art: East European Film after 1945, Berkeley, 1977. Tarkovsky, Andrei, Sculpting in Time: Reflections on the Cinema, London, 1986. Borin, Fabrizio, Andrej Tarkovskij, Venice, 1987. Jacobsen, Wolfgang, and others, Andrej Tarkovskij, Munich, 1987. Le Fanu, Mark, The Cinema of Andrei Tarkovsky, New York, 1987. Johnson, Vida T., and Graham Petrie, The Films of Andrei Tarkovsky: A Visual Fugue, Bloomington, Indiana, 1994. Goldenberg, Mikhail, V Glubinakh Sudeb Lyudskikh—In the Depths of Destinies, Baltimore, 1999. Andrei Tarkovsky: Collected Screenplays, London, 1999. Articles: Gregor, U., ‘‘Schwierigkeiten beim Filmen de Geschichte,’’ Kinemathek (Germany), no. 41, July 1969. Lebedewa, J.A., ‘‘Andrej Rubljow und seine Zeit,’’ Kinemathek (Germany), no. 41, July 1969. Tarkovsky, A. ‘‘Die bewahrte Zeit,’’ Kinemathek (Germany), no. 41, July 1969. Vronskaya, Jeanne, in Monogram (London), Summer 1971. Wiersewski, W., ‘‘Artysta na go?cińcu epoki: Andrej Rublow,’’ in Kino (Warsaw), November 1972. ‘‘Andre Rubliov Issue’’ of Filmrutan (Sweden), no. 2, 1973. Pov?e, J., ‘‘Andrej Rublov—film projekcije po projekciji,’’ in Ekran (Ljubljana, Yugoslavia), no. 108–110, 1973. Cetinjski, M., in Ekran (Ljubljana, Yugoslavia), no. 194–195, 1973. Amengual, B., ‘‘Allégori et Stalinisme dans quelques films de l’est,’’ in Positif (Paris), January 1973. Gerasimov, Sergei, and others, in Filmkultura (Budapest), March- April 1973. Montagu, Ivor, ‘‘Man and Experience: Tarkovsky’s World,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1973. Tarrat, M., in Films and Filming (London), November 1973. O’Hara, J., in Cinema Papers (Australia), 1975. Grande, M., in Filmcritica (Rome), January-February 1976. Rineldi, G., in Cineforum (Bergamo), January-February 1976. Prono, F., in Cinema Nuovo (Turin), March-April 1976. Chapier, Henry, in Cambat (Paris), 20 November 1979, excerpt reprinted in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris) 15 December 1979. Ciment, Michel, ‘‘Richesse et diversité du nouveau cinéma soviétique,’’ in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), 15 December 1979. Ward, M., ‘‘The Idea that Torments and Exhausts,’’ in Stills (Lon- don), Spring 1981. Torp Pedersen, B., in Filmrutan (Stockholm), 1984. van der Kaap, H., and G. Zuilhof, in Skrien (Amsterdam), Sum- mer 1985. Anninskii, L., ‘‘Popytka ochishcheniia?’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Mos- cow), no. 1, 1989. Illg, E., and L. Noiger, ‘‘Vstat’ na lut’,’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), no. 2, 1989. ‘‘Tarkovskijs rad till blivande kolleger,’’ in Chaplin (Stockholm), no. 4, 1989. Vinokurova, T., ‘‘Khozhdenie po mukam Andreiia Rubleva,’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), no. 10, 1989. Pistoia, M., ‘‘Elogio del piano-sequenza,’’ in Filmcritica (Rome), January-February 1991. Strick, P., ‘‘Releasing the Balloon, Raising the Bell,’’ in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), February 1991. Giavarini, L., ‘‘Andrei Roublev, un film de Russie,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), December 1991. Bleeckere, Sylvain De, ‘‘De religiositeit van de beeldcultuur: Tarkov- sky and Andrei Roeblev,’’ Film en Televisie + Video (Brussels), February 1992. Kovacs, A. B., ‘‘Tarkovszkij szellimi utja,’’ in Filmvilag (Budapest), no. 12, 1992. Leutrat, J.-L., ‘‘Considerations intempestives autour d’Andrei Roublev,’’ in Positif (Paris), April 1992. Meeus, M. ‘‘De passie van Andrei,’’ Film en Televisie + Video (Brussels), September 1994. Elrick, Ted, ‘‘The Prince, the Kid, and the Painter,’’ DGA Magazine (Los Angeles), vol. 20, no. 2, April/May 1995. Schillaci, F., ‘‘Lo spazio il tempo nell’opera di Andrej Tarkovskij,’’ Spettacolo, vol. 46, no. 1, 1996. Wiese, I. ‘‘Andrej Tarkovskij,’’ Z (Oslo), no. 1, 1996. ‘‘Nel giusto mezzo: Andrej Rublev,’’ Castoro Cinema (Milan), no. 181, January/February 1997. *** Andrei Tarkovsky’s second feature film did not have an easy passage. Conceived and written in the early 1960s and completed in 1966, it finally arrived at Cannes, where it was awarded the Interna- tional Critics Prize, in 1969. It did not surface in Soviet cinemas until 1972, after the authorities there had attacked it as unhistorical and narratively obscure, and had raised objections to its level of violence. To Western eyes, this attempt to muzzle and belittle what was so obviously a monumental work reeked of pre-perestroika censorship, and epitomized the typical muddle-headedness of the cultural dogma of socialist realism. However, as Ivor Montagu, erstwhile collabora- tor with Eisenstein, observed in the British Magazine, Sight and Sound, not many European or American directors are given the opportunity to make ‘‘colour, widescreen, 3‘‘ hour superproductions’’ about the intimate life of medieval monks. Although Tarkovsky did remove 14 minutes from his original version, he professed himself ANDREI RUBLEV FILMS, 4 th EDITION 54 Andrei Rublev ANGI VERAFILMS, 4 th EDITION 55 happy with the amendments. The oft-stated notion of Tarkovsky as the prophet without honour in his own country, who had to look westward to find confirmation of his merits, must be tempered by the knowledge that he was able to make historical epics like this, science- fiction films (Solaris and Stalker), a war film (Ivan’s Childhood), and a highly idiosyncratic personal memoir of childhood (Mirror): these films do not offer much evidence of artistic compromise or of kow- towing to the authorities. Andrei Rublev was co-scripted by Tarkovsky’s fellow Moscow film school graduate, Konchalovsky, and photographed by Vadim Youssov, Tarkovsky’s trusted cameraman until he refused to work on Mirror (1974), claiming that the director’s script was self-indulgent and unintelligible. Andrei Rublev charts seven episodes in the life of its eponymous hero, an artist and monk who, from the cocooned seclusion of a monastery, is exposed to the horrors of the 15th-century world. In a magical mystery tour, Rublev is confronted with brutality, torture, drunkenness, tartar despoliation, rape, pillage, and famine, but manages to maintain his faith in humanity. Inspired by a young waif, Boriska (played by Nikolai Bourliaiev, the protagonist in Ivan’s Childhood, Tarkovsky’s first feature, made in 1962), who assumes responsibility for the making of a huge bell, finding and moulding the clay, requisitioning the silver, supervising a veritable army of older and more experienced assistants, all the time aware that if the bell fails to chime he will be put to death by the arch-duke, Rublev learns that, in the midst of social upheaval and wholesale destruction, creativity is still possible. Perhaps the aspect of Andrei Rublev that most irritated Soviet authorities was its religious iconography. Rublev, being a monk, is necessarily Christian. For Tarkovsky, who as a film director seems to have identified closely with the icon painter, Rublev’s creativity and his faith are inextricable: the former is merely the embodiment of the latter. Creativity is not about character or milieu or means of produc- tion. In the film it is presented as a mystical transcendent force that must, nonetheless, take into account the exterior world. Throughout the film, counterpointing Rublev and acting as his foil, is a fellow artist, Theophanes the Greek. Theophanes witnesses the same medie- val maelstrom as Rublev, but reacts to it in a very different way. Whereas Rublev overcomes his revulsion, and is able to forgive and even to love humanity, Theophanes feels nothing but disgust. He sees human kind as base and fallen, and tries to immure himself. In his isolation, he is the inferior artist. The film is not an historical record. There are few details extant of Andrei Rublev’s life. Tarkovsky and Konchalovsky offer him materiality, a psychology, and an ability to bear witness to his own epoch. And from the virtuoso opening crane-shots, showing a medie- val hot-air balloonist, to the tartars’ razing of the cathedral, to frenzied pagan ritual, to all the palaver of the building of an enormous bell, Andrei Rublev is on an epic scale. Tarkovsky shows an unerring instinct for filming landscape, for filming the elements. His vision of the middle ages does not seem to allow for the possibility of sunshine; on his grim backcloth, wind and rain are pretty well constant. There is plenty of mud and water in which characters can get stuck, and blood is forever being spilled. There is nothing coy or cosmetic about Tarkovsky’s imagined world, nothing too rarefield: this is visceral and violent terrain. Horses—Tarkovsky, like Kurosawa, is an expert at photographing the beasts—gallop up and down the landscape to great effect. Anatoli Solonitzine, Tarkovsky’s favourite actor, plays Rublev with quiet and stoical dignity. But Rublev is so impassive and austere a figure, and so taciturn, that it is hard to have much sympathy for him. Though Tarkovsky always claimed that Dovzhenko was the Soviet director he felt most affinity with, Andrei Rublev echoes Eisenstein’s Ivan the Terrible and Alexander Nevsky, both in its grandiose reconstruction of a period in Russian history, and in its facility in depicting battle scenes and dealing with crowds. The jerky jumps between episodes, often shooting us forward a matter of years in an instant, are somewhat bewildering. Tarkov- sky’s disdain for linear narrative, which he likens to the proof of a geometrical theorem, is well charted. He defended Andrei Rublev from the charge of obscurity by citing Engels, who claimed that the more sophisticated the work, the more intricate was its use of formal device. However, Andrei Rublev does not have the multi-layered narrative of, for example, Mirror, which shifts easily from generation to generation, and from place to place. Three hours of saturnine medieval gloom, even if relieved by a gallery of wonderfully gro- tesque Breughelian physiognomies, is hard to take. Nonetheless, as a rigorous meditation on faith, art, and creation in a time of fratricide and civil strife, as a moral fable, and as a bravura piece of filmmaking, Andrei Rublev is magnificent. The film, which has been in black and white, ends with a tremen- dous explosion of colour as we finally see images of Rublev’s celebrated icons, in particular his Trinity, which is to be found at the Trinity-St. Sergius monastery in Zagorsk. These paintings, beautiful and abstracted from the world in which they were created, are the film’s justification. Out of degradation, murder, carnage, out of the turbulent landscape of 15th-century Russia, ungodly, riven by civil war, Rublev is able to create sublime and timeless works of art. —G. C. Macnab ANGEL WITH THE TRUMPET See DER ENGEL MIT DER POSAUNE ANGI VERA Hungary, 1978 Director: Pál Gábor Production: MAFILM Objektív Stúdió; color, 35 mm; running time: 92 minutes; language: Hungarian; distributed by Hungarofilm. Released 1978. Screenplay: Pál Gábor and Endre Vészi; photography: Lajos Koltai; editor: éva Kárment?; production designer: András Gyürki; cos- tumes: éva Z. Varga; original music: Gy?rgy Selmeczi; sound: Gy?rgy Fék; assistant director: Dezs? Koza. Cast: Veronika Papp (Vera Angi); Erzsi Pásztor (Anna Traján); éva Szabó (Mária Muskát); Tamás Dunai (István André); László Horváth (József Neubauer); László Halász (Sas); and others. Awards: Silver Seashell/Best Director (Pál Gábor), San Sebastián (Spain) International Film Festival, 1979; Audience Award for Best Feature, S?o Paulo (Brazil) International Film Festival, 1979. ANGI VERA FILMS, 4 th EDITION 56 Angi Vera Publications Books: Burns, Bryan, World Cinema: Hungary, Trowbridge, 1996. Burns, Bryan, Angi Vera, Trowbridge, 1996. Articles: Gallagher, Michael, ‘‘Angi Vera: A Conversation with Pál Gábor,’’ in Cineaste (New York), vol. 10, no. 2, Spring 1980. Quart, Leonard, ‘‘Angi Vera,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), vol. 34, no. 1, Autumn 1980. *** At a compulsory political propaganda session at a hospital in communist Hungary in the fall of 1948 Vera Angi, a shy 18-year-old nursemaid, raises and courageously criticizes the hospital’s corrup- tion and its neglect of the patients. Her criticism impresses the comrades, particularly as it legitimates their plans to get rid of some politically untrustworthy doctors. The fact that Vera is an orphan of working-class background is particularly useful—she fits the tem- plate for new cadres that the Communist Party is looking to promote. The Party needs people like Vera, and soon she is sent to a six-month long political education course for party functionaries. Vera is aware of her political ignorance, but she is willing to learn; her ‘‘tabula rasa’’ attitude is particularly welcome by the Party well- wishers. The course also enrolls other upwardly mobile workers. Amidst all of them, however, Vera is the best. She is a natural, a genius of the new political correctness. Rather than making friends with younger women, she is attracted to an older aparatchik—Anna Trajan, a sour old maid—who is preparing to enter the nomenklatura as a newspaper editor-in-chief. Anna’s tutelage is crucial—she teaches Vera how to recognize and denounce political untrustworthiness, and how to report on the politically deviant. One of Vera’s classmates, a miner, develops an attraction to her, but she rebuffs him. She is interested in another man instead, the group seminar leader István Andre, a family man. During a party they come close to each other as they dance, holding a small ball between their foreheads, an erotically loaded scene that sharply contrasts with ANGST ESSEN SEELE AUFFILMS, 4 th EDITION 57 the austere surroundings. Soon thereafter Vera confesses her love to István; he admits he is also attracted to her. That same night she visits him secretly and they have sex. The following day, however, she begins persistently to avoid him. At a criticism and self-criticism party meeting which follows, Vera publicly denounces her affair with István. She claims to be ashamed and blames it all on herself. István is driven to admit his love in public, only to be rebuffed by Vera, who says she does not really love him. István is removed from the course, and a new study group leader takes over. The others in the group ostracize Vera. During the graduation ceremony, she collapses on the stage. When she comes back to her senses, after the course is over, everyone else have left for their places of origin. She, however, does not have anywhere to go and does not want to return to the hospital. Anna Trajan informs her the Party has decided to make her a journalist as she has proven to be suitable for this responsible profession. She takes Vera away in a car. On the road they pass by one of the women, a fellow student, who does not even want to look at Vera. The concluding shot of the movie shows Vera in a close up, introvertedly looking in front of her. She is alone. She has begun her ascent to her future career. Angi Vera is the story of an individual’s doomed attempt to break free in a society which has banned individuality in principle. Rather than challenging and confronting the system, Vera Angi becomes its voluntary victim. Her crippled personality fits well the psychological profile drafted by the communists. She has rejected human warmth, friendship, and love, and she does not care very much about being alone. She is a monster, subtly indicted by the filmmakers. The early Stalinist years—the period after the so-called ‘‘amalga- mation,’’ the coercive co-optation of all liberal parties under the Communist one—provide the social context for the film. The film, however, treats party politics as an extension of personal politics. The individuals who are the center of attention are concerned about their own survival and are prepared to adjust by swiftly changing political colors. The narrative is structured around collective events, culminat- ing in the depressing party meetings which most people seem to detest but in which Vera learns to thrive. The meetings, at which everybody undergoes harsh scrutiny and self-criticism, are regularly attended by high-placed party comrades. The meetings are designed so that the attendees maintain a constant feeling of unspecified guilt; they cultivate uncritical conformism. With its exploration of suppressed sexuality and its numerous references to Vera’s deprived childhood, Angi Vera is a finely crafted psychological study of an individual in a constraining social context. The exquisite cinematography of Lajos Koltai, István Szabó’s regular director of photography, subtly problematizes the relationship be- tween public and private by juxtaposing extreme close ups and scenes of mass gatherings. The gray, dull light of winter afternoons amidst a cold landscape justifies the choice of subdued colors that work greatly to enhance the message of alienation and constraint. Pál Gábor’s next film, the acclaimed but lesser known Wasted Lives (Kettévált mennyezet), (1981), was also set in the 1950s and continued the director’s interest in the issues of individual fate in the context of Stalinist confines. This topic has been a defining interest for other leading Hungarian directors as well—for Kárloy Makk’s subtle Love (1979) and Another Way (1982), for Marta Mészarós’s utterly personal Diary Trilogy (1982–1990), for Péter Bacsó’s satire The Witness (1969) and Oh, Bloody Life!, (1983), and for István Szabó’s psychological study, Father (1966). Like Angi Vera, many of these films treat the period from a coming-of-age point of view and offer fine studies of personality formation in a society that demands conformism. —Dina Iordanova ANGST ESSEN SEELE AUF (Ali: Fear Eats the Soul) West Germany, 1973 Director: Rainer Werner Fassbinder Production: Tango-Film Productions; color, 35mm; running time: 90 minutes. Released 1973. Filmed in Germany. Producer: Rainer Werner Fassbinder; screenplay: Rainer Werner Fassbinder; photography: Jürgen Jüges; editor: Thea Eymes; sound: Fritz Müller-Scherz; art director: Rainer Werner Fassbinder; cos- tume designer: Helga Kempke. Cast: Brigitte Mira (Emmi); El Hedi ben Salem (Ali/El Hedi ben Salem M’Barek Mohammed Mustapha); Barbara Valantin (Barbara); Irm Hermann (Krista); Peter Gauhe (Bruno); Karl Scheydt (Al- bert); Rainer Werner Fassbinder (Eugen); Marquand Bohm (Herr Gruber); Walter Sedlmayer (Herr Angermeyer); Doris Mattes (Frau Angermeyer); Liselotte Eder (Frau Munchmeyer); Gusti Kreissel (Paula); Elma Karlowa; Anita Bucher; Margit Symo; Katharina Herberg; Lilo Pompeit; Hannes Gromball; Hark Bohm; Rudolf Waldemar; Peter Moland. Awards: Cannes Film Festival, International Critics’ Award (shared with Bresson’s Lancelot du Lac), 1974. Publications Books: Limmer, Wolfgang, Fassbinder, Munich, 1973. Thomsen, Christian, I Fassbinders Spejl, Copenhagen, 1975. Pflaum, Hans, Das bisschen Realitat, das ich brauche: Wir Filme entstehen, Munich, 1976. Rayns, Tony, Fassbinder, London, 1976. Peter, Jansen, and Wolfram Schütte, editors, Reihe Film 2: Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Munich, 1979. ANGST ESSEN SEELE AUF FILMS, 4 th EDITION 58 Angst essen Seele auf Sandford, John, The New German Cinema, Totowa, New Jersey, 1980. Baer, Harry, Schlafen kann ich, wenn ich tot bin: Das atemlose Leben des Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Cologne, 1982. Eckhardt, Bernd, Rainer Werner Fassbinder: Im 17 Jahren 42 Filme—Stationen eines Lebens fur den Deutschen Film, Munich, 1982. Iden, Peter, and others, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Munich, 1982. Raab, Kurt, and Karsten Peters, Die Sehnsucht des Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Munich, 1982. Foss, Paul, editor, Fassbinder in Review, Sydney, 1983. Franklin, James, New German Cinema: From Oberhausen to Ham- burg, Boston, 1983. Fassbinder, Rainer Werner, Film Befreien den Kopf: Essays und Arbeitsnotizen, edited by Michael T?teburg, Frankfurt, 1984. Hayman, Ronald, Fassbinder: Film-maker, London, 1984. Phillips, Klaus, New German Filmmakers: From Oberhausen Through the 1970s, New York, 1984. Fassbinder, Rainer Werner, Die Anarchie der Phantasie: Gespr?che und Interviews, edited by Michael T?teburg, Frankfurt, 1986. Katz, Robert, and Peter Berling, Love Is Colder Than Death: The Life and Times of Rainer Werner Fassbinder, London 1987. Shattuc, Jane, Television, Tabloids, and Tears: Fassbinder and Popular Culture, Minneapolis, 1995. Elsaesser, Thomas, Fassbinder’s Germany: History, Identity, Sub- ject, Amsterdam, 1996. Kardish, Laurence, editor, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, New York, 1997. Articles: Thomas, Christian Braad, ‘‘Fassbinder’s Holy Whores,’’ in Take One (Montreal), July-August 1973. Sander, Helke, ‘‘Die Darstellung alter Frauen in Film,’’ in Frauen und Film (Berlin), no. 3, 1974. Grant, J., in Cinéma (Paris), July-August 1974. Rayns, Tony, in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1974. Amengual, Barthélemy, in Positif (Paris), September 1974. Hepnerova, E., in Film a Doba (Prague), September 1974. Sauvaget, D., in Image et Son (Paris), September 1974. Canby, Vincent, in New York Times, 7 October 1974. Combs, Richard, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), November 1974. L’ANNéE DERNIèRE à MARIENBADFILMS, 4 th EDITION 59 Farber, Manny, and Patricia Patterson, ‘‘Rainer Werner Fassbinder,’’ in Film Comment (New York), November-December 1975. Hughes, John, and Brooks Riley, ‘‘A New Realism: Fassbinder Interviewed,’’ in Film Comment (New York), November-Decem- ber 1975. Thomas, Paul, ‘‘Fassbinder—The Poetry of the Inarticulate,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1976–1977. Franklin, James, ‘‘Method and Message: Forms of Communication in Fassbinder’s Angst essen Seele auf,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), no. 3, 1979. Santamaria, J. V. G., in Contracampo (Madrid), 1980. Stefanoni, L., in Cineforum (Bergamo), January-February 1982. Woodward, K. S., ‘‘European Anti-Melodrama: Godard, Truffaut, and Fassbinder,’’ in Post Script (Jacksonville, Florida), Win- ter 1984. Hartsough, D., ‘‘Cine-feminism Renegotiated: Fassbinder’s Ali as Interventionist Cinema,’’ in Wide Angle (Baltimore, Maryland), no. 1, 1990. LaValley, A., ‘‘The Gay Liberation of Rainer Werner Fassbinder: Male Subjectivity, Male Bodies, Male Lovers,’’ in New German Critique, no. 63, Fall 1994. Sharma, S., ‘‘Fassbinder’s Ali and the Politics of Subject Formation,’’ in Post Script (Commerce, Texas), vol. 14, no. 1–2, 1994–95. Reimer, R.C., ‘‘Comparison of Douglas Sirk’s All That Heaven Allows and Rainer Werner Fassbinder’s Ali: Fear Eats the Soul; or, how Hollywood’s New England Dropouts Became Germany’s Marginalized Other,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), vol. 24, no. 3, 1996. Medhurst, Andy, ‘‘The Long Take,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), vol. 6, no. 2, February 1996. *** Rainer Werner Fassbinder’s fifteenth film, Angst essen Seele auf, represents perhaps the peak of his renowned domestic melodrama period, bracketed approximately by The Merchant of Four Seasons and Angst von Angst. The story of an improbable romance between Ali, a young black Gastarbeiter in Munich, and Emmi, an elderly, widowed German cleaning woman, Angst essen Seele auf is patterned rather explicitly on the Hollywood ‘‘women’s pictures’’ of Douglas Sirk; in this case, All That Heaven Allows, where bourgeois widow Jane Wyman falls in love with her younger gardener, Rock Hudson, and finds herself ostracized by her children as well as the country club set. Admiring Sirk for his ability to deal with interpersonal politics in the context of melodrama (a genre animated by personal crisis in a social/familial context), Fassbinder was equally impressed by the visual stylization of Sirk’s mise-en-scène. Employing a Sirkian stylization in camera angle, framing, color, and lighting, Fassbinder takes on the conventions of melodrama in Angst essen Seele auf, yet exaggerates them in the direction of Bertolt Brecht, emphasizing the social typage of the characters, arranging characters in frozen tableaux at key moments, and distancing the viewer by constantly framing through doorways and in long shot. The effect is to force the contradictions of the story to reveal themselves on an intellectual level, to remove the viewer from the level of pure empathy to that of understanding the ways in which the characters’ lives are determined by age, social status, and economic class. Like Sirk’s characters, Ali and Emmi face social ostracism for their love— the harrassment of neighbors, co-workers, and merchants, and the horror of family and friends. After returning from a trip to get away from it all, they finally find themselves accepted; but only to the extent that returning them to their ‘‘proper’’ social roles allows them to be exploited once again by those around them. It is a very cold world which Fassbinder depicts, a world in which emotion and love are exploited. Writing on Sirk, Fassbinder (whose first film is appropriately titled Love is Colder Than Death) asserted his conviction that ‘‘love is the best, most insidious, most effective instrument of social repression’’; and Angst essen Seele auf is an unblinking illustration of his point. Once relieved of the social pressure which brought the lonely Ali and Emmi together, they find their personal relationship determined by many of the the same prejudices and assumptions, playing out their ‘‘types’’ and becoming more like those who despised them. What emerges is a scathing critique of social repression seen from the lowest rungs of society’s ladder. The ungrammatical title, trans- lated literally ‘‘fear eat up soul,’’ is a phrase used by Ali to describe the pain he is suffering in his relationship with Emmi, a pain which eventually manifests itself as an ulcerated stomach—a malady, a doc- tor tells Emmi, suffered by many foreign workers. The irony that this strange, almost grotesque couple must suffer a fate which is normal, typical, and utterly anti-romantic adds a chilling sense of truth to the film’s epigraph, ‘‘Happiness is not always fun.’’ It would be incorrect to assert that the analytic aspects of the film preclude an emotional response; for if Fassbinder makes it almost impossible to empathize with Ali and Emmi in the conventional sense, it is only to provoke more deeply disturbing feelings. Fassbinder has been quoted to the effect that ‘‘films that say the feelings you believe you have don’t really exist, that they are only the sentiments which you think you ought to have as a well-functioning member of society—such films have to be cold.’’ Yet the coldness of Angst essen Seele auf is not emotionless; far from dulling the viewer, it produces a profound shiver, marking the success of Fassbinder in constructing a film which will make audiences both think and feel. —Ed Lowry L’ANNéE DERNIèRE à MARIENBAD (Last Year at Marienbad) France-Italy, 1961 Director: Alain Resnais Production: Terra Films, Société Nouvelle des Films Cormoran, Argos Films, Précitel, Como Films, Les Films Tamara, Cinetel, Silver Films (Paris), and Cineriz (Rome); black and white, 35mm, Dyaliscope; running time: 100 minutes; English version: 93 minutes. Released September 1961, Paris. Filmed September through November 1960 in Photosonar Studios, Paris, and on location in Munich at various chateaux including Nymphenburg and Schleissheim. Producer: Pierre Courau and Raymond Froment; screenplay: Alain Robbe-Grillet; main titles: Jean Fouchet; English subtitles: Noele Gillmor; photography: Sacha Vierny; editors: Henri Colpi and Jasmine Chasney; sound: Guy Villette; art director: Jacques Saulnier; music: Francis Seyrig; musical director: André Girard; costume L’ANNéE DERNIèRE à MARIENBAD FILMS, 4 th EDITION 60 designers: Bernard Evein and Chanel; 2nd assistant director: Volker Schl?ndorff. Cast: Delphine Seyrig (A); Giorgio Albertazzi (X); Sacha Pito?ff (M); Fran?oise Bertin; Luce Garcia-Ville; Hélèna Kornel; Fran?oise Spira; Karin Toech-Mittler; Pierre Barbaud; Wilhelm Von Deek; Jean Lanier; Gérard Lorin; Davide Montemuri; Gilles Quéant; Gabriel Werner. Awards: Lion of St. Mark, Venice Film Festival, 1961. Publications Scripts: Robbe-Grillet, Alain, L’Année dernière à Marienbad, Paris 1961; as Last Year at Marienbad, London and New York, 1962. Books: Cordier, Stephane, Alain Resnais; ou, La Création au cinéma, Paris, 1961. Pingaud, Bernard, Alain Resnais, Lyons, 1961. Bounourre, Gaston, Alain Resnais, Paris, 1962. Cowie, Peter, Antonioni, Bergman, Resnais, London, 1963. Miesch, Jean, Robbe-Grillet, Paris, 1965. Alter, J. V., La Vision du monde d’Alain Robbe-Grillet, Geneva, 1966. Durgnat, Raymond, Nouvelle Vague: The First Decade, Loughton, Essex, 1966. Geduld, Harry M., editor, Film Makers on Filmmaking, Bloomington, Indiana, 1967. Armes, Roy, The Cinema of Alain Resnais, London, 1968. Graham, Peter, The New Wave, New York, 1968. Prédal, René, Alain Resnais, Paris, 1968. Ward, John, Alain Resnais; or, The Theme of Time, New York, 1968. Bertetto, Paolo, Resnais, Alain Resnais, Italy, 1976. Kreidl, John Francis, Alain Resnais, Boston, 1977. Monaco, James, The Role of Imagination, New York, 1978. Van Wert, William F., In the Theory and Practice of the Ciné-Roman, New York, 1978. Thiher, Allen, The Cinematic Muse: Critical Studies in the History of French Cinema, London, 1979. Houston, Beverle, and Marsha Kinder, Self and Cinema: A Transformalist Perspective, New York, 1980. Sweet, Freddy, The Film Narratives of Alain Resnais, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1981. Benayoun, Robert, Alain Resnais: Arpenteur de l’imaginaire, Paris, 1980; revised edition, 1986. Vergerio, Flavio, I film di Alain Resnais, Rome, 1984. Roob, Jean-Daniel, Alain Resnais: Qui êtes-vous? Lyons, 1986. Riambau, Esteve, La cience y la ficcion: El cine de Alain Resnais, Barcelona, 1988. Thomas, Fran?ois, L’atelier d’Alain Resnais, Paris, 1989. Alain Resnais, with Beitr?gen von Wolfgang Jacobsen et al., München, 1990. Instituto Franco-Portug?es de Lisboa, Alain Resnais, Lisbon, 1992. Callev, Haim, The Stream of Consciousness in the Films of Alain Resnais, New York, 1997. Núria Bou, et al, Alain Resnais: viaje al centro de un demiurgo, Barcelona, 1998. Fleischer, Alain, L’art d’Alain Resnais, Paris, 1998. Articles: ‘‘Introduction à la méthode d’Alain Resnais et d’Alain Robbe- Grillet,’’ in Lettres Fran?aises (Paris), 10 August 1961. Robbe-Grillet, Alain, in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1961. Interview with Resnais, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), September 1961, reprinted in Films and Filming (London), March 1962. Labarthe, Andre, ‘‘Marienbad Année Zero,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), September 1961. Brunius, Jacques, and Penelope Houston in Sight and Sound (Lon- don), Winter 1961–62. Houston, Penelope, in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1961–62. Colpi, Henri, in New York Film Bulletin, no. 2, 1962. Labarthe, André, and Jacques Rivette, ‘‘A Conversation with Alain Resnais and Alain Robbe-Grillet,’’ in New York Film Bulletin, no. 2, 1962. Resnais, Alain, ‘‘Trying to Understand My Own Film,’’ in Films and Filming (London), February 1962. Crowther, Bosley, in New York Times, 8 March 1962. Brunius, Jacques, ‘‘Every Year at Marienbad; or, The Discipline of Uncertainty,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1962. Oxenhandler, Neal, ‘‘Marienbad Revisited,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berke- ley), Fall 1963. Taylor, John Russell, ‘‘Alain Resnais,’’ in Cinema Eye, Cinema Ear (New York), 1964. Stanbrook, Alan, ‘‘The Time and Space of Alain Resnais,’’ in Films and Filming (London), January 1964. Ollier, Jean, ‘‘Film et roman: Problèmes du récit,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), December 1966. Pingaud, Bernard, ‘‘Nouveau roman et nouveau cinema,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), December 1966. Roud, Richard, ‘‘Memories of Resnais,’’ in Sight and Sound (Lon- don), Summer 1969. Noguera, Rui, ‘‘Interview with Delphine Seyrig,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1969. Goldmann, Annie, ‘‘Muriel’’ and ‘‘L’Année dernière à Marienbad,’’ in Cinéma et Societé (Paris), 1971. Blumenberg, Richard, ‘‘10 Years after Marienbad,’’ in Cinema Journal (Evanston, Illinois), Spring 1971. Skoller, D., ‘‘Aspects of Cinematic Consciousness,’’ in Film Com- ment (New York), September-October 1972. Harcourt, Peter, ‘‘Memory Is Kept Alive with Dreams,’’ in Film Comment (New York), November-December 1973. Rocher, D., ‘‘Le Symbolisme du noir et blanc dans L’Année dernière à Marienbad,’’ in Etudes Cinématographiques (Paris), nos. 100–103, 1974. Dupont, G., ‘‘Lieux du cinema: De Versaille à Marienbad,’’ in Cinématographe (Paris), February 1979. Armes, Roy, ‘‘Ricardou and Last Year at Marienbad,’’ in Quarterly Review of Film Studies (New York), Winter 1980. Blaetz, R., ‘‘L’impiego della retorica in due film di Resnais,’’ in Cinema Nuovo (Turin), August-October 1982. Jones, Elizabeth, ‘‘Locating Truth in Film 1940–80,’’ in Post Script (Jacksonville, Florida), Fall 1986. Pisters, Patricia, ‘‘Passie onder steen,’’ Skrien (Amsterdam), no. 193, December/January 1993–94. ANNIE HALLFILMS, 4 th EDITION 61 Alemany-Galway, M. ‘‘Vid postmodernismens brytpunkt,’’ Filmhaftet (Sverige, Sweden), vol. 23, no. 4, 1995. Istomina, E. ‘‘Granitsy Marienbada,’’ Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), no. 11, 1996. Kirsch, Walter, Jr., ‘‘Marienbad Revisited: A Feast for the Senses,’’ Creative Screenwriting (Washington D.C.), vol. 3, no. 1, Sum- mer 1996. Mason, M., ‘‘Dodici armadi per arredare una residenza estiva,’’ Forum, vol. 37, 1997. *** Alain Resnais’s Last Year at Marienbad shares, with a handful of other films (notably Truffaut’s The 400 Blows and Jules and Jim, Godard’s Breathless, and Resnais’s own Hiroshima mon amour), the distinction of being a landmark of the French New Wave, and as such, a major influence upon later film styles. Unlike those other films, it remains controversial: it is often dismissed or despised as pretentious nonsense by some while admired as a masterpiece by others. In any case, it remains, far more than the other films, distinctly avant-garde in its conception of narrative. Co-authorship of the film must be assigned to screenwriter Alain Robbe-Grillet, whose earlier novels (notably Jealousy, 1959) share themes and narrative techniques with Marienbad. Robbe-Grillet’s later works—films he directed as well as novels—have an even stronger resemblance to this first screenplay. This is not to deny major credit to Resnais, whose fascination with themes of time and memory runs through virtually all his films, and who had already displayed in an earlier feature and in a series of short subjects a mastery of montage and gliding camera movements characteristic of Marienbad. Marienbad’s initial fame was based on certain surface qualities: the baroque palace setting with its eerie formal gardens (Poe’s Haunted Palace brought to life), the frozen postures of the guests, the ‘‘Marienbad’’ game the guests play (a brief fad after the film’s release), and the puzzling plot of a man (‘‘X’’) who attempts to convince a languid woman (‘‘A’’) to leave her sinister husband or lover as—X claims—she had already agreed to do last year at Marienbad. A, however, claims not to know X. A radical feature of the film is the frequent number of flashbacks, and possible flashforwards, which may in fact be fantasy scenes; the subjective visions of X or A or both. The film is also radical in its use of narrative voice. At times descriptions by the voice do not correspond to the actions on the screen; or the narrator’s sentence is finished by the dialogue of an actor in an amateur play; or minor characters repeat earlier speeches of the narrator verbatim. Faced with the impossibility of working out a linear, coherent narrative from this material, some have rejected the entire work as deliberately incoherent, while others have reveled in its intoxicated images and rhythms: the splendid black-and-white cinemascope compositions; the sweeping, occasionally dizzying tracking shots; the abrupt yet controlled contrasts of light and shadow. The film need not, however, be taken as an abstract or ‘‘contentless’’ work. It simply demands to be considered in terms of its significant images and rhythms, and the matters discussed by the characters and the narrator, rather than in terms of a traditional narrative and psychological analysis of the characters. The film is clearly epistomological in its interests. It is about how one constructs ‘‘reality’’ for oneself, as X evidently so convinces A that they did meet at Marienbad that his possible fantasy becomes her reality. In his valuable preface to his film script, Robbe-Grillet suggests that whatever a film shows is ‘‘present tense,’’ unlike the novel’s past and conditional tenses; hence what may be X’s or A’s fantasies become reality not only for them but for the viewer as well. The film can also be said to be about how people attach meanings to existence. Characters in the film discuss the possible symbolism of a mysterious, hauntingly expressive statue. This artwork surely corresponds to the film itself. The viewer must interpret the characters and their motives, must decide what among the scenes witnessed is fantasy or lies, and what, if anything, is fact. Indeed, in the first 15 minutes of the film, the viewer must figure out which of the large number of ‘‘guests’’ investigated by the roaming camera are to be the main characters: the camera teasingly eavesdrops and gives mislead- ing hints. The film is also about the relation of life to art and artifice. As we make an effort to remember the past, we ‘‘freeze’’ an image of it which is not reality, but a picture, an artwork, or perhaps a fantasy. This epistemological theme is developed by the film not only in its basic drama but in its constant attention to works of art and to the artificiality of the characters: statuary and people who pose like statues; a theatrical production even more stylized than the actual performances in the film; engravings and photographs; and the palace-hotel itself with its formal gardens. The baroque setting is perfect. Its curvilinear forms suggest frozen and symmetrical plant life, while the geometrical gardens are an exceedingly artificial arrangement of real plants. Ultimately the film suggests that percep- tion itself is the creation of artifice. Marienbad may be read on other, but necessarily incompatible, levels as well. Freudians may see it as a fantasia on an Oedipal triangle, with both veiled and explicit images of sexual violence. Or it may be taken as a drama of entrapment or self-entrapment, like Jean- Paul Sartre’s No Exit: a spectacle of people who cannot escape the prison of their own egos or the dominance of others. It is difficult to trace the precise influence of Marienbad on later films, except for some specific cases such as the films of Robbe- Grillet, beginning with L’Immortelle (1963). Also included are the structures and rhythms in the films of Nicholas Roeg from Perform- ance (1970) to Bad Timing/A Sensual Obsession (1981); and Edward Dmytryk’s Mirage (1965), a spy/murder-mystery in which an amne- sia victim’s memories, actual and false, are periodically flashed forth in Marienbad style. Thanks largely to Marienbad and other films by Resnais, the instant flashback (as opposed to the traditional slow ones signaled by dreamy music and blurred frames) and the interweaving of past and present events in a continuous flow have become a basic part of the vocabulary of contemporary filmmaking. —Joseph Milicia ANNIE HALL USA, 1977 Director: Woody Allen Production: Jack Rollins-Charles H. Joffe Productions; Deluxe color, 35mm, Panavision; running time: 93 minutes. Released 1977 by United Artists. Filmed 1976 in New York City and Los Angeles. ANNIE HALL FILMS, 4 th EDITION 62 Annie Hall Producers: Charles H. Joffe and Jack Rollins with Robert Greenhut and Fred T. Gallo; screenplay: Woody Allen and Marshall Brickman; photography: Gordon Willis; editor: Ralph Rosenblum; sound engineer: James Sabat; production designers: Robert Drumheller and Justin Scoppa Jr.; art director: Mel Bourne; costume designer: Ruth Morley. Cast: Woody Allen (Alvy Singer); Diane Keaton (Annie Hall); Tony Roberts (Rob); Paul Simon (Tony Lacey); Carol Kane (Allison); Janet Margolin (Robin); Shelley Duvall (Pam); Christopher Walken (Duane Hall); Collen Dewhurst (Annie’s mother); Donald Symington (An- nie’s father); Helen Ludlam (Grammy Hall); Joan Newman (Alvy’s mother); Mordecai Lawner (Alvy’s father); Jonathan Munk (Alvy as a child); Ruth Volner (Alvy’s aunt); Martin Rosenblatt (Alvy’s uncle); Hy Ansel (Joey Nichols); Rashel Novikoff (Aunt Tessie); Russell Horton (Man in line at movies); Marshall McLuhan (Himself); Dick Cavett (Himself); Christine Jones (Dorrie); Mary Boland (Miss Reed); Wendy Gerard (Janet); John Doumanian (Man with drugs); Bob Maroff (1st Man in front of the movie theater); Rick Petrucelli (2nd Man in front of the movie theater); Lee Callahan (Cashier); Chris Gampel (Doctor); Mark Lenard (Marine officer); Dan Ruskin (Comic at the ‘‘Rallye’’); John Glover (Actor friend of Annie’s); Bernie Styles (Comic’s business manager); Johnny Haymer (Comic); Ved Bandhu (Maharishi); John Dennis Johnston (L.A. policeman); Lauri Bird (Tony Lacey’s girl); Jim McKrell, Jeff Goldblum, William Callawy, Roger Newman, Alan Landers, and Dean Sarah Frost (Partygoers); Vince O’Brien (Hotel doctor); Humphrey Davis (Alvy’s psychiatrist); Veronica Radburn (Annie’s psychiatrist); Robin Mary Paris (Girl in Alvy’s play); Charles Levin (Man in Alvy’s play); Wayne Carson (Stage manager of Alvy’s play); Michael Karm (Director of Alvy’s play); Beverly D’Angelo (Actress in Rob’s TV show); Tracy Walter (Actor in Rob’s TV show); Sigourney Weaver (Alvy’s friend at the movies); Walter Bernstein (Annie’s friend at the movies). Awards: Oscars for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actress (Keaton), and Best Original Screenplay, 1977; New York Film Critics’ Awards for Best Film, Best Director, Best Actress (Keaton), and Best Screen- play, 1977. Publications Script: Allen, Woody, and Marshall Brickman, Annie Hall, in Four Films of Woody Allen, New York, 1983. Books: Jacobs, Diane, But We Need the Eggs: The Magic of Woody Allen, New York, 1982. Lahr, John, Automatic Vaudeville: Essays on Star Turns, New York, 1984. Brode, Douglas, Woody Allen: His Films and Career, London, 1985. Benayoun, Robert, Woody Allen: Beyond Words, London 1987. Bendazzi, G., The Films of Woody Allen, Florence, 1987. Jarvie, Ian, Philosophy of the Film: Epistemology, Ontology, Aesthet- ics, London, 1987. Navacelle, Thierry de, Woody Allen on Location, London, 1987. Poger, Nancy, Woody Allen, Boston, 1987. Cowie, Peter, Annie Hall, London, 1996. Articles: McBride, J., in Variety (New York), 30 March 1977. Drew, B., ‘‘Woody Allen Is Feeling Better,’’ in American Film (Washington, D.C.), May 1977. Trow, G. W. S., ‘‘A Film about a Very Funny Man,’’ in Film Comment (New York) May-June 1977. Malmiaer, P., ‘‘Mig og moneterne,’’ in Kosmorama (Copenhagen), Autumn 1977. Brown, Geoff, in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1977. Dawson, Jan, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), October 1977. Karman, M., ‘‘Comedy Directors: Interviews with Woody Allen,’’ in Millimeter (New York), October 1977. Benayoun, Robert, ‘‘Le Rire et la culture: Le Citoyen Allen et Spinoza (Annie Hall),’’ in Positif (Paris), November 1977. Carrere, E., ‘‘Portrait de l’artiste en masochiste serein,’’ in Positif (Paris), November 1977. Daney, Serge, ‘‘Le Cinéphile à la voix forte,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), November 1977. Garel, A., in Image et Son (Paris), November 1977. Stuart, A., in Films and Filming (London), November 1977. Ledgard, R., in Hablemos de Cine (Lima), 1977–78. ANTICIPATION OF THE NIGHTFILMS, 4 th EDITION 63 Baker, D., in Cinema Papers (Melbourne), August-September 1978. Halberstadt, I., ‘‘Scenes from a Mind,’’ in Take One (Montreal), November 1978. Yacowar, Maurice, ‘‘Forms of Coherence in the Woody Allen Comedies,’’ in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), no. 2, 1979. Funck, J., ‘‘L’Un Dit gestion de ?a, voir (sur Annie Hall de Woody Allen),’’ in Positif (Paris), February 1979. Johnson, Timothy, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 1, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Median de la Serna, R., ‘‘El cine de Woody Allen,’’ in Cine (Mexico City), March 1980. Schatz, Thomas, ‘‘Annie Hall and the Issue of Modernism,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), July 1982. Gallanfent, E., ‘‘Moonshine: Love and Enchantment in Annie Hall and Manhattan,’’ in Cineaction (Toronto), Summer 1989. Girlanda, E., and A. Tella, ‘‘Allen, Manhattan transfert,’’ in Castoro Cinema (Florence), July-August 1990. Deleyto, C., ‘‘The Narrator and the Narrative: The Evolution of Woody Allen’s Film Comedies,’’ in Film Criticism (Meadville, Pennsylvania), vol. 19, no. 2, 1994–95. Boon, Kevin A., ‘‘Scripting Gender. Writing Difference,’’ in Crea- tive Screenwriting (Washington, D.C.), vol. 4, no. 1, Spring 1997. *** In Annie Hall Woody Allen finally delivered a unified work, one that relied on more than his episodic one-liner format. In the film he brought together many of his past obsessions, among them his love of New York, his lack of affection for L.A., the inability to handle success; but this time, he merged them with an in-depth examination of his feelings about family and relationships. It was as if, after 21 years of Freudian analysis, he finally decided to deal with his neuroses on the screen. Occasionally speaking with a confessional directness that destroys the film’s illusion of reality and separates him momentarily from the episodic ramblings of his stream-of-conscious- ness narrative, he situates the spectator as analyst. Throughout the film the customary Allen episodes are cleverly linked together through memory, with dialogue precipitating flashbacks. The film opens with a monologue which pays homage to three key individuals: Groucho Marx, Sigmund Freud, and Annie Hall. He pays respects to Groucho, from whom he learned comedy; to Freud, from whom he learned how to deal with his childhood; and to Annie, from whom he learned of both love and despair. At the end of the monologue, he moves from comedy to melancholy as he states: ‘‘. . . Annie and I broke up . . . I keep sifting the pieces of the relationship through my mind . . . .’’ Searching for the answer to the breakup, he begins by sifting through the wreckage of his childhood—a Freudian analysis laced with (Groucho) Marxian wit. With Annie Hall, Allen the director is absorbed with his past, as is Alvy Singer, the character Allen portrays in this film. He uses many strategies to comment on the past, from interjecting himself as Alvy into a scene aurally, to interjecting himself visually. Early on both strategies are situated. Alvy’s first childhood memories concern depression and his recurring difficulty of distinguishing between fantasy and reality. These scenes use a voice-over narration by Alvy as if to dispel any notion that he is unable to distinguish between the two as an adult. Immediately, however, he begins a strategy of interjecting himself physically into the past, proving that the inability does indeed exist. In a classroom scene he moves from observing himself as a child to participating in the scene as an adult attempting to clarify his childhood actions to his classmates. Another key aspect of the film is Allen’s ability to remove himself from the on-screen reality. This he achieves in a number of ways, from voice-over commentary and/or subtitles which contradict the on-screen dialogue, to physically stepping out of the scene either to comment on the narrative action or to correct the flow of events. After Annie and Alvy meet for the first time their dialogue is heard on the soundtrack but their real thoughts are shown in subtitles at the bottom of the screen: while Alvy says ‘‘The medium enters in as a condition of the art form itself,’’ a subtitle reads ‘‘I don’t know what I’m saying—she senses I’m shallow.’’ At other points in the film Alvy simple uses voice-over to comment on the ridiculousness of an on- screen event: when the comic who wants Alvy to write his material minces around the office, Alvy, in voice-over comments, ‘‘Look at him mincing around, like he thinks he’s real cute . . . .’’ In other scenes he is much more assertive. Unable to bear another moment of academic pretension from a man standing behind him in a theater lobby, he directly addresses the audience: ‘‘What do you do when you get stuck in a movie line with a guy like this behind you?’’ After embarrassing the academic by having Marshall McLuhan step out from behind a marquee to say: ‘‘How you got to teach a course in anything is totally amazing,’’ Alvy turns to the camera once again and states: ‘‘Boy if life were only like this!’’ At the film’s end Alvy is writing a play about his breakup with Annie. Where in Manhattan the book he is writing becomes the film we are seeing, here the play he is writing becomes, in retrospect, the film we’ve just seen. In this film Allen stretched the limits of his narrative technique by developing strategies for showing how the past and present interact in life and art as well as analysis. The film succeeded beyond any of Allen’s earlier work, brought new life to the romantic comedy genre, gave American audiences a new leading lady, Diane Keaton, and fashion designers a new look to market. —Doug Tomlinson ANTICIPATION OF THE NIGHT US, 1958 Director: Stan Brakhage Production: Color, silent, 16mm: running time: 48 minutes. Producer: Stan Brakhage. Publications Books: Brakhage, Stan, Metaphors on Vision, Film Culture Inc., 1963. Renan, Sheldon, An Introduction to the American Underground Film, New York, 1967. ANTICIPATION OF THE NIGHT FILMS, 4 th EDITION 64 Brakhage, Stan, A Moving Picture Giving and Taking Book, Frontier Press, 1971. Sitney, P. Adams, Visionary Film, Oxford and New York, 1979. James, David E., Allegories of Cinema, Princeton, 1989. Peterson, James, Dreams of Chaos, Visions of Order, Detroit, 1994. *** Arguably the central film in the Brakhage canon, Anticipation of the Night (1958) inaugurated a radical change in experimental filmmaking techniques and aesthetics. Prior to this film, American experimental cinema employed either a ‘‘Trance’’ (or ‘‘Psycho- drama’’) model, as established by Maya Deren (Meshes of the Afternoon), Kenneth Anger (Fireworks), and Sidney Peterson and James Broughton (The Potted Psalm), or a ‘‘Graphic’’ model, as established (in different forms) by Mary Ellen Bute (Tarantella), Harry Smith (Early Abstractions), and Len Lye (Colour Box). The Trance/Psychodrama approach emphasized surreal, dream narratives of psychological revelation in which the filmmaker typically per- formed as an on-screen protagonist. This protagonist experienced a literal and metaphorical journey of self-exploration built upon representational imagery that alternated between objective and sub- jective perspectives. The Graphic approach featured animated, ab- stract images often hand-applied directly onto the film. The film itself functioned as a scroll which could be ‘‘unwound’’ at different projector speeds or by hand. In Anticipation of the Night, Stan Brakhage abandoned both models (or perhaps more accurately combined both models) and rejected aesthetic norms for an intensely personal and extremely subjective expression of self that emphasized the various ‘‘visions’’ of the filmmaker. This ‘‘Lyrical’’ approach teasingly appeared in earlier Brakhage films (such as Reflections on Black, The Way to Shadow Garden, and Wonder Ring) and would reach full expression in his 1960s films (such as Thigh Line Lyre Triangular, Window Water Baby Moving, and Dog Star Man), but Anticipation of the Night stands as the first fully realized Lyrical film and a paradigm of the model. Working as a ‘‘diary’’ in which Brakhage recorded the events of his life and his feelings about them, Anticipation of the Night ushered in a new experimental model which synthesized a Romantic mythopoesis and the reflexive Modernism of Abstract Expressionism. P. Adams Sitney, one of the central figures of experimental film criticism and author of the seminal text Visionary Film, explains that Lyrical cinema: . . . postulates the film-maker behind the camera as the first-person protagonist of the film. The images of the film are what he sees, filmed in such a way that we never forget his presence and we know how he is reacting to his vision. In the lyrical form there is no longer a hero; instead the screen is filled with movement, and that movement, both of the camera and the editing, reverber- ates with the idea of a man looking. As viewers we see this man’s intense experience of seeing. This boldly original technique of expressing the impression of sight via an abstracted, first-person point of view resulted in a very poor reception when Anticipation of the Night was first shown (reportedly causing a riot at the 1959 Brussels World Fair). Yet according to Sitney, the great achievement of Anticipation of the Night is exactly this emphasis; its distillation of ‘‘an intense and complex interior crisis into an orchestration of sights and associations which cohere in a new formal rhetoric of camera movement and montage.’’ In Anticipation of the Night, Brakhage created a film of self- exploration and psychological revelation that did not depend on a journey metaphor, a linear narrative structure, or an on-screen protagonist (although vestiges of these Trance conventions are no- ticeable). Brakhage strove to communicate a ‘‘totality of vision’’ (what he saw, perceived, felt, imagined, and dreamt) through a com- plete identification between himself and a ‘‘liberated camera.’’ Using a constantly moving hand-held camera, unfocused images, under- and over-exposure, random compositions, distorting lenses and filters, flash frames, varying camera speeds, fragmented time and space, ‘‘plastic cutting,’’ and in later films, the scratching, bleaching, and painting of the film stock, Brakhage equated the process of filmmaking and the abstraction of reality with the expression of his emotions and imagination (much like the ‘‘action painting’’ of Abstract Expres- sionism). James Peterson refers to these techniques as a type of ‘‘personification strategy’’ where the film’s manipulation represents the filmmaker’s consciousness. Anticipation of the Night ‘‘personi- fies’’ Brakhage’s mental state in terms of a purely visual, subjec- tive cinema. A ‘‘difficult’’ and ambiguous film, Anticipation of the Night does not readily lend itself to an adequate description that can do justice to its poetry; its abstractions and ideas need to be experienced and pondered. Notwithstanding, Brakhage offers an excellent summary that manages to capture the emotions and themes of the film. Writing in Filmwise (1961) he says: The daylight shadow of a man in movement evokes lights in the night. A rose bowl, held in hand, reflects both sun and moon-like illumination. The opening of a doorway onto trees anticipates the twilight into the night. A child is born on the lawn, born of water, with promissory rainbow, and the wild rose. It becomes the moon and the source of all night light. Lights of the night become young children playing a circular game. The moon moves over a pillared temple to which all lights return. There is seen the sleep of innocents and their animal dreams, becoming their amusement, their circular game, becoming the morning. The trees change color and lose their leaves for the morn, becomes the complexity of branches on which the shadow man hangs himself. Yet even Brakhage’s description fails to convey the play of textures and light, the excitement of motion, the endearing innocence of children and nature, the giddiness of a carnival, and the non- narrative simultaneity caused by his fragmented ‘‘hyper-editing.’’ In Metaphors on Vision (which Brakhage began writing while developing the Lyrical mode), Brakhage discusses the psychological and artistic context of Anticipation of the Night. He explains how the film was to be his last about ‘‘fulfilling the myth of myself;’’ that it would function as a way out from the style and themes of the Psychodrama. The journey and suicide of the filmmaker/protagonist marks an end of Brakhage’s early cinema and the start of a new artistic approach (much like Godard’s ‘‘end of film/end of cinema’’ at the ANT?NIO DAS MORTESFILMS, 4 th EDITION 65 close of Weekend). More personally, Brakhage admits to a type of depression which colored the film (and provided its title): ‘‘pit seemed as if there was nothing but night out there, and I then thought of all my life as being in anticipation of that night. That night could only cast one shadow for me, could only form itself into one black shape, and that was the hanged man.’’ Brakhage tells the story of how he accidentally hung himself while shooting the final sequence and what this revealed to him. ‘‘I was sure that I had intended for months to finish the editing of Anticipation of the Night up to that point, go out in the yard, climb up on a chair camera in hand, jump off the chair, and while hanging run out as much film as I could, leaving a note saying ‘Attach this to the end of Anticipation of the Night’.’’ Sitney’s acclamation that Anticipation of the Night was the ‘‘first American film about and structured by the nature of the seeing experience; how one encounters a sight, how it is recalled, how it affects later vision, and where it leads the visionary’’ may deny the influence of Mary Ellen Bute, Jim Davis, and Marie Menken, but it does stress the importance of light and ‘‘untutored’’ or ‘‘innocent’’ vision in Brakhage’s subsequent work. Brakhage explains this impor- tance in the often quoted opening to Metaphors on Vision: Imagine an eye unruled by man-made laws of perspec- tive, an eye unprejudiced by compositional logic, an eye which does not respond to the name of everything but which must know each objected encountered in life through an adventure of perception.... Imagine a world alive with incomprehensible objects and shimmering with an endless variety of movement and innumerable gradations of color. Anticipation of the Night began the examination of this world of intense personal visions and subjective filmic expression. —Greg S. Faller ANT?NIO DAS MORTES (O drag?o da maldade contra o santo querreiro) Brazil, 1969 Director: Glauber Rocha Production: Produ??es Cinematográficas Mapa; Eastmancolor, 35mm; running time: 100 minutes. Released June 1969, Rio de Janeiro. Filmed on location in Milagres in the Brazilian Northwest. Producers: Zelito Viana (executive producer), Claude-Antoine Mapa, and Glauber Rocha; screenplay: Glauber Rocha, from the legends about the bounty hunter who killed the famous bandit Corisco in 1939; photography: Alfonso Beato; editor: Eduardo Escorel; sound: Walter Goulart; art director: Glauber Rocha; music: Marlos Nobre, Walter Queiroz, and Sérgio Ricardo. Cast: Maurício do Valle (Ant?nio das Mortes); Odete Lara (Laura); Hugo Carvana (Police Chief Mattos); Othon Bastos (The Professor); Jofre Soares (Colonel Horacio); Lorival Pariz (Coirana); Rosa Maria Penna (Sanata Bárbara); Mário Gusm?o (Ant?o); Vinivius Salvatori (‘‘Mata Vaca’’); Emanuel Cavalcanit (Priest); Sante Scaldaferri (Batista); the people of Milagres. Awards: Best Director (tied with Vojtech Jasny), Cannes Film Festival, 1969. Publications Script: Rocha, Glauber, Ant?nio das Mortes, in Roteiros do terceyro mundo, Rio de Janeiro, 1985. Books: Second Wave, New York, 1970. Martinez, Augusto, and Manuel Pere Estremera, Nuevo cine latinoamericano, Barcelona, 1973. Gerber, Raquel, editor, Glauber Rocha, Rio de Janiero, 1977. Rocha, Glauber, Revolu??o do cinema novo, Rio de Janeiro, 1981. Johnson, Randall, and Robert Stam, Brazilian Cinema, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1982. Rocher, Glauber, O seculo do cinema, Rio de Janeiro, 1983. Bandeira, Roberto, Pequeno dictionario critico do cinema brasileiro, Rio de Janeiro, 1983. Burton, Julianne, The New Latin American Cinema: An Annotated Bibliography of Sources in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, New York, 1983. Sarno, Geraldo, Glauber Rocha e o cinema latino-americano, Rio de Janiero, 1994. Articles: Callenbach, Ernest, ‘‘Comparative Anatomy of Folk-Myth Films: Robin Hood and Ant?nio das Mortes,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berke- ley), Winter 1969–70. Interview with Rocha, in Afterimage (New York), April 1970. Rocha, Glauber, ‘‘The Aesthetics of Violence,’’ in Afterimage (New York), April 1970. McGuinness, Richard, in Village Voice (New York), 21 May 1970. Interview with Rocha, in Cineaste (New York), Summer 1970. Hitchens, Gordon, interview with Rocha, in Film Quarterly (Berke- ley), Fall 1970. Wallington, Mike, in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1970. Fisher, Jack, ‘‘Politics by Magic: Ant?nio das Mortes,’’ in Film Journal (New York), Spring 1971. Haakman, A., ‘‘Ant?nio Das Mortes, de mooie revolutie,’’ in Skoop (The Hague), vol. 8, no. 5, 1972. Simsolo, No?l, ‘‘Ant?nio das Mortes,’’ in Image et Son (Paris), March 1972. Proppe, Hans, and Susan Tarr, ‘‘Cinema Novo: Pitfalls of Cultural Nationalism,’’ in Jump Cut (Chicago), June 1976. ANT?NIO DAS MORTES FILMS, 4 th EDITION 66 Ant?nio das Mortes Graham, Bruce, ‘‘Music in Glauber Rocha’s Films: Brazilian Renais- sance, Part 2,’’ in Jump Cut (Chicago), May 1980. Rocha, Glauber, ‘‘The History of Cinema Novo,’’ in Framework (Norwich), Summer 1980. Mistron, Deborah, ‘‘The Role of Myth in Ant?nio das Mortes,” in Enclitic (Minneapolis), Fall 1981 and Spring 1982. Vega, J., ‘‘Glauber Rocha: el santo guerrero del cinema novo,’’ in Cine Cubano (Havana), no. 134, 1992. *** In his lyric-mythic epic, Ant?nio das Mortes, Glauber Rocha creatively integrates elements of Brazilian popular religious culture, politics, folklore, social history, music, literature, and dance. Because of this thoroughly Brazilian context, the film is difficult for foreign viewers. Furthermore, the emblematic characters are not simple allegories but rather complex, synthetic creations representing real or fictional persons, social types, mystical or mythic motifs, social movements, or ideas. The complexity of these unusual characterizations is exemplified by the protagonist, Ant?nio das Mortes. This figure had appeared in Rocha’s earlier film Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol. According to Rocha, Ant?nio das Mortes is based on a historical figure, the bounty- hunter who in 1939 succeeded in killing Corisco, a famous cangaceiro (bandit) of the Northeastern backlands. In the film Ant?nio first appears as a jagunco (hired gunman) contracted to kill cangaceiros and protect a powerful landowner. After mortally wounding the cangaceiro Coirana, Ant?nio undergoes a political conversion and becomes a revolutionary who uses his rifle against the forces of oppression represented by the landowner and his hired gunslingers. The ending of the film is ambiguous in terms of the possible future role of the lone revolutionary. Ant?nio is last seen as a solitary figure walking—rifle in hand—down a backlands highway past a Shell Oil sign; the suggestion may be that a lone gunman can provoke a revolu- tionary situation in an underdeveloped regional setting, but he will be unable to halt massive exploitation in the new era of the multi- nationals. In Ant?nio das Mortes, Rocha reworks the Christian myth of St. George versus the dragon in terms of Brazil’s mythical conscious- ness. The St. George and the dragon myth is announced in the film’s opening triptych and alluded to in a closing sequence: in three rapid montage shots. Ant?o lances the landowner from horseback. Ant?nio THE APARTMENTFILMS, 4 th EDITION 67 das Mortes is not the only warrior saint, or St. George figure, in the film. Ant?o, whose name is similar to Ant?nio’s, is a black associated with Afro-Brazilian religions. Ant?o’s conversion from passive relig- ious follower to armed warrior continues the tradition of black revolt in Brazil. In order to ritually reenact the St. George and the dragon myth, Rocha theatricalizes the continuity of his film and its mise-en-scène. Many of the scenes take place in stage-like settings such as the cavern-amphitheater or the village square. The costuming, choreogra- phy, and the use of color, poetry, and music recall theater and opera. Rocha’s method of shooting imitates theatrical time and space. He prefers either lengthy sequences with a few cuts or long sequence shots. Conventional shot-reverse shot or cross-cutting are generally rejected in favor of capturing the scene’s significant elements within the shot and the frame. Rocha has argued that Brazilian filmmakers should not use European and American cinematic strategies and techniques to depict Latin America’s unique social problems. In Ant?nio das Mortes, Rocha seeks to contribute to the decolonization of Brazilian cinema by meshing new cinematic strategies with Brazilian reality. One such strategy is Rocha’s use of a Brazilian color code: the bright colors of buildings and costumes are natural and authentic colors that convey cultural significance for Brazilian audiences. During the location filming, Rocha drew directly on the knowledge and experience of the backlanders. The music and the dancing of the Ant?nio-Coirana duel scene are largely a creation of the local people. Ant?nio das Mortes was well received by the Brazilian film-going public. In Europe and the United States, the film was widely ac- claimed by critics, and a debate erupted concerning the film’s revolutionary qualities (or lack thereof). Today most critics regard the film as one of the greatest achievements—both aesthetically and culturally—of the Brazilian Cinema Novo. —Dennis West APARAJITO See THE APU TRILOGY THE APARTMENT USA, 1960 Director: Billy Wilder Production: Mirisch Company; black and white, Panavision; run- ning time: 125 minutes. Released May 1960. Producer: Billy Wilder; associate producers: Doane Harrison, I. A. L. Diamond; screenplay: Billy Wilder, I. A. L. Diamond; photography: Joseph LaShelle; editor: Daniel Mandell; sound: Fred Lau; art director: Alexander Trauner; music: Adolph Deutsch. Cast: Jack Lemmon (C. C. Baxter); Shirley MacLaine (Fran Kubelik); Fred MacMurray (J. D. Sheldrake); Ray Walston (Dobisch); David Lewis (Kirkeby); Jack Kruschen (Dr. Dreyfuss); Joan Shawlee (Sylvia); Edie Adams (Miss Olsen); Hope Holiday (Margie MacDougall); The Apartment Johnny Seven (Karl Matuschka); Naomi Stevens (Mrs. Drefuss); Frances Weintraub Lax (Mrs. Lieberman); Joyce Jameson (Blonde); Willard Waterman (Vanderhof); David White (Eichelberger). Awards: Oscars for Best Picture, Best Direction, Best Original Story and Screenplay, and Best Editing, 1960. British Film Academy Awards for Best Film and Best Foreign Actor (Lemmon). Publications Script: Wilder, Billy, and I. A. L. Diamond, The Apartment and The Fortune Cookie: Two Screenplays, New York, 1970. Books: Madsen, Axel, Billy Wilder, Bloomington, Indiana, 1969. Baltake, Joe, The Films of Jack Lemmon, Secaucus, New Jersey, 1977; revised edition, 1987. Seidman, Steve, The Film Career of Billy Wilder, Boston, 1977. Erens, Patricia, The Films of Shirley MacLaine, South Brunswick, New Jersey, 1978. Dick, Bernard F., Billy Wilder, Boston, 1980. Ciment, Michel, Les Conquérants d’un nouveau monde: Essais sur le cinéma américain, Paris, 1981. THE APARTMENT FILMS, 4 th EDITION 68 Giannetti, Louis, Masters of the American Cinema, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1981. Freedland, Michael, Jack Lemmon, London, 1985. Jacob, Jerome, Billy Wilder, Paris, 1988. Seidl, Claudius, Billy Wilder: Seine Filme, sein Leben, Munich, 1988. Armstrong, Richard, Billy Wilder, American Film Realist, Jefferson, North Carolina, 2000. Articles: Variety (New York), 18 July 1960. P. J. D., in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), August 1960. Cutts, John, in Films and Filming (London), September 1960. Dyer, Peter John, in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1960. Douchet, Jean in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), November 1960. Domarchi, Jean, and Jean Douchet, ‘‘Entretien avec Billy Wilder,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), August 1962. Onosko, Tom, ‘‘Billy Wilder,’’ in Velvet Light Trap (Madison, Wisconsin), Winter 1971. Sarris, Andrew, ‘‘Billy Wilder, Closet Romanticist,’’ in Film Com- ment (New York), July-August 1976. Tobin, Yann, in Positif (Paris), September 1983. Combs, Richard, in Listener (London), 29 August 1985. Bertoni, Aline, ‘‘Billy Wilder on ‘la vulgaritá congénitale’,’’ in Revue du Cinéma, no. 422, December 1986. Koch, Gertrud, ‘‘Alle Sinnlichkeit der Macht. Zu Billy Wilder’s The Apartment (1960),’’ in Frauen und Film (Frankfurt am Main), no. 43, December 1987. Denby, D., ‘‘Always Making Wisecrackers,’’ in Premiere (New York), November 1990. Onaindia, M., ‘‘For a method of analysis of the classical cinema script,’’ in Archivos de la Filmoteca, no. 14, June 1993. *** Billy Wilder entered the late period of his career, arguably the richest, with the hugely successful Some Like It Hot; in addition to confirming Jack Lemmon’s reputation as a gifted comedian, the film initiated what developed into a long-term professional association between the two. To a degree, The Apartment, a project purportedly conceived as a vehicle for Lemmon, finds Wilder returning to his early 1950s period. Like Sunset Boulevard and Ace in the Hole (The Big Carnival), The Apartment presents a very bleak vision of contem- porary American society: fully under the sway of capitalist and patriarchal ideologies, it is a society that pays lip-service to the work ethic and moral integrity but, in actuality, reduces the terms of success to the prostitution of oneself and the exploitation of others. It is a society in which prostitution and exploitation exist in both the professional and personal spheres and what passes for an intimate relationship is often nothing more than a deal or arrangement that benefits the person who holds social and/or economic power. The Apartment differs from the above-mentioned 1950s dramas in two important ways: 1) the film undercuts the abrasiveness of the earlier works by employing actors who are essentially identified as comedians and mixes the comic and the dramatic mode, although, with the introduction of the Shirley MacLaine/Fred MacMurray relationship, The Apartment becomes predominantly dramatic in tone; 2) Wilder displays a generous and sympathetic attitude towards those characters who are in a powerless position. (This attitude is also found in the highly underrated Kiss Me, Stupid, a particularly pungent piece of satirical social criticism that is, in the main, very broadly drawn. Nevertheless, the Ray Walston and Kim Novak characters, roughly in equivalent positions to those held by Lemmon and MacLaine in The Apartment, are humanized because of Novak’s innate integrity and vulnerability and the emotional response it solicits from Walston.) In The Apartment both Lemmon and MacLaine, who are meant to be representative of the ‘‘average’’ young American male and female, are involved in a form of prostitution. In regard to Lemmon, he is advancing up the ladder of the corporate business world by letting higher ranking male employees use, in return for a promotion, his apartment to conduct extra-marital affairs; unlike Lemmon, MacLaine, who is genuinely in love with the married MacMurray, isn’t literally practising prostitution although she’s led to perceive herself as doing such—in addition to her discovering that she’s merely the latest of MacMurray’s mistresses, he, in taking leave of her on Christmas Eve to join his wife and family, gives her a hundred dollar bill as a present. (As in Max Ophüls’s The Reckless Moment, a film which is also highly critical of American bourgeois society, Wilder undermines the viewer’s sentimental notions about the holiday season; MacLaine’s suicide attempt, which is provoked by both despair and her sense of degradation, takes place on Christ- mas Eve.) While Lemmon is shown to be exploited to the extent that he’s willing to be complicit, MacLaine is simply a victim of emotional and sexual exploitation. In contrast, MacMurray, an emblem of the successful male, holds and, at the film’s conclusion, retains a position of power and control. The film’s devastating critique of the business world is never countered—MacMurray even maintains his image as a faithful husband. (In the film, traditional marriage is shown to be corrupted through the male’s practice of the ‘‘double standard’’; in contrast, the film offers the Jewish couple who are Lemmon’s neighbours but these characters are primarily used as stock comic figures.) Although Lemmon regains his moral integrity by refusing MacMurray further access to his apartment when he comprehends how totally indifferent MacMurray is to MacLaine’s well-being and happiness, the film doesn’t offer any route he may take from there. On the other hand, Lemmon’s act, in addition to extricating him from the cycle of prostitution and exploitation, restores to MacLaine the self- respect she has forfeited through her affair with MacMurray. The act also makes her understand the degree to which she values what Lemmon offers her—a relationship in which both partners are on an equal basis. The couple Wilder presents here differs considerably from the conventional heterosexual couple used to give a film its happy ending in the emphasis on companionship rather than roman- tic love. Wilder’s admiration for Ernst Lubitsch is well known and The Apartment can be seen as his homage to Lubitsch’s Shop Around the Corner. Like the Lubitsch film, The Apartment is centred on two characters who are trying to survive in a competitive environment that breeds self-depreciation, loneliness, and alienation. With The Apart- ment, Wilder matches the delicacy Lubitsch displays in the handling of characterization while retaining his extremely rigorous and uncom- promising vision of human existence in the contemporary world. —Richard Lippe APOCALYPSE NOWFILMS, 4 th EDITION 69 APOCALYPSE NOW USA, 1979 Director: Francis Ford Coppola Production: United Artists; initial release in color, 70mm, Dolby sound; later releases in color, 35mm, Dolby sound with added footage of large-scale air attack which serves as backdrop for credit sequence; running time: 153 minutes, also 139 minutes. Released 1979. Filmed 1976–77, though pre-production work began mid-1975 and post- production lasted until 1979; shot on location in the Philippines; cost: about $30,000,000. Producer: Francis Ford Coppola; screenplay: John Milius and Francis Ford Coppola suggested by the novella Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad; narration: Richard Marks; photography: Vittorio Storaro; editor: Richard Marks; sound: Walter Murch, Mark Berger, Richard Beggs, and Nat Boxer; production designer: Dean Tavoularis; art director: Angelo Graham; original music: Carmine Coppola and Francis Ford Coppola; song: ‘‘This Is the End’’ by the Doors; special effects: A. D. Flowers. Cast: Marlon Brando (Colonel Walter E. Kurtz); Robert Duvall (Lieutenant Colonel Kilgore); Martin Sheen (Captain Benjamin L. Willard); Frederic Forrest (Chef); Albert Hall (Chief); Sam Bottoms (Lance); Larry Fishburne (Clean); Dennis Hooper (Freelance pho- tographer); G. D. Spradlin (General); Harrison Ford (Colonel). Awards: Oscars for Best Cinematography and Best Sound, 1979; Palme d’Or (Shared with The Tin Drum), Cannes Film Festival, 1979. Publications Script: Milius, John, and Francis Ford Coppola, L’apocalisse e poi, from the collection Cinema e Cinema, vol. 24, Venice, 1980. Books: Coppola, Eleanor, Notes, New York, 1979. Pye, Michael, and Lynda Myles, The Movie Brats: How the Film Generation Took Over Hollywood, London, 1979. Kolker, Robert Phillip, A Cinema of Loneliness: Penn, Kubrick, Coppola, Scorsese, Altman, Oxford, 1980; revised edition, 1988. Adair, Gilbert, Vietnam on Film: From ‘‘The Green Berets’’ to ‘‘Apocalypse Now,” New York 1981; revised edition, as Holly- wood’s Vietnam, London, 1989. Thomson, David, Overexposures: The Crisis in American Filmmaking, New York, 1981. Chaillet, Jean-Paul, and Elizabeth Vincent, Francis Ford Coppola, Paris, 1984. Zuker, Joel S., Francis Ford Coppola: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1984. Frundt, Bodo, and others, Francis Ford Coppola, Munich, 1985. Belton, John, and Elizabeth Weis, editors, Film Sound; Theory and Practice, New York, 1985. Weiss, Ulli, Das neue Hollywood: Francis Ford Coppola, Steven Spielberg, Martin Scorsese, Munich, 1986. Wood, Robin, Hollywood from Vietnam to Reagan, New York, 1986. Chown, Jeffrey, Hollywood Auteur; Francis Coppola, New York, 1987. Palmer, William J., The Films of the 1970s: A Social History, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1987. Cowie, Peter, Coppola, London, 1989. Von Gunden, Kenneth, Postmodern Auteurs: Coppola, Lucas, De Palma, Spielberg & Scorsese, Jefferson, 1991. Lourdeaux, Lee, Italian & Irish Filmmakers in America: Ford, Capra, Coppola & Scorsese, Springfield, 1993. Lewis, Jon, Whom God Wishes to Destroy: Francis Coppola & The New Hollywood, Durham, 1997. Bergan, Ronald, Francis Ford Coppola-Close Up: The Making of His Movies, New York, 1998. French, Karl, Apocalypse Now: The Ultimate A-Z, New York, 1999. Horsley, Jake, Millennial Blues, from ‘‘Apocalypse Now’’ to ‘‘The Matrix’’: Vol II, Lanham, 1999. Articles: Carcassone, P., ‘‘Dossier: 1979: Francis Ford Coppola,’’ in Cinématographe (Paris), March 1979. ‘‘Testimonianza: La storia di Apocalypse Now,’’ in Filmcritica (Rome), May 1979. Anderson, S. H., ‘‘Apocalypse Now Film Stuns Cannes,’’ in New York Times, 21 May 1979. Haskell, Molly, in Village Voice (New York), 21 May 1979. Pollack, D., ‘‘An Archival Detailing of UA’s Apocalypse Now since 1967 Start,’’ in Variety (New York), 23 May 1979. ‘‘Entretien avec Francis Ford Coppola,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), July-August 1979. Toubiana, Serge, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), July-August 1979. McCormick, R., in Cineaste (New York), no. 4, 1979. Honickel, T., in Film und Ton (Munich), August 1979. Variety (New York), 15 August 1979. Canby, Vincent, in New York Times, 15 August 1979. ‘‘CinemaScore’s 781 Interviews on Apocalypse Now,’’ in Variety (New York), 22 August 1979. Bock, Audie, ‘‘Zoetrope and Apocalypse Now,’’ in American Film (Washington, D.C.), September 1979. Geng, V., in New Yorker, 3 September 1979. Kauffmann, Stanley, in New Republic (New York), 15 Septem- ber 1979. Thompson, R., ‘‘Francis Ford Coppola: Courte histoire d’un sce- nario: Entretien avec John Milius,’’ in Ecran (Paris), 15 Septem- ber 1979. Riley, B., ‘‘Heart Transplant,’’ in Film Comment (New York), September-October 1979. Anderson, P. and J. Wells, in Films in Review (New York), Octo- ber 1979. Bonitzer, P. and S. Daney, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), Octo- ber 1979. Levin, G. R., ‘‘Francis Ford Coppola Discusses Apocalypse Now,’’ in Millimeter (New York), October 1979. Zimmer, J., in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), October 1979. Wood, Michael, in New York Review of Books, October 1979. Tessitore, J., ‘‘The Literary Roots of Apocalypse Now,’’ in New York Times, 21 October 1979. APOCALYPSE NOW FILMS, 4 th EDITION 70 Apocalypse Now Gow, Gordon, in Films and Filming (London), November 1979. Heijs, J., in Skrien (Amsterdam), November 1979. Marcus, Greil, ‘‘Journey up the River,’’ in Rolling Stone (New York), 1 November 1979. Vallely, J., ‘‘Martin Sheen: Heart of Darkness, Heart of Gold,’’ in Rolling Stone (New York), 1 November 1979. Bitomsky, H., in Filmkritik (Munich), December 1979. Jensen, N., ‘‘Coppolas dommedag,’’ in Kosmorama (Copenhagen), Winter 1979. Kinder, Marsha, ‘‘The Power of Adaptation in Apocalypse Now,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1979–80. Yurick, S., ‘‘Apocalypse Now/Capital Flow,’’ in Cineaste (New York), Winter 1979–80. Broeske, Pat H., in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 1, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Zablotny, Elaine, ‘‘American Insanity—Apocalypse Now,’’ in Film Psychology Review (New York), Winter-Spring 1980. Sharrett, C., ‘‘Operation Mind Control: Apocalypse Now and the Search for Clarity,’’ in Journal of Popular Film and Television (Washington, D.C.), Spring 1980. Interview with Coppola, in Cine (Mexico City), March 1980. Alutto, Massimo, in Cinema e Cinema (Venice), July-September 1980. Boehringer, Kathe, ‘‘Banality Now,’’ in Australian Journal of Screen Theory (Kensington, New South Wales), no. 8, 1980. Franz, R. C., ‘‘Apocalypse Now and The Deer Hunter: The Lies Aren’t Over,’’ in Jump Cut (Chicago), October 1980. Klein, M., ‘‘Apocalypse Now: The Absence of History,’’ in Jump Cut (Chicago), October 1980. Rich, B. Ruby, ‘‘Apocalypse Now: Coppola’s American Way,’’ in Jump Cut (Chicago), October 1980. ‘‘Apocalypse Now Issue’’ of Cinema e Cinema (Venice), October- December 1980. Vien, N. K., ‘‘Apocalypse Now Viewed by a Vietnamese,’’ in Framework (Norwich), Spring 1981. Przylipiak, M., ‘‘Apokalipsa przed prgiem wielkosci,’’ in Kino (Warsaw), March 1981. Jacobs, Diane, ‘‘Coppola Films Conrad in Vietnam,’’ in The English Novel and the Movies, edited by Michael Klein and Gillian Parker, New York, 1981. Bourget, Jean-Loup, ‘‘D’un opéra à l’autre,’’ in Positif (Paris), December 1982. De Antonio, Emile, ‘‘Interview with Martin Sheen,’’ in American Film (Washington, D.C.), December 1982. Wander, P., ‘‘The Aesthetics of Fascism,’’ in Journal of Communica- tion (Philadelphia), Spring 1983. ‘‘Vietnam Issue’’ of Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), vol. 7, no. 4, 1985. Viviani, Christian, ‘‘Quelques réflexions sur Coppola, histoire de faire le point,’’ in Positif (Paris), January 1987. APOCALYPSE NOWFILMS, 4 th EDITION 71 Schneider, Tassilo, ‘‘From Cynicism to Self-Pity: Apocalypse Now and Platoon,’’ in Cinefocus (Bloomington, Indiana), no. 2, 1990. Guneratne, A. R., ‘‘Coppola’s Apocalyptic Vision: Something Like an Answer to Tassilo Schneider,’’ in Cinefocus (Bloomington, Indiana), no. 2, 1990. Dibble, T., ‘‘Another Response to Schneider’s ‘From Cynicism to Self-Pity . . . ,’’’ in Cinefocus (Bloomington, Indiana), no. 2, 1990. Hirshey, Gerri, ‘‘The Artist as Big Fat Baby,’’ in GQ—Gentlemen’s Quarterly (New York), October 1991 . Karren, H., ‘‘Bungle in the Jungle,’’ in Premiere (New York), Winter 1991. Worthy, K., ‘‘Hearts of Darkness: Making Art, Making History, Making Money, Making Vietnam,’’ in Cineaste (New York), no. 2–3, 1992. Cahir, L. C., ‘‘Narratological Parallels in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness and Francis Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), no. 3, 1992. Greiff, L. K., ‘‘Soldier, Sailor, Surfer, Chef: Conrad’s Ethics and the Margins of Apocalypse Now,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salis- bury, Maryland), no. 3, 1992. Whaley, D. M., ‘‘The Hero-Adventurer in the Land of Nam,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), no. 3, 1992. Uszynski, J., ‘‘Poza granicami oikoumene,’’ in Kino (Warsaw), April 1992. van Tongeren, P., ‘‘The Horror, the Horror. . . ,’’ in Skoop (Amster- dam), July-August 1992. Kuchta, T.M., ‘‘Framing ‘The Horror’: Voice and Voice-over in Heart of Darkness and Apocalypse Now,’’ in Studies in the Humanities, no. 1, 1994. Petri, Elio, ‘‘Apocalypse Now,’’ in Positif (Paris), no. 415, Septem- ber 1995. Worthy, K., ‘‘Emissaries of Difference: Conrad, Coppola, and Hearts of Darkness,’’ in Women’s Studies, no. 2, 1996. Film Threat (Beverly Hills), April 1996. Trussler, M., ‘‘Apocalypse ‘Now’: Does Conrad Really Sound Like Jim Morrison?’’ in Arachne, no. 1, 1997. Film: Coppola, Eleanor, Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker’s Apoca- lypse, 1991. *** As he set out to plan Apocalypse Now filmmaker Francis Ford Coppola ranked as one of the most important young talents then working in Hollywood. His two Godfather films (1972, 1974) had landed on the list of the most profitable in Hollywood history, while The Conversation (1974) had been hailed as a masterful ‘‘art film.’’ In Apocalypse Now Coppola attempted to create both a personal look at America’s recent tragic war in Vietnam, and a film which could compete at the box-office with Jaws and The Towering Inferno. As Apocalypse Now moved from the story boards into actual production, however, Coppola’s attempt to become a complete popular culture mogul had begun to sour. His considerable investments (in a maga- zine, movies, and even a legitimate theatre) simply were draining him of his then considerable wealth. Apocalypse Now would have to be a true blockbuster simply to enable Coppola to recover financially and pay off mounting debts. But Coppola has always been a risk-taker, and his diminishing portfolio hardly lessened his enthusiasm or his ambition. When first conceived the film had been planned as purely an action-adventure war film; quickly it transformed Vietnam into a metaphor for the downfall and corruption of an entire generation of Americans. The budget and screenplay pushed this $12 million potential blockbuster into a $31 million extravaganza. Coppola fully intended Apocalypse Now to be his magnum opus. What actually took place stands as one of the great epic journeys in movie-making history. Much has been made of how the production of the film seemed to mirror America’s involvement in the war itself. Apocalypse Now required four grueling months on location; the film’s star Martin Sheen suffered a heart attack; vast arrays of military equipment never seemed to work just right. Coppola’s movie company pumped $100,000 per week into production while on location in the Philip- pines. (In paying the Marcos government for the use of military equipment, however, Coppola was supporting a government as corrupt as the Vietnam regime of Diem.) To meet constant cost over- runs (Brando demanded a million dollars for his minor part) Coppola mortgaged his dwindling assets, so if the film failed at the box-office it would be ruin for him. In the end, Apocalypse Now went on to earn about $200 million worldwide, but, in a way, the making of the movie offered a more gripping narrative than the actual movie itself. The structure of Apocalypse Now was borrowed from Joseph Conrad’s novella Heart of Darkness: a journey up a primitive river as a metaphor serving for an excursion into the darkest parts of the human mind. However, Coppola’s formulation of this narrative never was able to grip audience interest. The greatest successes of Apoca- lypse Now can be found in moments of extraordinary visual texture, capturing the look and feel of a war of madness. Whether it is in a jungle where the vegetation dwarfs all human activity, or a PT boat racing up a river filled with black soldiers fighting for the rights of the oppressed when they know what they will find back home, or an armada of helicopters steaming in and destroying a village so primi- tive it could have been built 2,000 years earlier, we feel, at times, we are actually there. For example, the scene in which Robert Duvall, as crazed Lieuten- ant Colonel Kilgore, leads his troops in a helicopter assault on a defenseless village brilliantly portrays the horror and passion of war. As the rockets jump from the war ships, to Wagner’s operatic overtones, for a moment we are ‘‘in the battle.’’ Yet this particular violence serves no purpose. Duvall’s men are mercilessly murdering the very people they are meant to ‘‘help.’’ Apocalypse Now is a film of moments, with a fuzzy monologue by Colonel Kurtz (Brando) at the close never fully wrapping things up. Coppola wanted his film to mean something, and as such raced around the world interpreting for anyone who would listen. (His boldest claim: ‘‘This isn’t a film about Vietnam. This film is Viet- nam.’’) In the end, as with his best films, Apocalypse Now remains structurally disjointed and thematically inconsistent, yet it will al- ways be watched and studied for its moments of cinematic grandeur. —Douglas Gomery THE APU TRILOGY FILMS, 4 th EDITION 72 THE APU TRILOGY Director: Satyajit Ray PATHER PANCHALI (Father Panchali) India, 1956 Production: Government of West Bengal; black and white, 35mm; running time: 112 minutes. Released 1956. Begun in 1950, though principal filming done in 1952 in a small village in southern India. Screenplay: Satyajit Ray, from the novel by Bibhuti Bannerji; photography: Subrata Mitra; editor: Dulal Dutta; art director: Bansi Chandragupta; music: Ravi Shankar. Cast: Kanu Banerji (The Father); Karuna Banerji (The Mother); Subir Banerji (Apu); Uma Das Gupta (The Daughter); Chunibali Devi (Old woman). Awards: Best Human Document, Cannes Festival, 1956; Selznick Golden, Berlin Festival, 1957; Kinema Jumpo Award as Best Foreign Film, Tokyo Film Festival, 1966; Bodil Award as Best Non-European Film, Denmark, 1966. Publications Scripts: Ray, Satyajit, Pather Panchali, in L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), 1 February 1980. Ray, Satyajit, The Apu Trilogy (in English), Calcutta, 1985. Books: Barnouw, Erik, and S. Krishnaswamy, Indian Film, New York 1963; revised edition, 1980. Seton, Marie, Portrait of a Director—Satyajit Ray, Bloomington, Indiana, 1971. Wood, Robin, The Apu Trilogy, New York, 1971. Satyajit Ray, New Delhi, 1976. Satyajit Ray: Study Guide, Washington, D.C., 1979. Rangoonwalla, Firoze, Satyajit Ray’s Art, New Delhi, 1980. Micciollo, Henri, Satyajit Ray, Lausanne, 1980. Das Gupta, Chidananda, editor, Satyajit Ray: An Anthology, New Delhi, 1981. Gandhy, Behroze, and Paul Willemen, Indian Cinema, London, 1982. Ramachandran, T. M., 70 Years of Indian Cinema (1913–1983), Bombay, 1985. Nyce, Ben, Satyajit Ray: A Study of His Films, New York, 1988. Robinson, Andrew, Satyajit Ray: The Inner Eye, Berkeley, 1989. Tesson, Charles, Satyajit Ray, Paris, 1992. Cooper, Darius, The Cinema of Satyajit Ray: Between Tradition and Modernity, New York, 1999. Ganguly, Suranjan, Satyajit Ray: In Search of the Modern, Lanham, Maryland, 2000. Articles: Ray, Satyajit, in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1957. Seton, Marie, ‘‘Journey Through India,’’ in Sight and Sound (Lon- don), Spring 1957. ‘‘Personality of the Month,’’ in Films and Filming (London), Decem- ber 1957. Dyer, Peter, in Films and Filming (London), February 1958. Hart, Henry, in Films in Review (New York), February 1958. Mekas, Jonas, in Village Voice (New York), 12 November 1958. Croce, Arlene, in Film Culture (New York), no. 19, 1959. McVay, Douglas, ‘‘The Ray Trilogy,’’ in Film (London), March- April 1960. ‘‘Talk with the Director,’’ in Newsweek (New York), 26 Septem- ber 1960. Rhode, Eric, ‘‘Satyajit Ray: A Study,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1961. Kael, Pauline, in I Lost It at the Movies, New York, 1966. Ray, Satyajit, ‘‘From Film to Film,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma in English (New York), February 1966. Ray, Satyajit, ‘‘A Long Time on the Little Road,’’ in Film Makers on Film Making, edited by Harry Geduld, Bloomington, Indiana, 1967. Blue, James, ‘‘Satyajit Ray,’’ in Film Comment (New York), Sum- mer 1968. Dutta, K., ‘‘An Interview with Satyajit Ray’s Cinematographers,’’ in Filmmakers’ Newsletter (Ward Hill, Massachusetts), January 1975. Gillett, John, ‘‘Satyajit Ray,’’ in Film (London), October-Novem- ber 1975. Williams, A., in Movietone News (Seattle), April 1976. Hughes, John, ‘‘A Voyage in India: Satyajit Ray Interviewed,’’ in Film Comment (New York), September-October 1976. Ray, Satyajit, ‘‘Dialogue on Film,’’ in American Film (Washington, D.C.), July-August 1978. ‘‘Pather Panchali Issue’’ of L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), 1 Feb- ruary 1980. Palekar, S., ‘‘So Close to Children,’’ in Cinema in India (Bombay), no. 4, 1992. APARAJITO (The Unvanquished) India, 1957 Production: Epic Films; black and white, 35mm; running time: 108 minutes. Released 1957. Filmed 1956. Screenplay: Satyajit Ray, from a novel by Bibhuti Bannerji; photog- raphy: Subrata Mitra; editor: Dulal Dutta; art director: Bansi Chandragupta; music: Ravi Shankar. THE APU TRILOGYFILMS, 4 th EDITION 73 The Apu Trilogy: Apur Sansar Cast: Kanu Banerji (The Father); Karuna Banerji (The Mother); Pinaki Sen Gupta (Apu, as a boy); Smaran Ghosal (Apu, as an adolescent); Ramani Sen Gupta (1st Uncle); Subodh Ganguly (Head- master); Ramani Sen Gupta (2nd Uncle). Awards: Best Film: Lion of St. Mark, Venice Festival, 1957; Bodil Award as Best Non-European Film, Denmark, 1967. Publications Articles: Hart, Henry, in Films in Review (New York), February 1959. Mekas, Jonas, in Village Voice (New York), 13 May 1959. Johnson, Albert, in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Summer 1959. Sarka, Kobita, ‘‘Indian Family,’’ in Films and Filming (London), April 1960. Sarka, Kobita, ‘‘The Great 3-in-1,’’ in Films and Filming (London), December 1964. Also see list of publications following Pather Panchali credits. APUR SANSAR (The World of Apu) India, 1960 Production: Satyajit Ray Productions; black and white, 35mm; running time: 103 minutes. Released 1959. Filmed 1959. Screenplay: Satyajit Ray, from a story by Satyajit Ray, based on the novel by Bibhuti Bannerji; photography: Subrata Mitra; editor: Dulal Dutta; art director: Bansi Chandragupta; music: Ravi Shankar. Cast: Soumitra Chatterjee (Apu); Sharmila Tagore (Wife of Apu); Alok Chakravarty (Kajol); Dhiresh Mazumaer (Grandfather). Awards: Sutherland Award Trophy, London Film Festival, 1960. THE APU TRILOGY FILMS, 4 th EDITION 74 Publications Articles: Hart, Henry, in Films in Review (New York), March 1960. Harker, Jonathan, in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Spring 1960. Croce, Arlene, in Film Culture (New York), Summer 1960. Mekas, Jonas, in Village Voice (New York), 6 October 1960. Gillett, John, in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1960–61. Durgnat, Raymond, in Films and Filming (London), May 1961. Hanan, D., ‘‘Patriarchal Discourse in Some Early Films of Satyajit Ray,’’ Deep Focus (Bangalore, India), vol. 3, no. 1, 1990. Or, Victor, ‘‘A Study of Asian Tradition in Satyajit Ray’s The World of Apu,’’ Asian Cinema (Drexel Hill, Pennsylvania), vol. 8, no. 2, Winter 1996/97. Also see list of publications following Pather Panchali credits. *** Satyajit Ray’s Apu Trilogy, made over a period of eight years and not originally conceived of as a trilogy, had a profound effect on filmmaking within India and an important effect on the attention paid to Indian films outside India. Within India, the unobtrusive style of lighting, dialogue, and action employed in the Trilogy challenged the prevailing operatic style and led to new conventions of realism. Abroad, the Trilogy stirred interest in other Indian cinema, and led to a wider market for Indian films as well as to significant contact between Indian and non-Indian filmmakers. After returning to India from a business trip to London for Keymer’s advertising agency, Ray set about finding a crew and finances for a film based on the famous Bengali novel, Pather Panchali. In his work as a graphic artist, Ray had already illustrated a Bengali abridgement of the novel and he was able to obtain rights for a modest sum (about $1300) on the basis of his active interest. Finances proved more difficult to procure for the film itself: Ray pawned his wife’s jewelry and was finally advanced money to complete the film by the government of West Bengal. For its first two weeks in Calcutta, the film played to small audiences. Then the theater filled and the film recovered its costs in Ray’s native city within the first thirteen weeks. In Bombay, in 1956, the film was reviewed by Adib in the following terms: ‘‘It is banal to compare it with any other Indian picture—for even the best of the pictures produced so far have been cluttered with clichés. Pather Panchali is pure cinema. There is no trace of the theater in it. It does away with plot, with grease and paint, with the slinky charmer and the sultry beauty, with the slapdash hero breaking into song on the slightest provocation or no provocation at all.’’ For many critics, Ray’s completion of Aparajito, in 1956, confirmed the novelty of his approach and the strength of his talent. Stanley Kauffmann reported that Ray was forging in the Apu films the uncreated conscience of his race. All three films of the trilogy are organized by an open form: the progression of events is episodic and interest in the narrative derives from character and location rather than from the dynamics of plot. In Pather Panchali, the poor Brahmin priest and his wife have a son born to them, the father must leave home to make a living, their daughter dies, the son watches the world change around him, the family is forced to leave the village. The viewer’s attention is engaged less by what is going to happen than by the way in which things do happen. The editing allows the viewer to soak in the atmosphere of a landscape or an evening. As son and daughter (Apu and Durga) run to the edge of the village to watch a steam train, the camera registers soft white tufts of flax waving in the air. When the train appears, it hurtles not only past the village, but across the viewer’s inner rhythms which had been slowed by the waving flax. The episode of the train in Pather Panchali also indicates Ray’s classicism, his practice of creating a strong response in the viewer and subsequently disciplining that response. During the course of the Trilogy, the viewer’s empathetic experience of an event is frequently punctuated by a distancing perspective. In Pather Panchali, when the father breaks down in grief over his dead daughter, Ray cuts to the young Apu standing apart, watching his sorrowing father. In Apur Sansar, Ray cuts from the climactic reconciliation of Apu and his son Kajal to the dour father- in-law, who will add this episode to the many other curious episodes he has witnessed in his life. The open form also allows Ray to annotate the feelings of his characters by referring to the natural world. At their simplest, these references function as analogies. When Apu’s mother is happy, the water skates and dragonflies dance an insect version of happiness. But at their best, images of the natural world become surcharged with meaning: the monsoon clouds in Pather Panchali gather to them- selves the pent-up emotions of the mother and the children; the fireflies in Aparajito signify the beauty and the remoteness of nature; and the river gleaming behind Apu, in Apur Sansar, while Apu debates whether to marry his friend’s cousin, signifies both the burden of the moment and the flow of time into which individual moments run indistinguishably. Although Ray and his cameraman, Subrata Mitra, made remark- able experiments towards recreating the effect of daylight on sets (by bouncing studio lights off of cotton sheeting stretched above the set), the Apu Trilogy did not constitute innovation in cinematic technique. The excellence of the Trilogy derived from its tact. Using long takes, reaction shots and unhurried action, Ray was able to place in suspension before the viewer multiple points of view: that of the aged aunt who must cadge food to survive and that of the young mother Sarbojaya, who will not extend herself indefinitely and who refuses to help the aged aunt pour water from a pitcher. The multiple points of view are validated by an evenness of regard: the camera attends as calmly to the ailing aunt as to the determined mother, to the grief- stricken father as fully as to the observing Apu. Ray’s cinema has developed considerably in complexity and scope since the Apu Trilogy. Nonetheless, his first films retain their capacity to move the viewer. Their power derives from the internal consistency of Ray’s style and from the cultural importance of Ray’s story. The Apu Trilogy epitomizes the migration of many poor, Third World families from the village to the city. In the Apu Trilogy, Ray leaves the outcome of the migration open: Apu has not yet made his peace with the brisk anonymous ways of the city as, later, the protagonist of Seemabaddha is to embrace the city’s modernity. When Ray turns, in his mid-career films, to examine the opportunities the city offers to idealistic young men, the optimism of the early films is lost. In Bengal the effect of Ray’s realism (his scaling of dialogue, action and lighting closer to everyday reality) was felt immediately in the work of Mrinal Sen and Tapan Sinha, but his example took 15 years to reach the principal film production center of Bombay. Only in the late 1960s and early 1970s did new directors begin making Hindi films without melodrama, trusting the subtlety of action, ARANYER DIN RATRIFILMS, 4 th EDITION 75 atmosphere and editing to transmit their intentions. The new move- ment, known as ‘‘parallel cinema,’’ did not defeat the operatic style— most Hindi films are still extravaganzas—but they enabled Hindi cinema to begin inquiry into the conditions of ordinary life in India. The way towards this inquiry was first explored by Ray in the Apu Trilogy. —Satti Khanna APUR SANSAR See THE APU TRILOGY ARABIAN NIGHTS See FIORE DELLE MILLE E UNA NOTTE ARANYER DIN RATRI (Days and Nights in the Forest) India, 1969 Director: Satyajit Ray Production: Priya Films; black and white; running time: 115 min- utes. Language: Bengali. Producer: Nepal Dutta, Ashim Dutta; cinematographer: Soumendu Roy, Purnendu Bose; screenplay: Satyajit Ray, based on a novel by Sunil Ganguly; editor: Dulal Dutta; music: Satyajit Ray; production design: Bansi Chandragupta; art direction: Ashoke Bose; sound: Sujit Sarkar. Cast: Soumitra Chatterjee (Ashim); Subhendu Chatterjee (Sanjoy); Samit Bhanja (Hari); Robi Ghosh (Sekhar); Pahadi Sanyal (Sadashiv Tripathi); Sharmila Tagore (Aparna); Kaberi Bose (Jaya); Simi Garewal (Duli); Aparna Sen (Hari’s former lover). Publications: Books: Seton, Marie, Portrait of a Director: Satyajit Ray, Bloomington, 1971. Robinson, Andrew, Satyajit Ray: The Inner Eye, Berkeley, 1992. Sarkar, Bidyut, World of Satyajit Ray, Columbia, 1992. Banerjee, Tarapada, and Satayjit Ray, Satyajit Ray: A Portrait in Black and White, New York, 1993. Banerjee, Surabhi, Satyajit Ray: Beyond the Frame, Flushing, 1996. Das, Santi, editor, Satyajit Ray: An Intimate Master, Flushing, 1998. Cooper, Darius, The Cinema of Satyajit Ray: Between Tradition and Modernity, Cambridge, 2000. Articles: Milne, Tom, in Sight & Sound (London), vol. 41, no. 1, Winter 1971–1972. Interview with Satyajit Ray, in Sight & Sound (London), vol. 42, no. 1, Winter 1972–1973. Paul, W., ‘‘Dim Day of a Recent Past,’’ in Village Voice (New York), vol. 18, 12 April 1973. Kauffmann, S., ‘‘Films,’’ in The New Republic (Marion), vol. 168, 21 April 1973. Schickel, Richard, ‘‘Days and Nights in the Art House,’’ in Film Comment (New York), vol. 28, no. 3, May-June 1992. Ramnarayan, Gowri, ‘‘To Western Audiences, the Filmmaker Satyajit Ray is Synonymous with Indian Cinema,’’ in Interview, vol. 22, no. 6, June 1992. Sengoopta, Chandak, ‘‘Satyajit Ray: The Plight of a Third-World Artist,’’ in American Scholar, vol. 62, no. 2, Spring 1993. Ciment, Michel, and Hubert Niogret, ‘‘Satyajit Ray,’’ in Positif (Paris), no. 399, May 1994. Sragow, Michael, ‘‘An Art Wedded to Truth,’’ in The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 274, no. 4, October 1994. Ganguly, S., ‘‘No Moksha: Arcadia Lost in Satyajit Ray’s Days and Nights in the Forest,’’ in Film Criticism (Meadville), vol. 19, no. 2, Winter 1994–1995. Robinson, Andrew, ‘‘Works of a Master Made Whole Again,’’ in The New York Times, 2 April 1995. Sen, Amartya, ‘‘Our Culture, Their Culture: Satyajit Ray and the Art of Universalism,’’ in The New Republic, vol. 214, no. 14, 1 April 1996. Corliss, Richard, ‘‘From Asia’s Film Factories: 10 Golden Greats,’’ in Time International, vol. 154, no. 7/8, 23 August 1999. *** Satyajit Ray always insisted that his films were made first and foremost for his own fellow-Bengalis, adding that foreign viewers, unless exceptionally well up on Bengali language and culture, would inevitably miss a lot of what was going on. Despite such claims, several of Ray’s films found more appreciative (and, it could be argued, more perceptive) audiences outside India. One such was Days and Nights in the Forest, widely hailed by Western critics as one of the director’s finest films, but received by his compatriots with puzzlement and indifference. Indian viewers, by all accounts, were put off by the loose-limbed, seemingly random flow of the narrative. ‘‘People in India kept saying: What is it about, where is the story, the theme?’’ Ray observed regretfully in a Sight & Sound interview. ‘‘And the film is about so many things, that’s the trouble. People want just one theme, which they can hold in their hands.’’ He likened the structure of the film to a fugue, in which different elements appear and reappear developed, interwoven, transformed, and subtly balanced against each other. The musical analogy is apt. Ray often acknowledged the influence of composers, above all Mozart, along with that of writers and other film-makers, and Days and Nights is his most Mozartian work: like ARANYER DIN RATRI FILMS, 4 th EDITION 76 Aranyer din Ratri Cosi Fan Tutte or La Nozze di Figaro it treats serious matters in a seemingly light-hearted way. On the surface the mode is comedy of manners. Four middle-class young men from Calcutta take a few days vacation in the forests of Bihar, to the west of Bengal, where they meet another group of city people—elderly father, daughter, and widowed daughter-in-law—as well as beautiful young woman of the local Santhal tribe. There ensues a complex pattern of social cross- currents and tentative relationships. Ashim (played by Soumitra Chatterjee), the most affluent and assured of the young men, is attracted to the poised and intelligent Aparna (Sharmila Tagore). Jaya, the young widow, tries to seduce the shy Sanjoy but humiliat- ingly fails. Hari, the none-too-bright sportsman, seduces the Santhali woman, Duli, and is badly beaten by one of her fellow-villagers. Sekhar (another of Ray’s favourite actors, the roly-poly Robi Ghosh) gambles compulsively and plays the fool. The heart of the film is the picnic sequence, where the six young Calcuttans sit round and play a memory game in which each player has to choose the name of a famous person and also remember, in sequence, all the previous choices. Subtle, elegantly structured, and delectably funny, the scene discloses a wealth of emotional and psychological detail: like the various members of a sextet, each character reveals him- or herself in the way he or she plays, from Aparna’s graceful flute to Sekhar’s galumphing bassoon. The scene shows us a process of insight getting under way. By the end of the film each of the young men—with the exception of Sekhar—has experi- enced a moment of epiphany, brought up short by self-realization. None of them, we can guess, will ever be quite the same again. But there’s also a political dimension to the film. Days and Nights can be seen as a prelude to the three films often grouped together as Ray’s ‘‘City Trilogy’’: The Adversary, Company Limited, and The Middleman. In these films Ray engaged, for the first time in his career, the social and political upheavals that were then shaking Bengal, and in Days and Nights he hints at the kind of class- and caste- based attitudes that underlay this unrest. The four young men from the city are not unlikable, but their treatment of the local ‘‘tribal’’ people reveals an unthinking arrogance that at times verges on brutality. Hari, having mislaid his wallet, at once accuses the villager co-opted as their servant of stealing it, and hits him—an injustice which later rebounds on him. Even Ashim, the most intelligent and politically aware of the four, browbeats the caretaker of their bungalow into L’ARGENTFILMS, 4 th EDITION 77 accepting a bribe, then mockingly comments (in English, signifi- cantly), ‘‘Thank God for corruption.’’ As so often in Ray’s films, the women come off rather better than the men, being far more adult, sensitive, and attuned to what’s going on around them. In particular, Ray uses Sharmila Tagore’s cool, intelligent screen persona as the film’s moral touchstone (as he would again in Company Limited); it is Aparna who brings home to Ashim the full extent of his thoughtlessness. Having brushed aside as excuses the caretaker’s concern about his sick wife, he’s taken aback when Aparna suggests he should look for himself—and appalled when he sees that the woman is close to death. It’s a moment that anticipates the similar shock felt by the complacent young Brahmin (also played by Soumitra Chatterjee) in Distant Thunder when he registers the ravages of famine on his fellow villagers. Days and Nights in the Forest marks a transition in Ray’s film- making career, turning his talents for social comedy, emotional nuance, and quiet, understated irony towards more contemporary concerns. At the same time it demonstrates the subtlety of his narrative control, concealing a carefully devised dramatic shape beneath the seemingly casual flow of everyday life. Far from being shapeless or lacking a theme, as its first audiences imagined, the film is subtly orchestrated throughout: there isn’t a scene or incident, barely even a gesture, that doesn’t contribute to the overall purpose. —Philip Kemp L’ARGENT France, 1929 Director: Marcel L’Herbier Production: Cinemondial and Cineromans; black and white, 35mm, silent; length: 5344 meters, running time: 195 minutes. Released 10 January 1929. Filmed in Francouer studios at Joinville; exteriors shot at La Bourse, Place de l’Opera, the Paris Stock Exchange, and Le Bourget; cost: more than 3 million francs. Producer: Simon Schiffrin; screenplay: Marcel L’Herbier, from the novel by Emile Zola; photography: Jules Kruger; production de- signers: Lazare Meerson and André Barsacq; art director: Jacques Manuel; costume designer: Jacques Manuel. Cast: Mary Glory (Line Hamelin); Brigitte Helm (Baron Sandorf); Yvette Guilbert (Le Méchain); Marcelle Pradot (Countess Alice de Beauvilliers); Esther Kiss, Elaine Tayar, and Josette Racon (Switch- board operators); Mona Goya, Yvonne Dumas, Maries Costes (Ex- tras); Pierre Alcover (Nicolas Saccard); Alfred Abel (Alphonse Gunderman, the banker); Henry Victor (Jacques Hamelin); Pierre Juvenet (Baron Defrance); Antonin Artaud (Mazaud); Jules Berry (Huret, the reporter); Alexandre Mihalesco (Salomon Massias); Raymond Rouleau (Jantrou); Jean Godard (Dejoie); Armand Bour (Daigremont); Roger Karl (Banker); Jimmy Gaillard (The groom); plus Les Rocky Twins, Raymond Dubreuil, Garaudet, and Tardif. Publications Script: L’Herbier, Marcel, L’Argent (includes list of scenes, some dialogue), in L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), 1 June 1978. Books: Jaque-Catelain présente Marcel L’Herbier, Paris, 1950. Sadoul, Georges, French Film, London, 1953. Armes, Roy, French Cinema, New York, 1970. Burch, No?l, Marcel L’Herbier, Paris, 1973. Brossard, Jean-Pierre, editor, Marcel L’Herbier et son temps, La- Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland, 1980. Canosa, Michele, Marcel L’Herbier, Parma, 1985. Articles: New York Times, 23 September 1968. Blumer, R. H., ‘‘The Camera as Snowball: France 1918–1927,’’ in Cinema Journal (Evanston, Illinois), Spring 1970. Jouvet, P., in Cinématographe (Paris), May 1977. ‘‘L’Argent Issue’’ of Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), 1 June 1978. Trosa, S., ‘‘Archéologie du cinéma,’’ in Cinématographe (Paris), December 1978. Petat, J., ‘‘La Gratuité ce L’Argent,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), March 1979. Fieschi, J., ‘‘Marcel L’Herbier,’’ in Cinématographe (Paris), Decem- ber 1979. Cousins, R. F., ‘‘Adapting Zola for the Silent Cinema: The Example of Marcel L’Herbier,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), January 1984. Ciment, Michel, ‘‘Je ne cherche pas une description mais une vision des choses,’’ in Positif (Paris), no. 430, December 1996. Le Clezin, J-M. G., ‘‘A penz,’’ in Filmvilag (Hungary), vol. 40, no. 10, 1997. Marcel L’Herbier is a key figure of 1920s French cinema and his modernization of Emile Zola’s novel, L’Argent, released in 1929 on the eve of the sound revolution, is his most ambitious work. The scope of the film is inspired by Abel Gance’s Napoléon, but rather than talk L’ARGENT FILMS, 4 th EDITION 78 L’Argent of heroes, L’Herbier has chosen to attack what he hated most, the power of money. Though he took Zola’s novel as his starting point, he retained little beyond the title and the outline of the plot. The film’s action is transferred to the 1920s and unfolds within opulent, over- sized sets built by Lazare Meerson and André Barsacq. The film’s largest set, however, is an actual location, the Paris Stock Exchange borrowed for three days over Easter and filmed with a complex multi- camera technique by a team led by Jules Kruger, who had earlier worked on Napoléon. The visual style, echoing the major spectacles of 1920s German cinema, is enhanced by the presence of Brigitte Helm and Alfred Abel, as the villains in L’Herbier’s cast. Despite the enormous resources deployed—the film cost over three million francs—L’Argent’s plot line is remarkably straighforward: a young aviator and his wife become involved in a dubious financial scheme set up by the lecherous and unscrupulous Saccard. The latter in turn is destroyed by an even more sinister figure, the banker Gunderman, abetted by the Baroness Sandorf. Though thwarted in his attempt to seduce the wife and destroy the aviator when he is ruined, Saccard is left in prison plotting his next financial coup, while Gunderman rules untroubled. The 1920s was a period in which directors like Gance and L’Herbier seized the opportunities for individual expression offered by the disorganization of the French film industry. This was a cinema in which the key contributions of noted set designers were set against a continuing interest in location filming. As L’Argent shows, a preoc- cupation with visual effects—decor and movement, masking and superimpositions, slow motion photography, symbolic lighting and so on—did not imply any disregard for the real social world or for nature. L’Argent was not particularly highly esteemed by traditional film historians, but recent critical work, especially that of No?l Burch, has pointed to the great richness of the film even if the ‘‘modernity’’ claimed for it remains a problematic concept. L’Herbier, like other 1920s filmmakers, refused to subordinate the visual style of his filmmaking to the demands of narrative continuity, which was already dominant in the United States and elsewhere. The type of cinema of which L’Argent is a key example can only be understood if the claims to primacy of narrative are disregarded and film is accepted as a mode of expression which may legitimately captivate its audience by other means. In this sense a work like L’Argent forces upon us a widening of the conception of cinema to L’ARROSEUR ARROSEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 79 take in forms fundamentally alien to the Hollywood tradition. The question of what value is to be attached to this alternative approach is, however, more complex. No?l Burch and others have prized L’Argent very highly as an example of a vitally important modernist cinema. But in a sense this distorts history, since the conventions L’Herbier was disregarding were not as fully established in France, and the Hollywood-style production practices which would have supported them were totally lacking. Moreover the weight of 19th-century traditions of art and literature weighs heavily on L’Herbier, and a true evaluation of L’Argent would need to take into account also the conventional content, subject matter and ideological assumptions, as well as the visual and rhythmical audacities. But Burch’s claims do make a refreshing alternative to the customary denigration of 1920s French cinema and open fascinating perspectives for future research. —Roy Armes L’ARROSEUR ARROSE (The Sprayer Sprayed) France, 1895 Director: Louis Lumière Production: Produced by Louis Lumière to demonstrate his cinématographe; black and white; running time: approximately one minute. Released June 1895 in Lyons. Cast: Fran?ois Clerc (The gardener); Daniel Duval (The boy). Publications Books: Kubnick, Henry, Les Frères Lumière, Paris, 1938. Leroy, Paul, Au seuil de paradis des images avec Louis Lumière, Paris, 1948. Bessy, Maurice, and Lo Duca, Louis Lumière, inventeur, Paris, 1948. Pernot, Victor, A Paris, il y a soixante ans, naissant le cinéma, Paris, 1955. Sadoul, Georges, Louis Lumière, Paris, 1964. Mitry, Jean, Filmographie Universelle 2, Paris, 1964. Chardère, Bernard, and others, Les Lumière, Lausanne, 1985. Sauvage, Leo, L’Affaire Lumière: Du mythe à l’histoire: Enquête sur les origines du cinema, Paris, 1985. Redi, Riccardo, Lumière, Rome, 1986. André, Jacques, and Maria André, Une Saison Lumière à Montpelier, Perpignan, 1987. Articles: ‘‘Lumière Jubilee’’ in Time (New York), 18 November 1935. Sadoul, Georges, ‘‘Lumière—The Last Interview,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1948. Deutelbaum, Marshall, ‘‘Structural Patterning in the Lumière Films,’’ in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), no. 1, 1979. Vaughan, Dai, ‘‘Let There Be Lumière,’’ in Sight and Sound (Lon- don), Spring 1981. Ciné-Tracts (Montreal), Summer-Fall 1981. ‘‘Les Pionniers du Cinéma Fran?ais Issue’’ of Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), November 1984. Positif (Paris), January 1986. *** At the Annual Meeting of the French Photographic Society held in Lyons 10–12 June 1895, Louis Lumière presented a series of short, one-minute films to demonstrate the technical qualities of his recently patented cinématographe, which was uniquely both a camera and a projector. In a varied programme he not only showed the potential of his invention to record everyday scenes both public (La Sortie des Usines Lumière) and private (Le Go?ter du Bébé), but also, and ultimately of more momentous importance, established that no obvi- ous distinction could be made between these observed and unre- hearsed events, and an event stage-managed for the camera. With Le Jardinier et le petit espiègle, subsequently to become better known as L’Arroseur arrosé, Lumière created the first comic sequence to be recorded on film, and in so doing heralded a generation of silent slapstick movies. The film depicts a gardener innocently watering a vegetable patch, when a mischievous boy surreptitiously cuts off the water supply by treading on the hose. The bemused gardener looks down the nozzle of the hose to determine the cause of the interruption, at which point the young prankster releases the water. It then gushes up to soak the gardener and to knock off his hat. After a short chase the boy is caught and duly spanked, and the gardener resumes his task. The origins of the film have been disputed. According to Lumière the sequence is simply a re-enactment of an actual prank played by his younger brother Edouard on the family gardener Fran?ois Clerc. However according to Georges Sadoul, the filmed sequence, if not the event itself, may have been inspired by a well-known comic strip cartoon frequently reproduced in late 19th-century children’s books. He cites as an example the cartoon strip composed by the artist Herman Vogel and published in 1887 by Quantin. Here the narrative, illustrated in nine images, is titled L’Arroseur, and relates precisely those events depicted in the film, so that the cartoon sequence could easily be mistaken for the story-board for Lumière’s production. In this respect L’Arroseur arrosé may be considered the first example of screen adaptation. The sequence was filmed at the family home in Lyons in the spring of 1895. Fran?ois Clerc duly played out his role as the gardener, but the part of the boy was acted not by Edouard who was considered to be too young, but by Daniel Duval, a juvenile apprentice carpenter at the Lumière factory. A single fixed camera records the carefully staged events. In contrast to the other demonstration films which were no more than a recorded fragment of a larger event, L’Arroseur arrosé is complete and self-contained. The simple cause and effect narrative, presented from a single omniscient viewpoint, takes the audience through a variety of emotions, in an expressive use of space. The opening frames establish the gardener in his normal routine occupy- ing the left-hand side of the screen. This normality is subverted by the arrival from the right of the mischievous boy who invades the gardener’s space to interrupt the water supply. The audience is now privileged with information denied the gardener and can anticipate the comic outcome of the unsuspecting victim looking down the hose. ARSENAL FILMS, 4 th EDITION 80 However the audience is momentarily deprived of its omiscient viewpoint when the gardener, clearly intent on retribution, chases the prankster out of camera-shot. The two characters return now closer to the fixed camera position so that the punishment of the naughty boy can be clearly seen. With the closing images showing the gardener once more watering his vegetable patch, and the guilty boy banished from the screen, normality has been restored and traditional moral- ity upheld. Although Lumière made other comic sequences such as Chez le photographe and Charcuterie mécanique, it was L’Arroseur arrosé which captured the imagination of the early cinema audiences. The sequence was quickly imitated by Georges Méliès with L’Arroseur in 1896, and in 1958 Fran?ois Truffaut paid homage to Lumière’s pioneering achievements with an affectionate pastiche of the gag in his film Les Mistons. —R. F. Cousins ARSENAL USSR, 1928 Director: Alexander Dovzhenko Production: VUFCO-Odessa; black and white, 35mm, silent; length: 7 reels, 1820 meters. Released 25 February 1929, Kiev. Filmed during the second half of 1928 in and around Kiev. Scenario and editing: Alexander Dovzhenko; photography: Danylo Demutsky; production designers: Isaac Shpinel and Vladimir Mueller; music score for performance: Ihor Belza; assistant directors: Alexei Kapler, Lazar Bodyk. Cast: Semen Svashenko (Tymish); Amvroziy Buchma (German soldier); Mykola Nademsky (Official); M. Kuchynsky (Petlyura); D. Erdman (German officer); O. Merlatti (Sadovsky); A. Yevdakov (Nicholas II); S. Petrov (German soldier); Mykhaylovsky (Ukrainian nationalist); H. Kharkov (Red Army soldier). Publications Script: Dovzhenko, Alexander, Arsenal, in Alexander Dovzhenko: Izbrannoe, edited by N. S. Tikhonova, Moscow, 1957. Arsenal, edited by Y. I. Solntseva and L. I. Pazhitnova, Mos- cow, 1977. Books: Yourenev, R., Alexander Dovzhenko, Moscow, 1958 (author’s name transliterated as R. Jurenew in German translation, 1964). Leyda, Jay, Kino: A History of the Russian and Soviet Film, Lon- don, 1960. Rachuk, Igor, Poetika Dovzhenko, Moscow, 1964. Schnitzer, Luda and Jean, Dovzhenko, Paris, 1966. Mariamov, Alexandr, Dovzhenko, Moscow, 1968. Oms, Marcel, Alexandre Dovjenko, Lyons, 1968. Amengual, Bathélemy, Alexandr Dovjenko, Paris, 1970. Carynnk, Marco, editor, The Poet as Filmmaker, Cambridge, Massa- chusetts, 1973. Kepley, Vance, Jr., In the Service of the State: The Cinema of Alexander Dovzhenko, Madison, Wisconsin, 1986. Articles: Borisov, O., ‘‘Film in Work,’’ in Kino (Moscow), no. 10, 1928. Hamilton, James Shelley, in National Board of Review Magazine (New York), November 1929. Hall, Mordaunt, in New York Times, 11 November 1929. Moore, John C., ‘‘Pabst, Dovzhenko: A Comparison,’’ in Close Up (London), September 1932. Leyda, Jay, ‘‘Index to the Creative Work of Alexander Dovzhenko,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), supplement, index series Novem- ber 1947. Montagu, Ivor, ‘‘Dovzhenko—Poet of Life Eternal,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1957. ‘‘Dovzhenko Issue’’ of Film (Venice), August 1957. Shibuk, Charles, ‘‘The Films of Alexander Dovzhenko,’’ in New York Film Bulletin, nos. 11–14, 1961. Carynnyk, Marco, ‘‘The Dovzhenko Papers,’’ in Film Comment (New York), Fall 1971. Frejlih, S., ‘‘Fin unserer Epoch’’ and ‘‘Ein Poet des Films,’’ in Film und Fernsehen (Berlin), August-September 1974. ‘‘Dovzhenko Issue’’ of Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), September 1974. Krautz, A., ‘‘Zu Problemen des stilistischen Einflusses der bildenden Kunst auf die Stummfilme Alexander Dowshenko,’’ in Informa- tion (Berlin), no. 2, 1977. Christie, Ian, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), September 1977. Pliouchtch, L., ‘‘Dovjenko et Arsenal,’’ in Revue de la Cinémathèque (Montreal), October-November 1989. Kepley, V., Jr., ‘‘Dovzhenko and Montage: Issues of Style and Narration in the Silent Films’’; M. Smith, ‘‘The Influence of Socialist Realism on Soviet Montage: The End of St. Petersburg, Fragment of an Empire, and Arsenal’’; and W.M. Osadnik and E. Wilk, ‘‘Toward a Formal Semiotic Analysis of Dovzhenko’s Arsenal,’’ all in Journal of Ukrainian Studies, vol. 19, no. 1, 1994. *** In Arsenal, Alexander Dovzhenko, perhaps the most radical of the Soviet directors of the silent period, altered the already extended conventions of cinematic structure to a degree greater than had even the innovative Sergei Eisenstein in his bold October. The effect of this tinkering with the more or less accepted proprieties of motion picture construction produced a work that is actually less a film than it is a highly symbolic visual poem. For example, in a more linearly structured piece like October, the metaphors, allusions, and analogies that arise through the construction of the various montages replace rather than comment on essential actions within the film. In Arsenal, however, the symbolism is so purposely esoteric, with seemingly deliberate barriers established to block the viewer’s perception, that the relationship of individual symbols or sequences to the various actions of the film is not immediately clear. ARSENALFILMS, 4 th EDITION 81 Arsenal THE ASPHALT JUNGLE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 82 The film’s central theme obviously revolves around the idea of the sheer horror of war and is most fundamentally incarnate in the physical symbol of an arsenal in the midst of Russia’s civil war. Yet, this theme is fragmented throughout the film within three distinct visual contexts. First, Dovzhenko exploits the inherent metaphorical potential of the individual shot as it is brilliantly exemplified in an opening image of a barbed wire trench barrier suddenly and unexpect- edly exploding after a prolonged period of stasis. The contrast thus established between the transfixed image and the force of the off- camera shell explosion sets the stage for an interaction of fixed and moving images that runs the course of the film and establishes a semblance of poetic meter. Second, the area between shots which is normally used in silent films for dialogue, location, or explanation is used here by Dovzhenko for thematic purposes. In an early scene, a series of three titles reading: ‘‘There was a mother who had three sons,’’ ‘‘There was a war,’’ ‘‘. . . and the mother had no sons,’’ are interspersed between shots of a solitary woman and two camera angles of men on a moving train. This combination effected in sets of three (a recurrent image pattern throughout the film) not only establishes the concept of men going off to face the horrors of war but also ingrains in the audience a particular sentiment toward the idea. A final thematic employment of symbolic images and one that runs through the entire course of the film in one form or another is the director’s juxtaposition of stasis and movement within individual shots and between shots as well. Images of a train, of a platoon of soldiers moving almost relentlessly forward, a religious procession, and a number of other dynamic elements, are interjected around and between relatively static shots (usually grim), and effectively frame each immobile image as an individual symbolic and poetic unit with a meaningful parallel somewhere else in the film. In one sequence, a catatonic soldier is shot by an officer for not moving. The static shots of his execution are broken up by shots of a faceless platoon of soldiers moving forward. We never see the execution, only still images of each stage. The isolated shots, however, prefigures a paral- lel execution, again done in a sequence of three images, and that in turn foreshadows the fall of the arsenal itself. The middle shot in the execution sequence is nothing more than a symbolic pile of empty cartridges, but, as it turns out, the strikers who have taken over the arsenal are doomed by a lack of ammunition. Their plight is subse- quently dramatized by three titles interjected between shots of the men. The titles read: ‘‘The 24th hour.’’ ‘‘The 48th hour,’’ and ‘‘The 72nd hour,’’ to show that not only ammunition but time is run- ning out. Arsenal is a difficult film that makes many demands upon the viewer and is stubbornly resistant to easy interpretation. Conse- quently it rewards a number of viewings and repeated analysis. Under intense scrutiny its thematic patterns emerge and the real genius of its creator becomes apparent. Although many of its images now appear dated as, in fact, do Eisenstein’s, ample power remains to substantiate the relatively untutored Dovzhenko’s reputation as one of the early giants of Soviet cinema, on a level with both Eisenstein and Pudovkin. —Stephen L. Hanson ASHES AND DIAMONDS See POPIOL I DIAMENT THE ASPHALT JUNGLE USA, 1950 Director: John Huston Production: M.G.M.; black and white; running time: 105 minutes; released August 1950. Producer: Arthur Hornblow Jr.; screenplay: Ben Maddow and John Huston, from the novel by W. R. Burnett; photography: Harold Rosson; editor: George Boemler; sound: Douglas Shearer; art directors: Cedric Gibbons and Randall Duell; music: Miklos Rosza. Cast: Sterling Hayden (Dix Handley); Louis Calhern (Alonzo D. Emmerich); Jean Hagen (Doll Conovan); James Whitmore (Gus Minissi); Sam Jaffe (Doc Riedenschneider); John McIntire (Police Commissioner Hardy); Marc Lawrence (Cobby); Barry Kelley (Lt. Dietrich); Anthony Caruso (Louis Ciavelli); Teresa Celli (Maria Ciavelli); Marilyn Monroe (Angela Phinlay). Publications Script: Maddow, Ben, and John Huston, The Asphalt Jungle, Carbondale, Illinois, 1980. Books: Benayoun, Robert, John Huston: La Grande Ombre de l’aventure, Paris 1966; revised edition, 1985. Kaminsky, Stuart M., John Huston, Maker of Magic, Boston, 1978. Madsen, Axel, John Huston, New York, 1978. Giannetti, Louis, Masters of the American Cinema, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1981. Hammen, Scott, John Huston, Boston, 1985. McCarty, John, The Films of John Huston, Secaucus, New Jer- sey, 1987. Articles: Variety (New York), August 1950. Lightman, Herb A., ‘‘Realism with a Master’s Touch,’’ in American Cinematographer (Los Angeles), August 1950. Houston, Penelope, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), Septem- ber 1950. Lambert, Gavin, in Sight and Sound (London), November 1950. ‘‘Huston Issue’’ of Positif (Paris), August 1952. Cinéma (Paris), June 1972. Bitomsky, H., in Filmkritik (Munich), January 1980. Audibert, Louis, in Cinématographe (Paris), May 1981. Combs, Richard, in Listener (London), 14 August 1986. THE ASPHALT JUNGLEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 83 The Asphalt Jungle Reid’s Film Index (New South Wales, Australia), no. 10, 1993. Telotte, J.P., ‘‘Fatal Capers: Strategy and Enigma in Film Noir,’’ Journal of Popular Film and Television (Washington, D.C.), vol. 23, no. 4, Winter 1996. *** With The Asphalt Jungle, John Huston laid down the definitive pattern of the heist movie. A gang of criminals, each with a particular skill, is gathered together; the job (typically a robbery) is pulled with measured professionalism; but ill-chance, or internal dissension, undermines the gang’s success, bringing them to diaster and death. The formula was to be taken up, and creatively reworked any number of ways, by directors as varied as Kubrick (The Killing), Mackendrick (The Ladykillers), Becker (Touchez pas au grisbi), Dassin (Rififi) and Monicelli (I soliti ignoti); but Huston’s film still sustains comparison with any of its successors. The Asphalt Jungle also broke new ground in presenting crime as an occupation like any other, carried out not by the preening megalomaniacs of 1930s gangster movies, nor by the disillusioned antiheroes of the 1940s, but by ordinary people motivated by every- day preoccupations and small private ambitions. The expert cracksman (Anthony Caruso) has ‘‘mouths to feed, rent to pay’’; the tough hood, Dix Handley (Sterling Hayden), dreams of buying back the Kentucky farm of his childhood. Crime, muses Louis Calhern’s crooked lawyer in the script’s most famous line, ‘‘is only a left-handed form of human endeavor.’’ Resisting the studio’s desire for big-name stars, Huston cast his film with character actors and relative unknowns, a policy which paid off handsomely. Hayden and Calhern gave the performances of their careers, as did Sam Jaffe in the role of Doc Riedenschneider, the mastermind with a fatal weakness for nymphets, and Jean Hagen as Handley’s sad-eyed moll. Around them Huston deployed a fine roster of supporting players: Caruso’s safe-cracker, James Whitmore’s cat- loving hunchback, and Marc Lawrence as a cringing bookie (‘‘Money makes me sweat. That’s the way I am’’). And, touchingly eager and tentative in her first worthwhile screen role, Marilyn Monroe as Calhern’s childlike mistress—a relationship treated with unexpected tenderness and a total lack of prurience. The absence of stars accentuates the movie’s fatalistic mood. There’s no controlling boss-figure, pulling strings and calling the L’ATALANTE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 84 shots; neither Reidenschneider with his brains, nor Emmerich (Calhern) with his social status, is any less at the mercy of events than his accomplices. Rarely do we see anyone alone; Harold Rosson’s camera frames tautly, holding the characters in tight complicit groupings—a closed community severally trapped by their obses- sions, each one’s needs involving and ensnaring the rest. ‘‘One way or another,’’ Riedenschneider observes, ‘‘we all work for a vice.’’ Huston’s spare, uncluttered style conveys tension and urgency, but no sense of spurious excitement. Violence is staged without ceremony; shots are fired at close quarters in sudden, edgy confusion, and death strikes more by accident than by design. As always, what interests Huston is relationships under pressure, how people react when the chips are down. Betrayal, recurrent theme of all his early movies, features strongly; but it’s less endemic here than in the slick, cynical world of The Maltese Falcon. Loyalty, in The Asphalt Jungle, can still survive, despite greed and the fear of failure. And even the betrayers deserve sympathy: Emmerich, scrawling a hopeless, unfinished note to his wife before shooting himself, or Cobby, the bookie, abjectly weeping as he cracks under police pressure. Huston’s hostility is reserved for the cops. Posing before the flashbulbs, the Commissioner makes play with a bank of police radios, and spins yellow-press clichés around the fugitive Dix Handley, ‘‘a hardened killer . . . a man without human feeling or human mercy.’’ From these melodramatic words, obsequiously noted down by the reporters, we fade to Handley, his lifeblood seeping away, sustained only by his obsession as he heads doggedly back towards his lost childhood dream. In the film’s final shot he lies dead on the grass of a wide Kentucky meadow, while three horses graze around him, nuzzling his body. It’s an image at once comforting and desolate; of all the downbeat, elegiac endings in Huston’s films, none is more moving than this. Unhampered by its lack of star names, The Asphalt Jungle scored a hit with the public; apart from The African Queen, it provided Huston with his only box-office hit of the decade. Most directors, having pioneered such a popular genre, would have felt tempted to return to it; but Huston, who always hated to repeat himself, never made another heist movie. Which may be cause for regret since, on the evidence of The Asphalt Jungle, few filmmakers were better qualified to do so. —Philip Kemp ASYA’S HAPPINESS See ISTORIA ASI KLIACHINOI KOTORAIA LUBILA DA NIE VYSHLA ZAMUZH L’ATALANTE France, 1934 Director: Jean Vigo Production: Black and white, 35mm; running time: 89 minutes (originally 82 minutes); length: 7343 feet. Released 1934 as Le Chaland qui passe with 7 minutes cut out. Re-released 1945 restored to its original form. Filmed in Paris. Producer: J. L. Nounez; screenplay: Jean Vigo and Blaise Cendrars (some sources list Albert Riéra as a collaborator), from a scenario by Jean Guinée; photography: Boris Kaufman; editor: Louis Chavance; production designer: Francis Jourdain; music: Maurice Jaubert. Cast: Jean Dasté (Jean); Dita Parlo (Juliette); Michel Simon (Père Jules); Gilles Margaritis (Peddler); Louis Lefèvre (Boy); Raya Dili- gent (Bargeman); Maurice Gilles (Barge owner). Publications Script: Vigo, Jean, Oeuvre de cinema: Films, scenarios, projets de films, texts sur le cinema, edited by Pierre Lherminier, Paris, 1985. Books: Kyrou, Ado, Le Surréalisme au cinéma, Paris, 1953; revised edi- tion, 1963. Kyrou, Ado, Amour, erotisme, et cinéma, Paris, 1957. Salles-Gomes, P. E., Jean Vigo, Paris, 1957; revised edition, Los Angeles, 1971. Buache, Freddy, and others, editors, Hommage à Jean Vigo, Lausanne, 1962. Lherminier, Pierre, Jean Vigo, Paris, 1967. Lovell, Alan, Anarchist Cinema, London, 1967. Smith, John M., Jean Vigo, London, 1972. Klinowski, Jacek, and Adam Garbicz, editors, The Magic Vehicle: A Guide to Its Achievement: Journey One: The Cinema Through 1949, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1975. Simon, William G., The Films of Jean Vigo, Ann Arbor, Michi- gan, 1981. Dudley, Andrew, Film in the Aura of Art, Princeton, New Jer- sey, 1984. Warner, Marina, L’Atalante, London, 1993. Salles-Gomes, P.E., Jean Vigo, New York, 1999. Articles: Les Nouvelles Litéraires (Paris), 29 September 1934. Cavalcanti, Alberto, ‘‘Jean Vigo,’’ in Cinema Quarterly (Edinburgh), Winter 1935. Kracauer, Siegfried, ‘‘Jean Vigo,’’ in Hollywood Quarterly, April 1947. Weinberg, H. G., ‘‘The Films of Jean Vigo,’’ in Cinema (Beverly Hills), July 1947. Agee, James, ‘‘Life and Work of Jean Vigo,’’ in Nation (New York), 12 July 1947. ‘‘Vigo Issue’’ of Ciné-Club (Paris), February 1949. Manvell, Roger, ‘‘Revaluations: L’Atalante, 1934,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), February 1951. Positif (Paris), May 1953. Mekas, Jonas, ‘‘An Interview with Boris Kaufman,’’ in Film Culture (New York), Summer 1955. Chardère, Bernard, ‘‘Jean Vigo et ses films,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), March 1955. L’ATALANTEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 85 Premier Plan (Lyon), no. 19, 1961. Ellerby, John, ‘‘The Anarchism of Jean Vigo,’’ in Anarchy (London), August 1961. Teush, B., ‘‘The Playground of Jean Vigo,’’ in Film Heritage (Dayton, Ohio), Fall 1973. Baldwin, D., ‘‘L’Atalante and the Maturing of Jean Vigo,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Fall 1985. Ganteur, Claude, on André Antoine, in Cinéma (Paris), 8 Janu- ary 1986. Amengual, B., ‘‘Restitution des rimes,’’ in Positif (Paris), Septem- ber 1990. Insdorf, A., ‘‘L’Atalante, a Slow Boat Bound for Lasting Fame,’’ in New York Times, 14 October 1990. Hoberman, J., ‘‘Jean Vigo in Toto,’’ in Première (Paris), Janu- ary 1991. Pellizzari, L., ‘‘Quel barcone che passa. . . ,’’ in Cineforum (Bergamo, Italy), October 1991. Sidler, V., ‘‘Traeumer des Kinos, Rimbaud des Films,’’ in Filmbulletin (Winterthur, Switzerland), no. 4, 1992. Conomos, John, ‘‘Voyaging with Vigo on L’Atalante,’’ in Filmnews, vol. 21, no. 4, May 1991. Faulkner, C., ‘‘Affective Identities: French National Cinema and the 1930s,’’ in Canadian Journal of Film Studies (Montreal), vol. 3, no. 2, 1994. *** The subject of L’Atalante—Vigo’s only feature-length film, com- pleted just before his death—was not of his own choosing. The interest of the film lies in his engagement with material that was partly congenial in its unconventionality (life on a barge, with its freedom from the restrictions of established society, its alternative community of unsocialized eccentrics), and partly highly conventional (problems of the heterosexual couple, mutual adjustment to marriage, break-up and reunion). The subject enabled him to develop the affectionate examination of anarchic behaviour already expressed in Zéro de conduite, but within the confines of an archetypal classical narrative of order (equated with marriage)/disruption of order/restoration of order. Crucial to Vigo’s personal background was his allegiance to his anarchist father, who died in prison under mysterious circumstances, and about whom Vigo wanted to make a film; crucial to his aesthetic background was the Surrealist movement. He wrote an adulatory review of Un Chien anadalou and, while not Surrealist in the strict sense, his films are faithful to the spirit of Surrealism, with its commitment to Freudian theories of dream and the unconscious and to the overthrow of repressive bourgeois social and moral codes. L’Atalante opens with a wedding procession, which Vigo presents as if it were a funeral: everyone is in black, everyone looks glum, almost everyone is coupled. The only brief outburst of spontaneous energy comes from the one single man, who tries to pinch the behind of the woman in front of him and is sternly reprimanded. This is Vigo’s succinct depiction of established society. Against it, in the same sequence, he sets the characters from the barge: ‘‘le père Jules,’’ whose relationship to mainstream culture and its rituals is summed up in his quick dash back into the church to splash himself with holy water and pronounce the couple man and wife; and the (nameless) boy who, having knocked the wedding bouquet into the canal, runs off to find a substitute and returns bearing great festoons of wild creeper, looking like a juvenile pagan nature god. The barge departs, the social order is left behind, and the film swiftly establishes the bride, Juliette, as its central character and central problem. The film’s great distinction lies partly in the honesty with which that problem is confronted, its ultimate failure lies in the way it withdraws from its implications. The Surrealist movement, while dedicated to sexual liberation, failed to develop any viable feminist theory and never successfully conceptualized the position of women: its commitment to l’amour fou was never disengaged from an emphasis on machismo. What is especially remarkable about L’Atalante is not only the intense erotic charge it conveys between its central couple (it could be described as an attempt to reconcile l’amour fou with domesticity), but also the way if foregrounds the position of the woman, raising the question of what this liberation means for her. For Juliette really has no place on the barge. Its little community appears to have functioned perfectly well before her appearance, the tradition- ally ‘‘feminine’’ reforms she effects (such as washing Jules’s under- wear) seem superfluous, and she never finds a role within the male work-world. The culmination of the first half of the film is the marvellous scene in which Jules shows Juliette the treasures of his cabin (a veritable Surrealist world of unexpected juxtapositions). It ends with the brutal intervention of Jean, his smashing of Jules’s collection of momentoes, and his striking of Juliette. He is re-establishing conjugal possession, and we register his behaviour as thoroughly negative. The nature of the threat Jean feels is extremely complex, not at all the simple one of erotic rivalry; and to understand it, we must consider the character of Jules and what he represents. Presented without ambiguity as an admirably robust and healthy figure, Jules transgresses, directly or by implication, every major bourgeois rule. (1) Money-value: his souve- nirs are treasured solely for the associations they evoke, not for monetary worth. (2) Cleanliness: his physical robustness is unaf- fected by his living among cats which produce litters in the beds, and by his total lack of interest in bourgeois standards of hygiene. (3) Physical squeamishness: to demonstrate the efficiency of a native knife, he casually slices open his own hand. (4) Patriarchal domi- nance: he relates to Juliette as an equal, reducing the notion of male authority to a game (the tattered puppet of an orchestral conductor). (5) Death: he keeps the fore-arms of his best friend pickled in a jar, treating the souvenir without the least morbidity, but simply as a momento to live with. (6) Monogamy: he shows Juliette a photo- graph of himself with two women, telling her, ‘‘There’s a story to that.’’ We never get to hear it, but it is clear that Jules is unattached yet strongly sexual. (Neither does he exploit women: witness the later scene with the fortune-teller, where the seduction is delightfully mutual). (7) Sexual identity: the dead friend was the person he was closest to, and although bisexuality is not necessarily implied, it is perfectly in keeping with the freedom from bourgeois conditioning Jules represents. (8) Property: Jules shows great affection for his souvenirs, but is not in the least bound to them. After Jean wrecks his cabin he casually picks up an unbroken piece of bric-à-brac, remarks, ‘‘there’s one he missed,’’ and smashes it. What Juliette is attracted to, and what her husband experiences as a threat, is precisely Jules’s freedom—a freedom that can easily encompass loyalty, affection and loving relationship, but that quite precludes the exclusivity of mar- riage. Further, through Jean’s behavior, the film clearly establishes marriage as characterized by the man’s possession of, and assumption of absolute right over, the woman. It is scarcely suprising that a film made within the capitalist production/distribution system for a bourgeois audience could not pursue further the implications of its own liberating perceptions. In L’AVVENTURA FILMS, 4 th EDITION 86 fact, its second half is largely devoted to a retraction of those implications. Two related strategies are involved: the substitution of the peddler for ‘‘le père Jules,’’ and the partial transformation of Jules’s function. The bistro sequence with the peddler is clearly a repetition of/variation on the cabin scene. Juliette is attracted to the promise of freedom, the display of wonders, and Jean intervenes to reclaim her. But the peddler is not Jules: he is a slight figure, explicitly described as the ‘‘peddler of dreams,’’ and the freedom and glamour with which he tempts Juliette are quite illusory. Jean is proved right in rejecting him. If Jules poses a substantial and formidable threat to the institution of marriage, the peddler only seems to, and the film can deal with him easily. Finally, Jules becomes indeed ‘‘le père’’ Jules: the father-figure who retrieves the fugitive Juliette, slings her over his shoulder, restores her to her husband, and pulls shut the hatch over them. The film is quite explicit about Juliette’s imprisonment, but the narrative resolution demands that she be shown to accept it gladly. The famous last shot—the phallic symbol of the barge pushing on through the sunlit canal—represents a celebration of sexuality about which we cannot help, today, feeling deeply uneasy. —Robin Wood AN AUTUMN AFTERNOON See SAMMA NO AJI L’AVVENTURA (The Adventure) Italy, 1959 Director: Michelangelo Antonioni Production: Produzioni Cinematografiche Europee, Cino del Duca, (Rome), and Société Cinématographique (Paris); black and white, 35mm; running time: 139 minutes, also 130 minutes. Released 25 September 1960, Bologna and Paris. Filmed September 1959 through January 1960 in Rome and Sicily (the isles of Lipari, Milazzo, Catania, and Taormina). Producer: Amato Pennasilico; screenplay: Michelangelo Antonioni, Elio Bartolini, and Tonino Guerra, from an original story by Michel- angelo Antonioni; photography: Aldo Scavarda; editor: Eraldo da Roma; sound: Claudio Maielli; scene designer: Piero Polletto; music: Giovanni Fusco; costume designer: Adriana Berselli. Cast: Monica Vitti (Claudia); Gabriele Ferzetti (Sandro); Lea Massari (Anna); Dominique Blanchar (Giulia); Renzo Ricci (Anna’s Father); James Addams (Corrado); Dorothy De Poliolo (Gloria Perkins); Lelio Luttazzi (Raimondo); Giovanni Petrucci (Young Painter); Esmeralda Ruspoli (Patrizia); with Enrico Bologna; Franco Cimino; Giovanni Danesi; Rita Molé; Renato Pincicoli; Angela Tommasi di Lampedusa; Vincenzo Tranchina; Joe Fisherman from Panarea (Old man on the island); Prof. Cucco (Ettore). Awards: Special Jury Prize, Cannes Festival, 1960. Publications Scripts: Screenplays of Michelangelo Antonioni, New York, 1963. Antonioni, Michelangelo, Sei Film, Turin, 1964. Books: Cowie, Peter, Antonioni, Bergman, Resnais, New York, 1963. Lephrohon, Pierre, Michelangelo Antonioni: An Introduction, New York, 1963. Taylor, John Russell, Cinema Eye, Cinema Ear, New York, 1964. Strick, Philip, Antonioni, London, 1965. Sarris, Andrew, Interviews with Film Directors, New York, 1967. Cameron, Ian, and Robin Wood, Antonioni, New York, 1969. Samuels, Charles Thomas, Encountering Directors, New York, 1972. Rifkin, Ned, Antonioni’s Visual Language, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1982. Barthes, Roland, and others, Michelangelo Antonioni, Munich, 1984. Biarese, Cesare, and Aldo Tassone, I film di Michelangelo Antonioni, Rome, 1985. Dervin, Daniel, Through a Freudian Lens Deeply: A psychoanalysis of Cinema, Hillsdale, New Jersey, 1985. Fonseca, M.S., Michelangelo Antonioni, Lisbon, 1985. Antonioni, Michelangelo, That Bowling Alley on the Tiber: Tales of a Director, Oxford, 1986. Perry, Ted, and Rene Prieto, Michelangelo Antonioni: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1986. Tinazzi, Giorgio di, Michelangelo Antonioni, Firenze, 1989. Cuccu, Lorenzo, Antonioni: il discorso dello sguardo: da Blow up a Identificazione di una donna, Pisa, 1990. Giaume, Jo??lle Mayet, Michelangelo Antonioni: le fil intérieur, Crisnée, Belgium, 1990. Ranieri, Nicola, Amor vacui: il cinema di Michelangelo Antonioni, Chieti, 1990. Rohdie, Sam, Antonioni, London, 1990. Prédal, René, Michelangelo Antonioni, ou, La vigilance du désir, Paris, 1991. Kock, Bernhard, Michelangelo Antonionis Bilderwelt: eine ph?nomenologische Studie, München, 1994. Arrowsmith, William, Antonioni: The Poet of Images, New York, 1995. Cuccu, Lorenzo, Antonioni: il discorso dello sguardo e altri saggi, Pisa, 1997. Brunette, Peter, The Films of Michelangelo Antonioni, Cambridge, 1998. Scemama-Heard, Céline, Antonioni: le désert figuré, Paris, 1998. Articles: Houston, Penelope, in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1960–61. Manceaux, Michele, ‘‘An Interview with Antonioni,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1960–61. ‘‘Antonioni Issue’’ of Films and Filming (London), January 1961. Sarris, Andrew, in Village Voice (New York), 23 March 1961. Fitzpatrick, Ellen, in Films in Review (New York), May 1961. Sandall, Robert, in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Summer 1961. L’AVVENTURAFILMS, 4 th EDITION 87 L’avventura Durgnat, Raymond, in Films and Filming (London), March 1962. Antonioni, Michelangelo, ‘‘Making a Film Is My Way of Life,’’ in Film Culture (New York), Spring 1962. Aristarco, Guido, in Film Culture (New York), Spring 1962. Schleifer, Marc, in Film Culture (New York), Spring 1962. ‘‘Antonioni Issue’’ of Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Fall 1962. Lane, John Francis, ‘‘Oh, Oh Antonioni,’’ in Films and Filming (London), December 1962. Lesser, Simon O., ‘‘L’avventura: A Closer Look,’’ in Yale Review (New Haven, Connecticut), Fall 1964. Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey, ‘‘The Event and the Image: Michelangelo Antonioni,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1964–65. Doniol-Valcroze, Jacques, ‘‘The R-H Factor and the New Cinema,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma in English (New York), January 1966. Hernacki, Thomas, ‘‘Michelangelo Antonioni and the Imagery of Disintegration,’’ in Film Heritage (Dayton, Ohio), Spring 1970. Kauffmann, Stanley, in Horizon (Los Angeles), Autumn 1972. Lockhart, Kimball, ‘‘Empêchement visuel et point de fruite dans L’avventura and Professione: Reporter,’’ in Camera/Stylo (Paris), November 1982. Audibert, L., in Cinématographe (Paris), March 1983. Blanchet, C., in Cinéma (Paris), April 1983. Domecq, J. P., in Positif (Paris), April 1983. Antonioni, Michelangelo, ‘‘Vi parlo di me per raccontani un film,’’ in Cinema Nuovo (Bari), August-October 1983. Bohne, L., ‘‘The Discourse of Narcissism in L’avventura,’’ in Film Criticism (Meadville, Pennsylvania), Fall 1984. De Santis, Giuseppe, ‘‘L’ovvio e l’ottuso: índirezioni del senso in Antonioni,’’ Cineforum (Bergamo, Italy), vol. 27, November 1987. Tomasulo, F. P., ‘‘The Architectonics of Alienation: Antonioni’s Edifice Complex,’’ in Wide Angle (Baltimore, Maryland), no. 3, 1993. Predal, R., ‘‘L’eclipse, l’ellipse,’’ in Avant Scène du Cinéma (Paris), February 1993. Schenk, I., ‘‘Natur und Anti-Natur in den Filmen von Michelangelo Antonioni,’’ Cinema (Switerland) (Zurich), vol. 40, 1994. Di Marino, B., ‘‘La citta che sente,’’ Filmcritica (Rome), May/ July 1995. Nowell-Smith, G., ‘‘Antonioni,’’ Sight and Sound (London), vol. 5, December 1995. Prédal, René, ‘‘Le longue nuit d’une mort attendue,’’ Avant-Scène Cinéma (Paris), November 1995. AWARA FILMS, 4 th EDITION 88 Lubelski, T. ‘‘(Sto) 100 lat kina: 1960,’’ Kino (Warsaw), vol. 30, May 1996. Nasta, D., ‘‘De la critique de cinema a la critique de film: la modernite antonionienne, effet de critique ou demarche d’auteur?,’’ Cinemas (Quebec), vol. 6, no. 2/3, 1996. *** When L’avventura was screened at the 1960 Cannes Film Festival its audience whistled, stamped, and shouted. They were not express- ing enthusiasm. Antonioni’s film had proved incomprehensible to them, as it was to prove to many an audience all over Europe. Significantly, however, this did not prevent the film from finding admirers and achieving remarkably large audience figures in several countries. This was the beginning of the age of the art-movie, and L’avventura was perfectly suited to the growing number of art- houses. After the debacle at Cannes, 35 critics and filmmakers issued a statement of support for L’avventura and its director, a view which was echoed in film criticism around the world. Within a year L’avventura had secured its place in film history. What was it about the film that encouraged such extremes of disgust and admiration? The most common charge of the dissenters was that L’avventura was quite meaningless and, consequently, utterly boring. Foolishly, some defenders sought to turn that argument by making a virtue out of meaninglessness itself. To them L’avventura was the perfect aesthetic object: beautiful to observe but devoid of any cognitive or moral import. Apart from the fact that it is patently not devoid of such features, this view (not uncommon in art-house circles) makes the peculiar assumption that the look of a film is somehow independent of meaning, that beauty and meaning are separate elements in art. Others argued more cogently that L’avventura worked with and developed a new language of cinema, and that to understand it was to master an alien form. Hence the anger at Cannes among those not prepared to make that effort. This claim does have some truth to it, thought it overstates the film’s innovative qualities. L’avventura shares much with its two immediate predecessors, Le amiche and Il grido, both in theme and style. It hardly emerged from nowhere, though it is perhaps more unremittingly austere than anything its director had previously made. But it clearly does play down conventional narrative to the point of extinction. The ‘‘plot’’ of L’avventura (and the term is barely applicable) can be described in a couple of sentences. A young woman, Anna, disappears while cruising near Sicily in the company of a group of rich Italians. Her lover, Sandro, and her friend, Claudia, search unsuccessfully for her, developing a tenuous relationship in the process. There is no resolution of the conventional type. Anna’s disappearance is never explained, and ceases to be of any interest. At the end of the film Claudia and Sandro achieve a bleak sympathy, but hardly a consummation. Nor are we permitted any semblance of orthodox narrative involvement. The film is paced very slowly, much of its action seen in real time. Its characters communicate little in dialogue, and more often than not, are to be found looking away from each other out into the bleak and arid Sicilian landscape. We are invited to contemplate them, but not to identify. Point-of-view shots are rare, and shot-reverse shot sequences, where they exist, usually include both parties fully in the shot. In these and other ways L’avventura excludes us from emotional involvement in any but the most cerebral sense. Perhaps, then, the Cannes reception is unsurprising. In the two decades since L’avventura’s first appearance, narrative conventions have changed, but they have still nowhere near approached Antonioni’s limit. In respect of its form L’avventura is as striking today as it was then, its invitation to contemplate its agonized characters as demand- ing as ever. Its meanings, however, are less elusive than they appeared to many in 1960. Hindsight and the cultural changes of the interven- ing years have rendered the film more transparent, its ideas more clearly part of their period. Antonioni himself, in a statement accom- panying the film at Cannes, said that L’avventura charted a world in which ‘‘we make use of an aging morality, of outworn myths, of ancient conventions.’’ The world had changed, yet human beings were trapped by the old standards. His characters, accordingly, can find no meaningful way to relate to each other, finally arriving, as he describes it, ‘‘at a sort of reciprocal pity.’’ Embedded in this diffuse account of modern social ills is a more specific lament at the degradation of creativity and sexuality. The love-making in L’avventura (except, briefly, for Claudia, the only fleetingly optimistic figure in a deeply depressing film) is without meaning or joy. Creative aspirations are stultified. As Sandro ob- serves in a rare moment of self-perception, ‘‘I saw myself as a genius working in a garret. Now I’ve got two flats and I’ve neglected to become a genius.’’ Materialism, alienation, and neurosis are the watchwords of this world. These were not new ideas, of course, and by 1960 there was a well established tradition of such despair in European art. What was new, and remains hugely impressive, was Antonioni’s facility at expressing such ideas in a cinema shorn of conventional narrative aids. A sense of the alienation of people from their environment and from each other is conveyed in every stark composition, in every studied camera movement. The meaning of the film is there in its very fabric. L’avventura is never meaningless; if anything it is overloaded with meaning. In an interview with Georges Sadoul, Antonioni made this obser- vation, ‘‘when I finished L’avventura I was forced to reflect on what it meant.’’ The lasting impact of the film has been to force the rest of us to take seriously the idea of a genuinely reflective cinema. —Andrew Tudor THE AWAKENING OF THE RATS See BUDJENJE PACOVA AWARA (The Vagabond) India, 1951 Director: Raj Kapoor Production: R. K. Films; running time: 100 minutes. Released 1951. Producer in charge: Mamaji; producer: Raj Kapoor; screenplay: Ahmad Abbas; story: Ahmad Abbas, V. P. Sathe; photography: Radhu Karmakar; editor: G. G. Mayekar; sound: Allauddin; art director: M. R. Achrekar; music: Shankar, Jaikishen; lyrics: Hasrat Jaipuri, Shailendra; Dream Dance: Madame Simkie. AWARAFILMS, 4 th EDITION 89 Cast: Privthviraj Kapoor (Judge Raghunath); Nargis (Rita); Raj Kapoor (Raj); K. N. Singh (Jagga Daku); Leela Chitnis (Bharati); Shashi Kapoor (Raj as a boy); with: Cuckoo, B. M. Vyas, Baby Zubeida, Leela Misra, Om Parkash Rajoo, Mansaram, Rajan, Manek, Paryag, Ravi, Vinni, Bali, Royal India Ballet and Opera. Publications Books: Barnouw, Erik, and S. Krishnaswamy, Indian Film, New York, 1965. Sarkar, Kobita, The Indian Cinema Today, New Delhi, 1975. Abbas, Ahmad, I Am Not An Island: An Experiment in Autobiogra- phy, New Delhi, 1977. Burra, Rani, editor, Looking Back 1896–1960, New Delhi, 1981. Ramachandran, T. M., 70 Years of Indian Cinema (1913–83), Bom- bay, 1985. Dissanayake, W. and M. Sahay, Raj Kapoor’s Films: Harmony of Discourses, New Delhi, 1987. Articles: ‘‘Special Issue’’ of Film Fran?ais (Paris), Spring 1953. Film India (Bombay), February 1952. Kine Weekly (London), 24 June 1954. Monthly Film Bulletin (London), August 1954. Variety (New York), 11 April 1956. Jeune cinéma (Paris), September 1965. Hoberman, J., in Voice (Los Angeles), 5 August 1981. Pym, John, in Financial Times (London) 17 August 1984. Thomas, R., ‘‘Indian Cinema: Pleasures and Popularity,’’ in Screen (London), May-August 1985. Ghosh, S., ‘‘K. A. Abbas: A Man in Tune with History,’’ in Screen (Bombay), 19 June 1987. Slingo, Carol J., ‘‘K. A. Abbas (1914–87),’’ in Jump Cut (Berkeley), February 1988. *** Awara is very much the first major instance of the Hindi cinema’s international influence, and as such provides an important index of the peculiar fascination of the Hindi film. Raj Kapoor’s work has been hugely popular not only in the traditional markets in the Middle East and Africa, but in Eastern Europe and, according to recent accounts, in China. His films implicate us in a universe both parallel to and incestuously coupled with that other world cinema, Hollywood. The popular Hindi cinema occupies a colonial and post-colonial territory of conflicting identities and philosophical irreconcilables. The East presents itself as ‘‘other’’ than the West: Hollywood is flagrantly mimicked, but in a knowing, distorting, and finally disavowing way. Awara is a sprawling work on identity: it revolves around the loss and recovery of a respectable, upper-class social position by the protagonist, Raj (Raj Kapoor). The script-writer, Ahmad Abbas, a left-wing novelist, journalist, and filmmaker, intended Awara as a criticism of the inflexible notions of a social hierarchy incompatible, so he believed, with the new India. However, the expression of these ideas within the framework of a popular Hindi movie opened them to ambivalence. Abbas accepted that Kapoor did not tamper with the story but only added the song and dance conventionally used in the popular cinema. But it is precisely in this way that the popular cinema presents the spectator with the possibility of a parallel realm of pleasure which may controvert (though in a kind of co-existing, unironic way) the work done in the narrative. Thus Raj, denied his proper place in society, and struggling to feed his starving mother, is compelled to take to crime. The role is glamorized by Kapoor’s star performance and by songs which indicate, even amid the concluding pathos of the story—when the hero is jailed and separated from his sweetheart—that the life of the vagabond is an attractive one. This kind of ambivalence is not restricted to scenes of spectacle, but is embedded in the narration. Popular Hindi cinema uses a melo- dramatic audio-visual register, where music, sound effects, and codings of dress and facial expression serve to emphasise the moral meanings of the fiction for the audience. But this moral sign-system is invariably manipulated to introduce narrative disorders, which indi- cate that the moral terms of the fiction are in fact not so stable. For example, in Awara the villain, Jagga (K. N. Singh), often appears to be the shadow of Raj’s father (Prithviraj Kapoor), insofar as both exclude Raj from legitimacy. Rita (Nargis), the character who will ultimately come to Raj’s aid, is also an ambiguous figure. She is contaminated with the same attributes of wealth and class which bar the hero from social position. In this manifestation she is regressive and therefore coded as ‘‘Western.’’ By presenting ‘‘good’’ figures (the father and the sweetheart) in this way, the narrative actually registers certain truths: the fear of the father, especially in his representation of the oppressive law of the social order, and the sexual fascination with that ‘‘Westernness’’ (actually very much part of contemporary Indian culture) reflected in the Rita figure. But in the course of the narrative, these truths are submerged in the cause of recovering and stabilizing a ‘‘pure’’ Indian identity: the father has to be established as unambiguously ‘‘good,’’ while Rita has to be divested of the pejorative ‘‘Western’’ image. Though it represents all these general and contradictory features of the Hindi film, Awara is still very much an epochal work of the post- independence era. In its delineation of disinherited social types in a pathetic yet glamorous way, in its underlying scepticism about the legal-rational order, it maps out the territory which would be trav- ersed by the rural sagas of the 1950s and 1960s (for example, Mehboob Khan’s Mother India and Nitin Bose’s Jamuna) and which would be built into the highly successful revenge-saga films of the 1970s featuring Amithab Bachchan. —Ravi Vasudevan 91 B BA WANG BIE JI (Farewell My Concubine) Hong Kong-China, 1993 Director: Chen Kaige Production: Tomson (HK) Films in association with China Film Co- production Corp/Beijing Film Studio; colour, 35mm; running time: 170 minutes, original version; 157 minutes, US version. Released 2 September 1993, Beijing. Filmed in 1992 in Beijing. Producer: Hsu Feng; executive producers: Hsu Bin, Jade Hsu; screenplay: Lilian Lee, Lu Wei, from the novel by Lilian Lee; assistant directors: Zhang Jinzhan, Bai Yu, Jin Ping, Zhang Jinting; photography: Gu Changwei; editor: Pei Xiaonan; art directors: Yang Yuhe, Yang Zhanjia; sound: Yang Zhanshan, Han Lin; music: Zhao Jiping; music performed by: Central Orchestra of China, Orchestra of the Peking Opera Academy; costume design: Chen Changmin; subtitles: Linda Jaivin. Cast: Leslie Cheung (Cheng Dieyi); Zhang Fengyi (Duan Xiaolou); Gong Li (Juxian); Lu Qi (Guan Jifa); Ying Da (Na Kun); Ge You (Master Yuan); Li Chun (Xiao Si as a teenager); Lei Han (Xiao Si as an adult); Tong Di (Old Man Zhang); Ma Mingwei (Douzi as a child); Yin Zhi (Douzi as a teenager); Fei Yang (Shitou as a child); Zhao Hailong (Shitou [teenage]); Li Dan (Laizi); Jiang Wenli (Douzi’s mother). Awards: Palme d’Or, International Critics’ Prize, Cannes 1993. Publications Articles: Rayns, Tony, ‘‘Nights at the Opera’’ in Sight and Sound (London), December 1992. Variety (New York), 24 May 1993. Tessier, Max, and others, ‘‘Art over Politics’’ in Cinemaya (New Delhi), Summer 1993. Cineforum (Italy), vol. 33, no. 328, October 1993. Bertin-Maghit, J.-P., and Guy Gauthier, ‘‘Adieu ma concubine,’’ in Mensuel du Cinéma, no. 11, November 1993. Alleva, Richard, Commonweal, 3 December 1993. Sight and Sound (London), January 1994. Films in Review (New York), January/February 1994. Zha, Jianying, ‘‘Chen Kaige and the Shadows of the Revolution’’ in Sight and Sound (London), February 1994. Chen, Pauline, ‘‘History Lessons’’ in Film Comment (New York), March 1994. Rayns, Tony, ‘‘The Narrow Path’’ in Projections 3, London, 1994. Lau, Jenny Kwok Wah, ‘‘Farewell My Concubine: History, Melo- drama, and Ideology in Contemporary Pan-Chinese Cinema,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Fall 1995. Xu, B., ‘‘Farewell My Concubine and Its Nativist Critics,’’ in Quarterly Review of Film and Video (Reading), vol. 16, no. 2, 1997. *** In 1984 Chen Kaige’s The Yellow Earth (with cinematography by fellow Beijing Film Academy graduate Zhang Yimou) signalled the exciting emergence of the Fifth Generation of Chinese filmmakers. A decade later, in 1993, his film Farewell My Concubine signalled that generation’s arrival on the international scene. Although based on a novella by Hong Kong writer Lilian Li, director Chen Kaige himself reworked the story of Farewell My Concubine to its current, more complex form about the friendship of two Peking opera stars over 50 years of turbulent Chinese history. The film begins in 1924 in Beijing as a young boy, Douzi (Ma Mingwei), is brought to the All Luck and Happiness Peking Opera School by his prostitute mother (Jiang Wenli). Desperate to give him a future she herself does not have, she pleads pitifully with the headmaster to admit her son. Though prettily turned, he does have one defect—an extra finger on his left hand. In order to gain admission, the mother tearfully chops off the offending digit. At this time Peking opera was at its height of popularity. ‘‘If you belong to the human race, you go to the opera,’’ lectures one opera master. ‘‘If you don’t go to the opera, you’re not a human be- ing. . . .You are lucky to be part of it.’’ Soon Douzi is brought under the protection of gruff but kindly classmate Shitou (Fei Yang), who becomes his dearest friend. The sequences of opera training—holding agonizing positions for hours, singing at the crack of dawn, withstanding the schoolmaster’s cane— are intensely powerful and moving ones. In one scene, the boys line a river bank in the falling snow and sing out the lines of the fallen king in the classic play, The King Parts from His Concubine (which is also the Chinese title of the film, ‘‘Ba Wang Bie Ji’’): ‘‘I am so strong/I can uproot the mountains./My courage is renowned,/I have fallen on hard times.’’ As they grow up, the effeminate Douzi (played as a teenager by Yin Zhi) is cast in female roles, specializing in the role of the self- sacrificing concubine who kills herself for loyalty to her king in this drama. Shitou (played by Zhao Hailong) is cast in masculine, heroic parts, such as the King in the same work. As adults, they rise to become stars of the Peking opera world. Dreamy Douzi, adopting the stage name of Cheng Dieyi (Leslie Cheung), remains half in love with his stage brother Shitou, now called Duan Xiaolou (Zhang Fengyi). BA WANG BIE JI FILMS, 4 th EDITION 92 Ba wang bie ji But Xiaolou has another life he wants to lead—off stage—and marries Juxian (Gong Li), a courtesan he has been seeing. Douzi, of course, gets deeply jealous. Meanwhile, their theater troupe is subjected to the caprice of successive waves of conquerors—Japanese, Kuomingtang, Commu- nist, then the Red Guards of the Cultural Revolution—that wash over the city. It is under the Cultural Revolution that they suffer the most. Not only is the practice of their art interrupted, they are forced to denounce one another in public, betraying friends and lovers alike. In the film, the story of the politics of modern China is told alongside Dieyi’s confusion between theater and reality. While the politics is kept deliberately vague, we are made well aware of the gap between theater and reality. In the end, human beings fail to achieve the sterling archetypes in such dramas like The King Parts from His Concubine, being much weaker creatures in the face of adversity. However, some of the most marvelous scenes in Farewell remain at the beginning, with the boys in their early days of Peking opera training. It reflects Chen’s own fascination with the art form. ‘‘Peking opera is amazing. You have to spend your whole life training,’’ the director has said. ‘‘There is something about Chinese opera that is fundamentally Chinese.’’ These early scenes have the crisp vision of early Chen Kaige films, while the story of the adults becomes muddled and at times uncon- vincing. For example, the character of the third person in the triangle, Juxian, is never fleshed out. Produced by a Hong Kong film company run by former Taiwan film star Hsu Feng, Farewell was a Chinese film that spared no expenses. The period costuming and sets were meticulously recon- structed, and the color-saturated cinematography by Gu Changwei captures their sumptuousness. This ambitious epic managed to turn the heads of the Cannes International Film Festival jury in May 1993, and the top prize of the Palme d’Or was awarded to two extraordinary films that year — Chen Kaige’s Farewell My Concubine and Jane Campion’s The Piano. The film went on to win other awards, as well, including best foreign film from both the New York Film Critics Circle and the Golden Globe, as well as a place in the New York Film Festival that fall and a nomina- tion for the Oscar. In Hong Kong, where the audience was jaded and impatient with a nearly three-hour piece of cultural history, the film came and went, but in the two other Chinas, in Taiwan and on the mainland, it churned up its share of controversy before finding huge audiences. In Taiwan, BAB EL HADIDFILMS, 4 th EDITION 93 following current regulations, it was banned for having too many mainland actors; in China, it was banned for unspecified, though certainly political, reasons. A quick change in the regulations allowed it to be shown in Taiwan, where it made box office records. Minor edits allowed it to be shown in China. For Chen, whose who had never had a popular success in his own country and whose previous film Life on a String was banned there, the showing of Farewell in China was especially gratifying. Chen Kaige (b. 1952) is one of the two best known of Fifth Generation directors, along with Zhang Yimou. He is the son of veteran Chinese director Chen Huaikai, who made film versions of Chinese opera in his heyday. —Scarlet Cheng BAB EL HADID (Cairo Station; Cairo: Central Station; Iron Gate) Egypt, 1957 Director: Youssef Chahine Production: Gabriel Talhami Productions; black and white; running time: 90 minutes. Producer: Gibrail Abdel Hay Adib; screenplay: Gibrail Hay Adib; dialogue: Mohamed Abou Yussef; photography: Alvise; editor: Kamal Abou el-Ela; music: Fouad al-Zahiry. Cast: Farid Chawky (Abou Serih); Hind Roustom (Hannoumat); Youssef Chahine (Kenawi); Hassan Al-Baroudi; Abdel Najdi. Publications Books: Khan, M., An Introduction to the Egyptian Cinema, London, 1969. Malkmus, Lizbeth, and Armes, Roy, Arab and African Film Making, London, 1991. Articles: Markus, Bert, ‘‘Tatort . . . Hauptbahnof Kairo’’ in Filmwoche (Den- mark), 1982. Cine-Revue (Brussels), 17 June 1982. Hollywood Reporter (Los Angeles), 7 August 1990. *** Cairo Station—as Bab el Hadid is most widely known in English— is perhaps especially memorable for its rich visual content. It includes frequent long shots which place the main characters against the complex and busy background of the real railroad station of the title. It has occasional and highly effective sequences of complete silence, which contrast with the usual noise and bustle and place the weight of the story on visual explication alone. It also includes such powerful single images as the sight of living human beings dwarfed by a gigantic statue of the ancient ruler Rameses II. The fact that Youssef Chahine, who both directed the film and stars in it, was initially trained as a painter before turning to filmmaking comes as no surprise. Yet films are far more than just the moving pictures they were initially labelled and dismissed as; and a film may be memorable for its visual content because the other elements that make it up are inadequate or unsatisfying. It must be stressed that Cairo Station is by no means a bad film—whether that means simply boring, or implies technical shortcomings, implausible plotting, wooden acting, or other defects. It is entertaining, thought-provoking, and on the whole worth spending time watching and absorbing. Yet it does fall short of the real greatness in other departments that its sheer visual brilliance deserves. The main problem is that it attempts to do too many things at once and thus ends up doing none of them as well as it might have. If the film is taken, for example, as being mainly a portrayal of life among those who work in and pass through the ‘‘iron gate,’’ the main railroad station in the Egyptian capital, it stands comparison with other films about great meeting places—such as Grand Hotel or even the Airport series. Just as they preserve forever the manners and interactions, down to clothes and haircuts, of particular types of people in a great public space at a particular time, so Cairo Station succeeds in creating, in a manner which looks effortless but must have been time-consuming and difficult, a convincing version of the sights and sounds of meeting and parting, buying and selling, eating and drinking. Even so, by 1958, for both Egyptian and non-Egyptian audiences, tugging at the heart-strings with meetings and partings between unnamed and briefly shown mothers and sons, conscripted soldiers and their families and other such clichéd figures was surely all too familiar a method for both evoking the audience’s feelings and frustrating them. Thus what was presumably meant to underline the point that life goes on as usual, even as the central tragedy unfolds, continues to be valuable as a documentary record but, as a mainstay of the story, comes across as unfocused and uninvolving. While such use of stereotypes in composing the background to the narrative is understandable—after all, an attempt at anything more complex or unpredictable might have ended up fussy and distracting— the dependence of the main story on similar stereotypes is a definite weakness. Kenawi, the disabled newspaper vendor whose unrequited love leads him to a violent mental collapse, is that stock character of both Arab and European literature, a man of peasant stock adrift in the big, frightening city. The lemonade seller, Hannoumat, who leads him on, only to repel him in the end, is the wearisomely familiar figure of the woman defined by her physique and her supposed instincts, apparently incapable of thought or initiative. The man she really loves, Abou Serih the porter, is handsome, popular, and—in a subplot which promises to deepen the complexities of the film but merely confuses them—nobly but mystifyingly committed to forming a un- ion among his fellow-workers. But what are the motivations for their respective actions, beyond the obvious ones? A more daring, more critical, and—not an irrelevant consideration—more truly entertain- ing film might have depicted all three as real people, allowing Kenawi BABETTES GAESTEBUD FILMS, 4 th EDITION 94 at least to try to overcome his constantly emphasized isolation, Hannoumat to have relatives and friends and a life of her own and Abou Serih to have doubts and anxieties about his personal and union affairs alike. But Cairo Station, for all its depth of field and breadth of vision, lacks psychological depth or social breadth. The final scene, when Kenawi is taken away in a straitjacket through the crowds, having been persuaded that he is dressing up for a wedding that will never take place, is indeed as moving and as ironic as it was no doubt meant to be, but would have been even more effective if the audience had been given more to sympathize with, to react against and to think about. In its combination of technical brilliance with rhetorical hollow- ness Cairo Station is indeed no worse than most of the films produced by the dream factories of Hollywood or elsewhere. It may even be somewhat unfair and inappropriate to be disappointed by a film which was produced under similar conditions to the melodramas of the Hollywood golden age; which, at least for Egyptian audiences, can be compared and contrasted with others of Chahine’s numerous films; and which was probably intended more as entertainment than as any kind of social commentary. But as with other melodramas of unre- quited love and social fatalism, it is surely just as legitimate to regret the opportunities which were missed or frustrated as to give due praise to the ways in which other opportunities were taken and fully realized. —Patrick Heenan BABETTES GAESTEBUD (Babette’s Feast) Denmark, 1987 Director: Gabriel Axel Production: Panorama Film International; color; 35mm; running time: 102 minutes. Released in Denmark 28 August 1987; distributed in USA by Orion Classics. Filmed on location in Jutland, Denmark. Producers: Just Betzer and Bo Christensen; screenplay: Gabriel Axel, from the story by Isak Dinesen (Karen Blixen); photography: Henning Kristiansen; editor: Finn Hendriksen; sound: Hans-Eric Ahrn; production design: Sven Wichmann; costume designer: Annelise Hauberg; music: Per Norgaard, with additional music by Mozart and Brahms; gastronomic consultant: Jan Petersen. Cast: Stéphane Audran (Babette); Bodil Kjer (Filippa); Birgitte Federspiel (Martine); Jarl Kulle (Lorenz Lowenhielm); Jean-Philippe Lafont (Achille Papin); Bibi Andersson (Swedish court lady); Ghita Norby (narrator); Hanna Stensgaard (Young Filippa); Vibeki Hastrup (Young Martine); Gudmar Wivesson (Young Lorens); Else Petersen (Solveig); Pouel Kern (the minister/father); Erik Petersen (Erik). Awards: Oscar for Best Foreign Film, 1988; Rouen Nordic Film Festival Grand Jury Prize and Audience Award, 1988; British Acad- emy Award for Best Film Not in the English Language, 1989. Publications Articles: Chevassu, F., and D. Parra, ‘‘La festin de Babette/Entretien avece Gariel Axel/Entretien avec Stéphane Audran,’’ in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), no. 437, April 1988. ‘‘Babette’s Fest,’’ in EPD Film (Berlin), vol. 5, no. 12, Decem- ber 1988. Daems, P., ‘‘De discrete charme van Stéphane Audran,’’ in Film + Televisie (Brussels), no. 381, February 1989. *** Few could have predicted that an unheralded Danish film would become one of the more esteemed European films of the late 1980s. Babette’s Feast unexpectedly won the Oscar for Best Foreign Film as well as a number of other international awards; became one of the most popular—indeed, beloved—films on the American art-house circuit; inspired ambitious restaurants to offer a menu duplicating the titular feast (at a princely cost); and set a pathway for more recent ‘‘great food’’ movies like Ang Lee’s Eat Drink Man Woman and Stanley Tucci’s Big Night. Its director, whose first film appeared in 1955 and who was 68 when the film was released, was relatively unknown outside Scandinavia before the success of Babette and has remained so. Thus, the film’s non-Danish admirers have been left to conclude, rightly or wrongly, that its success, even perfection of a sort, was due to a felicitous coming together of a classic novella faithfully adapted, an excellent cast with particularly memorable faces, and splendid photography capturing not only those faces but the somber landscapes, the spartan dwellings, and of course the sumptuous food. Axel changed Isak Dinesen’s original setting amid Norwegian fjords and mountains to a flatter Danish Jutland—possibly for budget- ary reasons, but certainly with dramatic appropriateness, considering the greater austerity of the land to match the sober lives of the villagers (no competition here for the spectacle of the dinner). He also offered a village of uniform gray houses rather than the ‘‘toy-town. . . painted gray, yellow, pink and many other colors’’ of the story. Changes in the narrative are slight, but telling. For example, soon after Babette, the mysterious Parisian political refugee, is taken in as a servant by a unmarried pair of kindly but puritanical Danish sisters, she is taught how to make their dreary daily food of cod and ale-bread, a kind of porridge. In the story, ‘‘during the demonstration the Frenchwoman’s face became absolutely expressionless,’’ but she soon learns the task, and eventually the food. The food, which the sisters distribute in daily charity rounds, ‘‘acquired a new, mysterious power to stimulate and strengthen their poor and sick.’’ But in Axel’s film, we see Babette buy onions from the grocer and pick wild herbs for her dish, and watch the pleased faces of the indigent sampling her version (as well as their chagrin when Babette is briefly out of town and the sisters’ sludgy recipe is revived). The overall arc of the story remains the same. We are immediately introduced to the elderly sisters and the other villagers, disciples of the ascetic sect founded by the women’s father, then learn of each sister’s missed opportunity for a youthful love affair—Martine with a young officer army officer and Filippa with an opera singer who spots her vocal talent—and of the arrival of Babette, before we return to the present time (about 1887) for the main event of the tale. In his lengthy flashback Axel dwells more than Dinesen on smart details of BABETTES GAESTEBUDFILMS, 4 th EDITION 95 Babettes Gaestebud the officers’ barracks, and he inserts a cameo for Bibi Andersson in the parallel story of the opera singer (appropriately a Don Giovanni who fails to win over his Danish Zerlina). In both episodes the color and dash of the more elegant settings bring out the plainness of the sisters’ lives all the more. In the second half Axel adheres scrupulously to Dinesen’s tale, while using Stephane Audran’s elegant bearing and air of ‘‘having lived’’—not to mention auburn hair—as a foil to the sweet simplicity of the sisters. (The actresses playing the latter with great poignancy, both veterans of Danish film, look like an elderly Loretta Young and Olivia de Havilland.) In story and film Babette wins a lottery, asks the sisters for permission to serve them and the other disciples a celebra- tion dinner on the evening of their late father’s centenary (though ‘‘a very plain supper with a cup of coffee was the most sumptuous meal to which they had ever asked any guest to sit down’’), terrifies them with her imported ingredients (a huge live turtle is only part of what they now fear will be some kind of witch’s sabbath), and ultimately serves a feast that only a great artist, once chef of one of Paris’ greatest restaurants, could conceive and execute. The heart of the drama—and Axel and his crew rise to the occasion—is the breakdown of the disciples’ resistance to the splendid meal, and their attainment of a joyful, life-changing state of grace that seems to go beyond the aesthetic and sensuous into the spiritual—both touching and comical to watch. Axel’s succession of images builds steadily toward the dinner itself: the procession of the foodstuffs past the houses of astonished villagers, the ironing of the white tablecloth, the close-ups of quail carcasses being plucked and carved up, as matter-of-factly as in a Dutch still life. As in the story, the surprise extra guest—the officer, now a retired general, who has lived in Paris—provides an entry to the scene for us, as the one person perfectly cognizant of how truly extraordinary the meal is. (The other guests watch him for clues on how to eat the odder fare.) Otherwise there is no one center of attention: we take in the glow of glasses of sherry and champagne and red wine against the black clothing and white hair of the diners; the General’s comical astonishment over each course and beverage; the sounds of cutlery and conversation and champagne fizzing (gentle soundtrack music is intermittent and discreet); the neighbor called Solveig taking wonderful delight in her wine; the carriage man—a bit player straight out of a John Ford film (as is the diner who can’t hold back an occasional ‘‘Hallelujah!’’)—hanging out in the kitchen and sampling the food and drink; Erik, the teenage server, soberly BADLANDS FILMS, 4 th EDITION 96 carrying out Babette’s instructions; and Babette herself taking an occasional moment to savor the fabulous wine she has ordered. Many of these details are inventions of the filmmaker that broaden Dinesen’s love feast to include all the characters, not just those at the table. In the novella it snows the night of the feast but the sky clears momentarily when the guests leave the sisters’ house, slipping in the drifts and playing like children as they hold hands. In the film there is only a misty rain before the feast, but Axel’s diners too hold hands under a starry sky—here, forming a circle around the well as they sing a hymn. The snow, a cozy white blanket in Dinesen, here begins to fall only in the final moments, and is seen only through the cottage windows, as a hint of death or transience to accompany the dialogue and a guttering candle. But the overwhelming sense of joy as well as evanescence remains, and the film itself, like the dinner it dramatizes, becomes an example of great art springing from what the sophisti- cated world may call an obscure setting. —Joseph Milicia BADLANDS USA, 1973 Director: Terrence Malick Production: Pressman-Williams Enterprises; CFIC colour, 35mm; running time: 94 minutes. Badlands Producer: Terrence Malick; executive producer: Edward R. Press- man; screenplay: Terrence Malick; assistant directors: John Broderick, Carl Olsen; photography: Tak Fujimoto, Brian Probyn, Stevan Larner; editor: Robert Estrin; associate editor: William Weber; art directors: Jack Fisk, Ed Richardson; sound editor: James Nelson; music: George A. Tipton; costumes: Rosanna Norton. Cast: Martin Sheen (Kit Carruthers); Sissy Spacek (Holly); Warren Oates (Holly’s Father); Ramon Bieri (Cato); Alan Vint (Deputy); Gary Littlejohn (Sheriff); John Carter (Rich Man); Bryan Montgom- ery (Boy); Gail Threlkeld (Girl). Publications Books: Thompson, D.K, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema, Second Series, vol.1 edited by Frank Magill, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1981. Peary, Danny, Cult Movies, New York, 1981. Williams, Mark, Road Movies, New York, 1982. Articles: Variety (New York), 10 October 1973. Monaco, J., Take One (Montreal), January 1974. Buckley, M., Films in Review (New York), April 1974. Johnson, William, Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Spring 1974. Kinder, Marsha, ‘‘The Return of the Outlaw Couple,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Summer 1974. King, M., ‘‘Badlands; shoot first. . .’’ in Jump Cut (Chicago), May- June 1974. Rosenbaum, J., Monthly Film Bulletin (London), November 1974. Gow, G., Films and Filming (London), December 1974. Combs, R., Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1974–75. Walker, B., ‘‘Malick on Badlands’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1975. Ciment, Michel, ‘‘Entretien avec Terrence Malick’’ in Positif (Paris), June 1975. Sineux, M., ‘‘Un cauchemar de douceur’’ in Positif (Paris), June 1975. Martin, M., Ecran 75 (Paris), July-August 1975. Rabourdin, D., Cinéma (Paris), July-August 1975. Béhar, H., ‘‘La ballade sauvage’’ in Image et Son (Paris), Septem- ber 1975. Henderson, B., ‘‘Exploring Badlands’’ in Wide Angle (Baltimore), 1983. Mooney, J. ‘‘Martin Sheen in Badlands,’’ Movieline (Escondido, California), vol. 6, December 1994. Stein, Michael Eric, ‘‘The New Violence or Twenty Years of Vio- lence in Films: An Appreciation,’’ Films in Review (New York), vol. 46, January/February 1995. *** Twenty-eight year old Terrence Malick’s sublime debut as writer/ producer/director of Badlands, has endured through time to foster admiration from, and satisfaction for, the spectator, as it did upon its release in 1973. Perhaps Malick’s career as a philosophy teacher before entering filmmaking provided a foundation to the clarity of his vision in this work. BALADA O SOLDATEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 97 Kit Carruthers (Martin Sheen), a garbage collector, meets Holly Sargis (Sissy Spacek) as he walks past her front lawn. She is practicing baton twirling and is charmed by his apparent worldliness. The banal cynicism of the midwest setting and the sleepy pace are disrupted as Kit murders Holly’s father because he disapproves of their relationship. This is the beginning of Kit’s killing spree from South Dakota to finally, the badlands of Montana. Kit ultimately surrenders to the authorities, basking in their admiration of him and his legendary wild man status. Holly has realized that she no longer wants to be around the ‘‘hell bent type anymore,’’ and has abandoned Kit just prior to his arrest. Both repellent and magnetic, Malick draws us into the world of Kit, whose subsequent violent journey is intoned through the sporadic ethereal narration of Holly. Through the brilliantly droll script we become disassociated from Kit’s violence and rather, feel sympathy for the dysfunctional pro- tagonist. This reflects Holly’s own journey with Kit and her observa- tion at one point, ‘‘The world seemed like a faraway planet.’’ From Holly’s father’s attempts to keep her away from Kit—‘‘He said if the piano didn’t keep me off the streets maybe the clarinet would’’—to Holly’s reaction to sex—‘‘Gosh, what was everyone talkin’ about?’’— Malick’s writing shines throughout. On second or third viewing of this film the dialogue seems to increase in its hilarity and enunciates Kits and Holly’s childlike naivety and stupidity. Although Malick used three photographers, all with diverse filmic backgrounds, there remains visual fluidity and continuity throughout Badlands. The visual style achieves harmony with the emotional framework, objective, yet intensely intimate. George Tipton’s score, with its fairground music quality, reinforces the innocence of the piece whilst underpinning the malevolence of Kit. Badlands is a masterful work and fully deserves the many acco- lades that have been awarded to it. —Marion Pilowsky THE BAKER’S WIFE See LA FEMME DU BOULANGER BALADA O SOLDATE (Ballad of a Soldier) USSR, 1959 Director: Grigori Chukhrai Production: Mosfilm; black and white, 35mm; running time: 89 minutes; length: 8045 feet. Released 1959. Filmed 1958. Screenplay: Grigori Chukhrai and Valentin Yoshov; photography: V. Nikolaev and Era Savelieva; editor: M. Timofeieva; art direc- tion: B. Nemechek; music: Mikhail Siv. Cast: Vladimir Ivashov (Alyosha Skvortsov); Shanna Prokhorenko (Shura); Antonina Maximova (Mother); Nikolai Kruchkov (Gen- eral); Evgeni Urbanski (Crippled soldier). Awards: Cannes Film Festival, Special Jury Prize, 1960; honored at All-Union Film Festival of Russia and at the Czechoslovak Film Festival for Working People, 1960; Lenin Prize to Grigori Chukhrai, 1961. Publications Script: Chukhrai, Grigori, and Valentin Yoshov, Balada o soldate, Moscow, 1967; extract in Films and Filming (London), July 1961. Books: Chang, Kuang-nien, An Example of Modern Revisionist Art: A Cri- tique of the Films and Statements of Grigori Chukhrai (in Eng- lish), Peking, 1965. Shneiderman, Isaak, Grigorii Chukhrai, Leningrad, 1965. Liehm, Mira, and Antonin J. Liehm, The Most Important Art: East European Art after 1945, Berkeley, 1977. Veress, József, Grigorij Cshuraj, Budapest, Hungary, 1978. Garbicz, Adam, and Jacek Kalinowski, editors, Cinema, The Magic Vehicle: A Guide to Its Achievement: Journey Two: The Cinema of the Fifties, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1979. Articles: Johnson, Albert, in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1960. Film a Doba (Prague), no. 11, 1960. Crowther, Bosley, in New York Times, 26 December 1960. Clark, Arthur, in Films in Review (New York), January 1961. Gerasimov, Sergei, ‘‘Views of Life Compared: Chukhrai and Fellini,’’ in Films and Filming (London), March 1961. Whitehall, Richard, in Films and Filming (London), July, 1961. Herlinghaus, Hermann, ‘‘A Talk with Grigori Chukhrai,’’ in Film Culture (New York), no. 26, 1962. ‘‘Discussion in Villepre,’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), no. 5, 1962. Chukhrai, Grigori, ‘‘Keeping the Old on Their Toes,’’ in Films and Filming (London), October 1962. Badder, D. J., ‘‘Grigori Chukhrai,’’ in Film Dope (London), April 1975. De Libero, L., in Cinema Nuovo (Bari), January-February 1977. Donets, L., in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), no. 1, 1989. Iensen, T., ‘‘?etyre dnja bez vojny,’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), no. 5, May 1995. *** Superficially, Grigori Chukhrai’s Ballad of a Soldier has the naivety of a recruitment poster. At the height of the Nazi invasion, a young signalman, Vladimir Ivashov (Alyosha Skvortsov), cripples three tanks, and is given a week’s leave to visit his mother. Struggling towards his home village by car and train, he sacrifices his time, little by little, to those who need it more. He helps an amputee frightened of returning to his young wife, delivers a precious gift of soap to the LE BALLET MéCANIQUE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 98 family of a soldier he meets on the road, saves victims of an air raid and befriends a girl, Shura, with whom he falls in love. Alyosha reaches the village on the last day, spends only a few minutes with his mother, then leaves, never to return. We know from the outset that he’ll be killed in battle and buried by strangers, far from home, known to them only as ‘‘a Russian soldier.’’ Accustomed to think of Soviet film in terms of Eisenstein’s historical epics or collectivist propaganda of The Brave Tractor Driver variety, Western audiences of the late 1950s welcomed Gerasimov’s And Quiet Flows the Don, Kalatozov’s The Cranes Are Flying, and especially Chukhrai’s The Forty First and Ballad of a Soldier as assurances that the 19th-century humanism of Tolstoy and Turgenev survived under ‘‘social realism.’’ Critics who looked deeper recognised the films as covertly symp- tomatic of repression. All were set during World War II, one of the few ‘‘safe’’ historical periods under Stalin, and on their plots the dogmas of collectivism, national unity, suspicion of foreign entangle- ments, and the immersion of cultural minorities rested a heavy hand. From the first sequence of Ballad, where Alyosha’s bereaved mother (clearly a metaphoric Mother Russia, just as Alyosha is a symbol of selfless anonymous service to the state) stands amid collectivised wheat and remembers the son of whom, until he left for war, she had known ‘‘everything there was to know,’’ one is aware of a society where a shared accountability, not only for one’s work but for one’s thoughts, is ingrained from birth. Ballad of a Soldier is not without its tentatively subversive elements. Authority figures may be revered, but Chukhrai does show a venal sentry extorting a bribe of canned beef to let Alyosha on the train (though he’s later exposed and punished by a kindly officer). Free enterprise raises its head in a market at a railroad terminus, but the tone of this scene, where Alyosha buys a scarf as a gift for his mother, is absurdly furtive. The bartering peasants circling one another in cautious silence might be selling heroin rather than the family samovar. Politically, the most significant encounter of the boy’s journey is with a group of dispossessed Ukrainians, en route to factory work in the Urals. Since Ukrainian separatists sided with the Nazis early in the war and nationalism remained rampant, not only in the Ukraine but in other republics, the appearance of these refugees in national dress, advertising their despair at losing their home (‘‘We’re like birds in the autumn. We don’t know where we’re flying’’) is unexpected. Both Chukhrai films won Cannes Festival prizes and were circu- lated more widely than any Soviet productions of the time. In the popular imagination, they represented Russian cinema, much as La dolce vita was seen to typify Italian film or French Cancan, the French. But Ballad, with its academic visual style, reminiscent of David Lean, who cast a long shadow over post-war film in Europe and Asia, and its tone of moral rectitude directed against the unpatriotic and the unfaithful, hardly bears comparison with the best European work of the time. Nevertheless, the film carries conviction. Chukhrai shows skill with actors, extracting in particular a moving performance from Evgeni Urbanski as the one-legged soldier who considers losing himself in Russia’s vastness in preference to returning home a cripple. In a scene at a railway telegraph office that, in visual style and performance, might have been extracted from Brief Encounter, Urbanski tries to sends a telegram explaining his defection, but is talked out of it by Alyosha and an irate clerk, who speaks for all the women waiting at home. Urbanski’s later bitterness as he waits on a platform which gradually empties of passengers, and the moving reunion with the wife are handled with an agreeable lack of sentiment and rhetoric. Such scenes lie at the heart of the film, and excuse the coy romance (in a railway car conveniently filled with hay) of Alyosha and the chaste Shura (Shanna Prokhorenko). In general, however, Ballad of a Soldier and other World War II dramas belong outside the stream of Soviet film. They were made as if Dziga Vertov, Dovzhenko, even Eisenstein had never existed. In retrospect, we can see that the most important film produced by this fad for wartime propaganda was Tarkovsky’s Ivan’s Childhood. Nevertheless, Ballad of a Soldier and Grigori Chukhrai himself deserve a niche in Soviet film history as, if nothing else, symptoms of an early opening to the West. —John Baxter THE BALLAD OF NARAYAMA See NARAYAMA BUSHI-KO LE BALLET MéCANIQUE France, 1924 Director: Fernand Léger Production: Black and white, 35mm, silent; running time: about 14 minutes; length: 1260 meters. Released 1924. When shown in Berlin in 1925, part or all of Ballet mécanique was exhibited under the title Images Mobile. Filming probably began with the ‘‘Charlot Cubiste’’ (Cubist Charlie Chaplin) sequence in 1923; filming completed in November 1924, most likely in Paris; cost: about 5000 francs. Producer: Fernand Léger; photography: Dudley Murphy (some sources credit Man Ray as well); sources indicate the editing was probably handled by Dudley Murphy; music: George Antheil; assist- ant director: Dudley Murphy. Cast: Kiki; Dudley Murphy. Publications Books: Antheil, Georges, Bad Boys of Music, New York, 1945. Manvell, Roger, editor, Experiment in the Film, New York, 1948; revised edition, 1970. Tyler, Parker, Underground Cinema, New York, 1969. Curtis, David, Experimental Cinema, New York, 1971. Lawder, Standish, The Cubist Cinema,New York, 1975. Le Grice, Malcolm, Abstract Film and Beyond, Cambridge, Massa- chusetts, 1977. THE BAND WAGONFILMS, 4 th EDITION 99 Sitney, P. Adams, Visionary Film: The American Avant-Garde 1943–1978, New York, 1979. Fabre, Gladys C., Barbara Rose, and Marie-Odile Odile, Léger and the Modern Spirit: An Avant-Garde Alternative to Non-Objective Art, Seattle, 1983. De Francia, Peter, Fernand Léger, New Haven, Connecticut, 1983. Kosinski, Dorothy M., editor, Fernand Léger, 1911–1924: The Rhythm of Modern Life, Munich, 1994. Buck, Robert T., Fernand Léger, New York, 1995. Faerna, Jose M., Léger, New York, 1996. Lanchner, Carolyn, Fernand Léger, New York, 1998. Articles: Bond, Kirk, ‘‘Léger, Dreyer, and Montage,’’ in Creative Art (New York), October 1932. Richter, Hans, ‘‘The Avant-Garde Film Seen from Within,’’ in Hollywood Quarterly, Fall 1949. Jackiewicz, A., ‘‘Epizod filmowy w dziele Fernanda Léger,’’ in Kino (Warsaw), March 1974. Brown, Geoff, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), April 1977. Brenden, Richard, ‘‘Functions of Film: Léger’s Cinema on Paper and on Cellulose,’’ in Cinema Journal (Champaign, Illinois), Fall 1984. Serenellini, M., ‘‘I contrastie delle forme in Ballet mécanique,’’ in Cinema Nuovo (Bari), December 1984. Fuchs, H., ‘‘Een geschiendenis van kleur en zwart-wit,’’ in Skrien (Amsterdam), December-January 1990–91. *** Contemporary film scholarship recognizes at least three major types of production. Most familiar and most popular is the fictive narrative, with roots back beyond Griffith’s 1915 feature, The Birth of a Nation. Comparably familiar, though less popular, is the actuality film, with its documentary tradition at least as old as the 1920s work of artists like Flaherty and Grierson. Least familiar and least under- stood by popular audiences is the experimental film, which had its beginnings in the European avant-garde of the 1920s. The European avant-garde was based largely upon the efforts of painters and other artists in Germany and France. Thus certain stylistics which mark the strategies of European painting during the 1920s often mark European avant-garde films: the stylistics of Futurism, Cubism, Dadaism, and Surrealism. One of the best books on this period of experimental film is Standish Lawder’s The Cubist Cinema. In part, Lawder’s purpose was to relate classic European avant-garde films by Richter, Eggeling, Ruttman, and Léger to classic paintings of the period by Picasso, Kandinsky, Duchamp, and Léger. Indeed, it is especially interesting to find Léger’s name common to both lists in light of the fact that his film Ballet mécanique constitutes one of the most famous and most successful examples surviving this brief-lived but highly innovative, highly influential period of experimental production. Typically, experimental films are brief, independently-financed productions which tend toward innovative techniques and non-narra- tive structures. Often they are a collaborative, being the sole product of but one or two artists. Ballet mécanique is no exception to these characteristics. While the camerawork is attributed to the American Dudley Murphy, the 1924 French production is otherwise the work of one man, Fernand Léger. Before he was 20, Léger had become a Cubist painter whose subject matter eventually centered on mechanical devices and urban imagery. Ballet mécanique is his sole film (although he did some work with Hans Richter on Dreams that Money Can Buy two decades later). He recalls that the film cost him some 5,000 francs, indepen- dent financing allowing him control comparable to that which he enjoyed with his paintings. Ballet mécanique is a difficult film to describe, though countless film scholars have embraced that very task. It is a brief, non-narrative exploration of cubist form, black and white tonalities, and various vectors through its constant, rapidly cut movements and compositions. As Lawder details in his study, many of the film’s forms and compositions are reflected in—or themselves reflect—forms and compositions in Léger’s famous cubist paintings from this period. Clearly the film allowed Léger cinematic extension of the formal problems he continued to explore in his single canvases. The film flashes through over 300 shots in less than 15 silent minutes. The subjects of these fleeting images are diverse and difficult to quickly catalog: bottles, hats, triangles, a woman’s smile, reflections of the camera in a swinging sphere, prismatically crafted abstractions of light and line, gears, numbers, chrome machine (or kitchen) hardware, carnival rides, shop mannequin parts, hats and shoes, etc. All interweave a complex cinematic metaphor which bonds man and machine. Further, Ballet mécanique’s whimsical, witty, dadaist portrait seems to center on the looped repetition of a large woman repeatedly and mechanically ascending a stair (one of the first known examples of loop-printing, a technique later to become a mainstay of international experimental film after the 1960s). Throughout its history, Ballet mécanique has always been a film more for other film artists or film scholars than for a general public. Still, it continues to enjoy critical attention and acclaim, and continues to influence the ongoing expression of experimental filmmakers throughout the industrialized free world. —Edward S. Small THE BAND WAGON USA, 1953 Director: Vincente Minnelli Production: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Picture Corp; Technicolor, 35mm; running time: 112 minutes. Released 1953. Filmed in the MGM studios. Producer: Arthur Freed; screenplay: Betty Comden and Adolph Green; photography: Harry Jackson; editor: Albert Akst; produc- tion designers: Edwin Willis and Keogh Gleason: set designs for musical numbers: Oliver Smith; art directors: Cedric Gibbons and Preston Ames; music: Howard Dietz and Arthur Schwartz; music director: Adolph Deutsch; costume designer: Mary Ann Nyberg; dance direction: Michael Kidd. THE BAND WAGON FILMS, 4 th EDITION 100 The Band Wagon THE BAND WAGONFILMS, 4 th EDITION 101 Cast: Fred Astaire (Tony Hunter); Cyd Charisse (Gabrielle Gerard); Nanette Fabray (Lily Marton); Oscar Levant (Lester Marton); Jack Buchanan (Jeffrey Cordova); James Mitchell (Paul Byrd). Publications Books: Astaire, Fred, Steps in Time, New York, 1959. de la Roche, Catherine, Vincente Minnelli, New Zealand, 1959; reprinted in Film Culture (New York), June 1959. Springer, John, All Singing, All Dancing, New York, 1966. Truchaud, Francois, Vincente Minnelli, Paris, 1966. Kobal, John, Gotta Sing, Gotta Dance, New York, 1970. Thomas, Lawrence, B., The MGM Years, New Rochelle, New York, 1972. Minnelli, Vincente, and Hector Arce, I Remember It Well, New York, 1974. Delameter, James, Dance in the Hollywood Musical, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1981. Mueller, John, Astaire Dancing: The Musical Films, New York, 1985. Thomas, Bob, Astaire: The Man, the Dancer, London, 1985. Drouin, Fréderique, Fred Astaire, Paris, 1986. Brion, Patrick, and others, Vincente Minnelli, Paris, 1985. Adler, Bill, Fred Astaire: A Wonderful Life, New York, 1987. Satchell, Tim, Astaire: The Biography, London, 1987. Harvey, Stephen, Directed by Vincente Minnelli, New York, 1990. Naremore, James, The Films of Vincente Minnelli, Cambridge, 1993. Articles: Jablonski, Edward, in Films in Review (New York), August-Septem- ber 1953. Lambert, Gavin, Sight and Sound (London), January-March 1954. Chaumenton, Etienne, ‘‘L’Oeuvre de Vincente Minnelli,’’ in Positif (Paris), November-December 1954. Pratley, Gerald, ‘‘Fred Astaire’s Film Career,’’ in Films in Review (New York), January 1957. Bitsch, Charles, and Jean Domarchi, ‘‘Entretien avec Vincente Minnelli,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), August-September 1957. Tranchant, Fran?ois, ‘‘Invitation à la danse,’’ in Image et Son (Paris), January 1958. Johnson, Albert, ‘‘The Films of Vincente Minnelli,’’ in Film Quar- terly (Berkeley), Winter 1958 and Spring 1959. Conrad, Derek, ‘‘2 Feet in the Air,’’ in Films and Filming (London), no. 3, 1959. Minnelli, Vincente, ‘‘The Rise and Fall of the Musical,’’ in Films and Filming (London), January 1962. Domarchi, Jean, and Jean Douchet, ‘‘Rencontre avec Vincente Minnelli,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), February 1962. Torok, Paul, and Jacques Quincey, ‘‘Vincente Minnelli; ou, Le Peintre de la vie revée,’’ in Positif (Paris), March 1963. ‘‘Minnelli Issue’’ of Movie (London), June 1963. de la Roche, Catherine, ‘‘Vincente Minnelli,’’ in Premier Plan (Paris), March 1966. Giles, D., ‘‘Show-Making,’’ in Movie (London), Spring 1977. Mueller, J., in Dance Magazine (New York), May 1979. Johnson, Julia, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 1, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Polan, Dana B., ‘‘It Could Be Oedipus Rex: Denial and Difference in The Band Wagon,’’ in Ciné-Tracts (Montreal), Summer-Fall 1981. de Kuyper, Eric, ‘‘Reflexions on the ‘Dancing in the Dark’ Sequence from Vincente Minnelli’s The Band Wagon,’’ in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), vol. 5, no. 3, 1983. Damisch, Hubert, ‘‘Un trouble de mémoire au cinéma,’’ in Cinémathèque, no. 7, Spring 1995. Saada, N., ‘‘Howard Dietz et Arthur Schwartz: The Bandwagon,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma, Hors serie, 1995. Mueller, J., and G. Aachen, ‘‘The Band Wagon,’’ in Reid’s Film Index (New South Wales, Australia), no. 32, 1997. *** The Band Wagon represents one of the most important of the MGM musicals of the 1950s, indeed in the history of this Hollywood genre. In particular, The Band Wagon stands as one of the masterworks to emerge from the very productive musicals unit that producer Arthur Freed controlled at MGM during the late 1940s and early 1950s. The Band Wagon gestated in producer Freed’s mind late in 1951. With recent successes of An American in Paris and Singin’ in the Rain, Freed had the idea to acquire a song catalogue as the basis for this musical, in particular the songs of Howard Dietz, and his longtime partner Arthur Schwartz. Freed appreciated the creators of songs, having joined MGM as a song writer himself twenty five years earlier. By the time of The Band Wagon he had turned full-time to producing, winning every possible award offered in the Hollywood. Of the films he would produce in his long, distinguished career, none would be greater than The Band Wagon. Freed took ‘‘I Love Louisa,’’ one of Schwartz and Dietz’s hit songs, as the original title of his new musical and set the vast talents of MGM in motion. This meant first screen writers Betty Comden and Adolph Green who had penned Take Me Out to the Ball Game (1949), and Singin’ in the Rain (1952), among other creations, at MGM. This also meant director Vincente Minnelli, who had long been an MGM stalwart since the successes of Meet Me in St. Louis (1944), The Pirate (1948), and An American in Paris (1952). Freed had hundreds of stars from which to choose. He selected the great Fred Astaire, who although more famous for his RKO films with Ginger Rogers, had been at MGM since the early 1940s. Astaire’s dance partner for The Band Wagon would be Cyd Charisse, who had been featured in Singin’ in the Rain the year before. During the first week of February 1952, Comden and Green commenced writing their original story and screenplay. (Eventually their script would include ‘‘themselves’’ in the form of Oscar Levant and Nanette Fabray couple, the principle difference being that Comden and Green were never married.) The story idea centered around ‘‘making a show,’’ a classic narrative formula for the Hollywood musical. The Band Wagon made use of the audience’s particular knowl- edge of the career of Astaire. For example, the film’s credits are superimposed on a top hat, white gloves, and a cane, probably the most famous icons of the American musical, indeed representing to all the genius of Astaire. But when the film opens we learn that the top BANSHUN FILMS, 4 th EDITION 102 hat is for sale and no one will buy it. Is Astaire washed up? This enigma sets ‘‘Astaire,’’ the man, the star, the legend, squarely in the middle of the story: can he (Fred Astaire/Tony Hunter) make a suc- cessful comeback? The Band Wagon script resolves this dilemma by having Astaire/ Hunter failing to make art (‘‘this show is a modern version of Faust’’), but instead again creating wonderful entertainment for the masses. More than a dozen of the Schwartz and Dietz songs were used including ‘‘Something to Remember You By,’’ ‘‘I Guess I Have To Change My Plans,’’ ‘‘The Beggar’s Waltz,’’ ‘‘High and Low,’’ and most recognizable of all, ‘‘Dancing in the Dark.’’ The only original song, composed by Schwartz and Dietz in 1952, was ‘‘That’s Enter- tainment,’’ which later became the anthem for MGM’s Golden Age of the musical. The rehearsal period for this complex dance musical began in August, 1952; and lasted six weeks. In the process the aforementioned talent created a serious of wonderful individual numbers on which the film’s fame rests. For ‘‘Shine on Your Shoes,’’ Astaire was assisted by LeRoy Daniels, a non-actor, and an $8,000 ‘‘fun machine’’ which sounded like a calliope, shot out flags, rockets, and a kaleidoscope of colors. ‘‘The Girl Hunt’’ ballet, the film’s climax, presented a satire on the detective film with Astaire as the flat foot narrator, in slouch hat, dark shirt, and double breasted suit, the very antithesis of his classic top hat and tails. The Band Wagon ended shooting late in January 1953, nearly a year from the day Comden and Green sat down to create the story. The final cost of the film came to more than two million dollars. (Indeed the ‘‘The Girl Hunt’’ ballet cost more than three hundred thousand dollars alone.) The premiere, in late July, came to glowing reviews, and upon its initial release The Band Wagon more than made up for its considerable investment, and thereafter has generated considerable profits for MGM. —Douglas Gomery THE BANDIT See O CANGACEIRO BANSHUN (Late Spring) Japan, 1949 Director: Yasujiro Ozu Production: Shochiku (Ofuna); black and white; running time: 107 minutes. Released in Japan in 1949, and in USA in 1972. Screenplay: Yasujiro Ozu and Koga Noda, from an original story by Kazuo Hirotsu; photography: Yuhara Attuita; music: Senji Ito. Banshun Cast: Chishu Ryu (The Father); Setsuko Hara (Noriko, the Daugh- ter); Haruko Sugimura (The Aunt); Yumeji Tsukioka (Aya, the Daughter’s friend); Jun Usami (The Young man). Awards: Kinema Jumpo Prize for Best Film of the Year, Japan, 1949. Publications Books: Richie, Donald, 5 Pictures of Yasujiro Ozu, Tokyo, 1962. Sato, Tadao, Ozu Yasujiro no Geijutsu (The Art of Yasujiro Ozu), Tokyo, 1971. Richie, Donald, Japanese Cinema: Film Style and National Charac- ter, New York, 1971. Satomi, Jun, and others, editors, Ozu Yasujiro—Hito to Shigoto (Yasujiro Ozu—The Man and His Work), Tokyo, 1972. Schrader, Paul, Transcendental Style in Film: Ozu, Bresson, Dreyer, Berkeley, 1972. Burch, No?l, Theory of Film Practice, New York, 1973. Tessier, Max, ‘‘Yasujiro Ozu,’’ in Anthologie du cinéma 7, Paris, 1973. Richie, Donald, Ozu, Berkeley, 1974. Mellen, Joan, The Waves at Genji’s Door: Japan Through Its Cinema, New York, 1976. Bock, Audie, Japanese Film Directors, New York, 1978; revised edition, Tokyo, 1985. BANSHUNFILMS, 4 th EDITION 103 Burch, No?l, To the Distant Observer, Berkeley, 1979. Sato, Tadao, Currents in Japanese Cinema (in English), Tokyo, 1982. Bordwell, David, Ozu and the Poetics of Cinema, Princeton, 1988. Hideki, Maeda, Ozu Yasujiro no ie: jizoku to shinto, Tokyo, 1993. Sho, Kida, Ozu Yasujiro no manazashi, Tokyo, 1999. Articles: Milne, Tom, ‘‘Flavour of Green Tea over Rice,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1973. Ryu, Chishu, ‘‘Yasujiro Ozu,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1964. Rosenbaum, Jonathan, ‘‘Ozu,’’ in Film Comment (New York), Sum- mer 1972. Variety (New York), 12 July 1972. Canby, Vincent, in New York Times, 22 July 1972. Winsten, Archer, in New York Post, 22 July 1972. Byron, Stuart, in Village Voice (New York), 17 August 1972. Kauffmann, Stanley, in New Republic (New York), 19 August 1972. Zeaman, Marvin, ‘‘The Zen Artistry of Yasujiro Ozu: The Serene Poet of the Japanese Cinema,’’ in Film Journal (New York), Fall- Winter 1972. Thompson, Kristin, and David Bordwell, ‘‘Space and Narrative in the Films of Ozu,’’ in Screen (London), Summer 1976. ‘‘Ozu Section’’ of Cinéma (Paris), February 1981. Geist, K., ‘‘The Role of Marriage in the Films of Yasujiro Ozu,’’ in East-West Film Journal (Honolulu), no. 1, 1989. ‘‘Ozu, la vita e la geometria dei film,’’ in Castoro Cinema (Florence), no. 151, 1991. Wood, Robin, ‘‘The Noriko Trilogy,’’ in Cineaction (Toronto), Winter 1992. Losilla, C. ‘‘En el abismo de lo nunca dicho,’’ Nosferatu (Donostia- San Sebastian, Spain), no. 25, December 1997. Zunzunegui, S., ‘‘El fin de la primavera,’’ Nosferatu (Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain), no. 25, December 1997. Zunzunegui, S.’’Voces distantes,’’ Nosferatu (Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain), no. 25, December 1997. *** Late Spring is the first of six films Ozu made with Setsuko Hara, the titles of which are often motivated by the age and situation of Hara’s character; in Late Spring she is of the age when a young woman was expected to be married, in Early Summer she is getting past it, and in Late Autum she is a middle-aged widow. The first three films, symmetrically separated by two-year gaps and alternating with films without Hara—Late Spring (1949), Early Summer (1951), Tokyo Story (1953)—can be argued to form a loose trilogy. In all three (and only these three) Hara’s character is named Noriko, and in each a major narrative concern is the pressure exerted upon her to marry or (in the case of Tokyo Story) remarry. Late Spring, along with many other Ozu films, has suffered from the unfortunate polarization in the West of two influential but inadequate critical approaches: the kind of content analysis practised by Joan Mellen in The Waves at Genji’s Door (plot synopsis followed by the judgement that Ozu was a conservative locked into a nostalgia for the values of a threatened or collapsed traditional Japanese patriarchy) and the formalist analysis of N?el Burch (To the Distant Observer) which produces Ozu as a ‘‘modernist’’ filmmaker because his method resists the dominance of the Hollywood codes, an ap- proach that renders the subject-matter of the films irrelevant. (David Bordwell’s recent Ozu and the Poetics of Cinema represents a surpris- ing move toward rectifying this polarization, Bordwell having been previously associated with Burch’s strict formalism.) The treatment of spatial relations in Ozu’s work certainly differs significantly from the Hollywood norms, and this affects our relationship to the charac- ters and the narrative, but the narrative remains clearly dominant: Ozu’s meticulous concern with the minutiae of script construction on the one hand and acting on the other cannot be simply swept aside in order to fetishize his formal devices (‘‘pillow shots,’’ eyeline mis- matches, use of 360 degree space, etc.). As for the charge of conservatism, Ozu’s critical sensitivity to all aspects of social change, its gains and losses, the erosion of old values and the emergence of new, is such that the films offer themselves at least as readily to a radical as to a conservative reading. They are in fact so complex as to resist any simple political classification, every position dramatized in them being qualified by others. It is often difficult to define with the necessary clarity and precision exactly what the films are about. It is easy, however, to state what Late Spring is not about: it is not about a young woman trying nobly to sacrifice herself and her own happiness in order dutifully to serve her widowed father in his lonely old age. If Noriko resists the social pressures that compel her into marriage (Ozu’s comprehensive analysis of those pressures shows them convincingly to be irresistible), it is because she is thoroughly aware that she will never be as happy as she is within her present situation. The film precisely defines the choice that contemporary society (post-war Japan, with its conflicts between traditional values and Americanization) offers her: subordination to a husband in marriage, or entrance into the ‘‘emancipated’’ world of alienated labour (i.e., subordination, as secretary, to a male boss). The latter option is embodied in Noriko’s best friend Aya, a young woman so completely ‘‘modernized’’ that her legs get stiff if she has to sit on a tatami mat. Far from denouncing the breach with traditional values, Ozu presents Aya with immense sympathy and good humour, the emphasis being on the constraints of her situation. On the other hand, traditional marriage is never presented in Ozu’s films as in itself fulfilling, and especially not for the woman (Norikio’s father informs her that her mother wept through most of the first years of their marriage). With her father, Noriko has a freedom that she will never regain: she can go bicycling by the sea with handsome young men, visit sake bars with casual associates, enjoy relatively unrestricted movement. And movement (and its suppression) is the film’s key motif and structuring principle. The first half contains (for Ozu) an unusual amount of camera movement accompanying or parelleling Noriko’s sense of enjoyment and exhilaration (the train journey, the bicycle ride). The last camera movement in the film occurs in the scene in the park where her father and aunt finalize plans for her marriage. The film then moves inexorably to Noriko’s entrapment in an irreversible process, her immobilization (beneath the heavy traditional wedding costume) and final obliteration (the empty mirror that replaces any depiction of the wedding ceremony). The film’s final shot of the sea is commonly interpreted in terms of Zen-ian resignation and acceptance BARON PRASIL FILMS, 4 th EDITION 104 (Ozu once remarked that western critics don’t understand his films, so ‘‘they always talk about Zen or something’’); it can equally be read as a reminder of the bicycle ride and the lost freedom. —Robin Wood BARON PRASIL (Baron Munchausen) Czechoslovakia, 1961 Director: Karel Zeman Production: Ceskoslovensky Statni Film; AGFA colour, 35mm; running time: 81 minutes. Screenplay: Karel Zeman and Josef Kainar, from the original novel by Gottfried Burger; assistant directors: Zdenek Rozkopal and Jan Mimra; photography: Jiri Tarantik; art director: Karel Zeman; set design: Zdenek Rozkopal; music: Zdenek Liska. Cast: Milos Kopecky (Baron Munchausen); Jana Brejchova (Bianca); Rudolf Jelinek (Tonik); Jan Werich (Captain of Dutch ship); Rudolf Hrusinsky (Sultan); Eduard Kohout (Commander of the fortress); Karel Hoger (Cyrano de Bergerac); Karel Effa (Officer of the guard); Bohus Zahorsky (Captain of the pirate ship); Nadezda Blazickova (Harem dancer); Bohus Zahorsky (The Admiral). Publications Books: Stephenson, Ralph, Animation in the Cinema (London), 1967. Halas, John, Masters of Animation (London), 1987. Articles: Konradva, Libuse, ‘‘Putting on a Style,’’ in Films and Filming (London), June 1961. Benesova, Marie, ‘‘A New Approach to Baron Munchausen,’’ in Czechoslovak Film (Prague), no. 1, 1962. Benesova, Marie, ‘‘Munchausens heitere wiedergeburt,’’ in Deutsche Film Kunst (Berlin), no. 5, 1962. Phillipe, Pierre, ‘‘Le Baron de Crac,’’ in Cinéma (Paris) and Variety (New York), 18 July 1962. Cinema Nuovo (Milano), July/August 1964. Monthly Film Bulletin (London), November 1967. Thonen, John, ‘‘The Fabulous Adventures of Baron Munchhausen,’’ in Filmfax (Evanston, Illinois), no. 26, April-May 1991. *** Once named National Artist of Czechoslovakia, director, de- signer, artist, and animator, Karel Zemen, co-founded the Gottwaldov Studio in 1943, allying the traditional puppet entertainment long enjoyed in Czechoslovakia since the seventeenth century, and new experimental approaches to film. Zemen established his reputation with films like Inspiration (1944), in which he animated solid and blown glass, an apparently unyielding, if plentiful material in Czecho- slovakia. The Mr. Prokouk cartoon series (1947) followed, and established a character who became a national hero in illustrating the shortfalls of a bureaucratic system. Zemen extended his interest in combining the material world with the conditions of the animated form in longer films like Journey into Prehistory (1955) and The Invention of Destruction (1958) which foregrounded apocalyptic warnings amidst the humour and anarchy of fantastic fiction. Zemen’s Baron Munchhausen (1961) is a tour de force exercise in how film form can properly illustrate the conceit of its subject. Combining live action, animation, and numerous theatrical devices and special effects, Zemen simultaneously creates modes of ‘‘illu- sion’’ while directly illustrating the romantic ‘‘delusion’’ of his eponymous hero. Deliberately referencing the ‘‘magical’’ aspects of Melies’ films and the thematic concerns of his great literary hero, Jules Verne, Zemen deconstructs the notion of a romantic flight of fancy, literally using ‘‘flight’’ as the central motivating force in his quasi-picaresque narrative. ‘‘Flight’’ here, is simultaneously the soaring ambition of freedom, the desperate need to escape, and a mode of scientific achievement. Emerging from the credit sequence pages of an illustrated child- ren’s book, the story commences with a storm, and the creation of an uncertain and strange world where footprints in the sand lead nowhere and a frog perches on a jug in a pool of water. The next sequence anticipates the celebrated jump-cut in 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) where a bone is tossed in the air by prehistoric man and becomes a spacecraft thousands of years in the future. Zemen, like Kubrick, also makes comment on the passing of time and the notion of progress by treating the sky as if it were a scroll. As each part of ‘‘the scroll’’ is pulled down into the frame it reveals an element in the history of aviation, from a bird to a flying man to an early aircraft through to a jet and finally, a rocket. In the rocket is the astronaut, Tonik, who lands on the moon, and is surprisingly greeted by his romantic forbears of science fiction, Cyrano de Bergerac, Barbican, and Captain Nichol from Verne’s novels, and eventually, Baron Munchhausen himself. The film immediately foregrounds its interest in the tension between scientific achievement and heroic aspiration, and sustains this theme by pairing Tonik and the Baron in the adventures that follow. Tonik has been mistaken by the Baron as a ‘‘moondweller,’’ and therefore, as an alien. This serves as a convenient metaphor for the Baron’s distanciation from the astronaut, and a clear indication that for him, ‘‘the moon’’ may only be colonised by dreamers and romantics, and not by literally travelling there. Throughout the course of the film though, it is the Baron who must come to terms with the fact that it is the astronaut who represents a contemporary romantic hero. Tonik and the Baron, like the other characters in the film, are live action figures but they inhabit a world which becomes a mixture of highly textured artificial sets, camera tricks distorting size and scale, colour saturated film-stocks ranging from icy-blue to warm gold, and animated sequences with all manner of flying creatures, sea monsters, and visual jokes. Zemen essentially intervenes in the Baron’s telling LA BATAILLE DU RAILFILMS, 4 th EDITION 105 of the tale, exposing him not merely as a romantic fraud but as a man out of touch with ‘‘modern’’ reality. Both Tonik and the Baron fall in love with Bianca, a princess sold to a Turkish sultan by pirates, but it is ultimately Tonik who wins her hand despite of the Baron’s apparently heroic exploits on her behalf. Zemen is careful to use an array of effects to illustrate these exploits, but simultaneously, such spectacle and exaggeration only casts con- siderable doubt upon the claims of the Baron as a hero. While apparently creating a tale composed of heroic adventures, Zemen undermines the authenticity of the heroic gesture. Incredible set pieces, for example, where the Baron defeats 10,000 Turks amidst a montage of sparking blades, roaring lions, collapsing silhouettes of soldiers, and swirling red clouds, are undermined by the following scene of Tonik merely knocking out the palace guard and winning Bianca’s favour by playing several sonorous notes on a gong. This motif re-occurs later as the couple are re-united by notes played on a spider’s web and a whistle. Zemen counterpoints the comic failings of the Baron with Tonik’s guile and efficiency. Consequently, Zemen can also use the ‘‘fantastic’’ environment as a vehicle for humour. One particular example involves two-dimensional collage animation, where a ship’s figurehead removes a pipe and releases the smoke from all the crew smoking within the ship. This is very reminiscent of the style later adopted by Monty Python’s animator, Terry Gilliam, who acknowledged the ongoing influence of Zemen’s work by re-making The Adventures of Baron Munchhausen in 1988. This joke is extended in Zemen’s film by using the crew’s smoke to camouflage a ship that the Baron is escaping on. The Turkish fleet, lined up on either side of the ship, inevitably fire over the Baron’s ship and destroy each other. This would be amusing enough but Zemen uses bathos to further highlight the eccentricity of the Baron, who says, undaunted, ‘‘A few stray balls sank our ship, but that’s only to be expected!’’ Though the Baron is given the opportunity to impress the princess when they are left alone together travelling the world inside the body of a whale (and Zemen can show us literal versions of the Red, Yellow, and Black Seas), it is Tonik that the Princess ultimately wants. While Tonik imagines how he might escape the conflicts in Europe, the Baron seeks out the enemy, flying on a cannonball and crashing through a window, which in true cartoon fashion, exactly replicates his splayed outline. The more foolish the Baron seems, the more truly heroic Tonik becomes, as he escapes imprisonment, accused of hiding all the army’s gunpowder, re-unites with Princess Bianca, and leaves with her, initially hiding in two suits of armour. The Baron then accidentally throws his match down a well where Tonik has indeed hidden the fortress’ gunpowder—the explosive ‘‘launches’’ the fortress, which looks like a rocket, and the two lovers, whose suits of armour conveniently turn into rocket-powered astro- naut suits are projected back to the moon. ‘‘Success’’ it seems, is in the hands of intelligent men employing science and technology, and not with heroic daydreamers like the Baron. This is particularly relevant because in 1959 the Soviet Union had launched the Lunik spaceprobes which had both landed on the moon and provided the first pictures from its far side, while in 1961, the year Baron Munchhausen was released, Soviet cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin, became the first human being to orbit the earth in Vostok 1. Scientific fact was rapidly catching up with, and over-taking, fantastic fiction. Zemen’s film is both a lament for period-style swashbuckling ro- mance and a recognition that ‘‘History changes its clock,’’ and as Cyrano de Bergerac says while spinning his hat into space as if it were a flying saucer in the film’s elegiac yet hopeful coda, ‘‘We are journeying towards the mighty embrace called the universe.’’ —Paul Wells BARREN LIVES See VIDAS SECAS LA BATAILLE DU RAIL (Battle of the Rails) France, 1945 Director: René Clément Production: Coopérative Générale du Cinéma Fran?ais; black and white, 35mm; running time: 87 minutes; length: 7800 feet. Released 1945. Filmed, for the most part, in 1945 on location in France. Screenplay: René Clémént and Colette Audry, with Jean Daurand, based on stories told to Colette Audry by members of the Resistance; photography: Henri Alekan; editor: Jacques Desagneaux; music: Yves Baudrier. The film contains documentary footage shot by an unknown amateur filmmaker. Cast: Antoine Laurent (Camargue); Jacques Desagneux (Maquis Chief); Leroy (Station master); Redon (Mechanic); Pauléon (Station master at St. André); Rauzena (Shunter); Jean Clarieux (Lampin); Barnault and Kronegger (Germans) and the French Railwaymen. Some sources list a narration by Charles Boyer. Awards: Cannes Film Festival, voted among the Best Films, 1946. Publications Script: Clement, René, La Bataille du rail, Paris, 1949. Books: Siclier, Jacques, René Clément, Brussels, 1956. Farwagi, Andre, René Clément, Paris, 1967. Gabricz, Adam, and Jack Klinowski, editors, Cinema, The Magic Vehicle: A Guide to Its Achievement: Journey One: The Cinema through 1949, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1975. Armes, Roy, French Cinema Since 1946: Volume One: The Great Tradition, New York, 1976. LA BATAILLE DU RAIL FILMS, 4 th EDITION 106 La bataille du rail Articles: Queval, Jean, in Ecran Fran?ais (Paris), 16 October 1946. Regent, Roger, in Ecran Fran?ais (Paris), 14 October 1947. New York Times, 27 December 1949. Koval, Francis, ‘‘Interview with Clément,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), June 1950. Eisner, Lotte, ‘‘Style of René Clément,’’ in Film Culture (New York), no. 12–13, 1957. ‘‘Clement Issue’’ of Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), 1 February 1981. Dossier, in Cinéma (Paris), July-August 1982. La Bataille du rail (special issue, includes screenplay excerpts), Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), no. 442, May 1995. *** La Bataille du rail stands out as the only seriously realist film which the French made at the Liberation in 1945. At the first Cannes Festival in 1946 it took the grand prize. For a time its director, René Clément, was called a French neorealist, and it is true that he was much interested in and influenced by the Italian school. But Clément and his associates (Colette Audry as scriptwriter and Henri Alekan as cameraman) had thought about making this film when they had organized a discussion club in Nice well before 1945. This club later became IDHEC, the French film school. La Bataille du rail was shot out of doors with non-actors. Its script is episodic, involving separate sets of characters for each incident. The incidents include: 1) a meeting of the Resistance in the railyards and their narrow escape thanks to a timely air raid, 2) the planting of a bomb on a train despite discovery by German guards, and 3) the taking of hostages by Germans and their pitiful death by firing squad. Midway through the film an overall dramatic direction is given when we learn that the Allies have landed and that the Germans must get their trains to Normandy. Despite heavy losses in skirmishes with armored trains and troops, the maquis, a military branch of the French underground, destroy four of the seven trains. The film concludes with the most elaborate incident, the derailing of a huge rail convoy, shot from three different angles. This spectacular destruction con- cludes with a closeup of an accordion slowly falling on itself, providing a musical sigh, as in Dovzhenko’s Arsenal. Other compari- sons come to mind, especially Malraux’s Expoir which, while shot in LA BATALLA DE CHILEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 107 1935, came out only in 1945. La Bataille du rail remains fresh in comparison with dramatic resistance films like Henri Calef’s Jericho because of its immediacy, speed, and detail. Despite its spectacular violence, the derailment is less memorable than the heroic close-ups of the hostages lined up to be shot. At the instant before his death, we are given an extreme close-up from the vantage point of one of these anonymous patriots. He (and we) watch the indifferent but marvellous motions of a spider on the wall inches away. As the shots ring out, every engine in the railyard lets out a jolt of steam signalling, by its smoke and whistle, the spirit of resistance within the trains themselves. This 85 minute film was fabled; nevertheless it didn’t produce any imitations. Doubtless it had an effect on its director and cameraman who in turn were to rise to the top of the industry in France. —Dudley Andrew LA BATALLA DE CHILE: LA LUCHA DE UN PUEBLO SIN ARMAS (The Battle of Chile: Struggle of People Without Arms) Chile-Cuba, 1975, 1976, 1979 Director: Patricio Guzmán Part 1. La insurrección de la burguesia (The Insurrection of the Bourgeoisie) Part 2. El golpe de estado (A Blow Against the State) Part 3. El poder popular (The Power of the People) Production: Equipo ‘‘Tercer A?o,’’ in collaboration with Chris Marker and the Instituto Cubano del Arte e Industria Cinematográficos (ICAIC); Kodak black and white; 16mm (subsequently blown up to 35mm). Part 1 released 1975, Cannes Film Festival; Part 2 released 1976, Cannes Film Festival; Part 3 released 1979. Filmed 1973 in Santiago, Chile. Producer: Federico Elton; screenplay: Patricio Guzmán; photogra- phy: Jorge Müller Silva; editor: Pedro Chaskel; sound: Bernardo Menz; mixing: Carlos Fernández; sound transfer: Jacinto Falcón and Ramón Torrado; special effects: Jorge Pucheux, Delia Quesada, and Alberto Valdés; consultants: Julio García Espinosa, Marta Harnecker, and José Pino; other collaborators: Saul Yellin, Beatriz Allende, Harald Edelstam, Lilian Indseth, Juan José Mendy, Roberto Matta, Chris Marker, Rodrigo Rojas, Estudio Haynowsky, and Scheumann. Cast: Readers—Matías Rodriguez, Pedro Fernández Vila, Jacques Bonaldi, and Bruno Colombo. Publications Script: Pick, Zuzana, ‘‘The Battle of Chile: A Schematic Shooting Script,’’ in Ciné-Tracts (Montreal), Winter 1980. Books: Racinante, editor, La insurrección de la burgesia, Caracas, 1975. La batalla de Chile: La lucha de un pueblo sin armas, Madrid, 1977. Guzmán, Patricio, and P. Sempere, Chile: El cine contra el fascismo, edited by Fernando Torres, Valencia, 1977. Articles: Salinas, S., and H. Soto, ‘‘Más vale una sólida formación política que la destreza artesanal,’’ in Primer Plano (Valparaiso), vol. 2, no. 5, 1973. Gauthier, Guy, ‘‘Chili: La Première Année,’’ in Image et Son (Paris), March 1973. ‘‘Stadion Chile,’’ in Film und Fernsehen (Berlin), February 1974. Ehrman, H., and others ‘‘Chile: Le Cinéma de l’unité populaire,’’ in Ecran (Paris), February 1974. ‘‘Le Cinéma dans la politique de l’Unité Populaire,’’ in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), November 1974. Delmas, Ginette, in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), July-August 1975. Cardenac, M., in Ecran (Paris), December 1975. Gauthier, Guy, in Image et Son (Paris), January 1976. Biskind, Peter, ‘‘In Latin America They Shoot Filmmakers,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1976. Niogret, Hubert, in Positif (Paris), July-August 1976. Martin, Marcel, in Ecran (Paris), January 1977. Jeune Cinéma (Paris), February 1977. Thirard, P. L., ‘‘De l’histoire déja (La Bataille du Chile),’’ in Positif (Paris), February 1977. H?nig, J., ‘‘Patricio Guzmán—ein Filmsch?pfer der Unidad Popu- lar,’’ in Information (Berlin), no. 1, 1977. Image et Son (Paris), April 1977. Burton, Julianne, ‘‘Politics and the Documentary in People’s Chile,’’ in Socialist Review, October 1977. Chaskel, Pedro, ‘‘América Latina: Vigencia del documental politico Chile: Analista de una batalla,’’ in Cine al Dia (Caracas), Novem- ber 1977. Galiano, Carlos, in Cine Cubano (Havana), no. 91–92, 1978. Gupta, Udayan, and FLQ Staff, ‘‘An Interview with Patricio Guzmán, Director of The Battle of Chile,’’ in Film Library Quarterly (New York), no. 4, 1978. West, Dennis, ‘‘Documenting the End of the Chilean Road to Socialism: La batalla de Chile,” in American Hispanist, Febru- ary 1978. ‘‘Special Section’’ of Cine Cubano (Havana), March 1978. Anderson, P., in Films in Review (New York), June-July 1978. Ranvaud, Don, ‘‘Introduction to Latin America I: Chile,’’ in Frame- work (Norwich), Spring 1979. Schumann, Peter, ‘‘Chilean Cinema in Exile,’’ in Framework (Norwich), Spring 1979. Guzmán, Patricio, ‘‘Chile 3: Guzmán,’’ in Framework (Norwich), Spring 1979. LA BATTAGLIA DI ALGERI FILMS, 4 th EDITION 108 Angry Arts group, ‘‘Battle of Chile in Context,’’ in Jump Cut (Chicago), November 1979. Wallis, V., ‘‘Battle of Chile: Struggle of People Without Arms,’’ in Jump Cut (Chicago), November 1979. Guzmán, Patricio, ‘‘The Battle of Chile: The Origins of the Project,’’ in Ciné-Tracts (Montreal), Winter 1980. Pick, Zuzana, ‘‘Chile: The Cinema of Resistance, 1973–1979,’’ in Ciné-Tracts (Montreal), Winter 1980. Pick, Zuzana, ‘‘Letter from Guzmán to Chris Marker’’ and ‘‘Reflec- tions Previous to the Filming of The Battle of Chile,’’ in Ciné- Tracts (Montreal), Winter 1980. MacCarthy, T., in Variety (New York), 7 May 1980. Galiano, C., ‘‘Wirklichkeit und Dokument,’’ in Film und Fernsehen (Berlin), November 1980. West, Dennis, in Cineaste (New York), no. 2, 1981. *** The Battle of Chile, which consists of three feature-length parts, uses actuality footage to record the socio-economic and political turmoil preceding the fall of Chile’s Marxist-socialist president, Salvador Allende, in 1973. While the film is an outstanding example of the documentary as a record of history-in-the-making, it is also a carefully conceived and clearly organized analysis of these events. Guzmán structured the first two parts of his film around selected ‘‘battlegrounds’’ (e.g., a strike of copper miners) where class interests clashed. The major issues and strategies in these clashes are generally presented in a dialectical fashion: for instance, the film may first show the tactics of the rightist forces and then the counter-measures with which the left responds. The filmmakers infiltrated the entire political spectrum and succeeded in showing events from multiple political perspectives as they unfolded. Part three of the film is structured differently in that it focuses on a single phenomenon—a people’s power movement which first arose as a response to a bosses’ strike. This monumental documentary is Guzmán’s most important film. It was made by a politically committed five-person team who faced overwhelming obstacles. Available to this film collective were one Nagra tape recorder, one 16mm Eclair camera, and film stock which had been sent from abroad by a colleague. In spite of the strict semi- clandestine measures they followed, the filmmakers at times risked their lives. After the right-wing military coup toppled Allende, all the sound tape and film footage were smuggled out of Chile. The film was edited at the Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art and Industry in Havana. The extensive use of the sequence-shot, The Battle of Chile’s predominant stylistic feature, is unusual in documentary films. Pedro Chaskel’s low-key editing preserves the unity of these sequence-shots and maximizes their effect. The Battle of Chile is one of the greatest Marxist documentaries. The influence of Marx’s The Civil War in France and Lenin’s State and Revolution is evident in the type of political analysis applied in the first two parts of the film. These two segments illustrate the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary lesson that there can be no peaceful transition to socialism before the repressive machinery of the bour- geois state (e.g., a standing army) is broken up and replaced. In accordance with this view, the filmmakers closely follow the mili- tary’s drift to the right as well as the anti-Allende activities of the opposition-dominated legislature. Marx and Engels in the Manifesto of the Communist Party viewed classes as the protagonists of history, and conflict as an inherent dimension of class societies. Guzmán follows this Marxist conception in that classes are the protagonists of his film and events are framed in terms of class conflict. This film has reportedly never been seen in Chile. In countries where the documentary has been shown, both Marxist and non- Marxist critics have hailed it as a landmark in the history of the political documentary. Because of its vast scope, The Battle of Chile is surely the single most valuable historical document on the final months of the Via Chilena, Chile’s unique experiment in building socialism peacefully and democratically. Marxist critics have praised the film for its attack on the bourgeois ideology of cinema, an ideology which represents the capitalist mode of production and the bourgeois social order as ‘‘givens’’ and discourages viewers from challenging or questioning analytically the socio-economic status quo. In The Battle of Chile, the individual star of bourgeois cinema has been replaced by workers who are depicted as a class struggling to alter the capitalist mode of production and to change the world the bourgeoisie created. —Dennis West LA BATTAGLIA DI ALGERI (The Battle of Algiers) Italy-Algiers, 1966 Director: Gillo Pontecorvo Production: Igor Films (Rome) and Casbah Film Company (Algiers); black and white, 35mm; running time: 123 minutes. Released 1966. Filmed 1965 in Algiers; cost: $800,000. Producer: Antonio Musu and Yacef Saadi; screenplay: Franco Solinas and Gillo Pontecorvo; photography: Marcello Gatti; edi- tors: Mario Serandrei and Mario Morra; art direction: Sergio Canevari; music: Gillo Pontecorvo and Ennio Morricone; special effects: Tarcisio Diamanti and Aldo Gasparri; Algerian assistants: Ali Yahia, Moussa Haddad, Azzedine Ferhi, Mohamet Zinet; Alge- rian ‘‘opérateurs’’: Youssef Bouchouchi, Ali Maroc, Belkacem Bazi, Ali Bouksani. Cast: Yacef Saadi (Djafar); Brahim Haggiag (Ali La Pointe); Jean Martin (Colonel Mathieu); Tommaso Neri (Captain Dubois); Mohamed Ben Kassen (Le Petit Omar); Fawzia El Kader (Hassiba); Michele Kerbash (Fathia). Awards: Venice Film Festival, Lion of St. Mark, 1966. Publications Script: Solinas, Franco, Gillo Pontecorvo’s ‘‘The Battle of Algiers’’: A Film Written by Franco Solinas, New York, 1973. LA BATTAGLIA DI ALGERIFILMS, 4 th EDITION 109 La Battaglia di Algeri Books: Saadi, Yacef, Souvenirs de la bataille d’Alger: December 1956- September 1957, Paris, 1962. Mellen, Joan, Filmguide to ‘‘The Battle of Algiers,” Bloomington, Indiana, 1973. Bignardi, Irene, Memorie estorte a uno smemorato: vita di Gillo Pontecorvo, Milan, 1999. Articles: Hennebelle, Guy, ‘‘Une Si Jeune Paix,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), Decem- ber 1965. Porin, Pierre, ‘‘Le Cinéma algérien et La Bataille d’Alger,’’ in Positif (Paris), October 1966. Pontecorvo, Gillo, ‘‘The Battle of Algiers: An Adventure in Filmmaking,’’ in American Cinematographer (Los Angeles), April 1967. Castelli, Luisa, in Occhio Critico (Rome), May-June 1967. Crowther, Bosley, in New York Times, 23 September 1967. Gill, Brendan, ‘‘Truthtelling,’’ in New Yorker, 23 September 1967. Morgenstern, Joseph, ‘‘The Terror,’’ in Newsweek (New York), 23 October 1967. Kozloff, Max, ‘‘Shooting at Wars,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1967–68. Mussman, Toby, ‘‘Gillo Pontecorvo,’’ in Medium (New York), Winter 1967–68. Kauffmann, Stanley, ‘‘Recent Wars,’’ in New Republic (New York), 16 December 1967. Covington, Francee, ‘‘Are the Revolutionary Techniques Employed in The Battle of Algiers Applicable to Harlem?’’ in Black Woman (New York), 1970. Wilson, David, ‘‘Politics and Pontecorvo,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1970. Sainsbury, Peter, in Afterimage: Third World Cinema (London), Summer 1971. Mellen, Joan, ‘‘An Interview with Gillo Pontecorvo,’’ in Film Quar- terly (Berkeley), Fall 1972. Miklay, E., ‘‘Valóság és modell: Pontecorvo: Az algiri csata és a Queimada,’’ in Filmkultura (Budapest), September-October 1972. Bosséno, C., in Image et Son (Paris), February 1981. BECKY SHARP FILMS, 4 th EDITION 110 Downing, John, and Nyisha Mbalia Shakur, ‘‘Selected Third World Classic Films,’’ in Film Library Quarterly (New York), vol. 16, no. 4, 1983. Marshall, B., ‘‘Birth of a Nation,’’ in Stills (London), May-June 1983. O’Sullivan, Thaddeus, ‘‘Images of Liberation,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), vol. 7, no. 3, March 1997. *** In 1966 the revolutionary filmmaker Gillo Pontecorvo released his stunning chronicle of one of the major clashes of the Algerian struggle for independence: The Battle of Algiers. The film’s fictionalized account of this crucial three-year period in Algeria’s history draws on actual people and events as the basis for its story, and adopts an impressively convincing documentary style in its presentation. The film’s opening credits contain a message stating that ‘‘not one foot’’ of actual newsreel footage was used in the making of the picture, yet Pontecorvo achieves a naturalistic, cinema-verité quality through his direction, conveying the events with the immediacy of a television news broadcast. Marcello Gatti’s grainy, black and white photography captures the look and texture of a newsreel, as does the jarring realism of the hand-held camerawork in many of the film’s explosive crowd scenes. The use of non-professional actors (with the exception of Jean Martin as the French Colonel Mathieu) also contributes to the film’s overall impression of events being recorded as they occur. This documentary-like effect has evoked both praise and condem- nation for Pontecorvo, with some critics expressing admiration for the film’s achievement and others questioning the ethics of filming a partly fictional scenario in such strikingly realistic terms. For Pontecorvo and his screenwriting partner, Franco Solinas, however, the question of the ‘‘truth’’ of The Battle of Algiers is answered by the film’s political impact as an anti-imperialist statement. If isolated moments in the film, such as its central character’s harassment by a group of arrogant young Frenchmen, are the products of the authors’ imaginations, they are nevertheless representative of events which occurred countless times during France’s 130-year occupation of Algeria. Indeed, the film’s most harrowing scenes—those of captured rebels undergoing torture at the hands of the military—demand to be shown, to demonstrate the full measure of the inhuman brutality they represent. Yet Pontecorvo’s political stance regarding the Algerian struggle does not lead him to resort to the caricatures of heroism and villainy which so often mar the impact of otherwise fine political films. Even as he reviles the policies of the French government, he forces us to confront the painful fact that these are human lives that are being lost and not mere pawns in a revolutionary uprising. His camera lingers on the faces of those who will die moments later from a planted rebel bomb, bringing home with wrenching clarity the bitter price of violent conflict. This rare approach, in a genre which frequently averts its eyes from these hard truths, places The Battle of Algiers at the forefront of political filmmaking by allowing each viewer to re- examine his or her own position on political violence in the harsh light of the images on the screen. In the years since its release, The Battle of Algiers has become a staple of film classes and revival house theatres. Its political merits have been widely discussed and debated, with the individual outlook of each critic coming very much into play in any evaluation of the film. The film’s cinematic achievements, however, remain as power- ful as they first appeared in 1966, and subsequent armed revolts in other Third World countries have only served to reinforce the universality of Pontecorvo’s remarkable work. —Janet E. Lorenz THE BATTLE OF ALGIERS See LA BATTAGLIA DI ALGERI THE BATTLE OF CHILE See LA BATALLA DE CHILE BATTLE OF THE RAILS See LA BATAILLE DU RAIL BATTLESHIP POTEMKIN See BRONENOSETS POTEMKIN BEAUTY AND THE BEAST See LA BELLE ET LA BêTE BECKY SHARP USA, 1935 Director: Rouben Mamoulian Production: Pioneer Films (RKO); Technicolor, 35mm; running time: 83 minutes (1943 reissue, 67 minutes). Released 13 June 1935; reissued in 1943 as Lady of Fortune; restored at UCLA film archive and reissued in 1985. Cost: $400,000 (estimated). Producers: Kenneth MacGowan and Robert Edmond Jones; screen- play: Francis Edwards Faragoh, from the play by Landon Mitchell and the novel Vanity Fair (1847–48) by William Makepeace Thackeray; photography: Ray Rennahan; editor: Archie Marshek; production designer: Robert Edmond Jones; musical score: Roy Webb; chore- ographer: Russell Lewis. Cast: Miriam Hopkins (Becky Sharp); Frances Dee (Amelia Sedley); Cedric Hardwicke (Marquis of Steyne); Billy Burke (Lady Bareacres); Alison Skipworth (Julia Crawley); Nigel Bruce (Joseph Sedley); Alan Mowbray (Rawdon Crawley); G.P. Huntley, Jr. (George Osborne); May Beatty (Briggs); William Stack (Pitt Crawley); George Hassell (Sir Pitt Crawley); William Faversham (Duke of Wellington); Charles BECKY SHARPFILMS, 4 th EDITION 111 Becky Sharp Richman (General Tufts); Doris Lloyd (Duchess of Richmond); Colin Tapley (William Dobbin). Awards: Best Picture (Rouben Mamoulian) and Best Color Film (Rouben Mamoulian and Ray Rennahan), Venice Film Festival, 1935. Publications Books: Cook, David A., A History of Narrative Film, New York, 1996. Spergel, Mark J, Reinventing Reality: The Art and Life of Rouben Mamoulian, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1993. Articles: Greene, Graham, ‘‘Review of Becky Sharp; Barcarole; and Public Hero No.1,’’ in The Spectator (London), 19 July 1935. Mamoulian, Rouben, ‘‘Some Problems in the Direction of Color Pictures,’’ in The International Photographer, 1935; reprinted in Richard Koszarski, editor, Hollywood Directors 1914–1940, New York, 1976. Mamoulian, Rouben, ‘‘Controlling Color for Dramatic Effect,’’ in The American Cinematographer (Los Angeles), June 1941; re- printed in Richard Koszarski, editor, Hollywood Directors 1914–1940, New York, 1976. Gitt, Robert, and Richard Dayton, ‘‘Restoring Becky Sharp,’’ in American Cinematographer (Los Angeles), vol. 65, Novem- ber 1984. *** The novel Vanity Fair had been filmed twice before, in 1923 and 1932, when director Lowell Sherman began this adaptation for Pioneer Films. When Sherman died not long after filming began in late 1934, Rouben Mamoulian took over and all of Sherman’s footage was rejected. In most respects the result is an uninteresting adaptation of Thackeray’s novel based around a plodding screenplay and a cast of minor-league stars. Yet the film’s place in movie history is assured despite its artistic weaknesses for it was the first feature-length film to be made in full (three-color) Technicolor. BELLE DE JOUR FILMS, 4 th EDITION 112 Before Becky Sharp, three-color Technicolor had been used only for short films, notably by Disney in the animated Flowers and Trees (1932), and The Three Little Pigs (1933). Disney tried to tie Techni- color in to a three-year exclusive contract when it became clear that the process was commercially viable for animation, but the deal collapsed after only one year. As a result, Pioneer Films could use the process to make La Cucaracha (1934), the first full Technicolor live- action short, that was essentially an extended production test for the new process. The success of that project, which won an Oscar for Best Comedy Short Subject, led directly to the making of Becky Sharp. Despite the extra cost—which is estimated to have added thirty percent to the production costs of films in the 1930s—Technicolor’s three-strip system and its later refinements dominated the movie industry until the 1950s. Although the film is dramatically flawed, Mamoulian and cinematographer Ray Rennahan make good use of the three-color process, particularly in set pieces such as the stunning ball sequence. Mamoulian began his career working in theatre, and was aware of the possibilities for using colored lighting to signify changes in mood. For this reason he was uncertain about the suitability of Vanity Fair as a vehicle for color adaptation since the red uniforms of the British soldiers who play a large part in the story tended to appear too aggressive on the relatively crude new color system. Yet despite Mamoulian’s doubts, the housebound story of Becky Sharp’s self-centred rise through elegant society is well chosen, since the new process needed more light than two-color systems, and was all but unusable outdoors in its early form. Reviewing the film for The Spectator magazine, Graham Greene thought the color in Becky Sharp ideal for the period setting, but wondered unkindly whether Technicolor would be able to pick out the subtleties of ‘‘the battered Buick . . . the suit worn too long, the oily hat.’’ It is worth noting that in the late 1940s makers of low-budget film noirs returned to the cheaper black-and-white film stock to explore such grubby realities. Although Becky Sharp was not a huge commercial success, it made enough money to convince others that the new system was viable despite its extra cost. Mamoulian’s ‘‘wondrous adventure’’ of directing Becky Sharp in color was, he thought, as significant a step as the advent of synchronized sound. With other studios using the three- color system the technology improved rapidly. Four years later, Ray Rennahan became a Technicolor pioneer for the second time when he worked on Gone With the Wind with Ernest Haller and the pair won an Oscar for their cinematography. The 1939 film was the first to use Technicolor’s new, faster film stock, which halved the required lighting levels. A comparison of the lighting and color definition in Becky Sharp and Gone With the Wind bears this out, making the technical achievement of the earlier film seem even more remarkable. Because of its historical significance, Becky Sharp was restored by the UCLA film archives in 1984, and re-issued in three-color form in 1985. None of the original prints survives, and, as film historian David Cook points out, it is ironic that until the 1985 reissue this landmark of color cinema was available only as a two-color Cinecolor version and a heavily edited black-and-white print. —Chris Routledge BED AND SOFA See TRETIA MESHCHANSKAIA BEIQING CHENGSHI See City of Sadness BELLE DE JOUR France-Italy, 1967 Director: Luis Bu?uel Production: Paris Film, Five Films (Rome); Eastmancolor; running time: 100 minutes. Released 1967. Producers: Robert Hakim, Raymond Hakim; production manager: Henri Baum; screenplay: Luis Bu?uel, Jean-Claude Carrière, based on the novel by Joseph Kessel; assistant directors: Pierre Lary, Jacques Fraenkel; photography: Sacha Vierny; editor: Walter Spohr; sound: Rene Longuet; art director: Robert Clavel. Cast: Catherine Deneuve (Séverine); Jean Sorel (Pierre); Michel Piccoli (Henri Husson); Geneviève Page (Mme. Ana?s); Francisco Rabal (Hyppolite); Pierre Clémenti (Marcel); Georges Marchal (The Duke); Fran?oise Fabian (Charlotte); Maria Latour (Mathilde); Fran- cis Blanche (Monsieur Adolphe); Macha Méril (Renée); Muni (Pallas); Fran?ois Maistre (The Professor); Bernard Fresson (Le Grêle); Dominique Dandrieux (Catherine); Brigitte Parmentier (Séverine as a Child); Michel Charrel (Footman); D. de Roseville (Coachman); Iska Khan (Asian Client); Marcel Charvey (Professor Henri); Pierre Marcay (Intern); Adélaide Blasquez (Maid); Marc Eyraud (Barman); Bernard Musson (Majordomo). Publications Script: Bu?uel, Luis, and Jean-Claude Carrière, Belle de jour, London, 1971; also published in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), April 1978. Books: Durgnat, Raymond, Luis Bu?uel, Berkeley, 1968; revised edition, 1977. Buache, Freddy, Luis Bu?uel, Lyons, 1970; as The Cinema of Luis Bu?uel, New York and London, 1973. Aranda, José Francisco, Luis Bu?uel: A Critical Biography, London and New York, 1975. Cesarman, Fernando, El ojo de Bu?uel, Barcelona, 1976. Mellen, Joan, editor, The World of Luis Bu?uel: Essays in Criticism, New York, 1978. Bazin, Andre, The Cinema of Cruelty: From Bu?uel to Hitchcock, New York, 1982. BELLE DE JOURFILMS, 4 th EDITION 113 Belle de jour Edwards, Gwynne, The Discreet Art of Luis Bu?uel: A Reading of His Films, London, 1982. Bu?uel, Luis, My Last Breath, London and New York, 1983. Rees, Margaret A., editor, Luis Bu?uel: A Symposium, Leeds 1983. Eberwein, Robert T., Film and the Dream Screen: A Sleep and a Forgetting, Princeton, New Jersey, 1984. Lefèvre, Raymond, Luis Bu?uel, Paris, 1984. Vidal, Agustin Sanchez, Luis Bu?uel: Obra Cinematografica, Madrid, 1984. Aub, Max, Conversaciones con Bu?uel: Seguidas de 45 entrevistas con familiares, amigos y colaboradores del cineasta aragones, Madrid 1985. Bertelli, Pino, Bu?uel: L’arma dello scandalo: L’anarchia nel cin- ema di Luis Bu?uel, Turin 1985. Oms, Marcel, Don Luis Bu?uel, Paris 1985. De la Colina, Jose, and Tomás Pérez Turrent, Luis Bu?uel: Prohibido asomarse al interior, Mexico 1986. Sandro, Paul, Diversions of Pleasure: Luis Bu?uel and the Crises of Desire, Columbus, Ohio, 1987. Williams, Linda, Figures of Desire: A Theory and Analysis of Surrealist Film, Berkeley, 1992. Evans, Peter W., The Films of Luis Bu?uel: Subjectivity and Desire, New York and Oxford, 1995. Baxter, John, Bu?uel, New York, 1999. Articles: Variety (New York), 19 April 1967. Film Fran?ais (Paris), 9 June 1967. Fieschi, Jean-André, ‘‘La Fin ouverte,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), June 1967. Narboni, Jean, in Cahiers du cinéma (Paris), July 1967. Seguin, Luis, in Positif (Paris), September 1967. Stein, Elliot, ‘‘Bu?uel’s Golden Bowl,’’ in Sight and Sound (Lon- don), December 1967. J.A.D. in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), December 1967. Durgnat, Raymond, and Robin Wood, in Movie (London), no. 15, 1968. D’Lugo, Marvin, ‘‘Glances of Desire in Belle de jour,’’ in Film Criticism (Meadville, Pennsylvania), Winter-Spring 1978. Bu?uel, Luis, ‘‘Dnevnaia Krasavitsa,’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), no. 6, 1992. LA BELLE ET LA BêTE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 114 Jousse, T., ‘‘Bu?uel face a ce qui se derobe,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), February 1993. Girard, Martin, ‘‘Belle de Jour,’’ in Séquences (Quebec), no. 180, September-October 1995. Morris, Gary, ‘‘Belle de Jour,’’ in Bright Lights (San Francisco), no. 15, 1995. ’’Belle de Jour,’’ in Castoro Cinema (Firenze), no. 59, 1996. *** In many ways Belle de jour is the perfect illustration of André Breton’s famous dictum that ‘‘everything leads us to believe that there exists a certain point of the spirit at which life and death, the real and the imaginary . . . cease to be perceived as opposites. It is vain to see in the Surrealists’ activity any motive other than the location of that point.’’ At first sight the film, based on a novel by Joseph Kessel, seems to be a relatively straightforward story about a young woman who indulges in masochistic day dreams and works, clandestinely, in a brothel. But, as the film progresses, the line between ‘‘fantasy’’ and ‘‘reality’’ becomes increasingly blurred. The young woman in ques- tion is Séverine, the beautiful but frigid wife of a young doctor Pierre. One of her regular fantasies involves Pierre punishing her by having her dragged from his carriage by his coachmen, who then bind, gag, whip, and rape her. Husson, one of their friends, mentions the name of a brothel run by Madame Ana?s, and Séverine, under the name Belle de Jour, goes to work there secretly every day. One of her clients, a young thug named Marcel, falls in love with her and tries to persuade her to leave the brothel. When she holds back he shoots her husband, and is himself killed by the police. Pierre is now paralysed and is looked after devotedly by Séverine. One day Husson tells him about his wife having worked in a brothel. The shock appears to kill him, then, all of a sudden, he rises from his chair, seemingly miraculously cured. Thus at the very end of the film, just as the audience are congratulating themselves on having neatly sorted out ‘‘fantasy’’ from ‘‘reality’’ throughout the course of the narrative, Bu?uel throws the whole distinction into sudden confusion by presenting what seems like a wish-fulfilment in the most straightforwardly naturalistic manner. The director’s method here looks back to The Exterminating Angel (where extraordinary, absurd events are depicted as if they were the most normal things imaginable) and forward to The Milky Way, The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie, The Phantom of Liberty, and That Obscure Object of Desire, whose less conventional, more episodic narrative structures enable Bu?uel to explore his surrealist vision to the full. Indeed, Bu?el’s remark that these last films all evoke ‘‘the essential mystery in all things’’ and ‘‘the search for truth, as well as the necessity of abandoning it as soon as you’ve found it’’ serves as a suitable warning to all those who would seek to produce any kind of definitive reading of Belle de jour. Indeed, the whole film exists in the image of the little box that an Oriental client brings with him to the brothel. When opened, this emits a strange, high-pitched buzzing sound and greatly disturbs all of the girls— except Séverine, who is fascinated by it. The camera never reveals what ‘‘it’’ is, and, according to his autobiography, Bu?uel was constantly asked by people what was in the box: his answer was always ‘‘whatever you want there to be.’’ It’s worth noting, inciden- tally, that the original novel, which Bu?uel describes as ‘‘very melodramatic, but well constructed,’’ does observe the usual literary distinctions between ‘‘outer’’ and ‘‘inner’’ events, and that the English subtitled version of the film (un)helpfully italicises the dialogue in the scenes which someone has decreed are to be read as dreams or fantasies! Belle de jour was Bu?uel’s most sustained treatment of another favourite theme—that of fetishism. This had already raised its head in El and The Diary of a Chambermaid, but Séverine’s clients represent a veritable cornucopia of fetishism, including a gynaecologist who plays at being a valet, and a Count who enjoys masturbating under a coffin in which Séverine (whom he calls his daughter) is lying. Apparently Bu?uel wanted this scene to take place after a celebration of Mass, but censorship problems intervened—not for the first time in Bu?uel’s anarchic oeuvre. —Julian Petley LA BELLE ET LA BêTE (Beauty and the Beast) France, 1946 Director: Jean Cocteau Production: Black and white, 35mm; running time: 96 minutes (90 minutes according to some sources). Released 29 October 1946, Paris. Filmed in Saint-Maurice studios; exteriors shot at Rochecorbon in Touraine. La Belle et la bête LA BELLE ET LA BêTEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 115 Producer: André Paulvé; screenplay: Jean Cocteau, from the fairy tale of Jean Marie Leprince de Beaumont; photography: Henri Alekan; editor: Claude Iberia; sound engineer: Jean Lebreton; sound effects: Rouzenat; production designers: René Moulaert and Lucien Carré; art director: Roger Desormière; costume designer: Christian Bérard, executed by Escoffier and Castillo from the House of Paquin; technical assistant to Cocteau: René Clément. Cast: Jean Marais (The Beast and The Prince); Josette Day (Beauty); Marcel André (The Father); Mila Parély (Félicie); Nane Germon (Adéla?de); Michel Auclair (Ludovic); Raoul Marco (The Usurer); Gilles Watteaux and Noel Blin. Publications Script: Jean Cocteau: 3 Screenplays (The Eternal Return, Beauty and the Beast and Orpheus), New York, 1972. Cocteau, Jean, ‘‘La Belle et la bete,” in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris) July-September 1973. Books: Cocteau, Jean, La Belle et la bête: Journal d’un film, Paris, 1946; as Diary of a Film, New York, 1950. Crosland, Margaret, Jean Cocteau, London, 1956. Kihm, Jean-Jacques, Cocteau, Paris, 1956. Pillaudin, Roger, Jean Cocteau tourne son dernier film, Paris, 1960. Fraigneau, André, Cocteau, New York, 1961. Fowlie, Wallace, Jean Cocteau: The History of a Poet’s Age, Bloom- ington, Indiana, 1968. Sprigge, Elizabeth, and Jean-Jacques Kihm, Jean Cocteau: The Man and the Mirror, New York, 1968. Lannes, Roger, Jean Cocteau, Paris, 1968. Gilson, René, Cocteau, New York, 1969. Cocteau, Jean, Professional Secrets: An Autobiography, edited by Robert Phelps, New York, 1970. Steegmuller, Francis, Cocteau, Boston, 1970. Knapp, Bettina, Cocteau, New York, 1970. Anderson, Alexandra and Carol Saltus, editors, Jean Cocteau and the French Scene, New York, 1984. de Miomandre, Philippe, Moi, Jean Cocteau, Paris, 1985. Keller, Marjorie, The Untutored Eye: Childhood in the Films of Cocteau, Cornell, and Brakhage, Cranbury, New Jersey, 1986. Peters, Arthur King, Jean Cocteau and his World: An Illustrated Biography, London, 1987. Articles: Bazin, André, in Le Parisien Liberé, 11 January, 1946. Variety (New York), 24 December 1947. Image et Son (Paris), June-July 1972. ‘‘La Belle et la bête: La critique,’’ in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), July-September 1973. American Image (Detroit), no. 2, 1976. Bonnet, J. C., in Cinématographe (Paris), April-May 1976. Wilson Jr., R. A., in Audience (Hollywood), November 1976. Gow, Gordon, ‘‘Astonishment: Magic Films from Jean Cocteau,’’ in Films and Filming (London), January, 1978. Popkin, M., ‘‘Cocteau’s Beaty and the Beast: The Poet as Monster,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), vol. 10, no. 2, 1982. Galef, D., ‘‘A Sense of Magic: Reality and Illusion in Cocteau’s Beauty and the Beast,” in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), April 1984. Smith, Malcolm, in Starburst (London), November 1985. Garofalo, M., ‘‘Once Upon a Time. . . ,’’ in Segnocinema (Vincenza, Italy), May-June 1992. Mousselard, Oliver-Pascal, ‘‘Le bête et sa belle changent d’air,’’ in Télérama, no. 2353, 15 February 1995. Erb, C., ‘‘Another World or the World of an Other?: The Space of Romance in Recent Versions of Beauty and the Beast,’’ in Cinema Journal (Austin, Texas), vol. 34, no. 4, 1995. Lansing Smith, Evans, ‘‘Framing the Underworld: Threshold Imagery in Murnau, Cocteau, and Bergman,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), vol. 24, no. 3, 1996. Turner, George, ‘‘Once Upon a Time There Was Beauty and the Beast,’’ in American Cinematographer (Hollywood), vol. 78, no. 9, September 1997. Greene, N., ‘‘Jean Cocteau: A Cinema of Baroque Unease,’’ and A.S. Levitt, ‘‘The Cinematic Magic of Jean Cocteau,’’ in Bucknell Review, vol. 41, no. 1, 1997. *** La Belle et la bête, the film which marked Jean Cocteau’s return to directing after an interval of 15 years, is a work which continues the vein of fantasy which had characterised his scriptwriting during the wartime years. To this extent the film is typical of its period, for the early postwar years in France saw a basic continuity with approaches established during the Vichy period (there was no resurgence of realism in France to compare with the emergence of neorealism in Italy). But in all other ways the appropriation of a fairy tale to the filmmaker’s own personal mythology is a totally individual work. The film is based on the tale as told by Madame Leprince de Beaumont, but there is little evidence in Cocteau’s approach of the childlike innocence which the director demands of his audience in his brief introduction to the film. Visually, the film is one of Cocteau’s most sophisticated works. The costumes designed by Christian Bérard and the lighting and framing devised by Henri Alekan are decorative rather than functional and take their inspiration from classic Dutch painting, particularly the work of Vermeer. Despite the presence of René Clément as technical supervisor, the film shows none of the reliance on complexity of scripting and use of heavy irony so characteristic of French cinema in the late 1940s. The legend is handled in a dazzingly eclectic style. The home life of Belle’s family is parodied and often broadly farcial in tone, as, for instance, in the use of cackling ducks to comment on the attitudes of her sisters. By contrast, the departure of Belle for the Beast’s castle and her entry there are totally stylised, with Cocteau employing slow motion photography to obtain a dreamlike effect. La Belle et la bête is an excellent example of Cocteau’s continual concern in his film work to provide a ‘‘realism of the unreal.’’ The fairytale world of Beast’s castle is given great solidity, and indeed it is arguable that the setting has been given too much weight, with the result that there is a degree of ponderousness about the film which Georges Auric’s music serves only to emphasise. In evoking the BERLIN: DIE SINFONIE DER GROSSSTADT FILMS, 4 th EDITION 116 magical qualities of the castle, Cocteau has made surprisingly little use of the film’s trick shot potentialities which form so crucial a part of so many of his other works. Here the living faces of the statuary and the disembodied human arms that act as Beast’s servants are essen- tially theatrical devices. One of the great difficulties facing Cocteau was that of sustaining interest for 90 minutes in the oversimplified and largely unpersonalised characters of his source material. The solution found for the minor characters is caricature and humour. For the Beast, Cocteau and Bérard use the make-up of Jean Marais to emphasise his bestial nature, a strategy which is particularly effective in such scenes as those in which he drinks or scents game. Belle is by comparison a fairly dull figure, despite Josette Day’s beauty, but the ambiguities of her attitude toward the Beast do add interest and complexity to the character. The double use of Jean Marais as both the Beast and Belle’s dissolute lover avoids the danger of too easy an explanation of the film’s symbolism, and the transformation into a princely figure at the end shows a characteristically lyrical approach to death on the filmmaker’s part. Particularly when seen in conjunction with the intimate diary of the shooting which Cocteau published in 1946 to coincide with the release of the film, La Belle et la bête provides an excellent introduction to the work of one of the screen’s subtlest and most evocative poets. —Roy Armes BERLIN: DIE SINFONIE DER GROSSSTADT (Berlin: Symphony of a City) Germany, 1927 Director: Walter Ruttmann Production: Fox-Europa-Film; black and white, 35mm; running time: 53 minutes; length: 1440 meters. Released September 1927. Filmed in Berlin. Producer: Karl Freund; screenplay: Karl Freund and Walter Ruttmann, from an idea by Carl Meyer; photography: Reimar Kuntze, Robert Babereske, and Laszlo Schaffer; editor: Walter Ruttmann; sets: Erich Kettelhut; music: Edmund Meisel. Publications Books: Rotha, Paul, The Film Till Now, London, 1930. Balázs, Báela, Der Geist des Films, Halle, 1930. Rotha, Paul, Documentary Film, London, 1936. Arnheim, Rudolph, Film as Art, Berkeley, 1957. Barsam, Richard, Non-fiction Film: A Critical History, New York, 1973. Barnouw, Erik, Documentary: A History of the Non-Fiction Film, New York, 1974. Kracauer, Siegfried, A Psychological History of the German Film, Princeton, 1974. Sussex, Elizbeth, The Rise and Fall of the British Documentary, Berkeley, 1975. Le Grice, Malcolm, Abstract Film and Beyond, Cambridge, Massa- chusetts, 1977. Film as Film: Formal Experiment in Film 1910–1975, London, 1979. Walter Ruttmann: Cinema, pittura, ars acustica, Trento, Italy, 1994. Articles: Ruttmann, Walter, ‘‘Wie ich meinen Berlin—Film drehte,’’ in Lichtbild-Bühne, no. 241, 1927. Ruttmann, Walter, in Illustreirter Film-Kurier, no. 658, 1927. Hirsch, Leo, in Berliner Tageblatt, 24 September 1927. Friedlander, Paul, ‘‘Berlin—die Symphonie der Grossstadt,” in Die Rote Fahne, 25 September 1927. Kahn, Henry, in Die Weltbühne, 4 October 1927. Pinthus, Kurt, in Tagebuch, 8 October 1927. Blakeston, Oswell, ‘‘Interview with Carl (Karl) Freund,’’ in Close- Up (London), January 1929. Potamkin, Harry Alan, ‘‘The Rise and Fall of the German Film,’’ in Cinema (New York), April 1930. Rotha, Paul, ‘‘It’s in the Script,’’ in World Film News (London), September 1938. Evans, Wick, ‘‘Karl Freund, Candid Cinematographer,’’ in Popular Photography (Chicago), February 1939. Falkenberg, Paul, ‘‘Sound Montage: A Propos de Ruttmann,’’ in Film Culture (New York), no. 22–23, 1961. Cowie, Peter, in Films and Filming (London), August 1961. Kolaja, J., and A. W. Foster, ‘‘Berlin: The Symphony of a City as a Theme of Visual Rhythm,’’ in Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism (Cleveland), Spring 1965. Kracauer, Siegfried, ‘‘Film 1928,’’ in Das Ornament der Masse, Frankfurt, 1974. Chapman, Jay, ‘‘Two Aspects of the City: Cavalcanti and Ruttmann,’’ in The Documentary Tradition, edited by Lewis Jacobs, 2nd edition, New York, 1979. Pulleine, Tim, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), June 1979. ‘‘Walter Ruttmann,’’ in Travelling (Lausanne), Summer 1979. Nieuwstadt, M. V., ‘‘Filmliga herdrukt 1927–1931,’’ in Skrien (Am- sterdam), Winter 1982–83. Bernstein, Matthew, ‘‘Visual Style and Spatial Articulation in Berlin: Symphony of a City,” in Journal of Film and Video (River Forest, Illinois), Autumn 1984. Brandt, H.J., ‘‘Walter Ruttmann: Von Expressionismus zum Faschismus,’’ in Filmfaust (Frankfurt), October-November 1985. Kvist, P., ‘‘Berlin, En storbysynfoni: et forsok pa a fange det moderne,’’ in Z Filmtidsskrift (Oslo), no. 2, 1991. *** Underlying the totality of Walter Ruttmann’s work in Berlin: Die Sinfonie der Grossstadt was the aesthetic predicated on the wish to kineticize abstract forms as well as a concern for movement, rhythm, and alluring surface appearances. Originally embodied in a series of innovative animated abstract films Opus I-IV, Ruttmann’s eminently permutable aesthetic enabled him to emerge as one of the exemplars of the so-called New Objectivity in film during the middle years of the Weimar Republic. In Berlin, a rhapsodic, quasi-documentary record of a day in the life of Germany’s capital, Ruttmann’s fetishization of the rhythmic and visual as ends in themselves, fused with the cult of THE BEST YEARS OF OUR LIVESFILMS, 4 th EDITION 117 technology and urban modernity that characterized the New Objectiv- ity, took on the aspects of an omniverous cinematic hubris seeking gratification by the manipulation of what Ruttmann termed the ‘‘living material’’ of a metropolis and the ‘‘absolute, purely filmic visual motifs’’ it yielded. Berlin, then, is the film’s true protagonist, a vibrant, pulsating, yet organic totality whose every component—animate or inanimate—is mediated and defined by the periodicity of the whole. The film portrays a day in the life of the city, beginning with panoramic shots of the sleeping metropolis as dawn breaks and concluding with a late- night fireworks display. Compressed between these diurnal poles is a brilliantly edited optical phantasmagoria of life in Berlin. The virtuosity with which cinematic tools are employed to stress certain leitmotifs—for example, the abstract beauty of modern technology— masterfully complements the film’s structure, which replicates that of a symphony inasmuch as the alleged rhythms and oscillations of urban activity are organized into a series of movements. Yet conso- nant with Ruttman’s aesthetic, within this rhythmic whole certain icons of modernity are isolated, abstracted, and transformed into purely ornamental images devoid of content and context. The recur- ring shots of machines, industrial facilities, and the facades of buildings, ripped out of any discernible context and deprived of any function save that of ornamentation, are typical leitmotifs in the film. Now luminous, now in shadow, now static, now in energetic but purposeless motion, they have been ruthlessly pressed into the service of Ruttmann’s unrestrained formalism and thus stripped of all inde- pendent integrity and meaning. This fetishism is accompanied by a contempt for human autonomy and subjectivity. Berlin’s human inhabitants are placed on the same existential plane as its industrial and technological icons and the traffic that repeatedly criss-crosses the screen. Soulless ornaments, the people are but another source of optical titillation. Such a dehu- manizing approach accounts for the gratuitous juxtaposition of shots of chattering monkeys and people conversing on the telephone, of department store mannequins or bobbing mechanical dolls with the anonymous inhabitants of the city, of the legs of workers with those of cattle being herded into a courtyard. Far from representing any rational critique of the contradictions that inhere in and have produced this particular manifestation of urban modernity, such juxtapositions are integrated into a visual rhapsody that, though brilliant in a narrow technical sense, emanates from an obsessive interest in the richness of forms and rhythm yielded by the city. Ruttmann’s view of modern life is as a purely aesthetic phenomenon, constituting abstract raw mate- rial for the filmmaker and entertaining optical cuisine for the public. This view represents not a denunciation of reificiation and dehumani- zation but their apotheosis. Hailed upon its release as a revolutionary work of art, one that ‘‘flays our retinas, our nerves, our consciousness,’’ Berlin is still venerated by film historians for its brilliant editing and imaginative structure. However, in the 1920s some perceptive critics, including Siegfried Kracauer and Paul Friedl?nder, lambasted its failure to establish any meaningful connections among the phenomena it por- trayed. Such censure was well-founded, for Berlin reduced urban modernity to the spurious common denominators of dynamism, rhythm, and an aestheticized, reified technology, all of which were enveloped in a vacuous display of optical pyrotechnics. Indeed, these ideas and attitudes came to full fruition within the embrace of National Socialism. Ruttmann’s world of abstract forms and stylized technology was fully integrated into the National Socialist public sphere and thereby into the latter’s consummation: the mythologization and heroicization of imperialism and barbarism. Thus Berlin, far from being simply another ‘‘great film,’’ must also be regarded as a precur- sor of a genre in which Ruttmann himself later specialized—the Nazi documentary film. —Barry Fulks THE BEST YEARS OF OUR LIVES USA, 1946 Director: William Wyler Production: Goldwyn Productions; black and white, 35mm; running time: 172 minutes. Released 1946. Filmed in RKO studios. Producer: Samuel Goldwyn; screenplay: Robert Sherwood, from the novel Glory for Me by MacKinley Kantor; photography: Gregg Toland; editor: Daniel Mandell; sound recordist: Gordon Sawyer; art direction: George Jenkins with Perry Ferguson; music: Hugo Friedhofer. Cast: Myrna Loy (Milly Stephenson); Fredric March (Al Stephenson); Dana Andrews (Fred Derry); Teresa Wright (Peggy Stephenson); Virginia Mayo (Marie Derry); Cathy O’Donnel (Wilma Cameron); Harold Russell (Homer Parrish); Hoagy Carmichael (Butch Engle). Awards: Oscars for Best Picture, Best Direction, Best Actor (March), Best Supporting Actor (Russell), Best Screenplay, Best Editing, Best Music, and a Special Award to Harold Russell for ‘‘bringing hope and courage to his fellow veterans,’’ 1946; New York Film Critics Awards for Best Motion Picture and Best Direction, 1946. Publications Books: Reisz, Karel, editor, William Wyler: An Index, London, 1958. Warshow, Robert, The Immediate Experience: Movies, Comics, Theater, and Other Aspects of Popular Culture, New York, 1962. Kantor, Bernar, and Irwin Blacker, editors, Director at Work, New York, 1970. Quirk, Lawrence, J., The Films of Fredric March, New York, 1971. Marsden, Axel, William Wyler, New York, 1973. Marill, Alvin, H., Samuel Goldwyn Presents, South Brunswick, New Jersey, 1976. Koszarski, Richard, Hollywood Directors 1941–1976, New York, 1977. Tuska, John, editor, Close-up: The Hollywood Director, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1978. Anderegg, Michael, A., William Wyler, Boston, 1979. O’Connor, John E., and Martin A. Jackson, editors, American His- tory/American Film: Interpreting the Hollywood Image, New York, 1979. Epstein, Lawrence, J., Samuel Goldwyn, Boston, 1981. Kern, Sharon, William Wyler: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1984. THE BEST YEARS OF OUR LIVES FILMS, 4 th EDITION 118 The Best Years of Our Lives Bowman, Barbara, Master Space: Film Images of Capra, Lubitsch, Sternberg, and Wyler, Wesport, Connecticut, 1992. Herman, Jan, A Talent for Trouble: The Life of Hollywood’s Most Acclaimed Director, New York, 1996. Articles: New York Times, 17 November 1946. Rich Isaacs, Hermine, ‘‘William Wyler: Director with a Passion and a Craft,’’ in Theater Arts (New York), February 1947. Polonsky, Abraham, in Hollywood Quarterly, April 1947. Warshow, Robert, ‘‘The Anatomy of a Falsehood,’’ in Partisan Review (New Brunswick, New Jersey), May-June 1947. Koenig, Lester, ‘‘Gregg Toland, Film-Maker,’’ in Screen Writer (London), December 1947. Lyon, Peter, ‘‘The Hollywood Picture,’’ in Hollywood Quarterly, Summer 1948-Summer 1949. Griffith, Richard, ‘‘Wyler, Wellman, and Huston,’’ in Films in Review (New York), February 1950. Reisz, Karel, ‘‘The Later Films of William Wyler,’’ in Sequence (London), no. 13, 1951. Tozzi, Romano, ‘‘Fredric March,’’ in Films in Review (New York), December 1958. Reid, John Howard, ‘‘A Little Larger Than Life,’’ in Films and Filming (London), February 1960. ‘‘A Comparison of Size,’’ in Films and Filming (London), March 1960. Ringgold, Gene, ‘‘Myrna Loy,’’ in Films in Review (New York), February 1963. Sarris, Andrew, in Village Voice (New York), 15 July 1965. Doeckel, Ken, ‘‘William Wyler,’’ in Films in Review (New York), October 1971. Higham, Charles, interview with Wyler in Action (Los Angeles), September-October 1973. ‘‘Dialogue on Film,’’ in American Film (Washington, D.C.), April 1976. Swindell, Larry, ‘‘A Life in Film,’’ in American Film (Washington, D.C.), April 1976. Cook, P., ‘‘The Sound Track,’’ in Films in Review (New York), May 1979. Cohen, Joan, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 1, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Chell, S. L., ‘‘Music and Emotion in the Classic Hollywood Film,’’ in Film Criticism (Meadville, Pennsylvania), Winter 1984. LA BêTE HUMAINEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 119 Reid’s Film Index (New South Wales, Australia), no. 4, 1990, and no. 19, 1996. Gerber, D.A., ‘‘Heroes and Misfits: The Troubled Social Reintegration of Disabled Veterans in The Best Years of Our Lives,’’ in Ameri- can Quarterly (Baltimore, Maryland), vol. 45, no. 4, 1994. Toles, George, ‘‘This May Hurt a Little: The Art of Humiliation in Film,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Summer 1995. *** Acclaimed by critics and audiences at its release and awarded eight Academy Awards, The Best Years of Our Lives is imbued with the personal commitment that director William Wyler brought to his first project after his experience of shooting two documentaries for the U.S. Army Air Corps during World War II. Wyler was as much of a returning serviceman as are the heroes of this film. His problems in reintegrating himself into the community were perhaps not the same as those of Homer, the amputee, Fred, the captain who can only find work as a soda jerk and Al, the banker who confuses idealism and collateral, but the director’s identification with their predicaments cannot be doubted. It is expressed in the film’s unconventional structure and tone. The film is, of course, about homecoming, and emphatically so when we realize that nearly one-third of its considerable length is exclusively devoted to that subject. The unfolding of the narrative, a slim narrative, is deferred until the film has thoroughly spatialized the notion of the return. In his pre-war films, Wyler’s meticulous mise-en-scène served psychological portraiture in the context of melodrama. In Best Years, what we conventionally identify as theatri- cal tension is replaced by the nearly plotless placement of characters in locale and in relationship to each other. Wyler’s stagings make dramatic events of the performers’ positions in the frame. The three male protagonists, distinct from each other in class, backgrounds, age, and profession, are emblematized as an entity in the way their faces fit together in a bombardier’s bay, during their journey back to Boone City. A taxi, with its windows and rear view mirror, provides a series of variations on their unity and singularity as it deposits them at their respective homes. Homer is caught in significant isolation, standing before his front porch, between the clear eyes of his buddies and the pitying ones of his family and sweetheart. When he waves goodbye with his prosthetic hook he places everyone in this less than trium- phant homecoming. Al’s reception, in one of the film’s most famous shots (in a film full of famous shots), is a happier one. He embraces his wife Milly in a hallway whose length is a function of narrative time and camera placement rather than physical dimension. One of the elements for which the film is distinguished is the use of quite limited spatial contexts—the bedrooms, living rooms, and kitchens of the middle class. Wyler’s blockings and the deep-focus photography of Gregg Toland, then, transcend the modest areas of middle-American domesticity, without betraying or distorting their shape, finding in them the coordinates that express this drama of placement. The emotional peak of the embrace of Al and Milly is followed by Al’s nervousness at being a civilian and a husband. Milly sits comfortably in a wing chair, at place in the frame; Al shifts nervously from one side of the frame to the other. His homecoming, as well as that of Fred and Homer, is incomplete. It will require the duration of the whole film to achieve something like a narrative homecoming. And even that is ambiguous in this film that so disrupts the conventions of Hollywood storytelling. The story that is told is charted in the distances our eyes traverse in the frame. Here, as in other examples of screen narrative that exploit staging in deep fields, we are required to make sense out of what is apparently a fully constituted frame, without the distraction of fre- quent inter-cutting. This access to the wholeness of the cinematic image is what prompted André Bazin to consider Best Years a model of his realist aesthetic. Bazin pays particular attention to the scene where the foreground is occupied by Homer, playing the piano with his hooks, while in the background Fred is phoning Al’s daughter to break off their relationship. The mediating figure in the frame is Al, presumably looking at Homer, yet just as much aware of what is going on behind his back. We see and understand all the elements simulta- neously, just as we do at the film’s end, at the wedding of Homer and Wilma in one side of the frame, and the reconciliation of Fred and Peggy in the other. The Best Years of Our Lives represents the kind of production for which Samuel Goldwyn was renowned. No expense or effort was spared; the lighting of the cramped playing spaces required enor- mously complicated procedures to create the deep-focus effects. Hugo Friedhofer’s score is one of the most admired in the history of film music. A star actress, Myrna Loy, played Milly, essentially a supporting role. The embodiment of one kind of American wife in the ‘‘Thin Man’’ series, she is just as well remembered for the variation she brings to the type in Best Years. Fredric March won his second Academy Award (the first 15 years previously in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde) for his portrayal of Al. Harold Russell, the non- professional chosen to play Homer, gives a performance that is as much a function of the director’s ability to place him in the frame and preserve his simplicity as it is a creation of the ‘‘actor.’’ While it is impossible to ignore the non-professional status of Harold Russell or to ignore the way the fiction addresses an important social problem in 1946 America, it is equally impossible to ignore the film’s formal and perceptual challenges. With almost mannerist insistence, Wyler reminds us that the screen is an image of depth, not the real thing. He tests that quality of the image in the long and short of the fiction’s expressive physical contexts—an ex-flier (Fred) wander- ing through a graveyard of planes slated for demolition, an amputee finally embracing his sweetheart with the stumps of his arms, a gigan- tic drug store that seems to sum up the crassness of postwar America, a neighborhood bar that collects the feelings of a film unsure about our ‘‘best years.’’ —Charles Affron LA BêTE HUMAINE (Judas Was a Woman; The Human Beast) France, 1938 Director: Jean Renoir Production: Paris Film Productions; black and white; RCA High Fidelity; running time: 88 minutes; length: 7937 feet. Released 23 December 1938. Filmed at Pathé Cinema Studios (Joinville) and on location at Le Havre. Theme song: ‘‘Valse Ninon.’’ LA BêTE HUMAINE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 120 La Bête humaine Producers: Robert Hakim and Raymond Hakim; screenplay: Jean Renoir, from the novel by Emile Zola; assistant directors: Claude Renoir, Suzanne de Troyes; photography: Curt Courant; editor: Margeurite Renoir; sound: Teysseire; art director: Eugene Lourie; music: Joseph Kosma. Cast: Jean Gabin (Jacques Lantier); Simone Simon (Séverine); Fernand Ledoux (Roubaud); Julien Carette (Pecqueux); Blanchette Brunoy (Flore); Gerard Landry (Lauvergne); Berlioz (Grand Morin); Jean Renoir (Cabuche). Publications Books: Davay, Paul, Jean Renoir, Brussels, 1957. Cauliez, Armand-Jean, Jean Renoir, Paris, 1962. Chardère, Bernard, editor, Jean Renoir, in Premier Plan (Lyon), no. 22–24, May 1962. Institut des Hautes Etudes Cinematographiques, Analyses des films de Jean Renoir, Paris, 1964. Bennett, Susan, Jean Renoir, London, 1967. Poulle, Fran?ois, Renoir 1938; ou, Jean Renoir pour rien: Enquête sur un cinéaste, Paris, 1969. Leprohon, Pierre, Jean Renoir, New York, 1971. Braudy, Leo, Jean Renoir: The World of His Films, New York, 1972. Bazin, André, Jean Renoir, edited by Fran?ois Truffaut, Paris, 1973. Durgnat, Raymond, Jean Renoir, Berkeley, 1974. Beylie, Claude, Jean Renoir: Le Spectacle, la vie, Paris, 1975. Renoir, Jean, Essays, Conversations, Reviews, edited by Penelope Gilliatt, New York, 1975. Armes, Roy, French Cinema Since 1946: Volume 1: The Great Tradition, New York, 1976. Faulkner, Christopher, Jean Renoir: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1979. Sesonske, Alexander, Jean Renoir: The French Films 1924–1939, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1980. Gauteur, Claude, Jean Renoir: Oeuvres de cinéma inédites, Paris, 1981. McBride, Joseph, editor, Filmmakers on Filmmaking 2, Los Ange- les, 1983. LA BêTE HUMAINEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 121 Serceau, Daniel, Jean Renoir, Paris, 1985. Bertin, Celia, Jean Renoir, Paris, 1986. Faulkner, Christopher, The Social Cinema of Jean Renoir, Prince- ton, 1986. Vincendeau, Ginette, and Keith Reader, La Vie est à Nous: French Cinema of the Popular Front, London, 1986. Viry-Babel, Roger, Jean Renoir: Le Jeu et la regle, Paris, 1986. Bessy, Maurice, Jean Renoir, Paris, 1989. Braudy, Leo, Jean Renoir: The World of His Films, New York, 1989. Bergan, Ronald, Jean Renoir: Projections of Paradise, Woodstock, 1994. Articles: Variety (New York), 15 February 1939. New York Times, 26 February 1939. Kine Weekly (London), 20 April 1939. Galway, Peter, in New Statesman (London), 29 April 1939. Monthly Film Bulletin (London), May 1939. Greene, Graham, in Spectator (London), 5 May 1939. Time and Tide (London), 13 April 1946. ‘‘Renoir Issue’’ of Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), January 1952. ‘‘Renoir Issue’’ of Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), Christmas 1957. Whitehall, Richard, ‘‘Painting Life with Movement,’’ in Films and Filming (London), July 1960. Whitehall, Richard, ‘‘The Screen Is His Canvas,’’ in Films and Filming (London), July 1960. Harcourt, Peter, ‘‘Jean Renoir,’’ in London Magazine, Decem- ber 1962. Films and Filming (London), February 1964. Colet, Jean, in Télérama (Paris), 28 May 1968. Image et Son (Paris), no. 223, 1968. Fofi, Goffredo, ‘‘The Cinema of the Popular Front in France,’’ in Screen (London), Winter 1972–73. Interview with Renoir, in Positif (Paris), September 1975. Renoir, Jean, in Image et Son (Paris), March 1977. Strebel, Elizabeth Grottle, ‘‘Jean Renoir and the Popular Front,’’ in Feature Films as History, edited by K. R. M. Short, London, 1981. Leahy, J., in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), vol. 58, April 1991. Vincendeau, G., ‘‘The Beauty of the Beast,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), July 1991. Tesson, Charles, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), no. 482, July- August 1994. Aldarondo, R., in Nosferatu (San Sebastian), no. 17/18, March 1995. Short review, in Télérama (Paris), no. 2364, 3 May 1995. Faulkner, Christopher, ‘‘Renoir, Technology and the Affect in La bête humaine,’’ in Persistence of Vision (Maspeth), no. 12–13, 1996. *** After the commercial failure of his politically committed film La Marseillaise (1937), Renoir accepted Robert Hakim’s invitation to ‘‘make a film about trains’’ for Jean Gabin. Disappointed at the collapse of Grémillon’s film project Train d’enfer, Gabin looked to Renoir who had so successfully directed him in the role of Maréchal in La Grande Illusion (1937). For Renoir a screen version of Zola’s La Bête humaine represented another opportunity to adapt a greatly admired author whose fiction had previously inspired his silent film Nana (1926). Reflecting the bleak tone of Zola’s portrayal of a man driven by homicidal impulses, Renoir’s film is untypically dark and fatalistic for his 1930s period, and with Gabin as the doomed hero, his version has considerable affinity with the deeply pessimistic contemporary Carné-Prévert films such as Quai des Brumes (1938) or Le Jour se lève (1939). The uncharacteristic mood is largely determined by low- key lighting, and, equally untypically for Renoir, music which is external to the action. His camera too, is noticeably more mobile as it constantly relates individuals to their working environment. Bright daytime locations progressively give way to dark, nocturnal interiors or shadowy industrial landscapes, as the freedom of the fated protago- nists gradually diminishes. Although fidelity to Zola is implied by a quotation from the novel and a signed portrait of the author after the credit sequence, there are several omissions or shifts of emphasis in Renoir’s screen adaptation. Whereas Zola’s richly textured epic novel is partly a study of atavism, partly a portrait of the railway community, it is also a satire of the judiciary and an indictment of the corrupt Second Empire. The author’s multi-layered poetic narrative explores the murderous in- stinct thematically through a number of minor characters and situa- tions, but Renoir concerns himself only with the protagonists, dis- carding several narrative elements, such as the train crash, the train trapped by snow, and the sustained satire of the judicary with its overt political dimension. For a director intimately associated with the Popular Front, Renoir surprisingly resists the political potential, and plays down Zola’s social contrasts. If in La Marseillaise he had explored ideas, in La Bête humaine, Renoir is more concerned with mood and action. For André Bazin, Renoir’s adaptation provided a tighter plot and was more successful in integrating the triangular relationship between Séverine, Lantier, and Roubaud into an account of railway life. Casting against type Renoir insisted on Simone Simon for the role of the flirtatious but frigid Séverine to play against Gabin’s Lantier. Excellent performances come from Julien Carette as the stoker Pecqueux and from Fernand Ledoux as the once jealous, now broken, Roubaud. In only his second screen role, a rather melodramatic Renoir plays the poacher Cabuche wrongly accused of murder. The sense of compulsion which permeates the film is established in the opening train sequence. The journey from Paris to Le Havre, as Alexander Sesonske has shown, is brilliantly distilled in four and a quarter minutes. Speed is conveyed not so much by cutting between shots as by the rhythm of movement within the shots. From the close- up of the train’s roaring fire-box, suggesting the passionate forces at work, the camera records the train hurtling through the countryside, set on a track from which it must not deviate, with Lantier and Pecqueux working in complete harmony to harness the machine’s formidable power, and to ensure punctuality. The closing sequence of the film, a return run of the journey with the men now fighting, expresses the idea of men unable to break free of predetermined patterns. The images of the men working, the informative shots of the station yards, the ubiquitous sound of trains keep the presence of the railway to the fore, thus respecting Zola’s documentary intentions. Character is intimately studied in terms of a working environment, whether on the train, in the yards, in the canteen, in the showers or at the lodgings. It is in these sequences with railway men functioning as a team and taking pride in their work that Renoir remains faithful to BHARAT MATA FILMS, 4 th EDITION 122 the values of the Popular Front. Throughout he enjoyed the invaluable technical cooperation of the French railways, and with the exception of Gabin’s final suicidal leap from the locomotive, all the railway sequences were shot on location with direct sound recording. Renoir represents Lantier’s inner turmoil symbolically with the wind raging through his hair, while his psychopathic self is darkly reflected in a puddle as he reaches for a murder weapon, or, after he has stabbed Séverine, in a mirror where low-key lighting gives him a particularly monstrous appearance. Perhaps the most powerful sequence comes with Séverine’s murder when a demented Lantier suddently turns on his mistress in an uncontrollable frenzy. The music of the railway ball floods the screen with its ironic song about flirtatious love and possession, linking and contrasting scenes of public enjoyment with a scene of private horror. Acknowledging his debt to Renoir, Fritz Lang remade La Bête humaine as Human Desire in 1954. The most detailed study of La Bête humaine is found in Jean Renoir by Alexander Sesonske. —R. F. Cousins BHARAT MATA (Mother India) India, 1957 Director: Mehboob Khan Production: A Mehboob Production; Technicolor; running time: 120 minutes; original running time: 160 minutes, running time of 1961 version: 95 minutes. Released 1957. Executive producer: V. J. Shah; producer: Mehboob Khan; screen- play: Vajahat Mirza, S. Ali Raza; photography: Faradoon A. Irani; editor: Shamsudin Kadri; sound: Kaushik; art director: V. H. Palnitkar; dance director: Chiman Seth; costumes: Fazaldin; music: Naushad; lyrics: Shakeel Badayuni. Cast: Nargis (Radha); Sunil Dutt (Birjoo); Rajendra Kumar (Ramoo); Raaj Kumar (Shamoo); Kumkum (Champa); Chanchal (Roop); Kanhaiyalal (Sukhi Lala); Jiloo Maa (Sunder Chachi); Azra (Chandre); Master Saiid (Birjoo, the boy); Muqri (Shambu); Sheela Nayak (Kamla); Siddiqui (Dalita Prasad); Geeta (Village girl); Master Surendra (Ramoo, the boy). Publications Books: Barnouw, Erik, and S. Krishnaswamy, Indian Film, New York, 1965. Jha, B., editor, Indian Motion Picture Almanac, 10th edition, Cal- cutta, 1975. Rangoonwala, F., Pictorial History of Indian Cinema, Calcutta, 1979. Willemen, Paul, and Behroze Ghandy, Indian Cinema, London, 1982. Bharat Mata Pfleiderer, Beatrix, and Lothar Lutze, The Hindi Film: Agent and Re- Agent of Cultural Change, New Delhi, 1985. Ramachandran, T. M., 70 Years of Indian Cinema (1913–1983), Bombay, 1985. Armes, Roy, Third World Filmmaking and the West, Berkeley, 1987. Articles: FilmIndia, December 1957. Variety (New York), 27 August 1957. Monthly Film Bulletin (London), July 1958. Kine Weekly (London), 16 February 1961. City Limits (London), 18 June 1982. Ray, Satyajit, ‘‘Under Western Eyes,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1982. Haffner, P., ‘‘Le Cinéma indien en Afrique noire,’’ in Filméchange (Paris), Winter 1983. Tesson, Charles, ‘‘Le rêve indien,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), March 1985. Thomas, R., ‘‘Indian Cinema: Pleasures and Popularity,’’ in Screen (London), May-August 1985. Thomas, R., ‘‘Sanctity and Scandal,’’ in Quarterly Review of Film and Video (New York), no. 3, 1989. *** Mother India, one of the all-time hits of the Hindi commercial cinema, has also been a noted success in the Hindi film’s traditional BHUMIKAFILMS, 4 th EDITION 123 export markets in the Middle East and Africa. It is one of the few such films to have received exposure in Western cinemas, and even won an Oscar nomination for Best Foreign Film. The film is very much a legendary enterprise, and one conceived perhaps on such terms. It was the last major success of the director, Mehboob Khan; it is one of the best remembered works of the music director, Naushad; it represented the last major appearance of the female lead, Nargis; and it was a remake of an earlier Mehboob film, and one of the most acclaimed of the 1940s, Aurat (Woman, 1940). In this sense, it encapsulates a number of filmic and non-filmic narra- tives into its own, and weaves these together into a mythical shape. Mehboob’s own story is perhaps the central one underlying Mother India: born in a poor rural family, he rose through menial jobs and minor acting roles in the studios of the 1930s to become a director in 1934. In Hindi movie parlance he was associated with the genre of the ‘‘social’’ film—melodramatic narratives oriented to exposing social malaise. His better-known films emphasized a kind of populism about the ‘‘people’s’’ travails. The ‘‘people’’ are presented as the true, the genuine India, remaining faithful to their traditions even as they accept a modernizing, reformist context. Mehboob’s personal history was publicized to lend authenticity to Mother India’s tale of rural folk punished by the elements and struggling under the burden of debt. However, the film is very much an essay in exoticising the ‘‘simple’’ life. Colour—a relatively recent and still uncharacteristic phenomenon at the time of the film’s making—is used to make a spectacle of nature, with the narrative and song sequences splashed in dawns and sunsets. As with later sagas of the rural life (such as Ganga Jamuna, Nitin Bose, 1961), communal activities, whether of tilling and reaping or in a celebration at festivals such as Holi (the spring festival), are staged in a highly choreo- graphed style. The music director, Naushad, made a conscious attempt to bring folk rhythms into the repertoire of Hindi film music. But the stylized evocation, with its ornamentalization through specta- cle, places the music too in a mythicizing distance from the ‘‘folk.’’ The real object of the myth is not the folk but the modern nation. The original 1940 narrative dealt with the sufferings of a peasant woman, Radha, abandoned by her husband and left to fend for her sons. Drought and debt beat down on her. The focus is on the value she places on her chastity even in the face of starvation, and on the great love with which she sustains her children. These qualities carry her family, and by extension, the village community, through the crisis. However, the nurturing mother has her negative side. An excess of love causes her to turn a blind eye to her undisciplined, hedonist son, Birjoo. This indulgence leads him into bad ways; he becomes a bandit and a threat to the community. Ultimately, the mother has to kill him, and dies, broken-hearted. In the later film, there are a number of important changes. The issue of exploitation, which was present but marginalized in Aurat, is now quite central. There is an induction of nationalist discourses about whether violence or faith in God (a complete distortion of Gandhi’s much more active notion of passive resistance) are to be embraced in the face of injustice. These oppositions are quite devi- ously solved. Birjoo, the bandit son, is now clearly a social bandit, directing his activities against the oppressive money-lending classes. But his actions are tainted; he not only kills the exploiting money- lender, he also abducts his daughter. A woman’s honour—the mecha- nism whereby the patriarchal authority of the community at large is maintained—is threatened, and so Radhu kills her son. Thus while exploitation, presented as the impediment to the progress of the rural community, is ended, the significance of Birjoo’s actions is denied. Faith and honour triumph; development, in keeping with contempo- rary governmental designs for the rural community, is achieved in the construction of a dam. The mother, still grief-stricken over Birjoo’s death, inaugurates it as mother of the community. But the film’s work of ideological denial is unbalanced when, in Radha’s perception, it seems to be Birjoo’s blood which flows out when the dam is opened. Mother India is then not only the re-working of an earlier film. It is a narrativization of a certain legacy (that of the national movement) with the object of presenting certain contemporary problems of inequality, justice, and development, in an ideological way. Seeking to represent the rural people, the film actually makes of them elements in a design of colour, song, and dance, an ornate spectacle conceived to reflect the populist myths of the modern state. —Ravi Vasudevan BHUMIKA (The Role) India, 1977 Director: Shyam Benegal Production: Blaze Film Enterprises; colour, 35mm; running time: 144 minutes. Bhumika BHUMIKA FILMS, 4 th EDITION 124 Producers: Lalit M. Bijlani and Freni M. Variava; executive pro- ducers: Silloo Fali Variava and Bisham M. Bijlani; screenplay: Girish Karnad, Pandit Satyadev Dubey, and Shyam Benegal, from the book Sandtye Aika by Hansa Wadkar; assistant directors: Dayal Nihalani, Manohar Ghanekar, Swadesh Pal, and Prahlad Kakar; photography: Govind Nihalini; editor: Bhanudas; art director: Shama Zaidi; sound: Hitendra Ghosh, Robin Chaterjee, Raj Trehan; costumes: Kalpana Lajmi; music: Vanraj Bahtia; songs: Vanraj Bahtia, Majrooh Sultanpuri, and Vasanth Dev. Cast: Smita Patil (Usha); Anant Nag (Rajan); Amrish Puri (Vinayak Kale); Naseeruddin Shah (Sunil Sharma); Sulabha Deshpande (Usha’s Mother); Baby Ruksana (Usha as a child); Amol Palekar (Keshar Dalvi); Kulbhushan Kharbanda (Producer). Publications Books: Da Cunha, Uma, The New Generation: 1960–1980, New Delhi, 1981. The Directorate of Film Festivals, New Delhi, 1981. Vasudev, Aruna, The New Indian Cinema, Macmillan India (New Delhi), 1986. Articles: Variety (New York), 15 November 1978. Milne, Tom, Monthly Film Bulletin (London), April 1980. Vasudev, Aruna, and Philippe Leglet, interview with Shyam Behegal in Indian Cinema Superbazaar, Vikas Publishing (New Delhi), 1983. *** Shyam Benegal’s fourth film marks a substantial departure from his first three works. Bhumika is inspired by the autobiography of the 1940s Marathi and Hindi movie star Hansa Wadkar. The book, as told to journalist Arun Sadhu, used the title of her most famous film, the mega hit musical Sangtye Aika (1959), translating loosely as ‘‘Listen, and I’ll Tell.’’ It caused a sensation and became an instant best-seller, being an extraordinarily candid tale of a young woman who came from a tradition of kalavantins—courtesans from the Goa coastline renowned for their musical accomplishments but considered to be of lowly status. She joined the film industry as a child actress mainly to support her mother and grandmother, acting in stage-derived musi- cals. She moved to Karachi to do adventure B-movies (Modern Youth, 1936) before receiving her major break in the Bombay Talkies studio. Wadkar went on to become the foremost Marathi star in two ex- tremely popular but seemingly contradictory genres, the devotional Saint-film and the bawdy folk-derived Tamasha musical: playing the title role in the Prabhat studios’ Sant Sakhu (1941) and the role of Baya in V. Shantaram’s Lokshahir Ramjoshi (1947). Ramjoshi and Sangtye Aika are among the biggest hits in the history of the Marathi cinema. Benegal’s movie adapts this story into a human interest saga of a traditional courtesan coming to terms with contemporary mass- culture, and her struggle to find her own individuality in the process. The framing narrative shows Usha, the move star, leave her husband and seek shelter first with her male co-star Rajan, and eventually in the oppressive confines of the feudal landlord of Kale’s estate. Her husband arrives with the police to rescue her from Kale. Free once more, she rejects the offers of support from her husband, her now grown-up and married daughter—whose modernity marks a break with the matrilineal tradition—and her former lover Rajan, presum- ably in favour of the independence for which she craved. Female protagonists seeking independence through various kinds of social engagements, failing and then ‘‘going away,’’ were a com- mon and familiar stereotype in much of the New Indian Cinema of the time. Feminist critic Susie Tharu’s remarks about Usha’s counterpart Sulabha (also played by Smita Patil) in Jabbar Patel’s Umbartha (The Threshold, 1981) clearly apply to the stereotype in Bhumika as well: ‘‘The filmic focus . . . establishes her as the central character as well as the problem (the disruption, the enigma) the film will explore and resolve . . . it is clear that to search herself is, for a woman, a tragic enterprise. An enterprise in which she is doomed to fail, but can fail bravely and heroically’’ (‘‘Third World Women’s Cinema,’’ Eco- nomic and Political Weekly, Bombay, 17 May 1986). The film develops its enigmatic protagonist with a dense overlay of nostalgia, through a series of sepia flashbacks showing Usha’s childhood in the Konkan. Undoubtedly Bhumika’s most attractive aspect, these flashbacks show her meetings with her future husband, Dalvi, who claims her in return for helping her impoverished family. The scene showing her entry into the Surya Movietone reconstructs Wadkar’s test at the Shalini Cinetone conducted by the framed composer Govindrao Tembe, tabla maestro Tirakhwan, and director Baburao Painter. Showing Usha’s early roles in the movies, Benegal lovingly recreates various pre-war genres like the stunt movie, the Mahabharata mythological, and the social reform melodrama. Other flashbacks show her husband as a manipulative opportunist who starts managing her career, and her one major extra-marital relation- ship, with the poetry-spewing existentialist filmmaker Sunil, who involves her in a romantic suicide pact only to abandon her. This mode of reconstructing the past to create an idiom of tragic fiction is all the more remarkable because of its startling contrast to Benegal’s previous work: political features addressing a rural peas- antry in the context of the Communist Party of India (Marxist- Leninist) ‘‘Naxalite’’ movements in the late 1960s and through the 1970s. Ankur (The Seedling, 1974) and Nishant (Night’s End, 1975) were set in rural Andhra Pradesh, Manthan (The Churning, 1976) addressed the struggle of Gujarati peasants to set up a milk coopera- tive. All three films worked with several young actors and made them major stars, including Smita Patil and Anant Nag who feature in Bhumika. These films’ success—especially that of his debut, Ankur— created a commercially viable 1970s trend of a ruralist realism, using accented Hindi to simulate the language of Telugu and Gujarati- speaking villagers, and a naturalist, stage-derived acting style that for many years came to be equated in several Indian cinemas, and later in its television, with a political and cultural authenticity. Clearly Benegal shifts ground with Bhumika. The film, for one, locates the whole authenticity question into melodrama proper. It was the first Hindi film from the short-lived New Indian Cinema move- ment designed to reach a large audience and to receive a substantial commercial release. It went a long way in creating for its maker a reputation for providing culturally refined entertainment, in contrast to that churned out by the mainstream Hindi film industry. Until Benegal, it was only his mentor, Satyajit Ray, who was committed to the aesthetic of a cinema of taste, to define an indigenous cultural élite THE BIG HEATFILMS, 4 th EDITION 125 that otherwise sought its referents mainly through seeing American and European films. Unlike the often colonial overtones of Indian upper-class nostalgia movies of the time (e.g., Aparna Sen’s 36 Chowringhee Lane, 1981), Bengal’s protagonist allows him to ex- plore the enigmas of a specifically indigenous popular culture. It is arguable that in making the film he saw the two genres, of a frontier ruralist realism on the one side, and of creating the fictions of a collective ‘‘past’’ on the other, as being compatible modes effectively addressing the same problem: of constructing an indige- nous authenticity for an audience that would not wish to be a part of the dominant mass-entertainment modes of India’s film industry. Certainly this is where Bhumika has proved the most influential, in the way it expanded the thematic repertoire of the New Indian Cinema, and eventually allowed a more sustained engagement with the mass- cultural idiom itself. —Ashish Rajadhyaksha THE BICYCLE THIEF See LADRI DI BICICLETTE THE BIG HEAT USA, 1953 Director: Fritz Lang Production: Columbia Pictures Corp.; black and white, 35mm; running time: 89 or 90 minutes. Released 14 October 1953. Filmed from about 21 March to 18 April 1953 in Columbia studios. Producer: Robert Arthur; screenplay: Sidney Boehm, from a novel by William P. MacGivern; photography: Charles Lang, Jr.; editor: Charles Nelson; sound: George Cooper; art direction: Robert Peterson; set decoration: William Kiernan; music: Daniele Amfitheatrof, Mischa Bakaleinikoff; costumes: Jean Louis. Cast: Glenn Ford (David Bannion); Gloria Grahame (Debby Marsh); Jocelyn Brando (Katie Bannion); Alexander Scourby (Mike Lagana); Lee Marvin (Vince Stone); Jeanette Nolan (Bertha Duncan); Peter Whitney (Tierney); Willis Buchey (Lieutenant Wilkes); Robert Bur- ton (Gus Burke); Adam Williams (Larry Gordon); Howard Wendall (Higgins); Cris Alcaide (George Rose); Carolyn Jones (Doris); Michael Granger (Hugo); Dorothy Green (Lucy Chapman); Ric Roman (Baldy); Dan Seymour (Atkins); Edith Evanson (Selma Parker). Publications Books: Courtade, Francis, Fritz Lang, Paris, 1963. Moullet, Luc, Fritz Lang, Paris, 1963. Eibel, Alfred, editor, Fritz Lang, Paris, 1964. Johnston, Claire, Fritz Lang, London, 1969. Jensen, Paul J., The Cinema of Fritz Lang, New York, 1969. Bogdanovich, Peter, Fritz Lang in America, London, 1969. Alloway, Lawrence, Violent America: The Movies Between 1946–1964, New York, 1971. Bazin, André, La Politique des auteurs: Entretiens avec Jean Renoir, etc., Paris, 1972; revised edition, 1984. McArthur, Colin, Underground U.S.A., London, 1972. Mast, Gerald, The Comic Mind, Chicago, 1974; revised edition, 1979. Trufaut, Fran?ois, Les Films de ma vie, Paris, 1975; as The Films in My Life, New York, 1978. Grafe, Frieda, and others, Fritz Lang, Munich, 1976. Eisner, Lotte, Fritz Lang, London, 1977. Armour, Robert, Fritz Lang, Boston, 1978. Jenkins, Stephen, editor, Fritz Lang, London, 1979. Silver, Alain, and Elizabeth Wark, Film Noir, Woodstock, New York, 1979. Giannetti, Louis, Master of the American Cinema, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1981. Jenkins, Stephen, editor, Fritz Lang: The Image and the Look, London, 1981. Kaplan, E. Ann, Fritz Lang: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1981. Maibohm, Ludwig, Fritz Lang: Seine Film—sein Leben, Munich, 1981. Dürrenmatt, Dieter, Fritz Lang: Leben und Werk, Basle, 1982. Humphries, Reynold, Fritz Lang: Genre and Representation in His American Films, Baltimore, 1988. Leblanc, Gérard, and Brigitte Devismes, Le double scénario chez Fritz Lang, Paris, 1991. McArthur, Colin, The Big Heat, London, 1992. Articles: Crowther, Bosley in New York Times, 15 October 1953. Truffaut, Fran?ois, ‘‘Aimer Fritz Lang,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), January 1954. Anderson, Lindsay, in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1954. Lambert, Gavin, ‘‘Fritz Lang’s America,’’ in Sight and Sound (Lon- don), Summer 1955. Mourlet, Michel, ‘‘Trajectoire de Fritz Lang,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), September 1959. Legrand, Gérard, ‘‘Notes pour un éloge de Fritz Lang,’’ in Positif (Paris), March 1963. Patalas, Enno, ‘‘Fritz Lang, der Unbekannte: Jahrestreffen der deutschen Filmclubs,’’ in Frankfurter Allegmein Zeitung, 7 May 1964. Hartman, Rainer, ‘‘Wirklichkeit statt Menschheitsfragen,’’ in Frank- furter Neue Presse, 26 May 1964. Beylie, Claude, ‘‘L’Oeuvre américain de Fritz Lang (1936–1956),’’ in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), February 1968. Joannides, Paul, ‘‘Aspects of Fritz Lang,’’ in Cinema (London), August 1970. Flinn, Tom, ‘‘The Big Heat and The Big Combo: Rogue Cops and Mink-Coated Girls,’’ in Velvet Light Trap (Madison, Wisconsin), no. 11, 1974. Hennelly, Mark, Jr., ‘‘American Nightmare: The Underworld in Film,’’ in Journal of Popular Culture (Bowling Green, Ohio), no. 3, 1978. Willis, Don, ‘‘Fritz Lang: Only Melodrama,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1979–80. THE BIG HEAT FILMS, 4 th EDITION 126 The Big Heat MacGivern, William P., in American Film (Washington, D.C.), October 1983. Pulleine, Tim, in Films and Filming (London), February 1988. Wood, Robin, ‘‘Creativity and Evaluation,’’ in Cineaction (Toronto), Summer-Fall 1990. Wager, Jans B., ‘‘The Big Heat,’’ Bright Lights, no. 14, 1995. Aldarondo, R., ‘‘Los sobornados,’’ Nosferatu (Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain), no. 20, January 1996. Metz, Walter, ‘‘Keep the Coffee Hot, Hugo: Nuclear Trauma in Lang’s The Big Heat,’’ Film Criticism (Meadville), vol. 21, no. 3, Spring 1997. *** Like Fritz Lang’s western Rancho Notorious (1951), The Big Heat is a ballad of hate, murder, and revenge. In both films, the hero is driven outside the law when his love interest is killed by sadistic minions of a crime boss (who personally disapproves of such ex- tremes) and compelled to pull down the whole corrupt system that has perverted his world. Both feature facial scars as a recurring motif, crooked politicians, iconic close-ups of guns, and a clear-eyed crimi- nal woman who sacrifices herself for the hero. The noir-ish The Big Heat is oddly easier on its hard-boiled protagonist, cop Dave Bannion (Glenn Ford), than Rancho Notorious is on cowboy Vern (Arthur Kennedy). The earlier film combines the figure of Mabuse-style mastermind and redeemed bad girl in Altar Keane (Marlene Dietrich), with whom Vern falls in love, while The Big Heat sets up decorative- but-sharp moll Debby (Gloria Grahame) as an outsider within the gang of smooth crime czar Lagana (Alexander Scourby), with a de- gree of license to criticize her dangerous boyfriend Vince Stone (Lee Marvin), making her almost the equivalent of ‘‘good badman’’ Frenchy (Mel Ferrer). The possibility of a romance between Bannion and Debby is implicit but never raised—these people are too trapped in their roles of cop/family man and crook/moll to get together— while Vern’s love for Altar makes his destruction of her gang yet another tragic loss of home. Though it tackles themes Lang dealt with as early as the Dr. Mabuse movies, The Big Heat is one of many exposé gangster films produced in Hollywood in the 1950s: The Enforcer (1951), The Captive City (1952), Chicago Syndicate (1955), The Big Combo (1955), The Phoenix City Story (1955), and Underworld USA (1961). THE BIG PARADEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 127 Inspired by the Kefauver Commission on organized crime, the cycle adapts the psychological approach of 1940s noirs to analyze not a sick mind but a sick society, depicting American towns and cities under the control of ‘‘the Syndicate.’’ The flamboyant psychopaths who would have been the lead menaces of movies like Little Caesar (1930) or The Public Enemy (1931) are demoted to the supporting role taken by Vince Stone. The real hate figures are the faceless higher-ups rarely glimpsed in the earlier movies (the ‘‘Big Boy’’ of Little Caesar): Lagana, an immigrant made good who hypocritically regrets the need for violence but is determined not ‘‘to end up in the same ditch with the Lucky Lucianos,’’ as a 1950s gang boss, half chairman of the board and half fascist duce. He speaks with the reasonable, soulless tone of the Body Snatchers, while Bannion (whom he accuses of ‘‘tracking dirt into his house’’ by mentioning the murder of a bar-girl he has ordered killed) and Stone (a neanderthal whose only come-back to Debby’s sniping witticisms is to throw hot coffee in her face) are monsters from the Id. The Big Heat is a film of violence, opening with a close-up of a gun about to be used in the suicide of corrupt cop Tom Duncan, and proceeding rapidly through its plot with jolting horrors that malform the characters. Bannion turns from family man to obsessive rogue cop when his wife (Jocelyn Brando) is blown up by a car bomb meant for him. Debby is embittered by the ruining of her beauty and takes up Bannion’s quest for revenge, precipitating the big heat by confronting and murdering her ‘‘sister under the mink,’’ grasping widow Bertha Duncan (Jeanette Nolan). With Bertha’s death, the evidence Tom Duncan left behind, which is enough to bring down Lagana’s empire, is released. In a crucial development, prefigured in both Fury (1936) and Rancho Notorious, the embittered hero is still unable to commit cold-blood murder to achieve his purpose—Bannion stops short of assaulting Bertha—and a doppelganger has to step in to pull the last thread that allows justice to be done. The point is underlined in the climax, which finds Debby returning Vince’s favour by dashing boiling coffee in his face and being gun-shot by the villain, prompting Bannion to trounce his ugly mirror image (a witness tags Stone as about Bannion’s height but flashily dressed) in a brutal fight but not to gun him down even though Stone implores him to ‘‘shoot!’’ Grounded far more in political reality than most of Lang’s noirs, thanks to the hard-hitting detail of William P. McGivern’s novel and Sydney Boehm’s script, The Big Heat is still indebted to expression- ism, with sets that reflect the characters’ overriding personality traits: the cold luxury of the Duncan house, bought with dirty money; the tasteless wealth of Lagana’s mansion, with its hideous portrait of the mobster’s sainted mother and jiving teenage party; the penthouse moderne of Vince and Debby, where the police commissioner plays cards with killers; the cramped, poor-but-honest apartment of the Bannion family, underlined by too-insistent heart-warming music; and the hotel room where Bannion ends up, his life pared down to the need for vengeance (‘‘early nothing’’ Debby comments). The tabloid sensibility of Lang’s late American films (While the City Sleeps, 1955, Beyond a Reasonable Doubt, 1956) informs the depiction of squadroom and barroom, and there is a transgressive charge to the various minor cruelties (an obscene phone call taken by Mrs. Bannion, Stone stubbing a cigarette on the arm of a dice-playing girl in a bar, the famous coffee-throwing attacks) that imbues the film with an unpredictable, uneasy sense of danger. Even the finale is hardly comforting: after the fall of the crime syndicate, the widowed hero is not seen embracing his daughter and picking up his home life but returning to his desk in the Homicide Department. The welcome of workmates—expressed, of course, by an offer of coffee—is curtailed and the end title appears over Bannion putting on his hat and coat to go out and deal with ‘‘a hit and run over on South Street.’’ —Kim Newman THE BIG PARADE USA, 1925 Director: King Vidor Production: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures Corp.; originally black and white with tinted sequences, 35mm, silent with music score; running time: about 125 minutes; length: originally 13 reels at 12,550 feet, later 12 reels at 11,519 feet. Released selectively November 1925, released generally 1927. Re-released 1931 with synchronized music and sound effects. Producer: Irving G. Thalberg; scenario: Harry Behn; story: Lau- rence Stallings; titles: Joseph W. Farnham, from the play by Farnham, and the novel Plumes by Stallings; photography: John Arnold; editor: Hugh Wynn; art directors: Cedric Gibbons, James Basevi; music: William Axt, David Mendoza. Cast: John Gilbert (James Apperson); Renée Adorée (Mélisande); Hobart Bosworth (Mr. Apperson); Claire McDowell (Mrs. Apperson); Claire Adams (Justyn Reed); Robert Ober (Harry); Tom O’Brien (Bull); Karl Dane (Slim); Rosita Marstini (French Mother). Publications Books: Vidor, King, A Tree Is a Tree, New York, 1953; reprinted 1977. Brownlow, Kevin, The Parade’s Gone By . . . , London and New York, 1969. Baxter, John, King Vidor, New York, 1976. Everson, William K., American Silent Film, New York, 1978. O’Connor, John E., and Martin A. Jackson, editors, American His- tory/American Film: Interpreting the Hollywood Image, New York, 1979. Comuzio, Ermanno, King Vidor, Florence, 1986. Vidor, King, with contributions by Nancy Dowd and David Shepard, King Vidor (Directors Guild of America Oral History Series), Lanham, Maryland, 1988. Durgnat, Raymond, and Scott Simmon, King Vidor—American, Berkeley, 1989. THE BIG PARADE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 128 The Big Parade Articles: Smith, F. J., ‘‘Tells How The Big Parade Was Made,’’ in Motion Picture Classic (New York), May 1926. Tully, Jim, ‘‘Interview,’’ in Vanity Fair (New York), June 1926. Quirk, Lawrence J., ‘‘John Gilbert,’’ in Films in Review (New York), March 1956. Davis, Henry, ‘‘A John Gilbert Index,’’ in Films in Review (New York), October 1962. Brownlow, Kevin, ‘‘King Vidor,’’ in Film (London), Winter 1962. Higham, Charles, ‘‘King Vidor,’’ in Film Heritage (Dayton, Ohio), Summer 1966. ‘‘King Vidor at NYU,’’ in Cineaste (New York), Spring 1968. Uselton, Roi A., ‘‘Renée Adorée,’’ in Films in Review (New York), June-July 1968. Greenberg, Joel, ‘‘War, Wheat, and Steel,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1968. Barr, Charles, ‘‘King Vidor,’’ in Brighton (London), March 1970. Luft, Herbert G., ‘‘King Vidor: A Career That Spans Half a Century,’’ in Film Journal (Dayton, Ohio), Summer 1971. Durgnat, Raymond, in Film Comment (New York), July-August 1973. ‘‘Vidor Issue’’ of Positif (Paris), September 1974. Amengual, Barthélemy, ‘‘Entre l’horizon d’un seul et l’horizon de tous,’’ in Positif (Paris), September 1974. Edwards, R., ‘‘The Big Parade,’’ in Films of the Golden Age (Muscatine, Iowa), no. 5, Summer 1996. *** The Big Parade propelled director King Vidor to the top as MGM’s wunderkind, the Steven Spielberg of his day, who could do no wrong when it came to sensing what the public would or would not embrace in film entertainment. The end of World War I was not even a decade in the past when the Texas-born filmmaker, who had established himself as a skillful purveyor of comedies and sentimental slices of rural American life, persuaded production chief Irving Thalberg to let him make an epic film about the war—a subject conventional wisdom said audiences would prefer to forget. Vidor countered that the huge success of the Laurence Stallings-Maxwell Anderson WWI play What Price Glory? on Broadway the previous year suggested otherwise. MGM gave him the green light to make The Big Parade. THE BIG SLEEPFILMS, 4 th EDITION 129 The script by Harry Behn was based upon an outline Vidor had solicited from Stallings himself. It deals with three men from an unnamed American town who are swept up in the wave of patriotic fervor following America’s entrance into the war and enlist. One, Tom O’Brien, is a salty bartender; another, Karl Dane, is a gawky, tobacco chewing blue collar type; the third, played by matinee idol John Gilbert, is the lay-about son of a wealthy mill owner. Despite their disparate backgrounds, the three become fast chums when they meet at boot camp and sustain their comradeship through the fero- cious battle of Belleau Wood where they undergo their baptism of fire. Along the way, Gilbert meets and falls in love with a French farm girl, delightfully and movingly played by Renée Adorée. The scene where he introduces her to American chewing gum is one of the most famous in silent films. It is both funny and touching, and wonderfully pantomimed by the two actors under the scrutiny of Vidor’s camera, which captures the moment in an uninterrupted single take. A follow- up scene where the lovers are separated is equally memorable. As Gilbert is spirited to the front in one of a long line of battle trucks, he vows to return, tossing her mementos until she is left alone in a trail of dust. Gilbert’s buddies are killed during a nighttime assault on the German trenches, and Gilbert himself suffers a severely wounded leg that subsequently must be amputated; he returns home a cripple. The glamour studio balked at the downbeat fate visited upon the film’s leading man—an incident drawn from the experience of author Stallings, who had lost a leg in the war. In his quest for realism, Vidor held his ground, however, and got his way. The scene where Gilbert’s mutilation is revealed to his mother and the viewer for the first time at his homecoming is arguably the most powerful in the movie. Despite, or perhaps because of, his affliction and hellish wartime experience, the Gilbert character has now grown and matured—in contrast to his brother (Robert Oder), previously viewed as the more serious and responsible sibling, but now as the real nothing in the family. Having stayed behind to attend to the family business, he’s even stolen Gilbert’s hometown sweetheart (Claire Adams)! No matter. At his mother’s urging, Gilbert returns to France to find the love of his life Adorée as he’d promised. The Big Parade is really two films. The first hour and twenty minutes are standard (though at the time prototypical) service comedy stuff dealing with Gilbert’s, O’Brien’s, and Dane’s escapades in France prior to going into action. Part two, which runs approximately the same length, is all war—and the battle scenes remain frighten- ingly realistic and impressive to this day. The march through Belleau Wood, timed by Vidor to the inexorable beat of a metronome, as the troops are mowed down by snipers and machine gun fire is still a stunner. The trench warfare scenes are equally vivid. Many critics have noted the influence Vidor’s staging of these scenes had on Lewis Milestone’s All Quiet on the Western Front (1930). There is even a small moment when Gilbert plucks a lone flower from atop his trench that mirrors the finale of All Quiet when Lew Ayres is killed reaching for a butterfly, and which may have served as the latter’s inspiration. Where The Big Parade departs significantly from All Quiet is the clarity of its anti-war theme. All Quiet is uncompromisingly focused in this regard. The Big Parade, despite the stark believability of its warfare scenes, is, in overall aim, more of an escapist entertainment. In his later years, Vidor all but disowned the film for that reason. ‘‘At the time, I really believed it was an anti-war movie,’’ he said. ‘‘Today, I don’t encourage people to see it.’’ Vidor’s reassessment is too harsh. The Big Parade is one of the great silent films—and the model for just about every war movie that has come our way since. It should be seen for those reasons alone. While the escapist boy-meets-girl, boy-loses-girl, boy-gets-girl sub- plot may stray the focus away from Vidor’s anti-war message at times, it eloquently engages the emotions. And the theme that war is hell, while perhaps not what the film is entirely about, is nevertheless both present and potent. —John McCarty THE BIG SLEEP USA, 1946 Director: Howard Hawks Production: Warner Bros. Pictures Inc.; black and white, 35mm; running time: 114 minutes. Released 31 August 1946. Filmed in Warner Bros. studios. Producer: Howard Hawks; screenplay: William Faulkner, Leigh Brackett and Jules Furthman, from the novel by Raymond Chandler; photography: Sidney Hickox; editor: Christian Nyby; sound: Rob- ert B. Lee; production design: Fred M. MacLean; art direction: Carl Jules Weyl; music: Max Steiner; special effects: Roy Davidson and Warren E. Lynch. Cast: Humphrey Bogart (Philip Marlowe); Lauren Bacall (Vivian); John Ridgely (Eddie Mars); Martha Vickers (Carmen); Dorothy Malone (Bookshop Girl); Peggy Knusden (Mona Mars); Regis Toomey (Bernie Ohls); Charles Waldren (General Sternwood); Charles D. Brown (Norris); Bob Steele (Canino); Elisha Cook, Jr. (Jones); Louis Jean Heydt (Joe Brody); Sonia Darrin (Agnes); Theodore von Eltz (Geiger); Tom Rafferty (Carol Lundgren); James Flavin (Captain Cronjager); Thomas Jackson (Wilde); Don Wallace (Owen Taylor); Joy Barlowe (Chauffeur); Tom Fadden (Sidney); Ben Weldon (Pete); Trevor Bardette (Art Huck); Marc Lawarence. Publications Scripts: Faulkner, William, Leigh Brackett, and Jules Furthman, The Big Sleep, New York, 1971. Books: Bogdanovich, Peter, The Cinema of Howard Hawks, New York, 1962. Gehman, Richard, Bogart, Greenwich, Connecticut, 1965. THE BIG SLEEP FILMS, 4 th EDITION 130 McCarty, Clifford, The Films of Humphrey Bogart, New York, 1965. Michael, Paul, Humphrey Bogart: The Man and His Films, Indian- apolis, 1965. Missiaen, Jean-Claude, Howard Hawks, Paris, 1966. Wood, Robin, Howard Hawks, London, 1968; revised edition, 1981. Gili, Jean A., Howard Hawks, Paris, 1971. McBride, Joseph, editor, Focus on Howard Hawks, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1972. Willis, Donald, The Films of Howard Hawks, Metuchen, New Jer- sey, 1972. Bazin, André, La Politique des auteurs: Entretiens avec Jean Renoir, etc, Paris, 1972; revised edition, 1984. Barbour, Alan G., Humphrey Bogart, New York, 1973. Hyams, Joe, Bogart and Bacall, New York, 1975. Murphy, Kathleen A., Howard Hawks: An American Auteur in the Hemingway Tradition, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1978. Ciment, Michel, Les Conquérants d’un nouveau monde: Essais sur le cinéma Américain, Paris, 1981. Giannetti, Louis, Masters of the American Cinema, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1981. Pettigrew, Terence, Bogart: A Definitive Study of his Film Career, London, 1981. Wood, Robin, Howard Hawks, London, 1981. McBride, Joseph, editor, Hawks on Hawks, Berkeley, 1982. Mast, Gerald, Howard Hawks, Storyteller, Oxford, 1982. Poague, Leland, Howard Hawks, Boston, 1982. Belton, John, Cinema Stylists, Boston, 1982. Simsolo, No?l, Howard Hawks, Paris, 1984. Kuhn, Annette, The Power of the Image: Essays on Representation and Sexuality, London, 1985. Winkler, Willi, Humphrey Bogart und Hollywood Schwarze Serie, Munich, 1985. Branson, Clark, Howard Hawks: A Jungian Study, Los Angeles, 1987. Fuchs, Wolfgang J., Humphrey Bogart: Cult-Star: A Documentation, Berlin, 1987. Articles: Houseman, John, in Hollywood Quarterly, January 1947. Agel, Henri, ‘‘Howard Hawks,’’ in New York Film Bulletin, no. 4, 1962. Sarris, Andrew, ‘‘The World of Howard Hawks,’’ in Films and Filming (London), July 1962. Bogdanovich, Peter, and others, ‘‘Howard Hawks,’’ in Movie (Lon- don), December 1962. Philipe, Claude-Jean, in Télérama (Paris), June 1966. Tavernier, Bertrand, in Humphrey Bogart, by Bernard Eisenschitz, Paris 1967. Blades, John, in Film Heritage (Dayton, Ohio), Summer 1970. Davis, Paxton, ‘‘Bogart, Hawks, and The Big Sleep Revisited— Frequently,’’ in Film Journal (New York), Summer 1971. Ecran (Paris), July 1972. Haskell, Molly, ‘‘Howard Hawks—Masculine Feminine,’’ in Film Comment (New York), April 1973. Brackett, Leigh, ‘‘From The Big Sleep to The Long Goodbye and More or Less How We Got There,’’ in Take One (Montreal), January 1974. Bellour, Raymond, ‘‘The Obvious and the Code,’’ in Screen (Lon- don), Winter 1974–75. Monaco, James, ‘‘Notes on The Big Sleep: 30 Years After,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1974–75. Jensen, P., ‘‘Film Noir: The Writer: The World You Live In,’’ in Film Comment (New York), November-December 1974. Pym, John, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), September 1978. Davies, G., ‘‘Teaching about Narrative,’’ in Screen Education (Lon- don), Winter 1978–79. Carcassonne, P., ‘‘En écoutant Le Grand Sommeil,’’ in Cinématographe (Paris), December 1978. Sauvaget, D., in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), January 1979. Kuhn, Annette, ‘‘The Big Sleep: A Disturbance in the Sphere of Sexuality,’’ in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), vol. 4, no. 3, 1980. Place, Janey, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 1, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Thomson, David, ‘‘At the Acme Bookshop,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Spring, 1981. Orr, Christopher, ‘‘The Trouble with Harry: On the Hawks Version of The Big Sleep,’’ in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), vol. 5, no. 2, 1982. Librach, R. S., ‘‘Adaptation and Ontology: The Impulse Towards Closure in Howard Hawks’s version of The Big Sleep,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), no. 3, 1991. McCullough, J., ‘‘Pedagogy in the Perverse Text,’’ in Cineaction (Toronto), Winter-Spring 1990. Cantaloube, Thomas, ‘‘Le grand retour du Sommeil,’’ Cahiers du Cinema (Paris), no. 518, November 1995. Stein, E., ‘‘The Big Sleep,’’ Village Voice (New York), vol. 42, January 14, 1997. *** An unidentified finger presses the doorbell of the Sternwood mansion. A butler answers. The guest intones: ‘‘My name is Mar- lowe. General Sternwood sent for me.’’ This introduction thrusts us into immediate alliance with private detective Philip Marlowe, and throughout the film we traverse the world of crime as he does. As the central character, he is in every scene: we know what he knows, nothing more, nothing less. We share his experience as if on a detective training course: we see the way he works, the way he choreographs his moves and orchestrates his space to provoke a desired reaction from his opponent; we share his cognitive processes by identification with his visual point of view; we adopt his attitude by osmosis. This is the world of film noir in which the existential hero (here played by noir favourite Humphrey Bogart) moves through oppres- sive atmospheres and dangerous locales, encounters wicked men and women and strives to earn his salary by solving a minor-league murder while wading through a complex and confusing series of clues. Despite a blackmail premise which exposes a whodunnit plot, this Howard Hawks film concerns itself less with why or who, than with how, more with process than result. The story line is extremely complicated (even the author of the novel, Raymond Chandler, was reputedly unable to answer a certain key question about the plot) and unfolds at breakneck speed forcing the spectator to assimilate facts and assess situations quickly or succumb to confusion. Does it really THE BIRDSFILMS, 4 th EDITION 131 matter who is blackmailing General Sternwood, or what happened to Sean Regan, or who shot Arthur Gwynne Geiger? In adapting the Chandler novel for the screen, many details were altered and the directly political material erased, but an essential pessimism and cynicism remained. An atmosphere of corruption was pervasive and more than an investigation of a crime, this is an investigation into modern treachery. Marlowe is deceived, beat up, and threatened with extermination as he searches for the truth of a criminal situation. We are concerned not so much with what happened to others as what is happening to Marlowe. What does happen to him is true in spirit to the novel except in the realm of romance. Marlowe’s misogynistic streak replaced by a cynisicm which erodes as the developing romance with Vivian consolidates. In a typical film noir, male/female relationships are doomed, severed by the conclusion of the film—typified by Fred MacMurray’s condition at the end of Double Indemnity or Bogart’s loss of Gloria Grahame at the end of In a Lonely Place. In The Big Sleep Hollywood romance prevailed in Hawksian style; Bogart and Bacall lived out their celebrated off-screen romance on screen. The Big Sleep was a Warner Brother’s big budgeted film, not an RKO low budget ‘‘B’’; box office stars, a top notch crew, and three major writers was not the usual treatment accorded to films of this genre. This studio treatment elevated the film to ‘‘A’’ status, but ultimately the box office was fuelled by a movie-going public anxious to witness romantic reality amidst Hollywood fiction. —Doug Tomlinson THE BIRDS USA, 1963 Director: Alfred Hitchcock Production: Alfred J. Hitchcock Productions; Technicolor, 35mm; running time: 120 minutes. Released 28 March 1963, New York, through Universal Pictures. Filmed mostly on location in Bodega Bay, California. Producer: Alfred Hitchcock; screenplay: Evan Hunter, from ‘‘The Birds’’ by Daphne Du Maurier; photography: Robert Burks; editor: George Tomasini; sound: Remi Gassman and Oskar Sala; sound recordists: Waldon O. Watson and William Russell; sound supervi- sor: Bernard Herrmann; production design: Robert Boyle; set decoration: George Milo; music: Bernard Herrmann; special ef- fects: Lawrence A. Hampton; costumes: Edith Head; special pho- tography advisor: Ub Iwerks; bird trainer: Ray Berwick. Cast: Rod Taylor (Mitch Brenner); Tippi Hedren (Melanie Dan- iels); Jessica Tandy (Mrs. Brenner); Suzanne Pleshette (Annie Hayworth); Veronica Cartwright (Cathy Brenner); Ethel Griffies (Mrs. Bundy); Charles McGraw (Sebastian Sholes); Ruth McDevitt (Mrs. MacGruder); Joe Mantell (Travelling Salesman); Doreen Lang (Hysterical woman); Malcolm Atterbury (Deputy Al Malone); Karl Swenson (Drunk); Elizabeth Wilson (Helen Carter); Lonny Chap- man (Deke Carter); Doodles Weaver (Fisherman); John McGovern (Postal clerk); Richard Deacon (Man in elevator); William Quinn. Publications Books: Bogdanovich, Peter, The Cinema of Alfred Hitchcock, New York, 1962. Perry, George, The Films of Alfred Hitchcock, London, 1965. Wood, Robin, Hitchcock’s Films, London, 1965. Truffaut, Fran?ois, Le Cinéma selon Hitchcock, Paris, 1966; as Hitchcock, New York, 1985. Simsolo, No?l, Alfred Hitchcock, Paris, 1969. Cameron, Ian, editor, Movie Reader, New York, 1978. Taylor, John Russell, Hitch, London and New York, 1978. Bellour, Raymond, L’Analyse du film, Paris, 1979. Nichols, Bill, Ideology and the Image: Social Representation in the Cinema and Other Media, Bloomington, Indiana, 1981. Hemmeter, Thomas M., Hitchcock the Stylist, Ann Arbor, Michi- gan, 1981. Bazin, André, The Cinema of Cruelty: From Bu?uel to Hitchcock, New York, 1982. Narboni, Jean, editor, Alfred Hitchcock, Paris, 1982. Rothman, William, Hitchcock—The Murderous Gaze, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1982. Villien, Bruno, Hitchcock, Paris, 1982. Weis, Elisabeth, The Silent Scream: Alfred Hitchcock’s Sound Track, Rutherford, New Jersey, 1982. Belton, John, Cinema Stylists, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1983. Spoto, Donald, The Life of Alfred Hitchcock: The Dark Side of Genius, New York, 1982; London, 1983. Phillips, Gene D., Alfred Hitchcock, Boston, 1984. Barbier, Philippe, and Jacques Moreau, Alfred Hitchcock, Paris, 1985. Bruce, Graham, Bernard Herrmann: Film Music and Narrative, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1985. Douchet, Jean, Alfred Hitchcock, Paris, 1985. Dentelbaum, Marshall, and Leland Poague, A Hitchcock Reader, Ames, Iowa, 1986. Hogan, David J., Dark Romance: Sexuality in the Horror Film, Jefferson, North Carolina, 1986. Humphries, Patrick, The Films of Alfred Hitchcock, Greenwich, Connecticut, 1986. Kloppenburg, Josef, Die dramaturgische Funktion der Musik in Filmen Alfred Hitchcocks, Munich, 1986. Sinyard, Neil, The Films of Alfred Hitchcock, London, 1986. Modleski, Tania, The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory, New York, 1988. Leitch, Thomas M., Find the Director and Other Hitchcock Games, Athens, Georgia, 1991. Raubicheck, Walter, and Walter Srebnick, eds., Hitchcock’s Rereleased Films: From Rope to Vertigo, Detroit, 1991. THE BIRDS FILMS, 4 th EDITION 132 The Birds Sharff, Stefan, Alfred Hitchcock’s High Vernacular: Theory and Practice, New York, 1991. Finler, Joel W., Hitchcock in Hollywood, New York, 1992. Kapsis, Robert E., Hitchcock: The Making of a Reputation, Chi- cago, 1992. Spoto, Donald, The Art of Alfred Hitchcock: Fifty Years of His Motion Pictures, New York, 1992. Corber, Robert J., In the Name of National Security: Hitchcock, Homophobia, and the Political Construction of Gender in Post- war America, Durham, North Carolina, 1993. Hurley, Neil P., Soul in Suspense: Hitchcock’s Fright and Delight, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1993. Sloan, Jane, Alfred Hitchcock: A Guide to References and Sources, New York, 1993. Arginteanu, Judy, The Movies of Alfred Hitchcock, Minneapolis, 1994. Sloan, Jane E., Alfred Hitchcock: A Filmography and Bibliography, Berkeley, 1995. Boyd, David, editor, Perspectives on Alfred Hitchcock, New York, 1995. Rebello, Stephen, Alfred Hitchcock and the Making of Psycho, New York, 1998. Freedman, Jonathan, and Richard Millington, editors, Hitchcock’s America, New York, 1999. Auiler, Dan, Hitchcock’s Notebooks: An Authorized and Illustrated Look Inside the Creative Mind of Alfred Hitchcock, New York, 1999. Articles: Cameron Ian, and V. F. Perkins, interview with Hitchcock in Movie (London), January 1963. Bogdanovich, Peter, in Film Culture (New York), Spring 1963. Johnson, Albert, ‘‘Echoes from The Birds,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1963. Sarris, Andrew, in Village Voice (New York), 4 April 1963. Foote, Sterling, in Films in Review (New York), May 1963. ‘‘Hitchcock on Style: Interview,’’ in Cinema (Beverly Hills), August 1963. Baker, Peter, in Films and Filming (London), September 1963. Belz, Carl, in Film Culture (New York), Winter 1963–64. Thomas, John, in Film Society Review (New York), September 1966. Hitchcock, Alfred, in Take One (Montreal), no.10, 1968. THE BIRTH OF A NATIONFILMS, 4 th EDITION 133 Cumbow, R. C., ‘‘Caliban and Bodega Bay,’’ in Movietone News (Seattle), May 1975. Simper, D., ‘‘Poe, Hitchcock, and the Well-Wrought Effect,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), Summer 1975. Rose, J., ‘‘Paranoia and the Film System,’’ in Screen (London), Winter 1976–77. Weis, Elisabeth, ‘‘The Sound of One Wing Flapping,’’ in Film Comment (New York), September-October 1978. Nichols, Bill, ‘‘The Birds: At the Window,’’ in Film Reader (Evans- ton, Illinois), no. 4, 1979. Bergstrom, J., ‘‘Enunciation and Sexual Difference,’’ in Cinema Obscura (Berkeley), Summer 1979. Bikacsy, G., ‘‘Alfred Hitchcock,’’ in Filmkultura (Budapest), Sep- tember-October 1979. Counts, Kyle B., ‘‘The Making of Alfred Hitchcock’s The Birds,’’ in Cinefantastique (Oak Park, Illinois), Fall 1980. Krohn, B., and others, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), June 1982. Horwitz, Margaret M., ‘‘A Mother’s Love,’’ in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), vol. 5, no. 1, 1982. Kapsis, Robert E., ‘‘Hollywood Filmmaking and Reputation Build- ing: Hitchcock’s The Birds,’’ in Journal of Popular Film and Television (Washington, D.C.), Spring 1987. Girard, M., ‘‘The Birds,’’ in Séquences (Quebec), no. 169, Febru- ary 1994. Silet, Charles L.P., ‘‘Writing for Hitch: An Interview with Evan Hunter,’’ and Christopher Sharrett, ‘‘The Myth of Apocalypse and the Horror Film: The Primacy of Psycho and The Birds,’’ in Hitchcock Annual (New London, New Hampshire), Fall 1995–96. Allen, R., ‘‘Avian Metaphors in The Birds,’’ in Hitchcock Annual (New London, New Hampshire), Fall 1997–98. Vest, James M., ‘‘Echoes of Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo, The Birds, and Frenzy in Francois Truffaut’s Story of Adèle H.,’’ in Hitch- cock Annual (New London, New Hampshire), Fall 1997–98. *** Of The Birds, Peter Bogdanovich has written, ‘‘If (Alfred Hitch- cock) had never made another motion picture in his life, The Birds would place him securely among the giants of the cinema.’’ Released in 1963, The Birds is one in a series of Hitchcock collaborations with composer Bernard Herrmann, cinematographer Robert Burks, and editor George Tomasini. It was also the director’s first film featuring actress Tippi Hedren, who would later star in Marnie, perhaps the most critically controversial film of Hitchcock’s career. The Birds seems to be a film which functions as a Rorschach test, in which every critic sees something different, and of which virtually anything can be said. It has been discussed as a generic work of horror which inaugurated a whole series of apocalyptic films; as a film of special effects and state-of-the-art matte work representing the inge- nuity of Hollywood; as the most sophisticated example of Hitch- cock’s ability to manipulate his audiences and to play upon the spectators’ fears; as a profound and personal work concerning human frailty and the importance of commitment in human relationships; as a philosophical treatise—influenced by Kafka and Poe—on the existential human condition; as a structural work examining the point- of-view shot and its relationship to the gaze of the spectator; as a repository of psychoanalytic ideology and meanings; and as the American film most influenced by and celebrative of the montage theories promulgated by the Russian cinema theorists. That this film has been interpreted in so many ways, that the memory of it remains so strong for so many filmmakers and critics, and that the film continues to excite and provoke new generations of filmgoers, are the surest signs that The Birds is indeed a great and lasting film. Those who see the film for the first time may be surprised by the strength of their visceral response, but those who view the film an additional time are inevitably surprised by how much of the film has actually little to do with bird attacks and takes, instead, the relation- ships between human beings as its subject. Certainly The Birds contains some of the most disturbing and almost surrealistically beautiful images Hitchcock has ever put on film; the children’s party disrupted by a bird attack; the camera’s treatment of Tippi Hedren as a fetish object; the surprising aerial view of Bodega Bay which shows the city from the birds’ point of view; the three virtually still shots— each catching a discreet moment of time—of Tippi Hedren watching helplessly through the window of a cafe; and, especially, the final exterior scene, poetic and mysterious, aided by the extraordinary matte paintings of Al Whitlock, as the protagonists drive off into an unearthly bird-populated landscape and an uncertain future. —Charles Derry THE BIRTH OF A NATION USA, 1915 Director: D. W. Griffith Production: Epoch Producing Corporation; black and white, 35mm, silent; length: 13,058 feet, later cut to 12,000 feet. Released 8 Febru- ary 1915, Los Angeles. Re-released 1930 with musical soundtrack. Filmed 4 July through 24 September 1914 in Reliance-Majestic Studios, Los Angeles, and various outdoor locations around Los Angeles; cost: $110,000. Producer: D. W. Griffith; scenario: D. W. Griffith, Thomas Dixon, and Frank Woods, from the play The Clansman by the Rev. Thomas Dixon; assistants to the director include: Eric von Stroheim, Raoul Walsh, Jack Conway, and George Siegman; photography: G. W. (Billy) Bitzer and Karl Brown; editor: James Smith; compiler of music for the sound version: Joseph Carl Breil, assisted by D. W. Griffith; costume supplier: Robert Goldstein. Cast: Henry B. Walthall (Ben Cameron, the ‘‘Little Colonel’’); Mae Marsh (Flora); Miriam Cooper (Margaret, the older sister); Violet Wilkey (Flora as a child); Josephine Crowell (Mrs. Cameron); Spottiswoode Aitken (Dr. Cameron); Andre Beranger (Wade Cameron); Maxfield Stanley (Duke Cameron); Jennie Lee (Mammy); William De Vaull (Jake); Lillian Gish (Elsie Stoneman); Ralph Lewis THE BIRTH OF A NATION FILMS, 4 th EDITION 134 The Birth of a Nation (The Hon. Austin Stoneman); Elmer Clifton (Phil Stoneman); Robert Harron (Ted Stoneman); Mary Alden (Lydia Brown, Stoneman’s housekeeper); Tom Wilson (Stoneman’s Negro servant); Sam De Grasse (Senator Sumner); George Siegman (Silas Lynch); Walter Long (Gus); Elmo Lincoln (White Arm Joe); Wallace Reid (Jeff, the blacksmith); Joseph Henaberry (Abraham Lincoln); Alberta Lee (Mrs. Lincoln); Donald Crisp (Gen. Ulysses S. Grant); Howard Gaye (Gen. Robert E. Lee); William Freeman (Sentry); Olga Grey (Laura Keene); Raoul Walsh (John Wilkes Booth); Eugene Palette (Union Soldier); Bessie Love (Piedmont Girl); Charles Stevens (Volunteer); Erich von Stroheim (Man who falls off roof). Publications Scripts: Huff, Theodore, A Shot Analysis of D. W. Griffith’s Birth of a Nation, New York, 1961. Cunibert, John, The Birth of a Nation, a shot by shot analysis, Woodbridge, Connecticut, 1979. Books: Lindsay, Vachel, The Art of the Moving Picture, New York, 1915; revised edition, 1922. Paine, Albert Bigelow, Life and Lillian Gish, New York, 1932. Jacobs, Lewis, The Rise of the American Film, New York, 1939. Agee, James, Agee on Film I, New York, 1948. Noble, Peter, The Negro in Films, London, 1948. Wagenknecht, Edward, The Movies in the Age of Innocence, Norman, Oklahoma, 1962. Aitken, Roy, The Birth of a Nation Story, as told to Al P. Nelson, Middleburg, Virginia, 1965. Barry, Iris, D. W. Griffith: American Film Master, New York, 1965. Pratt, George C., Spellbound in Darkness, Connecticut, 1966. Brownlow, Kevin, The Parade’s Gone By . . . , London and New York, 1969. Cook, Raymond Allen, Fire from the Flint, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, 1968. Gish, Lillian, with Ann Pinchot, Lillian Gish: The Movies, Mr. Griffith, and Me, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1969. Silva, Fred, editor, Focus on Birth of a Nation, New York, 1971. THE BIRTH OF A NATIONFILMS, 4 th EDITION 135 Henderson, Robert M., D. W. Griffith: His Life and Work, New York, 1972. Brown, Karl, Adventures with D. W. Griffith, edited by Kevin Brownlow, New York and London, 1973; revised edition, 1988. Cripps, Thomas J., Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Film, 1900–1942, New York, 1977. Campbell, Edward D. C., Jr., The Celluloid South, Knoxville, 1981. Giannetti, Louis, Masters of the American Cinema, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1981. Brion, Patrick, editor, D. W. Griffith, Paris, 1982. Mottet, Jean, editor, D. W. Griffith, Paris, 1984. Schickel, Richard, D. W. Griffith and the Birth of Film, London, 1984. Graham, Cooper C., and others, D.W. Griffith and the Biograph Company, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1985. Jesionowski, Joyce E., Thinking in Pictures: Dramatic Structures in D. W. Griffith’s Biograph Films, Berkeley, 1987. Lang, Robert, editor, The Birth of a Nation: D. W. Griffith, Director, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1994. Articles: New York Times, 4 March 1915. New York Tribune, 4 March 1915. Variety (New York), 12 March 1915. ‘‘The Civil War in Film,’’ in Literary Digest (New York), 20 March 1915. New Republic (New York), 4 December 1915. Griffith, D. W., ‘‘The Rise and Fall of Free Speech in America,’’ (a pamphlet written in answer to the reaction against The Birth of a Nation), Los Angeles, 1916. Gordon, Henry Stephen, ‘‘D. W. Griffith Recalls the Making of The Birth of a Nation,’’ in The Photoplay Magazine (Hollywood), October 1916. Platt, David D., ‘‘The Negro in Hollywood,’’ in Daily Worker (New York), 19–28 February 1940. Carter, Everett, ‘‘Cultural History Written with Lightning: The Significance of The Birth of a Nation,’’ in American Quarterly (University of Pennsylvania), Fall 1960. Fulton, A. R., ‘‘Editing in The Birth of a Nation,’’ in Motion Pictures: The Development of an Art from Silent Pictures to the Age of Television, Norman, Oklahoma, 1960. Cripps, Thomas R., ‘‘The Reaction of the Negro to the Motion Picture, The Birth of a Nation,’’ in The Historian, May 1963. ‘‘Griffith Issue’’ of Film Culture (New York), Spring-Summer 1965. Sarris, Andrew, ‘‘Birth of a Nation of White Power Back When,’’ in Village Voice (New York), 17 and 24 July 1969. Beylie, Claude, ‘‘Naissance d’une Nation: La Piste du Geant,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), March 1971. Casty, Alan, ‘‘The Films of D. W. Griffith: A Style for the Times,’’ in Journal of Popular Film (Washington, D.C.), Spring 1972. Merritt, Russell, ‘‘Dixon, Griffith, and the Southern Legend,’’ in Cinema Journal (Austin, Texas), Fall 1972. Simcovitch, Maxim, ‘‘The Impact of Griffith’s Birth of a Nation on Modern Ku Klux Klan,’’ in Journal of Popular Film (Washington, D.C.), Winter 1972. Yacowar, Maurice, ‘‘In Defense of Minority Group Stereotyping in the Popular Film,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Mary- land), Spring 1974. ‘‘Birth of a Nation Issue’’ of Kosmorama (Copenhagen), Sum- mer 1975. Turconi, D., ‘‘G. P. and D. W. G . . . in dare e l’avere,’’ in Bianco e nero (Rome), Summer 1975. Oms, Marcel, ‘‘Naissance d’une nation: Opera maconnique,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), Christmas 1975. ‘‘Griffithiana: Material della e per la storia del cinema . . . ,’’ in Filmcritica (Rome), January-February 1976. ‘‘Birth of a Nation Case,’’ in Classic Film Collection (Indiana, Pennsylvania), Fall 1976. ‘‘Birth of a Nation Issue’’ of Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), 15 Octo- ber 1977. Petric, Vlada, ‘‘Two Lincoln Assassinations by D. W. Griffith,’’ in Quarterly Review of Film Studies (Pleasantville, New York), Summer 1978. ‘‘In Defence of the KKK,’’ reprinted in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), May 1979. Combs, R., in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), May 1979. Fleener, N., ‘‘Answering Film with Film . . . ,’’ in Journal of Popular Film and Television (Washington, D.C.), no. 4, 1980. Stern, Seymour, in American Classic Screen (Shawnee Mission, Kansas), November-December 1980. Merritt, Russell, ‘‘Dixon, Griffith and the Southern Legend: A Cul- tural Analysis of The Birth of a Nation,’’ in Cinema Examined, New York, 1982. Pinsky, Mark, ‘‘Racism, History, and Mass Media,’’ in Jump Cut (Berkeley) no. 28, 1983. Martin, J. B., ‘‘Film Out of Theatre: D. W. Griffith, Birth of a Nation and the Melodrama The Clansmen,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), no. 2, 1990. Leblanc, G., ‘‘L’art de raconter et de persuader: La naissance d’une nation,’’ in Cinemaction (Conde-sur-Noireau, France), Janu- ary 1990. Taylor, C., ‘‘The Re-birth of the Aesthetic in Cinema,’’ in Wide Angle (Baltimore), no. 3–4, 1991. Vanoye, Francis, ‘‘Rhétorique de la douleur,’’ in Vertigo (Paris), no. 6–7, 1991. Heine, Isabelle, ‘‘L’analyse videographique: conceptualisation et formalisation,’’ in Revue Belge du Cinéma (Brussels), Septem- ber 1992. Hoberman, J., ‘‘Our Troubling Birth Rite,’’ in Village Voice (New York), 30 November 1993. Couvares, F.G., ‘‘The Good Censor: Race, Sex, and Censorship in the Early Cinema,’’ in Yale Journal of Criticism (New Haven), vol. 7, no. 2, 1994. Cripps, Thomas, ‘‘The Absent Presence in America Civil War Films,’’ in Historical Journal of Film, Radio, and Television (Hants, United Kingdom), vol. 14, no. 4, October 1994. Grimes, William, ‘‘An Effort to Classify a Racist Classic,’’ in New York Times, 27 April 1994. Moore, D.C., ‘‘Regarding ‘Racism’ of D. W. Griffith,’’ in Films of the Golden Age (Muscatine, Iowa), no. 5, Summer 1996. Rogin, M. ‘‘The Two Declarations of American Independence,’’ Representations (Berkeley), no. 55, Summer 1996. Green, J.R., ‘‘Micheaux v. Griffith,’’ in Griffithiana (Temple, Ari- zona), no. 60, October 1997. Gill, D., ‘‘The Birth of a Nation Orphan or Pariah?’’ in Griffithiana (Temple, Arizona), no. 60, October 1997. *** THE BIRTH OF A NATION FILMS, 4 th EDITION 136 ‘‘More than any picture before it, it made moviegoing a middle class activity,’’ writes Joan L. Silverman of The Birth of a Nation (French, ed., The South in Film). ‘‘Soon movie palaces were built in fashionable neighborhoods all over the United States.’’ More than that, the film remains one of the most controversial of the medium’s first century. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) branded it racist; riots followed in cities such as Boston; widespread picketing and lawsuits continued for years in many cities and states. Although Griffith found it difficult to raise the $110,000 that the film cost, and production was halted at times for fund-raising drives, by the end of the silent film period, it had made $18,000,000. Griffith’s much-hailed narrative techniques are relatively simple but enormously influential adaptations and expansions of the ‘‘villain still pursued her’’ formulaic storytelling of 19th-century theatrical melodramas. Griffith was an unknown actor when he was hired by Biograph Studios of New York to make the one-reel, 12-minute fictional films that were changed weekly at storefront nickelodeons. By the end of 1910 he had made 250, but was losing patience with the length limitation. An experimental two-reeler, however, was split by producers into two weeks’ shows. Not until the summer of 1913, after he had completed another 175 or so films, was he allowed finally to expand to four reels with Judith of Bethulia. Dissatisfied, he left Biograph to join Harry E. Aitken’s new company to make five five- to-seven reel films during the first six months of 1914. Meanwhile he was plotting—in a double sense—to match the competition from abroad, especially Italy, where since 1911, the flamboyant poet Gabrielle D’Annunzio, had developed a series of spectacular but static films based on classical motifs into the ten-reel Cabiria. Critics predicted this would ‘‘convince many doubtful people that high art and the motion picture are not incompatible’’ (Pratt, ed., Spellbound in Darkness, 1966). Griffith was determined, after moving his operations from over- crowded New York City to Los Angeles, to push American films to the forefront just at the time that European production was curtailed by World War I. He opted, however, for action over art. In 1908 he had worked briefly for the self-proclaimed bigot Thomas Dixon, Jr., who had cobbled together two of his rabble-rousing novels about the South during Reconstruction into a play called The Clansman. The Reverend Dixon was willing to sell the rights for the then huge sum of $10,000 (£2,000). The opening portion of the film was apparently created on the spot by Griffith, as no script exists. The scene opens in pre-Civil War Piedmont, the gracious pastoral capital of a deep Southern state, in which the Cameron family and those ‘‘faithful souls,’’ their house- hold slaves, are entertaining affectionately the sons of northern Congressman Austin Stoneman (based somewhat fancifully on Penn- sylvania’s radical Republican Senator Thaddeus Stevens). The out- break of war disrupts this relationship—and when the boys face each other on the battlefield, the younger son of each family is killed. Griffith proclaimed in an opening subtitle that this message was that ‘‘war must be held in abhorrence.’’ Ben Cameron is falsely accused of spying and sentenced to death; his mother makes a precarious trip to Washington to plead for him, and the Great Heart, President Lincoln, grants a pardon. Mrs. Cameron’s cause is abetted by Elsie Stoneman, who had not visited Piedmont with her brothers, but who has come to know and love Ben while nursing him back to health. Through this episodic section of the film, Griffith interrupts the heart-rending saga of the families with what he insisted were authentic reconstructions of some of the great moments of the war and its aftermath, including the assassination of President Lincoln, whom Griffith believed could have ameliorated the situation after the war. With the assassination, Dixon takes over; and public history gives way to private myth. Congressman Stoneman becomes the fiery apostle of Reconstruction, determined to replace traitorous Southern leaders with freed slaves whom his cabal can manipulate. He appoints Silas Lynch, his mulatto cohort, the new lieutenant-governor in Piedmont to organize this. When a renegade black soldier, inflamed by Lynch’s proddings and free liquor, threatens to rape Ben Cameron’s ‘‘pet sister,’’ she jumps from a cliff to her death rather than suffer dishonour. Outraged, Ben, after watching children donning sheets and playing ghosts, is portrayed by Griffith as founding the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) to restore proper law and order to the South and keep the blacks in their place. Enraged, Silas Lynch sets out to destroy the Klan and the Camerons, and also to marry Elsie Stoneman, by force if necessary. When the Congressman learns of his henchman’s audac- ity, he sees the error of his ways. In the most famous sequence of the film, Griffith uses the stunning effect of alternating closeups and long-shots, enhanced by printing the black images on stock tinted in a variety of colours that it was theorized influenced viewers’ reactions (red for battle scenes, green for pastoral romance, etc.). Elsie is rescued from Lynch’s townhouse to join the frenzied dash to the lonely cabin where the Camerons are preparing to join their dead daughter. The Klan comes to the rescue at the last moment, paving the way for a double wedding between the Camerons and the Stonemans which restores peace to the community. However, it leaves open the question of whether the ‘‘nation’’ whose ‘‘birth’’ Griffith had in mind was that of the ‘‘Invisible Empire’’ of the KKK or of the disunited states, at last peacefully amalgamated by this symbolic marriage. The first audiences saw the long runs of the big city ‘‘road shows’’; a live orchestra accompanied the film, playing a rousing score by Joseph Carl Breil. Griffith travelled around the country constantly editing the film; the censors insisted upon other cuts. The results of this editing toned down the racist elements that Lillian Gish had feared might make people object to the film; however, protests to the film continued. Griffith tried to remedy the situation by making his first talking picture Abraham Lincoln and by releasing a cut version of The Birth of a Nation, which was almost an hour shorter than the original; all references to the KKK were eliminated. The film remains a landmark in the development of motion pictures. Its length (rarely equalled since), its exploitation of technical devices (producing startlingly new effects), and its establishment of the pattern of the horse opera that dominated American film melo- drama, accord it a unique place in the evolution of American and international filmmaking. It retains its sentimental and provocative power, but its circulation is restricted to groups studying both Griffith’s reasons for making the film and the damage inflicted on a new medium by a great innovator’s propagandistic vision. Perhaps the most perceptive judgement was written by a reviewer for the New York Times in 1921: ‘‘Sometimes it is almost epic in quality. But in many scenes it is falsely romantic and BIRUMA NO TATEGOTOFILMS, 4 th EDITION 137 as blindly partisan as the most violent sectional tradition. It may be said that, as a rule, it comes closest to historical truth when it is furthest from Thomas Dixon.’’ —Warren French BIRUMA NO TATEGOTO (Harp of Burma) Japan, 1956 Director: Kon Ichikawa Production: Nikkatsu (Japan); black and white, 35mm; running time: 116 minutes. Released 1956. Screenplay: Natto Wada, from an original story by Michio Takeyama; photography: Minoru Yokoyama; editor: Masonori Truju; produc- tion design: Takashi Matsuyama; music: Akira Ifukube. Cast: Shoji Yasui (Private Mizushima); Rentaro Mikuni (Captain Inouye); Taniye Kita Bayashi (Old woman); Tatsuya Mihashi (Defen- sive commander); Yunosuke Ito (Village head). Awards: San Giorgio Prize, Venice Film Festival, 1956. Biruma no Tategoto Publications Books: Anderson, Joseph, and Donald Richie, The Japanese Film: Art and Industry, Rutland, Vermont, 1959. Svensson, Arne, Japan, New York, 1971. Mellen, Joan, Voices from the Japanese Cinema, New York, 1975. Soumi, Angelo, Kon Ichikawa, Florence, 1975. Bock, Audie, Japanese Film Directors, New York, 1978. Allyn, John, Kon Ichikawa: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1985. Articles: Baker, Peter, in Films and Filming (London), April 1960. Richie, Donald, ‘‘The Several Sides of Kon Ichikawa,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1966. Milne, Tom, ‘‘The Skull Beneath the Skin,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1966. Ichikawa, Kon, and others, ‘‘The Uniqueness of Kon Ichikawa,’’ in Cinema (Beverly Hills), Fall 1970. Johnson, W., ‘‘Ichikawa and the Wanderers,’’ in Film Comment (New York), September-October 1975. Variety (New York), 12 June 1985. Dipont, M., in Kino (Warsaw), June 1986. Dissanayake, Wimal, ‘‘Self, Agency, and Cultural Knowledge: Reflec- tions on Three Japanese Films,’’ in Wimal Dissanayake, editor, Narratives of Agency: Self-Making in China, India, and Japan, Minneapolis, 1996. *** Biruma no tategoto, directed by Kon Ichikawa, won the San Giorgio Prize at the 1956 Venice Film Festival. Although Ichikawa had been directing since 1945, this was the first film to bring him international recognition. The film, starring Shoji Yasui as Private Mizushima and Rentaro Mikuni as Captain Inouye, concerns the last days of World War II in Burma. Mizushima’s unit is captured and they are made prisoners of war. He is reported missing, but actually he has been commissioned to convince a garrison of Japanese soldiers to surrender rather than incur further bloodshed. He is unsuccessful in his mission, and the garrison is attacked, Mizushima becoming the sole survivor. He is nursed back to health by a Buddhist priest whose robes he steals in an effort to return to his unit. Crossing the island he comes upon several aban- doned corpses and feels compelled to bury them. For the Japanese, to die on foreign soil and remain unburied is the most ignoble of deaths. By the time he meets his former companions, he is committed to his new mission of burying the dead and refuses to be repatriated. In concept the film reflects the post-World War II pacifism prevalent in Japan as well as a spirit of international humanism. Both Japanese and British are portrayed as caring individuals caught up in an inhuman war. War and death are the enemies. Mizushima’s decision to remain in Burma is an act of contrition, which emerges in part from a sense of Japanese postwar shame and guilt. Throughout his wanderings, Mizushima carries a Burmese harp. This serves as a source of inspiration, a signal, and a means of communication which unites British and Japanese. The tune, ‘‘There’s No Place Like Home,’’ an American melody, is sung alternatively by both groups, BLACK NARCISSUS FILMS, 4 th EDITION 138 signifying the peaceful commitment to home and family which Mizushima will be sacrificing by remaining in Burma. Ultimately the harp becomes Mizushima’s voice. In addition to the interplay of light and shadow, evocative close- ups, and point-of-view shots, Biruma no tategoto is noteworthy for its fragmented narrative structure. The story unfolds through a series of flashbacks and parallel action depicting Mizushima’s plight in con- trast to the experiences of his unit. Like Ichikawa’s next film, Nobi, the film documents the human suffering, brutality, and carnage which are inevitable results of war. However, whereas Nobi ends on a pessimistic note with the death of the hero, Biruma no tategoto closes on an inspirational note, signal- ling the goodness of man and universal brotherhood. Ideologically the film speaks of the value of life and survival in opposition to the pre- World War II official position of allegiance to the Emperor and dishonor in surrender. The film plays upon the traditional conflict between giri and ninjo (desire and duty). Mizushima longs to rejoin his friends and to return to Japan. But he is equally pulled by a higher duty which calls for the burial of the dead. As in all Japanese narratives, ninjo wins out after an emotional struggle. Mizushima’s choice is especially difficult be- cause his voluntary isolation deprives him of group support and comradery, a crucial aspect of Japanese society. Ichikawa’s emphasis upon the warmth of group solidarity makes Mizushima’s loss all the more heartrending. Further, Ichikawa, in an exception to the ironic attitude which pervades the majority of his works, expresses an emotionalism, especially in the scenes where the men beg Mizushima to return with them and in Mizushima’s silent determination to remain. The film ends as the ship taking the soldiers home pulls away from shore. It is a subjective shot from Mizushima’s point of view. On board the men talk of the Ginza and movies. They have already turned to the future. Only Mizushima remains to remember the past. His solitary sadness reflects a traditional view of the acceptance of life’s tragedies. Yet equally, Biruma no tategoto marks Japan’s postwar conversion from one value system to another. The film’s implicit critique of feudal values reflects Japan’s decision to become a full member of the international democratic community. —Patricia Erens BLACK GOD, WHITE DEVIL See DEUS E O DIABO NA TERRA DO SOL BLACK NARCISSUS UK, 1947 Directors: Michael Powell, Emeric Pressburger Production: The Archers, for Independent Productions; Techni- color; running time: 100 minutes. Released April 1947. Producers: Michael Powell, Emeric Pressburger; assistant pro- ducer: George R. Busby; screenplay: Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger, from the novel by Rumer Godden; assistant director: Black Narcissus Sydney S. Streeter; photographer: Jack Cardiff; associate photog- rapher: Joan Bridge; camera operators: Ted Scaife, Stan Sayers; process shots: W. Percy Day; color control: Natalie Kalmus; editor: Reginald Mills; sound recordist: Stanley Lambourne; sound re- recordist: Gordon K. McCallum; production designer: Alfred Junge; assistant art director: Arthur Lawson; costume designer: Hein Heckroth; music: Brian Easdale; music performed by: London Symphony Orchestra. Cast: Deborah Kerr (Sister Clodagh); Sabu (The Young general); David Farrar (Mr. Dean); Flora Robson (Sister Philippa); Esmond Knight (The Old general); Jean Simmons (Kanchi); Kathleen Byron (Sister Ruth); Jenny Laird (Blanche, ‘‘Sister Honey’’); Judith Furse (Sister Briony); May Hallatt (Angu Ayah); Eddie Whaley, Jr. (Joseph Anthony); Shaun Noble (Con); Nancy Roberts (Mother Dorothea); Ley On (Phuba). Publications Books: Durgnat, Raymond, A Mirror for England: British Movies from Austerity to Affluence, London, 1970. Cosandey, Roland, editor, Retrospective: Powell and Pressburger, Locarno, 1982. Gottler, Fritz, and others, Living Cinema: Powell and Pressburger, Munich, 1982. BLACK NARCISSUSFILMS, 4 th EDITION 139 Christie, Ian, Arrows of Desire: The Films of Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger, London, 1985. Martini, Emanuela, editor, Powell and Pressburger, Bergamo, 1986. Powell, Michael, A Life in Movies: An Autobiography, London, 1986. Articles: Kine Weekly (London), 24 April 1947. Variety (New York), 5 May 1947. Christie, Ian, and R. Collins, ‘‘Michael Powell: The Expense of Naturalism,’’ in Monogram (London), no. 3, 1972. Walker, Michael, in Framework (Warwick), Winter 1978–79. Lacourbe, R., ‘‘Redecouvrir Michael Powell,’’ in Ecran (Paris), 15 February 1979. Andrews, N., and H. Kennedy, ‘‘Peerless Powell,’’ in Film Comment (New York), May-June 1979. Thompson, D., ‘‘The Films of Michael Powell: A Romantic Sensibil- ity,’’ in American Film (Washington, D.C.), November 1980. Everson, William K., in Films in Review (New York), August- September 1980. McVay, Douglas, in Films and Filming (London), January 1982. Durgnat, Raymond, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), October 1984. Interview with Powell in City Limits (London), 3 January 1986. Combs, Richard, in Listener (London), 9 January 1986. Sheehan, H., in Film Comment (New York), May-June 1990. Pernod, P., ‘‘Les fantomes de soeur Clodagh,’’ Positif (Paris), Novem- ber 1991. *** When Powell and Pressburger decided to film an adaptation of Rumer Godden’s tale of a failed attempt by Anglican Nuns to establish a convent in the Himalayas, the prospect of shooting in Katmandu filled some of their regular collaborators with great excitement. Such hopes were quickly dashed when it was announced that the entire film would be made in Britain. However, this inspired decision resulted in the creation of one of the most visually imagina- tive and expressive contributions to a cinema heralded more for its naturalism than such exercises in studio-bound artifice. The palace of Mopu, the former harem turned convent where most of the action takes place, was designed by Alfred Junge and was built at Pinewood. The Himalayan backdrop was painted on sheets of glass and the mountain breeze supplied by a gigantic wind machine. Junge was rewarded with an Oscar, as was Jack Cardiff whose Technicolor cinematography gives the film visual depth and a subtlety rare in colour productions of the time. The studio setting also allowed for total control over atmosphere and mood which, in conjunction with the technical virtuosity, explains why Black Narcissus continues to work its magic on new generations of cineastes. Godden’s interest in the confrontation of East and West and the struggle of the nuns who, rather than living in solitude, are forced to confront the world and remain true to their vows is transcended by Powell and Pressburger’s concerns with sexuality and, more specifi- cally, the dangers of sexual repression. Indeed Michael Walker perceptively argues that Black Narcissus dramatises a key Freudian syndrome: the return of the repressed. This is the sense of something terrible or uncontrollable returning to haunt the helpless protagonists. Therefore Walker suggests that the failure of the nuns to establish their convent has less to do with the ‘‘otherness’’ of the locale or the people but rather that they ‘‘carry within them the seeds of their own defeat.’’ The film is undoubtedly tinged with Orientalist cliché: the local natives are depicted as simple and childlike; Eastern mysticism represented by the mute Holy man who sits under his tree in perpetual meditation; the unbridled exoticism represented by the young general (Sabu) and Kanchi (Jean Simmons). Kanchi like the Holy man never speaks, her silence underlining her cool, seductive ‘‘otherness’’ which contrasts starkly with the increasingly hysterical voices of the sisters. Moreover, the strangeness of the environment, where ‘‘the wind never stops blowing and the air is so clear you can see too far,’’ is blamed for the rising unease amongst the Europeans. Yet Black Narcissus also mocks exoticism and otherness, particularly at the moment when Sabu announces that his perfume—the ‘‘Black Narcis- sus’’ of the title—was purchased at the Army and Navy stores. We must also remember the studio setting which renders the Oriental backdrop as literally a construct, an artificial stage which functions to frame the action and define the characters. The palace is first introduced as a watercolour representation and is last seen disappear- ing into the mists like Brigadoon. But as the strain begins to tell on the nuns, as repressions return to haunt them, it becomes clear that the chief catalyst, certainly in the case of both Sister Clodagh (Deborah Kerr) and Sister Ruth (Kathleen Byron) is Mr. Dean (David Farrar), the British agent working for the local ruler who has invited the nuns. Like the natives, Dean is also sexualized in terms of appearance with his brightly coloured shirts and bare arms and legs, contrasting with the ascetic off-white habits of the nuns. At one moment of crisis he arrives on the scene stripped to the waist, giving us a wonderfully potent image of raw male sexuality. Dean’s initially prickly encounters with Clodagh mask something else altogether. Clodagh’s real feelings towards him are first signalled in a brief look of longing which in turn triggers her first memory of her past in Ireland—her love for childhood sweetheart Con whose departure for America led to her becoming a nun. Ruth’s desire is more overtly portrayed as pathological. Unseen, she watches Dean and Clodagh, her eyes blazing with a mixture of lust and jealously. Indeed Ruth functions as an embodiment of the danger of Clodagh’s sexual repression. While being chastised for paying too much attention to Mr. Dean, she confronts Clodagh with the unspeakable—‘‘you seem quite pleased to see him yourself.’’ This tension leads to the memorable stand-off between the two when a shocked Clodagh encounters a transformed Ruth, her habit ex- changed for a crimson dress. She taunts Clodagh by lasciviously applying rouge to her lips while Clodagh sits opposite, clutching a bible. But Dean is no more able to fully accept his own feelings for Clodagh. He is consistently rude to her and when taunted by the spurned Ruth about his love for Clodagh he flies into an uncontrolled rage screaming, ‘‘I don’t love anybody.’’ Ruth’s failure to seduce Dean leaves her with only one choice of action left—the destruction of her rival—and so the film builds to its devastating climax. In the golden light of dawn Ruth stalks Clodagh to the chapel before erupting out of the Palace doors like an apparition from hell and attempting to push Clodagh over the precipice as she rings the BLACK SUNDAY FILMS, 4 th EDITION 140 morning bell. In the struggle it is Ruth who falls to her death. This sequence was an early experiment by Powell in what he termed ‘‘composed film,’’ scored first by Brian Easdale then shot according to the rhythms of the soundtrack. The departure of the nuns underlines the ultimate victory of repression. Clodagh and Dean exchange pleasantries, she offers him her hand which he holds momentarily. Then the rains break, inter- preted by at least one critic as a symbol of sexual release, but we are left with an image of Dean, fated to remain with the ‘‘ghosts’’ which Clodagh is able to leave behind. The release of Black Narcissus in 1947 coincided with the end of the Raj. The retreat of the nuns not only echoes the British withdrawal from India. It is the image of Dean, the English colonialist suffering the burden of his own repressed emotions, which provides an unintentional reflection on the undoing of imperial power. —Duncan Petrie BLACK ORPHEUS See ORFEU NEGRO BLACK SUNDAY US, 1977 Director: John Frankenheimer Production: Paramount Pictures; color, 35mm, Panavision; sound: mono; running time: 143 minutes. Filmed in Beirut, Lebanon, Miami, Florida, and Oregon. Producers: Robert Evans, Alan Levine (associate), Robert L. Rosen (executive); music: John Williams; cinematograper: John A. Alonzo; editor: Tom Rolfe; casting: Lynn Stalmaster; sound: Howard Beals, Gene S. Cantamessa, John Wilkinson; special effects: Logan Frazee, Gene Warren, Jr.; stunts: Everett Creach, Howard Curtis; art direc- tion: Walter H. Tyler; set decoration: Jerry Wunderlich; costume design: Ray Summers; makeup: Sugar Blymer, Bob Dawn, Brad Wilder; production manager: Jerry Ziesmer. Cast: Robert Shaw (Kabakov); Bruce Dern (Lander); Marthe Keller (Dahlia); Fritz Weaver (Corley); Steven Keats (Moshevsky); Bekim Fehmiu (Fasil); Michael V. Gazzo (Muzi); William Daniels (Pugh); Walter Gotell (Colonel Riaf); Victor Campos (Nageeb); Joseph Robbie (Himself); Robert Wussler (Himself); Pat Summerall (Him- self); Tom Brookshier (Himself); Walter Brooke (Fowler); James Jeter (Watchman); Clyde Kusatsu (Freighter); Captain Tom McFadden (Farley); Robert Patten (Vickers); Than Wyenn (Israeli Ambassa- dor); Jack Rader (Pearson); Nick Nickolary (Simmons); Hunter von Leer (T.V. Cameraman); Sarah Fankboner (V.A. Receptionist); Kathy Thornton (Head Nurse); Frank Logan (Lansing); Frank Man (Desk Clerk); Kenneth I. Harms (S.W.A.T. Captain); Kim Nicholas (Girl Hostage); Bert Madrid (Bellhop); Ian Bulloch (Secret Service Agent [uncredited]); Michael J. Reynolds (Jackson). Publications Books: Pratley, Gerald, The Cinema of John Frankenheimer, New York, 1969. Pratley, Gerald, The Films of Frankenheimer: Forty Years in Film, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 1998. Articles: Drew, B., ‘‘John Frankenheimer: His Fall and Rise,’’ in American Film (Washington, D.C.), vol. 2, no. 5, March 1977. Hansard, B., ‘‘Creating Front Projection Effects for Black Sunday,’’ in American Cinematographer (Hollywood), vol. 58, no. 8, August 1977. *** Black Sunday was produced in the wake of the Arab-Israeli conflicts of 1967 and 1973. Within the conventional limits of Holly- wood storytelling, the film treats intelligently the relationship be- tween political turmoil in the Middle East and the advent of interna- tional terrorism on a broad scale, one of the most significant developments of the era. Black Sunday thus connects more meaning- fully to contemporary historical events than the ordinary American commercial film. Director John Frankenheimer offers a nightmare version of what might result from the despair of radical Palestinians at the increasingly bleak prospect of any conventional military or political settlement of their claims for repatriation and statehood. Deciding to launch a campaign of terror against the American people so that the rich and politically settled can, in the words of their leader, ‘‘share the pain of the Palestinian people,’’ members of a Black September cell plan to kill everyone present at the Super Bowl football game. In this plot they are nearly successful. Aided by a Japanese fellow traveler, who supplies the necessary explosives, and a disaffected, perhaps insane former American soldier, who acts as their pilot, the group arrange to hijack the Goodyear blimp, normally used to help broadcast the game, load it with a bomb composed of plastique and a quarter million steel darts, and explode it directly over the stadium in the expectation that the vast majority of the eighty thousand spectators will be cut to ribbons. Opposing them are agents of an Israeli anti-terrorist unit and the CIA. In a spectacular conclusion, the blimp is intercepted by police helicopters just before its arrival over the stadium. After the terrorists are killed, the blimp, with the fuse of the bomb burning down, is barely towed out to sea before it explodes, harmlessly. This closing sequence features the spectacular rescue of the Israeli agent by helicopter after he was trapped on the blimp attaching the tow rope. To an important degree, Black Sunday in fact is structured around action of this kind, which emphasizes its similarity to the disaster film genre so popular in the early 1970s. For what could be more disastrous than the sudden advent of a death-dealing blimp, the well-known symbol of the capitalist bond between industry and BLACK SUNDAYFILMS, 4 th EDITION 141 Black Sunday entertainment, in the midst of America’s most sacred secular event? And what could be more typical of the mainstream thriller than for this well-calculated plot, artfully sustained by a series of reversals, to end, mano a mano, with the courageous protagonist defeating his enemies by guile and strength in order to save a faceless multitude? Though ably supervised by Frankenheimer, these requisite action sequences were not of the greatest importance to a director, who, in the manner of a social realist, was obviously more interested in examining the cultural and political forces that have shaped the main characters in the drama. In this way, Black Sunday is typical of Frankenheimer’s films. Only when the industry changed did he abandon his work in television, a distinguished career, in fact, directing prestigious live drama (including adaptations of Heming- way’s The Fifth Column, The Snows of Kilimanjaro, and For Whom the Bell Tolls). Frankenheimer quickly made a name for himself in Hollywood with finely detailed studies of unusual or complex charac- ters: the would-be gigolo and his admiring brother in All Fall Down; the violent convict who becomes an ornithological expert in The Birdman of Alcatraz; the aging businessman who seizes the opportu- nity to abandon the identity which now wearies him and begin life anew in Seconds. Unlike the big budget spectaculars of the period, these ‘‘adult’’ films (normally in black and white), and those of others from the so-called ‘‘New York School,’’ depended on literate scripts, nuanced performances, careful editing, and restrained yet effective cinematography. Frankenheimer also specialized in political thrillers. His The Manchurian Candidate, The Train, and Seven Days in May, the best of a consistently distinguished body of work in the genre, are acknowledged masterpieces. Political thrillers of the Hollywood variety commonly suffer from an overemphasis on action, one- dimensional characters, and a melodramatic opposition of abso- lute good to absolute evil that simplifies the political conflict. Frankenheimer’s thrillers, in contrast, are structured around a pro- tagonist of divided loyalties who, though he finally chooses the ‘‘right’’ side, does so only with difficulty. The Train’s resistance leader, a railroad man of no culture, must come to share, in order to defeat him, the views of an educated Nazi officer, a cold-blooded aesthete who thinks that the French art treasures he is stealing are worth the sacrifice of many lives. In Seven Days in May, an army officer who discovers a coup planned by high-ranking generals must betray them in order to remain loyal to his oath to the president and country. BLACKMAIL FILMS, 4 th EDITION 142 Black Sunday offers similar moral complexities. The film opens with a sequence devoted to the Black Septembrist leader, a woman (Marthe Keller) whose family, we later learn, has been destroyed in the region’s wars. She meets with others of her cell in Beirut to plan the attack on the United States, and the group that night is attacked and nearly wiped out by a group of armed men who are later revealed to be Israeli agents. The attack finds the woman in the shower, and the commando leader (Robert Shaw), though he sees her there, cannot bring himself to shoot. This act of reflexive humanity allows the plot to go forward. The Israeli leader, tracking the terrorists to the United States, confesses to his younger colleague that he is no longer able to kill in the hopes of changing a situation that, during his professional life, has never changed in the least. But then his young colleague is killed by the very woman that he had allowed to live. When the two antagonists again come face to face, she, ready to go up with the blast, is in the stadium-bound blimp, while he is in the pursuing helicopter. As they recognize each other, he does not hesitate this time, killing her with a burst from his submachine gun. His act, however, cannot be seen simply an act of revenge, for the woman’s death does not end the threat. Only by having himself lowered to the blimp can the com- mando leader affix the tow rope so it may be pulled out to sea. In the end, he is motivated as much by the urge to preserve as he is by his habit of destroying. With its richly detailed evocation of place and political context, Black Sunday makes convincing and affecting what might otherwise be a somewhat cartoonish central gimmick, somewhat reminiscent of similar elements in James Bond films of the 1960s and 1970s. There is, after all, little difference between the Black Septembrist plot to use a dart-loaded blimp to turn the Super Bowl into a massacre and, say, Goldfinger’s attempt to vaporize the gold in Fort Knox and create a world financial crisis. Finely coached performances by Shaw and Keller dominate the film, while Bruce Dern is also effective as a disgruntled Vietnam vet eager to get his own back. The film does not endorse either Palestinian grievance or Israeli attempts, often brutal, at pre-emptive self-defense; instead, it invokes the sad inevitability of Middle Eastern conflict, now played out in the open spaces and society of a self-satisfied, smugly fun-seeking America. The terror- ists’ plot, once discovered, might easily be foiled by a decision to cancel the game, but this proposed course of action is quickly dismissed by the officials in charge, though the president does change his plans to attend. The spectators in the stadium are thus saved through the working out of an international drama high above them of which they are completely unaware, the final irony in Frankenheimer’s masterful thriller. —R. Barton Palmer BLACKMAIL UK, 1929 Director: Alfred Hitchcock Production: British International Pictures, black and white, 35mm; running time: 96 minutes. Released 1929. Filmed in studios in London and on location in the British Museum. Producer: John Maxwell; screenplay: Alfred Hitchcock, Charles Bennett, Benn W. Levy, and Garnett Weston; from the play by Charles Bennett; photography: Jack Cox; editor: Emile Ruello; production design: Wilfred C. Arnold and Norman Arnold; music: Campbell and Connely, finished and arranged by Hubert Bath and Henry Stafford, performed by the British Symphony Orchestra under the direction of John Reynders. Cast: Anny Ondra (Alice White); Sara Allgood (Mrs. White); John Longden (Frank Webber); Charles Paton (Mr. White); Donald Calthrop (Tracy); Cyril Ritchard (The artist). Publications Books: Noble, Peter, An Index to the Creative Work of Alfred Hitchcock, supplement to Sight and Sound, index series, London, 1949. Amengual, Barthélemy, and Raymond Borde, Alfred Hitchcock, Paris, 1957. Rohmer, Eric, and Claude Chabrol, Hitchcock, Paris, 1957. Bogdanovich, Peter, The Cinema of Alfred Hitchcock, New York, 1962. Perry, George, The Films of Alfred Hitchcock, London, 1965. Wood, Robin, Hitchcock’s Films, London, 1965. Truffaut, Fran?ois, Le Cinéma selon Hitchcock, Paris, 1966; as Hitchcock, New York, 1985. La Valley, Albert J., editor, Focus on Hitchcock, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1972. Durgnat, Raymond, The Strange Case of Alfred Hitchcock; or, The Plain Man’s Hitchcock, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1974. Yacowar, Hamden, Hitchcock’s British Films, Hamden, Connecti- cut, 1977. Taylor, John Russell, Hitch, London and New York, 1978. Bellour, Raymond, L’Analyse du film, Paris, 1979. Hemmeter, Thomas M., Hitchcock the Stylist, Ann Arbor, Michi- gan, 1981. Bazin, André, The Cinema of Cruelty: From Bu?uel to Hitchcock, New York, 1982. Narboni, Jean, editor, Alfred Hitchcock, Paris, 1982. Rothman, William, Hitchcock—The Murderous Gaze, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1982. Villien, Bruno, Hitchcock, Paris, 1982. Weis, Elisabeth, The Silent Scream: Alfred Hitchcock’s Sound Track, Rutherford, New Jersey, 1982. Spoto, Donald, The Life of Alfred Hitchcock: The Dark Side of Genius, New York, 1982; London, 1983. Phillips, Gene D., Alfred Hitchcock, Boston, 1984. Barbier, Philippe, and Jacques Moreau, Alfred Hitchcock, Paris, 1985. Douchet, Jean, Alfred Hitchcock, Paris, 1985. Dentelbaum, Marshall, and Leland Poague, A Hitchcock Reader, Ames, Iowa, 1986. Hogan, David J., Dark Romance: Sexuality in the Horror Film, Jefferson, North Carolina, 1986. Humphries, Patrick, The Films of Alfred Hitchcock, Greenwich, Connecticut, 1986. Kloppenburg, Josef, Die dramaturgische Funktion der Musik in Filmen Alfred Hitchcock, Munich, 1986. Ryall, Tom, Alfred Hitchcock and the British Cinema, London, 1986. BLADE RUNNERFILMS, 4 th EDITION 143 Sinyard, Neil, The Films of Alfred Hitchcock, London, 1986. Modleski, Tania, The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory, New York, 1988. Articles: Variety, 10 July 1929. Marshall, Ernest, in New York Times, 14 July 1929. MacPherson, Kenneth, in Close Up (London), October 1929. Variety, 9 October 1929. ‘‘My Own Methods,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1937. Maloney, Russell, ‘‘Alfred Joseph Hitchcock,’’ in New Yorker, 10 September 1938. Anderson, Lindsay, ‘‘Alfred Hitchcock,’’ in Sequence (London), Autumn 1949. ‘‘Hitchcock Issue’’ of Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), October 1953. ‘‘Hitchcock Issue’’ of Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), August-Septem- ber 1956. Higham, Charles, ‘‘Hitchcock’s World,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berke- ley), Winter 1962–63. Vernilye, Jerry, ‘‘An Alfred Hitchcock Index,’’ in Films in Review (New York), April 1966. Bond, Kirk, ‘‘The Other Alfred Hitchcock,’’ in Film Culture (New York), Summer 1966. Beylie, Claude, ‘‘4 Inedits d’Alfred Hitchcock,’’ in Ecran (Paris), November 1976. Lefèvre, Raymond, ‘‘Les Premiers films parlants d’Alfred Hitch- cock,’’ in Cinema 76 (Paris), November 1976. Dagneau, G., ‘‘Sur 4 Films d’Hitchcock,’’ in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), December 1976. Dahan, L., ‘‘4 films anglais d’Hitchcock,’’ in Cinématographe (Paris), January 1977. Linderman, Deborah, ‘‘The Screen in Hitchcock’s Blackmail,’’ in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), vol. 4, no. 1, 1980. Magill’s Survey of Cinema 1, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Barr, Charles, ‘‘Blackmail: Silent and Sound,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1983. Poague, Leland, ‘‘Criticism and/as History: Rereading Blackmail,’’ in A Hitchcock Reader, edited by Marshall Deutelbaum and Leland Poague, Ames, Iowa, 1986. Wood, Robin, ‘‘Symmetry, Closure, Disruption,’’ in Cineaction (Toronto), Winter 1988–89. Eyuboglu, S., ‘‘The Authorial Text and Postmodernism: Hitchcock’s Blackmail,’’ in Screen (Oxford), no. 1, 1991. Reincke, N., ‘‘Antidote to Dominance: Women’s Laughter as Counteraction,’’ in Journal of Popular Culture (Bowling Green, Ohio), no. 4, 1991. Eyübǒglu, S., ‘‘The Authorial Text and Postmodernism: Hitchcock’s Blackmail,’’ in Screen (Oxford), vol. 32, no. 1, Spring 1991. Boschi, A., ‘‘Like Raisins in a Bun: le due versioni di Blackmail,’’ in Cinema & Cinema (Bologna), January-April 1992. *** Hitchcock’s last silent film, Blackmail was also his first sound effort—and one of the first British ‘‘talkies’’ as well. A resounding popular and critical success, Blackmail prefigures some of the direc- tor’s most famous themes and demonstrates techniques for which he would be noted. As critic Eric Rohmer points out, the entire film ‘‘focuses on the relationships among characters.’’ Victims and victimizers alternate from scene to scene (a technique Hitchock would later perfect in his 1951 film Strangers on a Train). Sometimes within a single shot, for example, the moral positions of the characters shift, while the placement of the characters illustrates visually the relationship that we also know from context. As many other critics have detailed, this type of shift is ‘‘pure Hitchcock’’: scenes such as those between the blackmailer and the detective parallel scenes from the director’s future work, most notably the relationship between a tennis pro and his psychotic ‘‘fan’’ in Strangers on a Train. This visual affirmation of moral ambiguity and transfer of guilt combines with other elements— such as the use of cinematic means to direct point of view, often at the expense of a linear storyline—that would later be considered typical of Hitchcock’s films. The thematic concerns of Blackmail also appear in Hitchcock’s Hollywood period, for example, the depiction of a woman’s torments, as in Suspicion. Blackmail demonstrates an intriguing use of sound, especially since it was originally conceived and produced as a silent film. One notable example occurs in the use of sound for scene-to-scene continuity: the protagonist’s shriek becomes the basis for transition to the next scene in which a charwoman finds a dead body. (This technique, too, was incorporated into another film, The Thirty-Nine Steps.) Even in this very early sound venture, Hitchcock’s awareness of the possibilities of sound represents a major experimental advance in his ability to ‘‘make the inexpressible tangible.’’ Hitchcock said that he used a good many trick shots in the picture. During a sequence in the British Museum, he told Francois Truffaut, ‘‘we used the Shüfftan process because there wasn’t enough light in the museum to shoot there. You set a mirror at an angle of 45 degrees and you reflect a full picture of the British Museum in it.’’ Hitchcock had nine of the pictures made, showing various rooms. But the producers knew nothing of the Shüfftan process, and since they might have objected, Hitchcock performed his magic without their knowledge. Blackmail has an important place in cinematic and Hitchcockian film history. Not only is it one of the first British talking pictures, but it is also a prototype for Hitchcock films to follow in terms of theme, the use of sound and cinematic style. Blackmail initiated the suspense sub-genre many call the ‘‘Hitchcock film,’’ while innovatively trans- forming use of the then new sound medium within an established visual style and in the service of unique thematic purposes. —Deborah H. Holdstein BLADE RUNNER USA, 1982 Director: Ridley Scott Production: Ladd Company in association with Sir Run Run Shaw; Technicolor, 35mm, Panavision, Dolby Stereo; running time: about BLADE RUNNER FILMS, 4 th EDITION 144 Blade Runner 2 hours. Released June, 1982; re-released in 1991. Filmed 1981 in Pinewood and Twickenham Studios, England, and on location in Los Angeles. Producer: Michael Deeley; screenplay: Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, from the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep by Philip K. Dick; photography: Jordan Cronenweth; editor: Terry Rawlings; sound mixer: Bud Alper; sound editor: Peter Pennell; dialogue editor: Michael Hopkins; production designer: Lawrence G. Paull; art director: David Snyder; music: Vangelis; special effects: Douglas Trumbull, Richard Yuricich, and David Dryer; costume designers: Charles Knode and Michael Kaplan; visual futurist: Syd Mead. Cast: Harrison Ford (Deckard); Rutger Hauer (Batty); Sean Young (Rachael); Edward James Olmos (Gaff); M. Emmet Walsh (Bryant); Darryl Hannah (Pris); William Sanderson (Sebastian); Brion James (Leon); Joe Turkel (Tyrell); Joanna Cassidy (Zhora); James Hong (Chew); Morgan Paull (Holden); Kevin Thompson (Bear); John Edward Allen (Kaiser); Hy Pyke (Taffey Lewis); Kimiro Hiroshige (Cambodian Lady); Robert Okazaki (Sushi Master); Carolyn De Mirjian (Saleslady); Charles Knapp (Bartender No. 1); Leo Gorcey, Jr. (Bartender No. 2); Thomas Hutchinson (Bartender No. 3); Kelly Hine (Show Girl); Sharon Hesky (Barfly No. 1); Rose Mascari (Barfly No. 2); Susan Rhee (Geisha No. 1); Hiroko Kimuri (Geisha No. 2); Kai Wong (Chinese Man No. 1); Kit Wong (Chinese Man No. 2); Hiro Okazki (Policeman No. 1); Steve Pope (Policeman No. 2); Robert Reiter (Policeman No. 3). Publications Script: Fancher, Hampton, and David Webb Peoples, The Illustrated Blade Runner, San Diego 1982. Books: Scroggy, David, editor, Blade Runner Sketchbook, San Diego, 1982. Peary, Danny, Cult Movies 3, New York, 1988. BLADE RUNNERFILMS, 4 th EDITION 145 McDonald, James, Fantasy and the Cinema, London, 1989. Kerman, Judith B., editor, Retrofitting Blade Runner, Bowling Green, Ohio, 1991. Sammon, Paul, Future Noir: The Making of Blade Runner, New York, 1996. Kerman, Judith B., editor, Retrofitting Blade Runner: Issues in Ridley Scott’s Blade Runner and Philip K. Dick’s Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, Bowling Green, Ohio, 1997. Bukatman, Scott, Blade Runner, London, 1998. Articles: Mills, Bart, ‘‘The Brave New World of Production Design,’’ in American Film (Washington, D.C.), January-February 1982. Variety (New York), 16 June 1982. Sarris, Andrew, in Village Voice (New York), 8 July 1982. Corliss, Richard, in Time (New York), 12 July 1982. Kael, Pauline, in New Yorker, 12 July 1982. ‘‘Blade Runner Issue’’ of Cinefex (Riverside, California), July 1982. Lightman, Herb A., and Richard Patterson, ‘‘Blade Runner: Produc- tion Design and Photography,’’ in American Cinematographer (Los Angeles), July 1982. Kennedy, Harlan, in Film Comment (New York), July-August 1982. Strick, Philip, in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1982. Colpart, G., in Image et Son (Paris), September 1982. Goldschmidt, D., in Cinématographe (Paris), September 1982. Milne, Tom, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), September 1982. ‘‘Blade Runner Issues’’ of Starburst (London), September-Novem- ber 1982. Girard, M., in Séquences (Montreal), October 1982. Roddick, Nick, in Films and Filming (London), October 1982. Skytte, A., in Kosmorama (Copenhagen), October 1982. Dumont, P., in Cinéma (Paris), November 1982. Garsault, A., in Positif (Paris), November 1982. Assayas, O., and S. Le Peron, interview with Ridley Scott, in Casablanca (Madrid), March 1983. Piccardi, A., in Cineforum (Bergamo), December 1982. Dempsey, Michael, in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1982–83. Cardenas, F., in Hablemos de Cine (Lima), February 1983. Caron, A., ‘‘Les Archetypes chez Ridley Scott,’’ in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), March 1983. Pacileo, V., in Cinema Nuovo (Bari), April 1983. Durgnat, Raymond, ‘‘Art for Film’s Sake,’’ in American Film (Wash- ington, D.C.), May 1983. Martin, R., ‘‘La Photographie merité bien note mefiance,’’ in Revue Belge du Cinéma (Brussels), Summer 1983. Kellner, D., and others, ‘‘Blade Runner: A Diagnostic Critique,’’ in Jump Cut (Berkeley), February 1984. Dresser, D., ‘‘Blade Runner: Science Fiction and Transcendence,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), July 1985. Doll, Susan and Greg Faller, ‘‘Blade Runner and Genre: Film Noir and Science Fiction,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), April 1986. Olive, J. Louis, ‘‘Les Structures de l’enfermement urbain,’’ in Cahiers de la Cinématheque (Perpignan), no. 44, 1986. Camera Obscura (Berkeley), Autumn 1986. Ruppert, P., ‘‘Blade Runner: The Utopian Dialectics of Science Fiction Films,’’ in Cineaste (New York), no. 2, 1989. Berg, C. R., ‘‘Immigrants, Aliens, and Extraterrestrials: Science Fiction’s Alien ‘Other’ as (Among Other Things) New Hispanic Imagery,’’ in Cineaction (Toronto), Fall 1989. Morrision, R., ‘‘Casablanca Meets Stars Wars: The Blakean Dialec- tics of Blade Runner,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), no. 1, 1990. Slade, J. W., ‘‘Romanticizing Cybernetics in Ridley Scott’s Blade Runner,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), no. 1, 1990. Shumaker, C., ‘‘More Human than Humans: Society, Salvation, and the Outsider in Some Popular Films of the 1980s,’’ in Journal of American Culture (Bowling Green, Ohio), no. 4, 1990. Wilhelmsson, P., ‘‘Design tai vallankumous,’’ in Filmihullu (Helsinki), no. 6, 1990. Attolini, G., ‘‘Dagli spazi aperti all’universo urbano,’’ in Quaderni di Cinema (Florence), July-September 1990. Telotte, J. P., ‘‘The Tremulous Public Body,’’ in Journal of Popular Film and Television (Washington, D.C.), no. 1, 1991. Levy, S., ‘‘Ridley Scissorhands,’’ in American Film (Washington, D.C.), August 1991. Marder, E., ‘‘Blade Runner’s Moving Still,’’ in Camera Obscura (Bloomington, Indiana), September 1991. Silverman, K., ‘‘Back to the Future,’’ in Camera Obscura (Bloom- ington, Indiana), September 1991. Instrell, Rick, ‘‘Blade Runner: The Economic Shaping of a Film,’’ in Cinema & Fiction, edited by John Orr and Colin Nicholson, Edinburgh, 1992. Wilmington, M., ‘‘The Rain People,’’ in Film Comment (New York), January-February 1992. Rynell, T., ‘‘Den morknande framtid ar var,’’ in Filmhaftet (Uppsala, Sweden), May 1992. Albrecht, D., ‘‘Blade Runner Cuts Deep into American Culture,’’ in New York Times, 20 September 1992. Strick, P., ‘‘Blade Runner: Telling the Difference,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), December 1992. Instrell, Rick, ‘‘Blader Runner: The Economic Shaping of the Film,’’ in John Orr and Colin Nicholson, editors, Cinema and Fiction: New Modes of Adapting, 1950–1990, Edinburgh, 1992. Bruno, Giuliano, ‘‘Ramble City: Postmodernism and Blade Runner,’’ in Crisis Cinema, edited by Christopher Sharrett, Washington, D.C., 1993. Alliez, E., and M. Feher, ‘‘Dick City,’’ in Filmihulu (Helsinki), no. 1, 1993. Bruno, M. W., ‘‘One More Kiss My Dear,’’ in Segnocinema (Vincenza, Italy), January-February 1993. McNamara, Kevin R., ‘‘Blade Runner’s Post-Individual Worldspace,’’ in Contemporary Literature (Madison, Wisconsin), vol. 38, no. 3, Fall 1997. Gravett, Sharon L., ‘‘The Sacred and the Profane: Examining the Religious Subtext of Ridley Scott’s Blade Runner,’’ and P. Lev, ‘‘Whose Future? Star Wars, Alien, and Blade Runner,’’ in Litera- ture Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), vol. 26, no. 1, 1998. *** This futuristic hard-boiled detective yarn stars Harrison Ford as a world-weary film noir hero whose job is to smoke out and retire (i.e., THE BLAIR WITCH PROJECT FILMS, 4 th EDITION 146 destroy) ‘‘replicants’’—androids with a human instinct for survival—in an overcrowded Los Angeles circa 2019. Complications arise when Ford falls for an android, a gorgeous experimental model played by Sean Young, dressed up as a 1940s film noir femme fatale, and comes to the conclusion that his task of mercilessly hunting and striking down these creatures whose only crime is a belief in their humanity has dulled his own humanity— although it is subsequently revealed, somewhat obscurely, that Ford comes to identify with them because he’s a replicant with deep-rooted memory chips himself. Director Ridley Scott used his clout following the success of Alien (1979) to create this visually striking science-fiction piece, drawn from Philip K. Dick’s novella Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? Partisans consider the novella (somewhat altered in the film version) and the film modern masterpieces of the genre. Certainly the film’s milestone special effects (orchestrated by 2001’s Douglas Trumbull and an army of technicians) are stunning. As is Scott’s evocation of a teeming, twenty-first century Los Angeles perpetually drenched in rain or steam. Apart from the occasional spacecraft circling the Capitol Records building, it looks remarkably like Scott’s garish evocation of present day Tokyo in his subsequent neo-noir (minus the sci-fi element) Black Rain (1989). The film’s dramatic structure is much less satisfying, however, although it has been significantly improved with the studio’s release of the never-before-seen ‘‘director’s cut.’’ Scott suffered a great deal of studio interference in the course of making the film. The script underwent numerous rewrites before and during filming. His woes (he called the experience ‘‘a war’’) contin- ued through post-production and several previews until the film was released in 1982, becoming a cult favorite but a box-office flop. Audiences were knocked out by the film’s images but frustrated by the ambiguities of many major plot points (Ford’s being an android among them), and bored by the constant narration inserted over and obscuring the otherwise imaginatively detailed soundtrack to help clarify them. That the narration spoken by Ford in his customary expressionless monotone slowed the film’s pace to almost a crawl didn’t help. There is some debate as to whether Ford’s narration was planned from the start or cobbled together in a panic move during post-production. Evidence suggests the former. But the unwelcome decision not to drop it for the film’s initial release hints at the latter. In any case, when the studio re-released the film in 1991 in a newly struck 70mm ‘‘director’s cut’’—the print now in circulation on video—the narration was jettisoned. It’s deletion improves the film’s pace considerably. (Even Harrison Ford has gone on record as saying so.) Many plot ambiguities remain, but the significant revelation that Ford himself is a replicant—and all the more human because of it, who finally realizes his brotherhood with the android combatant (Hauer) he has destroyed, is much clearer now. Ironically, although many so-called ‘‘director’s cuts’’ tend to re- insert footage—typically explicitly sexual or violent scenes—trimmed from the first-round general release, Blade Runner—The Director’s Cut actually takes the opposite route by toning this footage down a bit. For example, Darryl Hannah’s gymnastic android doesn’t take quite as many bullet hits as before—nor do you see Ford gouge Hauer’s eyes. Enough remains to sustain the film’s R rating, however. —John McCarty THE BLAIR WITCH PROJECT USA, 1999 Directors: Daniel Myrick and Eduardo Sánchez Production: Haxan Films; distributed by Artisan Entertainment (U.S.A.), Shochiku Films (Japan), Budapest Film (Hungary), Mars Films (France), Eurocine (Argentina), Arthaus Filmverleih (Ger- many); 16 mm black-and-white and High 8 color video; running time: 80 minutes (U.S.A.), 81 minutes (Japan), 83 minutes (Argentina); sound mix: Dolby Digital. Released July 1999 (limited). Filmed in Seneca Creek State Park, Wheaton, and Rockville, Maryland; shot in 8 days; cost: $22,000. Producers: Robin Cowie, Bob Eick (executive), Kevin Foxe (execu- tive), Gregg Hale, Michael Monello (co-producer); writing credits: Daniel Myrick, Eduardo Sánchez; cinematography: Neal Fredericks; editors: Daniel Myrick, Eduardo Sánchez; sound: Dana Meeks; art director: Ricardo Moreno; production designer: Ben Rock; origi- nal music: Tony Cora; sound effects editor: Elisabeth Flaum; foley mixer: Shawn Kennelly. Cast: Heather Donahue (Heather Donahue); Michael C. Williams (Michael Williams); Joshua Leonard (Josh Leonard); Bob Griffin (Interviewee); Jim King (Interviewee); Sandra Sánchez (Woman with Baby—Interviewee); Ed Swanson (Interviewee); Patricia Decou (In- terviewee); Mark Mason (Interviewee in yellow hat). Awards: Csapnivalo Golden Slate Awards for Best Horror Movie and Best Movie, 2000; Florida Film Critics Circle Golden Orange Award ‘‘for furthering the cause of Florida filmmakers and indepen- dent filmmaking’’ (Robin Cowie, Gregg Hale, Michael Monello, Daniel Myrick, Eduardo Sánchez), 2000. Publications Books: Stern, David A., The Blair Witch Project: A Dossier, New York, 1999. Pelucir, Talis, The Unofficial Blair Witch Project Internet Guide, Port Orchard, Washington, 2000. Articles: Nashawaty, Chris, ‘‘Independents’ Day,’’ in Entertainment Weekly, vol. 1, no. 476, 12 March 1999. Kenny, Glenn, ‘‘Love, Death, and One Mean Butcher,’’ in Premiere (Boulder), vol. 12, no. 8, April 1999 Ebert, Roger, ‘‘The Blair Witch Project,’’ in The Chicago Sun-Times, http://www.suntimes.com/ebert/ebert_reviews/1999/07/071603. html. Morris, Wesley, ‘‘Pitching Tent in Audience Psyche,’’ in The San Francisco Examiner, 16 July 1999. THE BLAIR WITCH PROJECTFILMS, 4 th EDITION 147 The Blair Witch Project Ascher-Walsh, Rebecca, ‘‘Rhymes with Rich,’’ in Entertainment Weekly (New York), vol. 1, no. 496, 30 July 1999. Travers, Peter, ‘‘The Blair Witch Project,’’ in Rolling Stone (New York), no. 818, 5 August 1999. Corliss, Richard, ‘‘Blair Witch Craft,’’ in Time (New York), 16 August 1999. Farber, Stephen, ‘‘Mock Inspiration,’’ in Movieline (Escondido, California), vol. 10, no. 11, August 1999. Guthman, Edward, ‘‘Terror Comes Alive in ‘Witch’: Pseudo-docu- mentary Has Visceral Power,’’ in The San Francisco Chronicle, 22 October 1999. Burr, Ty, ‘‘Video: Forest Dangers (B+),’’ in Entertainment Weekly, vol. 1, no. 509, 29 October 1999. Schwarzbaum, Lisa, ‘‘Terrorvision,’’ in Entertainment Weekly, vol. 1, no. 495, 23 July 1999. *** ‘‘In October of 1994, three student filmmakers disappeared in the woods near Burkittsville, Maryland, while shooting a documen- tary.... A year later their footage was found.’’ Thus begins The Blair Witch Project, Daniel Myrick and Eduardo Sánchez’s shoestring- budgeted horror ‘‘mockumentary,’’ which parlayed an innovative marketing campaign and incredible word-of-mouth into more than $140 million in the United States alone—making it one of the most profitable independent films of all time. Led by aspiring director Heather Donahue (the characters have the same names as the actors who play them), the three ‘‘student filmmakers’’ mentioned above make their way to Burkittsville (for- merly Blair), Maryland, in order to shoot footage for a documentary they are making about a local legend, the so-called ‘‘Blair Witch.’’ Word has it that this mysterious figure has been haunting the nearby Black Hills Forest since the late 18th century, and is responsible for a number of heinous murders. After conducting interviews with some of the locals, the trio hike into the forest so as to gather additional footage. While Michael handles the sound recording, and Josh shoots in 16 mm black-and-white, Heather captures much of the action on High 8 color video. None of them experienced campers, they soon get lost, and their once-cheery demeanor deteriorates into an increasingly volatile mixture of fear, blame, frustration, and panic. To make matters worse, ominous signs begin appearing with disturbing regu- larity: carefully arranged piles of stones positioned outside their tent DER BLAUE ENGEL FILMS, 4 th EDITION 148 in the morning; strange and disturbing sounds at night, of whispered voices and babies crying; wooden effigies hanging in the trees. Then Josh disappears, the only clue a piece of his shirt with what looks like a piece of flesh wrapped inside it, discovered by Heather the next day. In the film’s harrowing finale, Michael and Heather stumble across an apparently abandoned house. Hoping to find Jeff, they enter; what they discover is a nightmare. Through the lens of her camcorder, we see what Heather sees. And what we see is nothing much, just darkness and ruins and children’s handprints on the walls, and finally, after someone or something knocks her out (Michael has already been attacked), a blank ceiling, which lasts until the tape—and the film itself—reaches an end. The Blair Witch Project is a unique and important production insofar as it looks forward, to the future of film promotion, at the same time as it looks backward, to a time when horror movies did not rely on special effects or the concoction of gory spectacles to instill a sense of terror in audiences. Instead of the usual trailers and print ads, Myrick and Sánchez (first-time directors who met while attending the University of Central Florida) concocted an elaborate backstory— what they dubbed a ‘‘mythology’’—for Blair Witch, which they posted on the film’s official website (http://www.blairwitch.com). The website presents the events of the film as real occurrences, and includes character bios, news clips about the disappearances, inter- views with relatives, information about the police investigation (supposedly declared ‘‘inactive and unsolved’’ in 1997), excerpts from Heather’s journal, and a detailed history of the Blair Witch legend. In addition, and just prior to its screening at the Cannes Film Festival in May 1999, ‘‘MISSING’’ flyers with descriptions of Heather, Michael, and Josh were put up all around town. What all of this amounts to is a symbiotic relationship between film and extra- textual discourse, one in which the documentary pretensions of the former are strongly enhanced by the non-fictional cues of the latter. Of course there were various ways for people to discern that the entire story was a hoax, but a great many were simply not interested in seeing through (or all the way through) the deception. The film generated so much hype after its premiere at Sundance in January 1999 that an additional screening had to be scheduled in the 1300-seat Eccles theatre, which was filled to capacity. Soon afterwards, Artisan Entertainment picked up The Blair Witch Project for distribution in the United States. Despite criticisms directed towards the film’s sometimes slow pacing and non-stop, nausea-inducing handheld camerawork, it is hard to deny that The Blair Witch Project succeeds in its employment of cinema verité as a means of instilling terror in viewers. Myrick and Sánchez’s unique production method has itself become the stuff of legend: not only were the actors responsible for shooting the entire film themselves (over the course of eight consecutive days and nights); they had to carry their own equipment, and improvised almost all of their lines. Three or four times a day, the directors would write notes to each cast member, sealing them in tubes for their eyes only. Explained Myrick, ‘‘We were trying to create an environment for these actors and have this improv come to life and be as realistic as possible. That’s what we think really contributed to the unseen fear that’s been so very effective.’’ By achieving such a high degree of realism, the directors took their product a step beyond earlier horror films with mockumentary aspirations, films such as Wes Craven’s The Last House on the Left (1972), Tobe Hooper’s The Texas Chainsaw Massacre (1974), and Michael and Roberta Finlay’s noto- rious Snuff (1976). By exploiting some of our most basic, inescapable fears—of the dark, of the unknown, of sounds whose source cannot be detected— Myrick and Sánchez and the film’s three leads manage to elicit intense emotional responses from viewers. Some of the most terrify- ing moments occur when neither of the cameras are functioning, and all we are able to see is a black/blank screen (this is reminiscent of a famous scene in Robert Wise’s 1963 classic, The Haunting). Which proves once again that what our imagination conjures up when effectively prompted is far worse than anything even the most sophisticated special effects or makeup can produce. It is to their credit that those involved in the making of The Blair Witch Project were well aware of this oft-forgotten fact. —Steven Schneider DER BLAUE ENGEL (The Blue Angel) Germany, 1930 Director: Josef von Sternberg Production: Universum-Film-Aktiengesellschaft Studios (UFA), Ber- lin; black and white, 35mm; running time: 90 minutes; length: 2920 meters. Released 31 March 1930, Germany; American version re- leased 3 January 1931 by Paramount. Filmed (concurrently in English and German) in late winter of 1929, UFA studios, Berlin. Producer: Erich Pommer; scenario: Josef von Sternberg, Robert Liebmann, and Karl Vollmoeller; dialogue: Carl Zuckmayer, from the novel Professor Unrath by Heinrich Mann; photography: Günther Rittau and Hans Schneeberger; editor: Sam Winston; sound effects: Fritz Theiry; production design: Otto Hunte and Emil Hasler; music: Friedrich Holl?nder; lyrics: Robert Liebmann; music played by: The Weintraub Syncopators. Cast: Emil Jannings (Immanuel Rath); Marlene Dietrich (Lola Frolich); Rosa Valetti (Guste); Hans Albers (Mazeppa); Kurt Gerron (Kiepert); Karl Huzar Puffy (Proprietor); Reinhold Bernt (Clown); Rolf Mueller (Angst); Roland Verno (Lohmann); Karl Bolhaus (Ertzum); Hans Roth (Caretaker); Gerhard Bienart (Policeman); Robert-Klein Loerk (Goldstaub); Wilheim Diegelmann (Captain); Ilsu Fuerstenbeg (Rath’s Maid); Edward V. Winterstein (Headmaster). Publications Scripts: Von Sternberg, Joseph and others, ‘‘L’Ange bleu,’’ in L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), March 1966. Von Sternberg, Joseph, and others, The Blue Angel (continuity script), New York, 1968. DER BLAUE ENGELFILMS, 4 th EDITION 149 Der Blaue Engel Books: Talky, Jean, Marlène Dietrich, femme énigme, Paris, 1932. Kracauer, Siegfried, From Caligari to Hitler, New York, 1947. Harrington, Curtis, An Index to the Films of Josef von Sternberg, London, 1949. Griffith, Richard, Marlene Dietrich—Image and Legend, New York,1959. Kyrou, Ado, ‘‘Sternberg et Marlène,’’ in Le Surréalismeau au cinéma, Paris, 1963. von Sternberg, Josef, Fun in a Chinese Laundry, New York, 1965. Sarris, Andrew, The Films of Josef von Sternberg, New York, 1966. Weinberg, Herman G., Josef von Sternberg: A Critical Study, New York, 1967. Brownlow, Kevin, The Parade’s Gone By . . . , London and New York, 1969. Eisner, Lotte, The Haunted Screen, Berkeley, California, 1969. Anthologie du cinéma 6, Paris, 1971. Baxter, John, The Cinema of Josef von Sternberg, New York, 1971. Mérigeau, Pascal, Josef von Sternberg, Paris, 1983. Navacelle, Thierry de, Sublime Marlene, London, 1984. Seydel, Renate, Marlene Dietrich: Eine Chronik ihres Lebens in Bilden und Dokumenten, East Berlin, 1984. Spoto, Donald, Falling in Love Again: Marlene Dietrich, Bos- ton, 1985. Dietrich, Marlene, Ich bin, Gott sei dank, Berlinerin, Frankfurt, 1987. Spoto, Donald, Blue Angel: The Life of Marlene Dietrich, New York, 1992. Wehnert, Stefanie, and Nathalie Bielfeldt, editors, Mien Kopf und die Beine von Marlene Dietrich: Heinrich Manns, Professor Unrat, and Der Blaue Engel, Lubeck, Germany, 1996. Articles: Variety (New York), 30 April 1930. Lenauer, Jean, ‘‘10 Days à Berlin,’’ in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), June 1930. Revue du Cinéma (Paris), October 1930. Mann, Heinrich, in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), December 1930. Hall, Mordaunt, in New York Times, 6 December 1930. ‘‘Les Grands R?les de Marlène Dietrich,’’ in Cinémonde (Paris), February 1932. DER BLAUE ENGEL FILMS, 4 th EDITION 150 Harrington, Curtis, ‘‘Arrogant Gesture,’’ in Theatre Arts (New York), November 1950. Wagner, Geoffrey, in Quarterly Review of Film, Radio and Television (Berkeley), Fall 1951. Wagner, Geoffrey, ‘‘Revaluation: The Blue Angel,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), August-September 1951. Harrington, Curtis, ‘‘Josef von Sternberg,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), October-November 1951. George, Manfred, ‘‘Marlene Dietrich’s Beginning,’’ in Films in Review (New York), February 1952. Audibert, Jacques, ‘‘L’Amour dans le cinéma,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), December 1954. Whitehall, Richard, in Films and Filming (London), October 1962. ‘‘A Taste for Celluloid,’’ in Films and Filming (London), July 1963. Green, O. O., ‘‘Six Films of Josef von Sternberg,’’ in Movie (Lon- don), no. 13, 1965. Filmkritik (Frankfurt, Germany), April 1965. Weinberg, Herman G., ‘‘Josef von Sternberg,’’ in Film Heritage (Dayton, Ohio), Winter 1965–66. ‘‘L’Oeuvre de Josef von Sternberg,’’ in L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), March 1966. Positif (Paris), May 1966. Cornaud, André, in Image et Son (Paris), no. 214, 1968. Truscott, Harold, ‘‘Emil Jannings—A Personal View,’’ in Silent Picture (London), Autumn 1970. Martineau, Barbara, ‘‘Thoughts about the Objectification of Women,’’ in Take One (Montreal), November-December 1970. Rheuban, Joyce, ‘‘Josef von Sternberg: The Scientist and the Vamp,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1972–73. Weisstein, Ulrich, ‘‘Translations and Adaptations of Heinrich Mann’s Novel in 2 Media,’’ in Film Journal (Evanston, Illinois), Fall- Winter 1972. Baxter, P., ‘‘On the Naked Thighs of Miss Dietrich,’’ in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), no. 2, 1978. Firda, R. A., ‘‘Literary Origins: Sternberg’s Film The Blue Angel,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), no. 2, 1979. Audibert, L., ‘‘L’Ombre du son,’’ in Cinématographe (Paris), June 1979. ‘‘Filmprotokoll: Der Blaue Engel,’’ in Film and Fernsehen (Berlin), December 1980. Marinero, M., in Casablanca (Madrid), June 1981. Laurens, C., ‘‘L’Armature sonore de L’Ange Bleu de Sternberg,’’ in Image et Son (Paris), December 1981. Weemaes, G., in Film en Televisie (Brussels), September 1982. Reijnhoudt, B., ‘‘Der blaue Engel: De blote dijen van miss Dietrich,’’ in Skoop (The Hague), November 1985. Koch, Gertrude, ‘‘Zwischen der Welten,’’ in Frauen und Film (Berlin), December 1986. Musatti, C., ‘‘Il Professore e l’angelo azzurro,’’ in Cinema Nuovo (Rome), May-June 1990. Grimes, William, ‘‘Dietrich Had a Fit (in Fact 3 Fits) in Screen Test,’’ in New York Times, 15 October 1992. *** When Josef von Sternberg arrived in Berlin in the autumn of 1929, his career was tottering. The two years since his 1927 success with Underworld had been spent making box-office failures in imitation of his pioneering gangster film, now out-dated by the coming of sound. A brief high-spot, the production of The Last Command with Emil Jannings, had led to his providential invitation from Erich Pommer of UFA to visit Germany and direct Jannings in his first sound picture. A drama about Rasputin was suggested, partly to placate UFA backer Alfred Hugenberg’s right-wing sensibilities, but von Sternberg finally chose a novel by Heinrich Mann written in 1905 as an attack on the period’s reactionary politics. An upright professor is seduced by a nightclub singer, becomes a pawn of her political friends, but finally fights off their influence and re-establishes himself in the community. Professor Unrath was essentially a protest against the false morality and corrupt values of the German middle class, but in it von Sternberg saw the possibility of a film far closer to his personal obsessions, his sensuality, his love of decoration and photographic style. Mann wrote a script, which von Sternberg rejected. The popular comic playwright Carl Zuckmayer wrote another, whose dialogue von Sternberg liked. UFA’s resident dramaturge, Robert Liebmann, incorporated the dialogue into a story which cut the novel in half, showing only the professor’s surrender to the beautiful cabaret singer and his destruction at her hands. Jannings, famous for his love of lavish emotionalism, raised no objection to the many scenes of hysteria and public humiliation—material for which he had become famous in films like The Last Laugh. Von Sternberg proved difficult in his choice of star to play Lola. Mann’s friend Trude Hesterberg was considered. So was stage actress Greta Massine, singer Lucie Mann- heim, even Brigitte Helm. Finally, with time running out, Pommer signed Kathe Haack. Then, through Karl Vollmoeller, von Sternberg met Marlene Dietrich, a minor actress in films and on stage but better known as the companion of the star Willy Forst. The meeting with the 25-year-old married woman was the beginning of a life-long sexual obsession for von Sternberg, as well as the end of his marriage and the foundation of his true career. Der blaue Engel became, like most of von Sternberg’s films, an autobiographical excursion. In the material on Rath’s autocratic teaching methods, von Sternberg paid back his own early torment at the hands of his father, who had forced him to learn Hebrew with frequent physical punishment to drive home the lessons. By choosing a turn of the century setting, von Sternberg placed the story in his own childhood, and decorated it with images of adolescent eroticism. On the walls of The Blue Angel Cabaret, designed by Otto Hunte, he plastered scores of posters, and hung the cafe with nets, dangling cardboard angels, stuffed birds—a familiar von Sternberg archetype— and, everywhere, low-hung lamps that give the film an air of scented, smoky claustrophobia. Von Sternberg poured all his energy and imagination into the role of Lola, creating a star vehicle for the young Dietrich. Borrowing from the drawings of the erotic artist Felicien Rops, he created a figure out of a teenager’s sexual fantasy, a vision in black stockings and heavy make-up, wearing an arrogantly tilted top hat. Her poses and movements on stage were mapped out with choreographic care, her songs crafted for her uninspiring voice by Friedrich Holl?nder, who found tunes needing only two or three notes. Her feline stroll on stage, her pointed, mocking stares, her casual use of her own sexual allure to beguile the giggling, simpering Jannings became elements in a screen persona Dietrich was to exploit for the rest of her career. By contrast Jannings is feeble and monochromatically comic. The shadings he might have hoped to receive from von Sternberg’s direction did not materialize. Instead, he found himself little more than a character player to this unknown young woman. Throughout the shooting, he threw tantrums, threatening to walk off the film and doing everything he could to break down the rapport between director DIE BLECHTROMMELFILMS, 4 th EDITION 151 and star. After the film, he was to demand successfully of UFA that he have total control over the material in all his subsequent films, a decision which destroyed him as a screen star. Shot concurrently in English and German, Der blaue Engel confronted von Sternberg with a technical challenge of awesome complexity. Never a skilful editor or director of action, he was committed to a style where lighting and atmosphere conveyed the story, and where each performer’s ‘‘dramatic encounter with light’’ spelled out their thought. To achieve this, he added to the script a number of minor but important characters, notably the clown who morosely observes life in the cafe, and who is revealed later (when Rath is forced into the same costume) to be another of Lola’s discarded lovers. When the film was remade in 1959 with Mai Britt and Curt Jurgens, von Sternberg successfully sued 20th Century-Fox for plagiarism of his interpolated scenes, not found in the original screenplay. Even before Der blaue Engel was finished, its success was obvious. Von Sternberg had shown tests of Dietrich to Paramount head B.P. Schulberg when he visited Berlin, and the studio immedi- ately signed her to a two-picture contract. The premiere, on 31 March 1930, was a sensation: that night, she and von Sternberg sailed for America, to be met at the dock at New York by von Sternberg’s wife, and a process server with writs against Dietrich for libel and aliena- tion of affections. Neither director nor star were unduly concerned. Dietrich had found a vehicle to achieve international stardom. Von Sternberg, a subject on which he could focus his contradictory but prodigious talent. Der blaue Engel became the foundation of perhaps the most remarkable collaboration between actress and filmmaker that the cinema has ever seen. —John Baxter DIE BLECHTROMMEL (The Tin Drum) Germany/France, 1979 Director: Volker Schlodorff Production: Franz Seitz Filmproduktion, Bioskop Film, GGB 14 KG, Artemis Filmegesellschaft, Argos Films, Jadran Film, Film Polski; Eastmancolour, 35mm; running time: 142 minutes. Filmed in Zagreb, Munchen, and Paris, 1978. Producer: Franz Seitz; executive producer: Anatole Dauman; screen- play: Jean-Claude Carrière, Franz Seitz, and Volker Schlondorff, with the collaboration of Günter Grass, from his original novel; photography: Igor Luther; editor: Suzanne Baron; assistant direc- tors: Branko Lustig, Alexander von Richtofen, Wolfgang Kroke, Andrzej Reiter, and Richard Malbequi; lighting: Karl Dillitzer; production design: Nikos Perakis; art director: Bernd Lepel; sets: Paul Weber, Edouard Pezzoli, Marijan, and Marcijus; music: Mau- rice Jarre; costumes: Dagmar Niefind, Inge Heer, and Vashy Yabara; sound recording: Walter Grundauer, Walter Kellerhaus, and Peter Beil. Cast: David Bennent (Oskar Matzerath); Mario Adorf (Alfred Matzerath); Angela Winkler (Agnes Matzerath); Daniel Olbrychski (Jan Bronski); Katharina Thalbach (Maria Matzerath); Heinz Bennent (Greff); Andrea Ferreol (Lina Greff); Fritz Hakl (Bebra); Mariella Oliveri (Roswitha Raguna); Tina Engel (Anna Koljaiczek); Berta Drews (Anna Koljaiczek, as an old woman); Roland Teubner (Joseph Koljaiczek); Tadeusz Kunikowski (Uncle Vinzenz); Ernst Jacobi (Gauletier Lobsack); Werner Rehm (Scheffler); Ilse Page (Gretchen Scheffler); Kate Jaenicke (Mother Truczinski); Helmuth Brasch (Old Heilandt); Wigand Witting (Herbert Truczinski); Marek Walczewski (Schugger-Leo); Charles Aznavour (Sigismund Markus). Awards: Palme D’Or, Cannes Film Festival, 1979; Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film, 1980. Publications Script: Sclondorff, Volker, and Günter Grass, Die Blechtrommel als Film, Frankfurt, 1979. Books: Lewandowski, Reiner, Die Filme von Volker Schlondorff, Hildesheim, 1981. Franklin, James, New German Cinema: From Oberhausen to Ham- burg, Boston, 1983. Phillips, Klaus, editor, New German Filmmakers: From Oberhausen through the 1970s, New York, 1984. Elsaesser, Thomas, New German Cinema: A History, London 1989. Ginsberg, Terri, Perspectives on German Cinema, New York, 1996. Elsaesser, Thomas, The BFI Companion to German Cinema, Bloom- ington, 1999. Articles: Bonneville, L., Séquences (Montreal), January 1979. Variety (New York), 16 May 1979. Bassan, R., Ecran (Courbevoie), July 1979. Logette, L., Jeune Cinéma (Paris), July-August 1979. Ramasse, F., Positif (Paris), July-August 1979. Courant, G., Cinéma (Paris), September 1979. Lajeunesse, J., Image et Son (Paris), September 1979. Schlondorff, Volker, ‘‘Confrence de presse,’’ in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), September-October 1979. Bonnet, J.-C., and F. Cuel, Cinématographe (Paris), October 1979. Lardeau, Y., Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), November 1979. Jeancolas, J.-P., ‘‘Trois Notes (Brèves),’’ in Positif (Paris), Novem- ber 1979. Kauffmann, Stanley, ‘‘Living through Wars,’’ in The New Republic, 5 April 1980. Boyum, Joy Gould, ‘‘Günter Grass on Screen: An Allegory of Nazism,’’ in The Wall Street Journal, 11 April 1980. Hatch, Robert, ‘‘The Tin Drum,’’ in The Nation, 19 April 1980. DIE BLECHTROMMEL FILMS, 4 th EDITION 152 Die Blechtrommel Kroll, Jack, ‘‘Bang the Drum Loudly,’’ in Newsweek, 21 April 1980. Schickel, Richard, ‘‘Dream Work,’’ in Time, 28 April 1980. Harvey, Stephen, ‘‘The Beat of a Difficult Drummer,’’ in Saturday Review, May 1980. Blake, Richard A., ‘‘Danzig in the Dark,’’ in America, 3 May 1980. O’Toole, Lawrence, ‘‘One Oskar Tailor—Made to Win Another,’’ Maclean’s, 5 May 1980. Simon, John, ‘‘Interior Exiles,’’ in National Review, 30 May 1980. Dawason, J., Monthly Film Bulletin (London), June 1980. Reed, Rex, ‘‘The Tin Drum,’’ in Vogue, June 1980. Kephart, E., Films in Review (New York), June-July 1980. ‘‘The Tin Drum,’’ in USA Today, July 1980. Beaulieu, J., Séquences (Montreal), July 1980. Pachter, H., Cineaste (New York), autumn 1980. Hughes, J., ‘‘Volker Schlondorff’s Dream of Childhood,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), spring 1981. Kaes, Anton, Hitler to Heimat: The Return of History as Film, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1989. Hall, Conrad, ‘‘A Different Drummer: The Tin Drum, Film and Novel,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury), October 1990. Krzeminski, A., in Kino (Warsaw), November 1992. Silberman, Marc, German Cinema: Texts in Context, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, 1995. Feingold, M., ‘‘A Different Drummer,’’ in Village Voice (New York), 12 August 1997. *** Volker Schlodorff’s The Tin Drum is representative of the New German cinema, a period in the 1970s and 1980s dominated by a generation of directors who were children during and following the Third Reich. These directors have taken a retrospective look at their childhoods and their nation’s history to examine the emotional wounds and sensitivities of the present. Marc Silberman in German Cinema states that the films of this period ‘‘critically refigure seduc- tive images and sounds from Germany’s fascist past in order to challenge the heritage of the Nazi cinema, and for the first time since the international successes of the early Weimar cinema, German films enjoyed once again critical acclaim beyond their domestic audience.’’ The movie based on Günter Grass’ powerful novel about Oskar, a boy growing up in Danzig between the wars, who is so horrified by the world that he wills himself to remain little. DIE BLEIERNE ZEITFILMS, 4 th EDITION 153 Like the novel, The Tin Drum traces the warped history of Oskar’s family, beginning with his grandparents, peasants of the Polish countryside. In the first scene, a man chased by the police begs a woman to hide him. She lifts her skirts and he crawls to safe seclusion. When the police have gone he emerges, hurriedly closing the front of his pants, and in the next scene, the couple has a small child, Oskar’s mother. The image of hiding under a woman’s skirts for safety is repeated throughout the film, and is both a suggestion of safety and sexuality, as Oskar climbs under the skirts of his grand- mother, into bed with a neighbor woman for warmth, and into bed with his housekeeper where he presumably fathers her child. The macabre notion of sexuality becomes a precarious site for comfort and safety, providing immediacy and accessibility, but is eventually spoiled by the excessive need with which it is sought. It may be a continuous reference to Oskar’s wish at birth to return to the womb, but decides to stay in the world when his mother promises him a tin drum on his third birthday. Oskar Matzerath is played by 12-year-old David Bennent, who throws himself down a flight of stairs on his third birthday, celebrated by raucous adults with drink and debauchery, to prevent himself from growing up to participate in the obscenity of adult middle-class existence. He opts for perpetual childhood before the Nazis come to power and take over Danzig, his home town. The child, a symbol of protest, recognizes that Nazism is merely an extension of the world he has already rejected. His life centers on his tin drum, and everywhere he wanders throughout the film he accompanies his steps with the stoic beat that could be the suppressed, frantic beat of his heart, his voice audible, yet untranslatable. Oskar is a perfect parody of militarism. He wanders into a Nazi rally, and the assembly soon collapses into chaos when his drumbeat sets the entire pageant off course. His other talent, piercing screams, which he discovers can shatter glass, are his willful destruction of that which inhibits or frustrates him. This voice is his defense, his weapon, screams an extradiegetic foreshadowing of Kristallnacht. When the war comes to Danzig, Oskar is there among the dead and wounded, wandering and observing. He is fifteen, but also three, and takes from the world what would please him, as though he has become that which he rejected when he decided to throw himself down the stairs to protect himself in the masquerade of childhood. The images in The Tin Drum are exceedingly unpalatable on screen though they were included in Grass’ novel. Oskar, whose weakness is sensed by the other children, is forced to eat soup made of boiled frogs and urine. The decomposing head of a horse is pulled from the sea and a mass of eels tumbles out of it. Later, the eeler (Oskar’s father) tries to force his wife, who was sickened by the sight, to eat his catch. She flees to her bedroom where she is consoled sexually by her lover, her husband’s closest friend. Later in the film she becomes obsessed with a craving for fish until her gluttony destroys her. The image of the child banging on the door behind which his mother is dying, foundering on raw fish, will be repeated in another New German film, Deutschland, Bleiche Mutter (Germany, Pale Mother) by Helma Sanders-Brahms, though Oskar’s mother never opens the door to return a sense of safety or reassurance to him or to the film, as the mother in Sanders-Brahm’s film eventually does. Joy Gould Boyum writes in ‘‘Günter Grass on Screen: An Allegory of Nazism,’’ in The Wall Street Journal, that these images, ‘‘enlarged, intensified and made overwhelmingly graphic by the movie screen . . . disturb too much instead of calling attention to whatever point they would further, they end up calling attention only to themselves and their own jarring freakishness.’’ Robert Hatch is less disturbed by the images, as his review in The Nation praises the film for its reconstruction of Grass’ picaresque novel: ‘‘There were more than enough scenes from which to choose: the Christ child as drummer, the ghastly harvest of eels, the storm troopers waltzing to Oskar’s beat, the dwarfs’ picnic atop the Nor- mandy bunker, the siege of the Danzig post office, the seduction of Maria with fizz powder. The film is a splendid spectacle, but only a sampling of the novel’s three books. It is like watching a slide show of some well-remembered land, the snapshots bringing to mind more than they can show.’’ The story structure seems to be carried away as the technique of the adult Oskar’s voice-over narration from an insane asylum (though this is not clear in the film), recalling the events of his childhood, is abandoned. Though this awkwardness is merely a prob- lem of the adaptation process it does little to diminish the effective- ness of the screen presentation, which has a style rooted in Expres- sionism, and is powerful and original. —Lee Sellars DIE BLEIERNE ZEIT (The German Sisters) Germany, 1981 Director: Margarethe von Trotta Production: Bioskop Film; Fujicolour, 35mm; running time: 107 minutes. Producer: Eberhard Junkersdorf; screenplay: Margarethe von Trotta; assistant director: Helenka Hummel; photography: Franz Rath; editor: Dagmar Hirtz; sound: Vladimir Vizner and Hans Dieter Schwartz; art directors: George von Kieseritzky and Barbara Kloth; music: Nicolas Economou; costumes: Monica Hasse and Jorge Jara. Cast: Jutta Lampe (Juliane); Barbara Sukowa (Marianne); Rudiger Volger (Wolfgang); Doris Schade (Mother); Verena Rudolph (Sabine); Luc Bondy (Werner); Franz Rudnick (Father); Julia Biedermann (Marianne, age 16); Ina Robinski (Juliane, age 17); Patrick Estrada- Pox (Jan). Awards: Golden Lion, Venice 1981. Publications Script: von Trotta, Margarethe, Die Bleierne Zeit, Frankfurt, 1981. DIE BLEIERNE ZEIT FILMS, 4 th EDITION 154 Die Bleierne Zeit Books: Kaplan, Ann E., Women and Film: Both Sides of the Camera, Methuen, 1983. Todd, Janet, Women and Film, New York, 1988. Frieden, Sandra, Gender and German Cinema: Feminist Interventions—Volume II: German Film History/German History on Film, Oxford, 1993. Articles: Variety (New York), 16 September 1981. Nave, B., ‘‘Les années de plomb: Margarethe von Trotta ou le refus de l’oubli,’’ in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), November 1981. Pellizzari, L., and others, ‘‘Speciale anni di piombo,’’ in Cineforum (Bergamo), March 1892. Celemenski, M., and others, ‘‘Margarethe von Trotta,’’ in Cinématographe (Paris), April 1982. Amiel, M., Cinéma (Paris), May 1982. Sauvaget, D., Image et Son (Paris), May 1982. Milne, Tom, Monthly Film Bulletin (London), June 1982. Johnston, S., Films and Filming (London), July 1982. Rabinowicz, L., ‘‘Dark Times,’’ in Cinema Papers (Melbourne), August 1982. Sklar, R., and Harris, A., Cineaste (New York), Vol. XII, no. 3, 1983. Alemanno, R., ‘‘La prassi delle conoscenza in ‘Anni di piombo,’’’ in Cinema Nuovo (Bari), August-October 1983. DiCaprio, L., ‘‘Baader-Meinhof Fictionalized,’’ in Jump Cut (Chi- cago), February 1984. Delorme, C., ‘‘On the Film ‘Marianne and Juliane’ by Margarethe von Trotta,’’ in Journal of Film & Video (Boston), Spring 1985. Seiter, E., ‘‘The Political Is Personal: Margarethe von Trotta’s Marianne and Juliane,’’ in Journal of Film & Video (Boston), Spring 1985. Kaplan, E. A., ‘‘Discourses in Terrorism, Feminism, and the Family in von Trotta’s Marianne and Juliane,’’ in Persistence of Vision (Maspeth, New York), Fall 1985. Donougho, M., ‘‘Margarethe von Trotta: Gynemagoguery and the Dilemmas of a Filmmaker,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Mary- land), July 1989. DIE BLEIERNE ZEITFILMS, 4 th EDITION 155 Toiviainen, S., in Filmihullu (Helsinki), no. 5, 1995. Martin, Michel, and Maurice Elia, ‘‘Margarethe von Trotta toujours présente,’’ in Séquences (Haute-Ville), November-December 1996. *** The German Sisters is based in part on the life of Gudrun Ensslin, one of the best known members of the Baader-Meinhof Group or Rote Armee Fraktion which carried out a campaign of terrorism in Ger- many in the late sixties and into the seventies. She was arrested in 1972 and sentenced to life imprisonment. In 1977 she and two other group members were found dead in their cells at Stammheim prison. The authorities claimed they had committed suicide, but this explana- tion has never been accepted by many, including Gudrun’s sister Christiane, to whom this film is dedicated. In The German Sisters Gudrun becomes Marianne and Christiane becomes Juliane, the daughters of a pastor in the German Lutheran Church. As we see through a number of flashbacks, both grow up in an atmosphere which is at one and the same time patriarchal but socially liberal and concerned. It is also strongly anti-fascist. In childhood, Marianne is dutiful and well-behaved, and Juliane is the rebel. But in the film’s present, Marianne has become a terrorist, whilst Juliane has decided to try to change society peacefully by embarking on what was known at the time as ‘‘the long march through the institutions’’ and becoming a journalist on a liberal women’s magazine. As the flashback structure suggests, The German Sisters concerns the weight of the past on the present. Its original German title translates as ‘‘Leaden Times,’’ which could be taken as referring either to the Nazi past (which has shaped, in quite different ways, Marianne’s and Juliane’s oppositional attitudes to the German pres- ent), or to the dreariness of the fifties in which they had their childhood and in which they were shaped by rather more personal forces, such as sibling rivalry and patriarchal authority. The film shows us two ways of relating to these pasts—violent rejection, or reformist feminism—and is, as Ellen Seiter has claimed, ‘‘an effec- tive dramatisation of the feminist slogan ‘the personal is political,’ locating as it does the characters in their experience in the nuclear family within a specific historical, national and cultural instance.’’ However, this is where the problems begin, since the film, dedicated to the real-life Christiane, and told very much from the fictional Juliane’s point of view, does undoubtedly privilege reform- ism over terrorism. (Of course, had it done the opposite it wouldn’t have got made in the first place.) Especially problematic is the fact that, since all but one of the flashbacks concern the sisters’ childhoods, we have no idea why Marianne joined Baader-Meinhof in the first place, nor do we learn anything about the group’s ideology and its reasons for choosing the terrorist strategy. Given this lacuna one is almost bound to look for the explanation for Marianne’s actions in the carefully delineated family circumstances in which she grew up, and to fall back on the psychoanalytic suggestion that ‘‘Marianne’s blind devotion to her father, as against Juliane’s resistance and identifica- tion with her mother, has made her susceptible to a new form of fanaticism.’’ But, taken in association with Juliane’s accusation that ‘‘a generation ago and you would have become a member of the Bund Deutscher Madchen’’ (a sort of Nazi version of the Girl Guides), this simply suggests that certain family structures produce members who are attracted to terrorist organisations and that there is thus no real fundamental difference between Left and Right wing terrorist groups (see for example Gillian Becker’s Hitler’s Children, and Helm Stierlin’s Family Terrorism and Public Terrorism). Radical politics, Left or Right, are reduced to rebellion against the authoritarian father, Juliane is a model of responsible, social-democratic oppositional politics, and Marianne epitomises fanatical, pathological rejectionism. Whilst there is some truth in these charges, they don’t entirely do the film justice. It’s true that, whilst she is alive, Marianne frequently comes across as pretty unpleasant. But this impression is mitigated by the flashback scenes, especially those in which she watches film of the concentration camps or of American atrocities in Vietnam, in which we begin to understand what might lead a socially-conscious young woman down the path from protest to terrorism. Furthermore, there is a sense in which, as Ann Kaplan has suggested, ‘‘it is tempting to read Marianne as some kind of ‘double’ for Juliane—the repressed self that Juliane wanted to be.’’ This is most evident in the Persona— like scene in prison in which, thanks to the glass screen between them and the way the scene is filmed, Juliane and Marianne seem to fuse together. But it’s also there throughout the latter part of the film in which, suspecting murder, Juliane absorbs herself totally in re- enacting Marianne’s death. She also thereby comes up against the real brutality of the German state, and gets an inkling of what confirmed Marianne in her hatred of and total opposition to it. At the end of the film, Juliane takes in Marianne’s son Jan, who had been fostered when she was on the run and then in prison. The fact that he has been badly burned by children who found out that he was a terrorist’s son suggests a cyclical pattern, with parents’ deeds being endlessly revisited on their children. On the other hand the fact that he asks to be told everything about his mother, having earlier ripped up her photograph, suggests that Jan will not reject his parents like Marianne rejected hers. However, as Kaplan notes: ‘‘The act locates what is important firmly in the realm of the interpersonal. The vision is bleak in terms of bringing about change in the public realm.’’ In this she is echoing von Trotta herself: ‘‘Hope arises from the realisation that you have to find the way back to yourself. This is less of a rallying call than a pessimistic statement. Personally I see very few chances of exploding the power complex established by the alliance between economics and science and, above all, I see no movement on the present political horizon capable of achieving this.’’ —Julian Petley THE BLOOD OF A POET See LE SANG D’UN POèTE BLOOD OF THE BEASTS See LE SANG DES BETES BLOOD OF THE CONDOR See YAWAR MALLKU BLOW-UP FILMS, 4 th EDITION 156 BLOW-UP USA, 1966 Director: Michelangelo Antonioni Production: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures Corp.; Metrocolor, 35mm; running time: 111 minutes; length: 9974 feet. Released December 1966, New York. Filmed during 1966 on location in London, and at MGM Studios, Boreham Wood. Producer: Carlo Ponti; screenplay: Michelangelo Antonioni and Tonino Guerra, from a short story by Julio Cortazar; photography: Carlo di Palma; editor: Frank Clarke; sound: Robin Gregory; art director: Asheton Gorton; music: Herbie Hancock; costumes: Jocelyn Rickards; photographic murals: John Cowan. Cast: David Hemmings (Thomas, the photographer); Vanessa Redgrave (Jane); Sarah Miles (Patricia); John Castle (Bill); Peter Bowles (Ron); Jane Birkin (Blonde); Gillian Hills (Brunette); Harry Hutchinson (Old Man); Verushka, Jill Kennington, Peggy Moffitt, Rosaleen Murray, Ann Norman, and Melanie Hampshire (Models); Julian Chagrin and Claude Chagrin (The Tennis Players). Awards: Palme d’Or, Cannes Film Festival, 1967. Publications Script: Antonioni, Michelangelo and Tonino Guerra, Blow-Up, Turin, 1968; New York, 1971. Books: Bernardini, Aldo, Michelangelo Antonioni de Gente del Po a ‘‘Blow- Up,” Milan, 1967. Sarris, Andrew, Interviews with Film Directors, New York, 1967. Cameron, Ian, and Robin Wood, Antonioni, New York, 1969. Boyum, Joy, and Adrienne Scott, Film as Film: Critical Responses to Film Art, Boston, 1971. Huss, Roy, editor, Focus on ‘‘Blow-Up,” Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1971. Bazin André, La Politique des auteurs: Entretiens avec Jean Renoir, etc., Paris, 1972; revised edition, 1984. Samuels, Charles Thomas, Encountering Directors, New York, 1972. Goldman, Annie, Cinéma et société moderne, Paris, 1974. Prats, A. J., The Autonomous Image: Cinematic Narration and Humanism, Lexington, Kentucky, 1981. Rifkin, Ned, Antonioni’s Visual Language, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1982. Barthes, Roland, and others, Michelangelo Antonioni, Munich, 1984. Biarese, Cesare, and Aldo Tassone, I film di Michelangelo Antonioni, Rome, 1985. Dervin, Daniel, Through a Freudian Lens Deeply: A Psychoanalysis of Cinema, Hillsdale, New Jersey, 1985. Antonioni, Michelangelo, That Bowling Alley on the Tiber: Tales of a Director, Oxford, 1986. Perry, Ted, and Rene Prieto, Michelangelo Antonioni: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1986. Articles: Sarris, Andrew, in Village Voice (New York), 29 December 1966. Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), January 1967. Hart, Henry, in Films in Review (New York), January 1967. Knight, Arthur, in Film Heritage (Dayton, Ohio), Spring 1967. Harrison, Carey, in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1967. Kozloff, Max, in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Spring 1967. Cocks, Jay, in Take One (Montreal), April 1967. Bean, Robin, in Films and Filming (London), May 1967. Clouzot, Claire, in Cinéma (Paris), May 1967. Kinder, Marsha, ‘‘Antonioni in Transit,’’ in Sight and Sound (Lon- don), Summer 1967. Samuels, Charles, ‘‘Blow-Up: Sorting Things Out,’’ in American Scholar (Washington, D.C.), Winter 1967–68. Lefèvre, Raymond, in Image et Son (Paris), November 1967. Slover, George, ‘‘Blow-Up: Medium, Message and Make-Believe,’’ in Massachusetts Review, Autumn 1968. Fernandez, Henry, in Film Heritage (Dayton, Ohio), Winter 1968–69. Corliss, Richard, ‘‘Still Legion, Still Decent?’’ in Commonweal (New York), 23 May 1969. Gow, Gordon, ‘‘Antonioni Men,’’ in Films and Filming (London), June 1970. Hampton, Charles, in Film Comment (New York), Fall 1970. Hernacki, T., ‘‘Michelangelo Antonioni and the Imagery of Disintergration,’’ in Film Heritage (Dayton, Ohio), Autumn 1970. Cohen, Hubert, ‘‘Re-Sorting Things Out,’’ in Cinema Journal (Ev- anston, Illinois), Spring 1971. D’Lugo, Marvin, ‘‘Signs and Meanings in Blow-Up: From Cortázar to Antonioni,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Mary- land), Winter 1975. Palmer, W. J., ‘‘Blow-Up: The Game with No Balls,’’ in Literature/ Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), no. 4, 1979. Antonioni, Michelangelo, ‘‘Una intensa emozione che la troup interrompe,’’ in Cinema Nuovo (Turin), June 1982. Mátyás, G., ‘‘Az sltünt valóság nyomában,’’ in Filmkultura (Buda- pest), March-April 1983. Martin, R., ‘‘Quand le visible n’est plus seul visible,’’ in Revue Belge du Cinéma (Brussels), Summer 1983. Lee Francis, R., ‘‘Transcending Metaphor: Antonioni’s ‘Blow-Up,’’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), vol. 13, no. 1, 1985. Pressler, M., ‘‘Antonioni’s Blow-Up: Myth, Order, and the Photo- graphic Image,’’ in Post Script (Jacksonville, Florida), Fall 1985. Harris, Thomas, ‘‘Rear Window and Blow-Up: Hitchcock’s Straight Forwardness vs. Antonioni’s Ambiguity,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), vol. 15, no. 1, 1987. Hoberman, J., ‘‘After the Orgy,’’ in Village Voice (New York), 3 December 1991. Wagstaff, C., ‘‘Sexual Noise,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), May 1992. Tomasulo, F. P., ‘‘The Architectonics of Alienation: Antonioni’s Edifice Complex,’’ in Wide Angle (Baltimore), no. 3, 1993. BLOW-UPFILMS, 4 th EDITION 157 Savage, J., ‘‘Snapshots of the Sixties,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), May 1993. Bailey, E., and K. Hennessey, ‘‘Picture Perfect,’’ in Movieline (Escondido, California), July 1993. *** The plot of Michelangelo Antonioni’s Blow-Up is easily summa- rized. A photographer, Thomas (David Hemmings), chances upon a couple in a secluded park. From concealment, he photographs their apparently romantic playfulness. When the girl (Vanessa Redgrave) seeks him out and demands the negatives, he refuses. Provoked by her insistence, he later scrutinizes the photographs. As he successively enlarges selected areas of the shots (the blow-ups of the title), he discovers evidence that she has been complicit in the murder of the man with whom she was seen. Before Thomas can decide what to do with the documentation, his studio is vandalized and the photographs are taken. A superficial mystery story, the plot is not what interests Antonioni in Blow-Up. His concern is directed toward the interplay among philo- sophical concepts of reality, illusion, and appearance that manifest themselves through metaphors of photography, painting, and panto- mime. For Antonioni in Blow-Up, as in many of his other films (most notably L’avventura and The Passenger), the narrative is a vehicle for the director’s investigation of perception and interpretation. London in the mid-1960s was the self-proclaimed capital of pop art; it boasted trends set by the Beatles, Twiggy, and Carnaby Street. It was chic, hip, and mod, filled with clashing colors and swinging youths. A technological advance in photographic equipment comple- mented this environment. Equipped with compact cameras that used faster film stock, photographers could snap their subjects rapidly and spontaneously. This liberation offered the photographer the potential of capturing life in its more candid and offhand aspects. The radical new concepts of photography that prevailed in the 1960s were thus characterized by an informal and unposed factual look at odds with the more obviously artificial photographic styles that had gone before. Although the life-styles represented in Blow-Up may now seem dated, they did not, of course, account for Antonioni’s attraction to the situation. In fashionable London, as recorded by the candid photogra- phy of the mid-1960s Antonioni found one of his most memorable metaphors. Blow-Up is a film about both a society decaying from within and a photograph’s ability to record an instant of truth. Both of these factors affect the young and successful photographer who is at the center of both the film and his fashionable milieu. The photographer, only rarely identified by name in the film, is uncommitted, hostile, indifferent. He is professionally successful and an expert photographer. He is in control of himself and situations only when he is armed with his camera; without it, he is at his weakest and most vulnerable. His uncertain sexuality is especially evident in the contemptuous manner in which he treats women, dominating and humiliating them while avoiding personal involvement. (The single exception to this is his non-sexual relationship with his neighbor’s lover.) He is a model of duplicity: a voyeur, a deceiver, a performer. He is, for Antonioni, the Everyman of the disaffected generation: obsessed with surfaces, but blind to the inner value of people and deeper meaning of the events he so skillfully and energetically records with his camera. The character of the photographer is of central interest to Antonioni in Blow-Up because it is Thomas’s transformation that provides the essential meaning of the film. The ambiguities of reality, illusion, and appearance are ever-present but ignored by the photographer and his generation, and the photographer—against his will—is forced to confront this mystery, a mystery more perplexing and shattering than the murder he believes he has documented. The process by which the insulated self-confident, self-seeking, self-indulgent, self-absorbed photographer (so typical of his time) is changed by a set of circum- stances he neither comprehends nor controls is examined by Antonioni with the skill and care of a surgeon. The photographer’s casual assumptions are discredited and his values are toppled. He is a differ- ent person at the end of the film than he was at the beginning. The photographer’s transformation, in this ambiguous world where it is so difficult to distinguish reality from illusion, is realized through the act of seeing. In Blow-Up, seeing is explored on three levels; camera sight, revealed in photographs; imaginary sight, repre- sented by paintings and the mime troupe; and ocular sight, which moves freely but uneasily between them. The concept of seeing is emphasized through a deemphasis of verbal expression. Blow-Up communicates on an almost completely visual level; nothing more than implied significance is verbalized. For such an obviously search- ing film, it is indeed unusual that there are no metaphysical discus- sions, no intimate exchanges, no analytical speculations. The dia- logue track, divorced from the image track, exposes the extraneous or frivolous words that are used between the interacting participants. This attention to the visual dimensions of perception underscores the subtext represented by the mime troupe. If words are indeed superficial to the photographer, they are totally superfluous to (and consequently discarded by) the mimes. The mimes are presented to us as a framing device—they open and close the film. At the beginning, they are seen gadding about the bustling streets panhandling; at the end, the same troupe engages in a mock tennis match. At the beginning, the photographer simply finds them a momentary amuse- ment; by the ending, however, he actually shares their experience. It is, in fact, the mime troupe that serves as the spiritual barometer by which we measure the photographer’s transformation. The act of miming is crucial for Antonioni and Blow-Up because it is the mime who brings our attention to objects by their absence. For the mime, the imaginary tennis ball is every bit as ‘‘real’’ as the evidential photo- graph is ‘‘illusory.’’ It is of course, significant that the tennis match takes place at the end. It is less a conclusion than a speculation. The photographer, an outer-directed man in the beginning, would never have retrieved the tennis ball and thrown it back at the outset of the film. He is only able to perform this act of assistance to the players because of what has happened to him in the interim. However, Antonioni does not have him abandon his camera as he fetches the ball; rather, he carries it with him. What the photographer has learned is that the camera and the tennis ball can (and do) exist in the same plane of perception—reality, illusion and appearance do not fall into neat and convenient categories. The rejection of categories is given the final placement in Blow- Up. The blow-ups of the murder incident are visually related by Antonioni to the abstract design of his neighbor’s paintings—the grain of the photographic enlargements bear an uncanny resemblance to the color dots on the painter’s canvas. Antonioni underscores this motif when, in the film’s final shot, the photographer is left as isolated and indistinct as the microcosmic emulsion grains he has enlarged. Antonioni masterfully frames him in the composition of this shot to resemble a visual element in one of his own blow-ups. As a consequence of his spiritual awakening, the photographer is a different person. His slumbering world of possessions and exploita- tions have been dislodged. By the film’s final shot, he is awake to the THE BLUE LAMP FILMS, 4 th EDITION 158 dualities and complexities of life, and, ironically, that wakefulness isolates him. He can no longer return to the blind-sighted comfort of his complacent and gluttonous life; he can no longer use his camera or look at photographs in quite the same way as before. —Stephen E. Bowles THE BLUE ANGEL See DER BLAUE ENGEL THE BLUE EYES OF YONTA See Udju Azul di Yonta THE BLUE KITE See LAN FENGZHENG THE BLUE LAMP UK, 1949 Director: Basil Dearden Production: Ealing Studios, a Michael Balcon Production; black and white; running time: 84 minutes. Released January 1950. Associate Producer: Michael Relph; script: T. E. B. Clarke; addi- tional dialogue: Alexander Mackendrick; original treatment: Jan Read and Ted Willis; photography: Gordon Dines; 2nd unit pho- tography: Lionel Banes; editor: Peter Tanner; art director: Jim Morahan; musical director: Ernest Irving. Cast: Jack Warner (P.C. Dixon); Jimmy Hanley (P.C. Mitchell); Meredith Edwards (P.C. Hughes); Robert Flemyng (Sergeant Rob- erts); Bernard Lee (Divisional Detective Inspector Cherry); Dirk Bogarde (Tom Riley); Patric Doonan (Spud); Peggy Evans (Diana Lewis); Gladys Henson (Mrs. Dixon); Dora Bryan (Maisie); Betty Ann Davies (Mrs. Lewis). Awards: British Academy Award for Best Film, 1950. Publications Books: Balcon, Michael, Michael Balcon Presents: A Lifetime of Films, London, 1969. Clarke, T. E. B., This Is Where I Came In, London, 1974. Warner, Jack, Jack of All Trades: An Autobiography, London, 1975. Barr, Charles, Ealing Studios, London, 1977. Perry, George, Forever Ealing, London, 1981. Articles: Kine Weekly (London), 12 January 1950. ‘‘G.L.,’’ in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), January-February 1950. Sight and Sound (London), April 1950. Motion Picture Herald (New York), 3 April 1950. Dickinson, Thorold, ‘‘The Work of Sir Michael Balcon at Ealing Studios,’’ in The Year’s Work in the Film 1950, edited by Roger Manvell, London, 1951. Ellis, John, ‘‘Made in Ealing,’’ in Screen (London), Spring 1975. Medhurst, Andy, ‘‘Dirk Bogarde,’’ in All Our Yesterdays, edited by Charles Barr, London, 1986. Aachen, G., ‘‘The Blue Lamp,’’ in Reid’s Film Index (New South Wales, Australia), no. 30, 1997. *** Charles Barr, in his definitive Ealing Studios, locates The Blue Lamp at the centre of the studio’s post-war work, noting the collabo- ration of the writer T. E. B. Clarke, who had such an enormous impact on the comedy cycle, with the director Basil Dearden, who specialised in social dramas. Like many of the most interesting Ealing films, The Blue Lamp revolves around the confrontation of two worlds, two models of society: the stable and steady community of ordinary people, the stuff of the nation, and the hysterical and anti-social outsiders, who threaten to destroy the community, and whose threat must therefore be contained. In this particular case, the nation is embodied in the community of a local police station and its wider social network, which itself finds its most sublime expression in the domestic family life of one of the policemen, P.C. Dixon. Stability is established through the mundane routines of police work, and their communal social activities when off duty, the individual thoroughly subsumed into the collective. The threat comes from Riley (played by a young and gaunt Dirk Bogarde), his girlfriend, and his partner in crime, the three of them identified in a documentary-like voice-over as typical of a new post-war phenome- non, immature, improperly socialised juvenile delinquents, extreme cases, shunned by the rest of society, even by ‘‘professional criminals!’’ Barr’s excellent analysis of the film sees it as a profound celebra- tion of the values of the community: sobriety, emotional understate- ment, social responsibility, patrician authority, etc. But it is possible to see it also as a rather desperate attempt to restore faith in a crumbling national ideology which had found its most secure expression during the war. The film thus works to contain the emergent relatively autonomous youth culture, struggling to escape from the oppressive certainties and stifling over-protection of com- munity life and to express the desires which it represses. Thus, where Mitchell, the young recruit to the police, comes to respect and take advice from his elders, and so becomes ‘‘one of the family,’’ Riley refuses any advice. He is situated outside the community—and unable to establish his own community, unable to work as a group with his partners, continually arguing with them in an aggressively masculine way (at one stage, as he taunts his girlfriend, he fondles his THE BLUE LAMPFILMS, 4 th EDITION 159 The Blue Lamp gun; by contrast, the police seem almost maternal). This particular image of youth is eventually positively valued and narratively centralised a decade later, in films like Saturday Night and Sunday Morning, by which time television had taken over the function of articulating the principles of the national community in soap operas like Coronation Street and cop series like the equally long-running Dixon of Dock Green, featuring the same P.C. Dixon, still played by Jack Warner (even though he had been murdered half-way through The Blue Lamp!). The Blue Lamp also makes an interesting comparison with Hitch- cock’s crime thriller Blackmail, made some 20 years earlier, which also represents police work as routine, and the police force as a tight- knit community. But Hitchcock establishes this mundane picture of everyday life in order to subvert and unbalance it, and so to involve the spectator emotionally. As in The Blue Lamp, unconscious, re- pressed forces are released into the world of the everyday. But in Blackmail, the effect is to challenge the very premises of the everyday and its apparent securities and certainties. The Blue Lamp, on the other hand, establishes the ordinary in order to strengthen its moral and ideological force and the safety of routine, not to challenge it. The film thus struggles to contain disruption and reassert the ordinary: its final images neither testify to a fantastic wish-fulfilment (on the contrary, they return full-circle to the beginning, showing how the community effortlessly reproduces itself, and takes all traumas in its stride), nor leave us with Blackmail’s lingering, disturbing sense of guilt, and of the proximity of an underlying chaos, a turbulent world where anything can happen. But The Blue Lamp cannot quite so easily contain the threats, since they are visually and narratively so much more exciting for the spectator. In effect, the film interweaves two different modes of representation. On the one hand, there is the mode of social drama, heavily influenced by the documentary-realist tradition, with a char- acteristically loose, relatively non-dynamic, and episodic narrative, its multiplication of dramas held in check by the limits of the community. On the other hand, embedded within and foreclosed by the former, there is the much more narratively dynamic, tightly causal, uni-linear thriller, with a very different style of lighting, framing, performance, and action reminiscent of film noir: a style which eroticises the body, and vicariously engages the spectator in the pleasures of suspense and uncertainty. —Andrew Higson BLUE VELVET FILMS, 4 th EDITION 160 BLUE VELVET USA, 1986 Director: David Lynch Production: De Laurentiis Entertainment Group; color; Dolby sound; running time: 120 minutes. Released September 1986. Executive producer: Richard Roth; screenplay: David Lynch; assistant directors: Ellen Rauch, Ian Woolf; photography: Freder- ick Elmes; assistant photographer: Lex Dupont; editor: Duwayne Dunham; sound design: Alan Splet; sound recordist: Ann Kroeber; production designer: Patricia Norris; music director: Angelo Badalamenti; special effects: Greg Hull, George Hill; stunt coordi- nator: Richard Langdon. Cast: Kyle MacLachlan (Jeffrey Beaumont); Isabella Rossellini (Dorothy Vallens); Dennis Hopper (Frank Booth); Laura Dern (Sandy Williams); Hope Lange (Mrs. Williams); Dean Stockwell (Ben); George Dickerson (Detective Williams); Priscilla Pointer (Mrs. Beau- mont); Frances Bay (Aunt Barbara); Jack Harvey (Tom Beaumont); Ken Stovitz (Mike); Brad Dourif (Raymond); Jack Nance (Paul); J. Michael Hunter (Hunter); Dick Green (Don Vallens); Fred Pickler (Yellow Man); Philip Markert (Dr. Gynde); Leonard Watkins and Moses Gibson (Double Ed); Selden Smith (Nurse Cindy); Peter Carew (Coroner); Jon Jon Snipes (Little Donny). Blue Velvet Awards: National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Film, Best Director, Best Supporting Actor (Hopper), Best Cinematography. Publications Articles: Variety (New York), 3 September 1986. Chute, D., ‘‘Out to Lynch,’’ in Film Comment (New York), Septem- ber-October 1986. Magid, Ron, ‘‘Blue Velvet—Small Town Horror Tale,’’ in American Cinematographer (Los Angeles), November 1986. Corliss, Richard, in Film Comment (New York), November-Decem- ber 1986. Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1986–87. Interview with Lynch, in Ecran Fantastique (Paris), January 1987. Chion, Michel, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), January 1987. Routt, Bill, and Diane Routt, in Cinema Papers (Melbourne, Aus- tralia), March 1987. Sutton, Martin, in Films and Filming (London), March 1987. Ledel, Michael, in Filmfaust (Frankfurt), March-April 1987. Jenkins, Steve, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), April 1987. Borden, Lizzie, and Angela Carter, in City Limits (London), 9 April 1987. Film Quarterly (Beverly Hills), Fall 1987. Jaehne, Karen, and Laurent Bouzereau, in Cineaste (New York), vol. 15, no. 3, 1987. Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), vol. 16, no. 2, 1988. Maxfield, J. F., ‘‘‘Now It’s Dark’: The Child’s Dream in Blue Velvet,’’ in Post Script (Commerce, Texas), no. 3, 1989. Lindroth, J., ‘‘Down the Yellow Brick Road: Two Dorothys and the Journey of Initiation in Dream and Nightmare,’’ in Literature/ Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), vol. 18, no. 3, 1990. Pellow, C. K., ‘‘Blue Velvet Once More,’’ in Literature/Film Quar- terly (Salisbury, Maryland), vol. 18, no. 3, 1990. Preston, J. L., ‘‘Dantean Imagery in Blue Velvet,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), vol. 18, no. 3, 1990. Woodward, R. B., ‘‘A Dark Lens on America,’’ in New York Times, 14 January 1990. Spillman, Susan, ‘‘A Director Both Sublime and Surreal,’’ in USA Today (Arlington, Virginia), 17 August 1990. Breskin, David, interview with Lynch, in Rolling Stone (New York), 6 September 1990. Aydemir, M., ‘‘Nogmaals David Lynch,’’ in Skrien (Amsterdam), April-May 1991. Jorholt, E., ‘‘I erotikkens vold,’’ in Kosmorama (Copenhagen), Spring 1991. Gyorgy, P., ‘‘Szenvedely es eroszak,’’ in Filmvilag (Budapest), no. 5, 1991. Hampton, H., ‘‘David Lynch’s Secret History of the United States,’’ in Film Comment (New York), May-June 1993. Layton, Lynne, ‘‘Blue Velvet: A Parable of Male Development,’’ Screen (Oxford), vol. 35, no. 4, Winter 1994. Younger, R., ‘‘Song in Contemporary Film Noir,’’ Films in Review (Denville, New Jersey), vol. 45, no. 7–8, July-August, 1994. *** BONNIE AND CLYDEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 161 With Blue Velvet, David Lynch’s career at last picked up where his stunning, unique debut feature Eraserhead seemed to leave off. In his Victorian gothic docu-drama The Elephant Man and sci-fi spectacular Dune—respectively a surprising critical and commercial success, and an expensive fiasco—Lynch was incorporating elements from the highly distinctive style he had established in only one feature. In Blue Velvet, he returns, albeit in gloriously saturated colour rather than expressionist monochrome, to the fractured vision of small-town normality of Eraserhead. The film’s opening sequence is incredibly lush, suggestive and unsettling: As Bobby Vinton’s subtly fetishist title song plays, the camera tracks from a striking red, white and blue shot of blood-roses against a pristine white picket fence against an unnaturally clear sky to a deliriously idyllic, slow-motion vision of an idyllic small town that would have done Andy Hardy or Judy Garland proud. A fire engine rolls by, the firemen waving cheerfully, a lolli- pop man safeguards innocent schoolchildren, an adorable dog scam- pers, and a proud homeowner waters his garden. But the gardener is struck with a seizure and collapses, entangled in his hose and snapped at by the dog, and Lynch takes in his camera in for a closer view and penetrates the thick grass of the garden to find a teeming, ravenous, carnivorous, cannibalistic and physically revolting horde of insects chewing away at the underside of Norman Rockwell’s America. Essentially, the rest of the film follows up this opening sequence as Jeffrey Beaumont (Kyle MacLachlan, held over from and making up for his performance in Dune), a college student home because of his father’s heart attack, gets involved in a local mystery and is exposed to the horrors that lurk underneath the Eisenhower-style perfection—it is impossible to tell whether the film is set in the 1950s, the 1960s or the 1980s—of Lumberton, U.S.A. Jeffrey first suspects something is amiss when walking to the house where he grew up after visiting his trussed-up father in hospital, he discovers a severed human ear in a vacant lot. The ear, naturally, is crawling with ants and Lynch later, in an awe-inspiring effect, has Frederick Elmes’s camera explore its interior as Alan Splet’s unsettling sound effects track suggests a universe inside the head as twisted and bizarre as those of Eraserhead or Dune. With the aid of Laura Dern’s Sandy Williams, the daughter of the kindly local cop, Jeffrey plumbs into the mystery which revolves around Dorothy Vallens (Isabella Rossellini), a mel- ancholy nightclub singer known as ‘‘The Blue Lady,’’ and Frank Booth (Dennis Hopper), a frighteningly fiend-like and primal gang- ster who snorts gas through an insect-like mask, speaks only in the most basic terms (‘‘baby wants to fuck!’’) and forces Dorothy to have animalistic sex with him (Splet turns his orgasmic cries into the roar of a wild beast) by threatening to further torture her kidnapped husband, the owner of the ear. ‘‘I don’t know whether you’re a detective or a pervert,’’ Sandy tells Jeffrey when he proposes to trespass in Dorothy’s apartment in search of clues, and when he finds himself in her closet as she undresses or is sexually humiliated by Frank the distinction vanishes completely. The most disturbing aspect of Blue Velvet is that it refuses to let its Nancy Drew and the Hardy Boys-style hero and heroine off the hook as Jeffrey becomes less an observer and more a participant in the sordid, insectile nightlife of Lumberton, overcoming his resist- ance to hitting Dorothy as she begs him to when they have sex, being dragged out on a wild ride with Frank, and standing around while Frank’s associate Ben (Dean Stockwell), who resembles a kabuki homosexual and is referred to as ‘‘one suave fuck,’’ mimes to Roy Orbison’s ‘‘In Dreams,’’ the song that Frank later plays as he brutally beats Jeffrey up. One of the surprises of the film is that the thriller- whodunnit plot does eventually add up, although not before the nightmarish has thoroughly invaded Jeffrey’s world with the appear- ance of a bruised and naked Dorothy on Sandy’s front lawn and a final confrontation with Frank in an apartment that contains a still- standing, still-twitching corpse. By the time of the coda, which replicates the opening sequence, in which all the proprieties are restored—Frank is dead, a mechanical robin is eating the insects, the ear probed by the camera is Jeffrey’s and still attached to his head, families are united—the all-pervasive horrors have been so effec- tively summoned that we know they can never really be vanquished. As a character remarks early on, ‘‘It’s a strange world, isn’t it?’’ —Kim Newman THE BOAT See DAS BOOT BONDS THAT CHAFE See EROTIKON BONNIE AND CLYDE USA, 1967 Director: Arthur Penn Production: Tatira-Hiller; Technicolor, 35mm; running time: 111 minutes. Released August 1967. Filmed during 1967 on location in Texas. Producer: Warren Beatty; screenplay: David Newman and Robert Benton; photography: Burnett Guffey; editor: Dede Allen; sound: Francis E. Stahl; art director: Dean Tavoularis; set decoration: Raymond Paul; music: Charles Strouse, theme ‘‘Foggy Mountain Breakdown’’ by Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs; special effects: Danny Lee; costumes: Theodora Van Runkle; consultant: Robert Towne. Cast: Warren Beatty (Clyde Barrow); Faye Dunaway (Bonnie Parker); Gene Hackman (Buck Barrow); Estelle Parsons (Blanche); Michael J. Pollard (C. W. Moss); Dub Taylor (Ivan Moss); Denver Pyle (Frank Hamer); Evans Evans (Velma Davis); Gene Wilder (Eugene Grizzard). Awards: Oscars for Best Supporting Actress (Parsons) and Best Cinematography, 1967; New York Film Critics Award, Best Screenwriting, 1967. Publications Script: Newman, David, and Robert Benton, Bonnie and Clyde, in The Bonnie and Clyde Book, edited by Sandra Wake and Nicola Hayden, New York, 1972. Penn, Arthur, Bonnie and Clyde, New York, 1988. BONNIE AND CLYDE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 162 Books: Gelman, B., and R. Lackman, The Bonnie and Clyde Scrapbook, New York, 1967. Wood, Robin, Arthur Penn, New York, 1969. Rubin, Martin, and Eric Sherman, The Director’s Event, New York, 1970. Pechter, William S., 24 Times a Second, New York, 1971. Cawelti, John G., editor, Focus on ‘‘Bonnie and Clyde,” Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1973. Shadoin, Jack, Dreams and Dead Ends: The American Gangster/ Crime Film, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1977. Murray, Edward, 10 Film Classics, New York, 1978. Kolker, Robert Phillip, A Cinema of Loneliness: Penn, Kubrick, Coppola, Scorsese, Altman, Oxford, 1980; revised edition, 1988. Zuker, Joel A., Arthur Penn: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1980. Giannetti, Louis, Masters of the American Cinema, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1981. Cagin, Seth, and Philip Dray, Hollywood Films of the 1970s: Sex, Drugs, Violence, Rock ‘n’ Roll, and Politics, New York, 1984. Haustrate, Gaston, Arthur Penn, Paris, 1986. Thomson, David, Warren Beatty: A Life and a Story, London, 1987. Friedman, Lester D., Bonnie and Clyde, London, 1999. Friedman, Lester D., editor, Arthur Penn’s Bonnie and Clyde, Cam- bridge, 1999. Articles: Lightman, Herb, ‘‘Raw Cinematic Realism in the Photography of Bonnie and Clyde,’’ in American Cinematographer (Los Ange- les), April 1967. Gulshanok, Paul, in Cineaste (New York), Fall 1967. Alpert, Hollis, in Saturday Review (New York), 5 August 1967. Crowther, Bosley, in New York Times, 14 August 1967. Sarris, Andrew, in Village Voice (New York), 24 August 1967. Rhode, Eric, ‘‘A Middle Western,’’ in Listener (London), 14 Septem- ber 1967. Kael, Pauline, in Saturday Review (New York), 21 October 1967. Ciment, Michel, ‘‘Montréal 1967, le règne de l’image,’’ in Positif (Paris), November 1967. Penn, Arthur, in Positif (Paris), November 1967. Geduld, Carolyn, ‘‘Bonnie and Clyde: Society vs. the Clan,’’ in Film Heritage (Dayton, Ohio), Winter 1967–68. Johnson, Albert, in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1967–68. Macklin, Anthony, ‘‘Bonnie and Clyde: Beyond Violence to Trag- edy,’’ in Film Heritage (Dayton, Ohio), Winter 1967–68. Kauffman, Stanley, in New American Review (Cranford, New Jer- sey), January 1968. Benayoun, Robert, in Positif (Paris), March 1968. Laura, Ernesto G., in Bianco e Nero (Rome), March-April 1968. Chevalier, Jacques, in Image et Son (Paris), April 1968. Samuels, Charles T., in Hudson Review (Nutley, New Jersey), Spring 1968. Comolli, Jean-Louis, and André S. Labarthe, ‘‘Bonnie and Clyde: An Interview with Arthur Penn,’’ in Evergreen Review (New York), June 1968. Brode, Douglas, ‘‘Reflections on the Tradition of the Western,’’ in Cineaste (New York), Fall 1968. Farber, Stephen, in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1968. Comuzio, Ermanno, ‘‘Gangster Story,’’ in Cineforum (Bergamo), September 1968. Penn, Arthur, in Cineforum (Bergamo), September 1968. Free, William J., ‘‘Aesthetic and Moral Value in Bonnie and Clyde,’’ in Quarterly Journal of Speech (Fall’s Church, Virginia), Octo- ber 1968. Lawson, John Howard, ‘‘Our Film and Theirs: Grapes of Wrath and Bonnie and Clyde,’’ in American Dialogue (New York), Winter 1968–69. Cook, Jim, in Screen (London), July-August 1969. Gould Boyum, Joy, and Adrienne Scott, in Films as Film: Critical Responses to Film Art, Boston, 1971. Kinder,Marsha, and Beverle Houston, in Close-up: A Critical Per- spective on Film, New York, 1972. Cawelti, John, ‘‘Bonnie and Clyde Revisited,’’ in Focus! (Chicago), Spring 1972 and Autumn 1972. Childs, James ‘‘Closet Outlaws,’’ in Film Comment (New York), March-April 1973. Corliss, Richard, in Talking Pictures: Screenwriters in the American Cinema, New York, 1975. Yacowar, Maurice, ‘‘Dick, Jane, Rocky and T. S. Eliot,’’ in Journal of Popular Film and Television (Bowling Green, Ohio), Win- ter 1977. Corliss, Richard, ‘‘The Hollywood Screenwriter, Take 2,’’ in Film Comment (New York), July-August 1978. Eorsi, I., ‘‘Veszelyes egyensuly: Penn: Bonnie and Clyde,’’ in Filmkultura (Budapest), March-April 1979. Leroux, A., interview with Arthur Penn, in 24 Images (Montreal), June 1983. Combs, Richard, in Listener (London), 18 July 1985. Pym, J., ‘‘Black Hat Yellow Hat,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), no. 4, 1990. Wilmington, Michael, ‘‘Road Warriors: Outlaw Lovers on the Run,’’ in Chicago Tribune, 28 August 1994. Miller, Joyce, ‘‘From Bonnie and Clyde to Thelma and Louise: The Struggle for Justice in the Cinematic South,’’ in Studies in Popular Culture (Murfreesboro, Tennessee), vol. 19, no. 2, Octo- ber 1996. *** To speak of Arthur Penn is to address the question of what might be termed, somewhat paradoxically, the ‘‘post-classical’’ American cinema. On the one hand Penn belongs with that group of post-World War II directors which came to cinema from the stage and from the early days of television—people like Nicholas Ray, Sam Peckinpah, Franklin Schaffner, Martin Ritt, and Joseph Losey. In that respect Penn is indeed an inheritor of the traditions and forms of the classical Hollywood cinema, the Western (The Left Handed Gun), the biogra- phy picture (The Miracle Worker), the gangster/detective film (Night Moves), etc. Perhaps Penn’s loyalty to Hollywood tradition is most clearly seen in his frequent reliance upon the star system to infuse his films with certain qualities of intensity and resonance—Dustin Hoff- man’s performance in Little Big Man and Marlon Brando’s and Jack Nicholson’s in The Missouri Breaks stand out in this regard. Yet on the other hand Penn is also frequently associated with the more overtly intellectual traditions of the European art film, especially those of the French New Wave films of the early 1960s. Penn’s Mickey One, for example, is frequently discussed in such ‘‘art film’’ terms. But arguably it was with Bonnie and Clyde that Penn’s special DAS BOOTFILMS, 4 th EDITION 163 status as a post-classical director was most forcefully asserted and confirmed. In her classic essay on the film, Pauline Kael situates Bonnie and Clyde’s place in American film history by reference primarily to Fritz Lang’s You Only Live Once, itself a version of the Bonnie and Clyde story, and to Frank Capra’s It Happened One Night. Kael’s essay was written in reply to those who saw Bonnie and Clyde as a glorification of violence as personified in the actions of Warren Beatty’s Clyde Barrow and Faye Dunaway’s Bonnie Parker, and Kael quite rightly points out that ‘‘Bonnie and Clyde are presented not as mean and sadistic, [but] as having killed only when cornered.’’ Indeed, most of the film’s explicitly graphic violence is directed not at society but rather at the members of the Barrow gang. This is especially clear in the film’s last two ambush scenes, the first of which concludes with Buck Barrow’s death throes and Blanche Barrow’s agonized screams, the last of which sees Bonnie and Clyde riddled with machine gun fire. Kael’s larger point, however, involves the particularly American theme of innocence at hazard and on the run, which makes Lang’s melodrama and Capra’s screwball comedy spiritual ancestors of Penn’s alternately comic and tragic parable of the outlaw couple. The central characters in all three films long mightily, often awkwardly, to realize aspirations of spiritual and social stature. But in Lang and Penn society provides no real outlet or model for the realization of such dreams. And even in Capra it takes an act of theft (like Bonnie and Clyde, Gable and Colbert literally steal a car at one point; Ellie’s father has a ‘‘getaway’’ car standing by during the wedding cere- mony) to ensure the dream’s survival. In terms of its story, then, Bonnie and Clyde is quite properly considered a classical Hollywood film. But this story of Bonnie and Clyde is mediated by or through a very self-conscious form of visual discourse; hence the critical commonplace of Penn’s indebtedness to the generically-derived film of Truffaut and Godard. Partly this self- consciousness is seen within the film’s depicted world: Bonnie writes her own legend in doggerel verse throughout the film, and she and Clyde both willingly pose for Buck Barrow’s Kodak. Or consider the moment after the first killing, after the scene in the movie theatre, when Bonnie dances in front of her motel room mirror while singing ‘‘We’re In The Money,’’ as if she were herself a character in a film, La Cava’s Golddiggers of 1933 perhaps. The limited self-conscious- ness of Penn’s characters is set in thematic context by the more inclusive self-consciousness of the film’s discourse. For both the characters and the director, it’s a matter of images—of living up to them, of taking responsibility for them. Perhaps the greatest irony in Bonnie and Clyde is the degree to which the characters drift into big-time crime, without real premedita- tion. Clyde’s first hold-up is undertaken in response to Bonnie’s sexually loaded dare. And the first bank job—from which all else follows inexorably—evolves from a similarly innocent responsive- ness on Clyde’s part. He and Bonnie are taking target practice when a farmer and his family pull up in their truck to take a final look at their repossessed farm. Out of sympathy Clyde puts a slug into the Midlothian State Bank’s ‘‘No Trespassing’’ sign. Clyde offers the gun to the farmer and to his black field hand. As the farmer turns to leave, Clyde says, almost hesitantly though somewhat boastfully, as if to cement the bond between them, ‘‘we rob banks.’’ He hasn’t robbed one yet—but now he is committed to trying; though the first bank he tries is empty both of money and customers. More significantly, in wanting to live up to his ‘‘bank robber’’ image, Clyde unknowingly begins the progress of his own entrapment, an entrapment made chillingly clear in Penn’s images. As Clyde steps through the door, gun drawn, Penn frames him through the teller’s cage. Perhaps Clyde thinks of the holdup as an expression of his own freedom from restraint; but Penn’s framing of him within the constriction of the teller’s cage and through its bars shows how wrong Clyde is. This motif of freedom delimited and constrained is elaborately developed through the course of the film via a whole range of internal frames— windows, mirrors, doors, car windows, etc. Implicit in Penn’s framing is the question of responsibility—of Clyde’s for stepping into the frame, of Penn’s (and ours) for standing on the other side and choosing to see him framed. The film’s self- awareness is most clearly evident in the way it critiques the camera, as if our need to see Bonnie and Clyde as images of a freedom we both envy and fear were very directly responsible for their deaths. ‘‘Shoot- ing’’ with a gun and ‘‘shooting’’ with a camera are explicitly equated in the sequence with Texas Ranger Hamer, where Bonnie proposes to humiliate Hamer by taking his picture (‘‘He’ll wish he were dead,’’ as Buck puts it). In the credit sequence, moreover, Penn’s name is immediately preceded by a snapshot of three riflemen kneeling, as if he (the camera) were a gunman. And in the final ambush sequence we see Bonnie and Clyde’s agonized death from a vantage point almost identical to that of Hamer and his deputies, from across the road, as if we, like Penn, were ‘‘shooting’’ the scene. No wonder the film was condemned; who wants to take that kind of responsibility? Arthur Penn, for one. —Leland Poague DAS BOOT (The Boat) Germany, 1981 Director: Wolfgang Petersen Production: Bavaria Atelier, Radiant Film; Fuji colour, 35mm; running time: 149 minutes. Originally a television miniseries shown in 5 parts; shortened version released theatrically. Producer: Günter Rohrbach; co-producer: Michael Bittins; screen- play: Wolfgang Petersen, from the novel by Lothar-Günther Buchheim; photography: Jost Vacano; editor: Hannes Nikel; assistant direc- tors: George Borgel, Maria-Antoinette Petersen; production design: Rolf Zehetbauer; art director: G?tz Weidner; music: Klaus Doldinger; sound editing: Mike Le Mare, Eva Claudius, Illo Endrulat; sound recording: Milan Bor, Trevor Pyke, Werner Bohm, Heinz Schurer, Karsten Ullrich, Stanislav Litera, Albrecht von Bethmann; costumes: Monika Bauert. Cast: Jürgen Prochnow (The Captain); Herbert Gronemeyer (Lieu- tenant Werner); Klaus Wennemann (Chief Engineer); Hubertus Bengsch (1st Lieutenant); Martin Semmelrogge (2nd Lieutenant); Bernd Tauber (Chief Quartermaster); Erwin Leder (Johann); Martin May (Ullman); Heinz Honig (Heinrich); U. A. Ochsen (Chief Bosun); DAS BOOT FILMS, 4 th EDITION 164 Das Boot Claude-Olivier Rudolph (Ario); Jan Fedder (Pilgrim); Ralph Richter (Frenssen); Joachim Bernhard (Preacher); Oliver Stritzel (Schwalle). Publications Books: Buccheim, Lothar-Günther, Der Film—Das Boot—Ein Journal, Munich, 1981. Articles: New York, 15 February 1982. Ciompi, Valeria, ‘‘El último submarino,’’ in Casablanca, no. 13, January 1982. Grelier, R., Image et Son (Paris), March 1982. Lardeau, Y., ‘‘La Qualité allemande,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), March 1982. Gartenberg, J., Films in Review (New York), April 1982. Combs, R., Monthly Film Bulletin (London), May 1982. Spratt, M., Films and Filming (London), May 1982. Girard, M., Séquences (Montreal), July 1982. American Cinematographer (New York), December 1982. Grab, Norbert, ‘‘In the Line of Light: Der Fernseh-un Filmregisseur Wolfgang Petersen,’’ in EPD Film (Frankfurt-am-Main), vol. 13, no. 6, June 1996. Oppenheimer, J., ‘‘Salvaging Das Boot,’’ in American Cinema- tographer (Hollywood), vol. 78, May 1997. *** Das Boot is a landmark in German cinema: it is the most expensive (at $2 million) and the most popular (at home and abroad) German film ever made; it was nominated for five Academy Awards; it has proven the most successful foreign-language film release in the United States; and it has managed to capture a certain heroism for a most unheroic period in German history. The film closely follows a novel of the same title by Lothar- Günther Buchheim, a submariner on a U-Boat in World War II who wrote the novel more than 30 years later (1973), metamorphosizing LE BOUCHERFILMS, 4 th EDITION 165 grim and unsung war time experience into much-praised artistic prose and heroic action sequences. A shift in perspective changes our view of the sailors themselves, from sneak-attack killers in the despised service of a beaten dictatorship to a heroic brotherhood itself victim- ized by Nazis. The film begins with the stark announcement that 30,000 of the 40,000 German submariners in World War II failed to return home. Rather than the shadowy wolf-pack preying on unarmed civilian freighters, the sailors become victims themselves, cogs in a war machine, who retain an admirable humanity in spite of hopeless circumstances. The film thus announces that it is time to see an important element of the German wartime experience through new eyes. This revisionism is accomplished, ironically, by revitalizing and humanizing the clichéd post-war Nuremberg defence, ‘‘I was just following orders.’’ The crew of Unterseeboot-96 are doing just that, facing near certain death with a stalwart humanity that refutes their Allied reputation as killers and attempts to repudiate their connection with Nazism. The creation of sympathy begins early, with an extended opening sequence in a brothel. One of the few scenes set on shore, the pre- mission officers’ celebration begins with some decorum but quickly descends into revolting decadence, including officers passed out in vomit in a filthy men’s room and taking drunken pistol shots into the ceiling. Jürgen Prochnow (the 30-year-old captain, ‘‘Die Alte’’ or ‘‘Old Man’’ to his men) looks on with war-wise sympathy, noting his men’s fear and innocence as the British learn to sink U-boats. Prochnow’s fellow captain and friend, Thomsen, mocks Hitler’s leadership in a speech that temporarily quiets the room, drawing glares from the few Nazi sympathizers in attendance. The message is clear: the private selves of these submariners are racked by despair over their hopeless prospects, prospects created by an incompetent, increasingly intrusive, and completely uncaring leadership. These are truly good Germans, unlike the self-convinced, righteous robots of the new generation of Nazis. Once set up, this message is continually repeated. Prochnow’s ‘‘speech’’ to his men before shipping out is vintage Gary Cooper: ‘‘Well men—all set? Harbour stations!’’ The taciturn captain has no patience with the grandiloquent rhetoric of Nazi romanticizers of war, and runs a ship that is egalitarian and almost completely lacking in military ceremony. Though uncompromising about the need for competence and procedure in reports and duties, the captain is contemptuous of his spit-and-polish Nazi First Officer, who persists in wearing a uniform rather than the worn sweaters favoured by the other officers. Prochnow is filmed unshaven and then in dishevelled beard, asleep, slumped over controls. The ship itself is similarly domesticated, made gemütlich by strings of sausages hanging from the overhead pipes, loaves of bread cluttering the controls, and crates of lettuce in the torpedo room. A comic scene shows Prochnow’s flexibility in the face of mortal danger and Nazi humourlessness: he leads a full-crew sing-along of ‘‘It’s a Long Way to Tipperary,’’ the British marching song, in English—an ironic challenge to his ene- mies, foreign and domestic. Throughout, the film, the wolf-pack image of the U-boat crew is tamed through sympathetic touches. Some of the sailors are patheti- cally young; one has a pregnant French girlfriend who will suffer retribution alone since his daily letters are impossible to mail. The ultimate leaders of the enterprise are systematically undercut: as when a fly crawls over a shipboard photograph of a German admiral. After weeks at sea, the U-96 finally sinks some ships in a convoy, only to surface and see drowning British sailors, a close encounter with a suffering enemy which fills the conning tower crew with horror. When given an absurd order to pass through the enemy-held Straits of Gibraltar, the captain tries to put the First Officer and the journalist ashore, only to encounter arrogant and smug Nazi sympathizers— men totally insensitive to the frightening experiences of the submari- ners. The captain shares the terrors of depth charge attacks and a likely prolonged death by suffocation that outsiders don’t under- stand and don’t care to. The grimness of shipboard conditions, the nearness of death, the existential pushing on under hopeless prospects are universals that bridge nationalistic differences. The sympathetic power of Das Boot and the exhilaration of its chase scenes are so great that it is easy to forget that such submariners systematically sent scores of unarmed freighters to the bottom of the sea, condemning helpless civilians to death by drowning, hypother- mia, or worse: the aptly-named wolf-packs pulled down the slow, the crippled, the unwary, in acts that had more in common with execution than with warfare. Das Boot shows us a later period when the war was going badly for the service and Allied technology made what had previously been easy slaughter a fair fight. We see the U-boats made vulnerable, and the ‘‘cruelty and magnificence’’ that had initially intoxicated the journalist observer, Lt. Werner (author Buchheim), replaced by the grim reality of defeat. The film is a splendid revision of the record to highlight an undeniable historical fact: the submariners were also victims in this period, and deserve respect for clinging to what decencies and humanity were left to them. The film is honest on this point, and though it loses the aesthetic brilliance of the novel’s prose—it would take cinematography of unparalleled virtuosity to capture it, a task impossible with model submarines in a studio tank—it effectively captures the texture of life in extremis, the true brotherhood sustained by a common front against despair and terror, and the unutterable sadness of war. —Andrew and Gina Macdonald LE BOUCHER (The Butcher) France-Italy, 1969 Director: Claude Chabrol Production: Films La Boétie (Paris), Euro-International (Rome); Eastmancolor; running time: 94 minutes. Released April 1970. Filmed at Le Trémolat, Périgord, France. Producer: André Génovès; production manager: Fred Surin; as- sistant director: Pierre Gaucher; screenplay: Claude Chabrol; pho- tography: Jean Rabier; editor: Jacques Gaillard; sound: Guy Chichignoud; sound re-recordist: Alex Prout; art director: Guy Littaye; music: Pierre Jansen; song: ‘‘Capri, Petite Ile’’ by Dominique Zardi. Cast: Stéphane Audran (Hélène Marcoux); Jean Yanne (Popaul Thomas); Antonio Passalia (Angelo); Mario Beccaria (Léon Hamel); LE BOUCHER FILMS, 4 th EDITION 166 Le Boucher Pasquale Ferone (Father Charpy); Roger Rudel (Police Inspector); William Guérault (Charles). Publications Books: Wood, Robin, and Michael Walker, Claude Chabrol, London, 1970. Bracourt, Guy, Claude Chabrol, Paris, 1971. Reihe 5: Claude Chabrol, Munich, 1975. Chabrol, Claude, Et pourtant, je tourne . . . , Paris, 1976. Monaco, James, The New Wave, New York, 1976. Magny, Joel, Claude Chabrol, Paris, 1987. Austin, Guy, Claude Chabrol, Autoportrait, Manchester, 1999. Articles: Comand, André, in Image et Son (Paris), March-April 1970. Bracourt, Guy, in Cinéma (Paris), April 1970. Legrand, Gérard, in Positif (Paris), April 1970. Haskell, Molly, ‘‘The Films of Chabrol: A Priest among Clowns,’’ in Village Voice (New York), 12 November 1970. Millar, Gavin, in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1970–71. Gow, Gordon, in Films and Filming (London), July 1972. Dawson, Jan, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), July 1972. Warshow, Paul, in Film Quarterly (Berkeley, California), Fall 1972. Belton, John, ‘‘Le Boucher: The Limited Universe,’’ in Cinema (Beverly Hills), Spring 1972. ‘‘Chabrol Issue’’ of Image et Son (Paris), December 1973. Marty, Alain, in Image et Son (Paris), January 1974. Film Psychology Review (New York), Summer-Fall 1980. Kemp, Philip, ‘‘Hitching Posts,’’ in Macguffin (Victoria, Australia), no. 18, February-May 1996. Magny, J., ‘‘Questions de mise en scene,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), Hors serie, 1997. *** Set in the Périgord village of Le Trémolat, Chabrol’s delicately textured film is an unconventionally chaste, and tragic, love story BOUDU SAUVé DES EAUXFILMS, 4 th EDITION 167 about two emotionally damaged characters, the village schoolmistress, Mlle. Hélène (Stéphane Audran), and the local butcher, Popaul (Jean Yanne). Both the location and the protagonists’ professions are central to Chabrol’s purpose. The credit sequence, with Pierre Jansen’s disquieting music distancing the viewer, rolls against images of primitive cave draw- ings, the work of prehistoric man attempting to relate to his world. This explicit reference to man’s antecedents establishes an important theme in the film: the residual atavistic impulses in 20th-century man. Popaul incarnates the continued presence of these untamed primitive instincts and his self-knowledge renders this situation tragic. He appears gentle, considerate, rather conventional, even puritanical, and possesses an almost childlike respect for the village schoolmistress. A desperately unhappy and emotionally deprived family background, however, and 15 brutalising years in the army have left their scars: he has yet to come to terms with this past. Mlle. Hélène, liberated, self- possessed, and sophisticated, represents culture and moral authority, the epitome of the evolved, civilised human being. Yet she too has to come to terms with her own nature, and a failed relationship, which have made her wary of sentimental involvement. Her emotional needs may be satisfied with her surrogate family of pupils, and her sexual drive sublimated through Yoga, but her situation, like that of Popaul, is ultimately fragile. Each character is incomplete. Developed from Chabrol’s original conception, the two protago- nists illustrate his stated commitment to films of psychological enquiry: ‘‘I am for simple plots with complicated characters.’’ The story of their fraught relationship is evolved against positive images of a normality they cannot share. The film opens with Raoul Coutard’s beautiful sweeping pan of the peaceful Dordogne countryside cap- tured with the muted colours of early morning. These images of tranquility give way to an affectionate portrait of the sunny village busying itself for a wedding and the ensuing celebrations. The enjoyment is spontaneous, the sense of community strong in the shared happiness of the occasion. Among these genuine inhabitants the camera identifies the two protagonists, the Parisian schoolmistress now part of the village, and the butcher recently returned from war service: they are potentially another happy couple. A slow, unwinding tracking shot of their walk through the village establishes their burgeoning intimacy. Gifts are exchanged as a manageable expres- sion of feeling: a leg of lamb from Popaul, a lighter from Hélène. Popaul reflects ominously: ‘‘If you never make love, you go crazy.’’ The main issues of the film are played out in two juxtaposed sequences. Mlle. Hélène rehearses her pupils for the village fete: they are dressed in Louis XIV costumes and dance elegantly, if somewhat artificially, to the music of Lully. An image of stylised sophistication is conveyed, counterpointing the spontaneity of the accordion-led dancing at the wedding reception. The zooming camera reveals, in a subjective close-up, Popaul’s desire for Hélène. A dissolve switches the action to the local caves, the home of Cro-Magnon man, where Mlle. Hélène explains that were prehistoric man to re-appear in the 20th century he would have to adapt to survive. On the outcrop above the caves the thwarted sexual drive of a psychopath has expressed itself in a brutal murder. The horror is conveyed in a zoom shot, of shocking emotional force, to the victim’s hand dripping blood. Hélène finds by the body a lighter which she conceals. The viewer sharing this information becomes complicitous in Hélène’s spontaneous response to protect Popaul. Tension and ambi- guity are installed in the narrative framework as Hélène longs to be proved wrong even though she may be in danger herself. The mood darkens with the rain-drenched funeral contrasting the so recently sunny wedding. Chabrol leads the viewer to identify with Hélène’s perceptions, to suspect the worse, to experience fear as she does when Popaul stalks her in the pitch-dark school. Her failure to respond to his obvious need for help, like Charlie’s failure to respond to his wife’s confession in Tirez sur le pianiste, leads to a self-inflicted punishment and an enduring sense of guilt in the partner found wanting at the crucial moment. The closing image of the film with Hélène at the riverside conveys emptiness and the loneliness of a personal, inad- missible sense of guilt. Le Boucher is a subtle network of shifting emotions, of changing moods, and of psychological insights, expressed to a rare degree of perfection. The remarkable integration of form and meaning in the film is an eloquent testimony to the value of Chabrol’s policy of working closely with a regular production team. His moving portrayal of the psychopath is based in a compassionate desire to understand, and must rank alongside such studies as Lang’s M in its penetration and humanity. Although the psychologically disturbed character is the subject of later films Chabrol has yet to emulate the perfection achieved in Le Boucher. —R.F. Cousins BOUDU SAUVé DES EAUX (Boudu Saved from Drowning) France, 1932 Director: Jean Renoir Production: Société Sirius; running time: 83 minutes. Released November 1932, Paris. Filmed summer 1932 in Epinay studios; exteriors filmed at Chennevières and in Paris. Screenplay: Jean Renoir with Robert Valentin, from a work by René Fauchois; assistants to the director: Jacques Becker and Georges Darnoux; photography: Marcel Lucien; editors: Marguerite Renoir and Suzanne de Troye; sound: Igor B. Kalinowski; production design: Jean Castanier and Hugues Laurent; music: Raphael Strauss and Johann Strauss; song: ‘‘Sur les bords de la Riviera’’ by Leo Daniderff. Cast: Michel Simon (Boudu); Charles Granval (Edouard Lestingois); Marcelle Hainia (Emma Lestingois); Séverine Lerczinska (Anne- Marie); Jean Dasté (The Student); Max Dalban (Godin); Jean Gehret (Vigour); Jacques Becker (Poet on the river bank); Jane Pierson (Rose); Régine Lutèce (Woman walking the dog); Georges Darnoux (Guest at the wedding). Publications Books: Davay, Paul, Jean Renoir, Brussels, 1957. Cauliez, Armand-Jean, Jean Renoir, Paris, 1962. Chardère, Bernard, editor, Jean Renoir, in Premier Plan (Lyon), no. 22–24, May 1962. BOUDU SAUVé DES EAUX FILMS, 4 th EDITION 168 Institut des Hautes Etudes Cinématographiques, Analyses des films de Jean Renoir, Paris, 1964. Bennett, Susan, Jean Renoir, London, 1967. Leprohon, Pierre, Jean Renoir, Paris, 1967; New York, 1971. Poulle, Fran?ois, Renoir 1938; ou, Jean Renoir pour rien: Enquête sur un cinéaste, Paris, 1969. Braudy, Leo, Jean Renoir: The World of His Films, New York, 1972. Bazin, André, Jean Renoir, edited by Fran?ois Truffaut, Paris, 1973. Durgnat, Raymond, Jean Renoir, Berkeley, 1974. Beylie, Claude, Jean Renoir: Le Spectacle, la vie, Paris, 1975. Renoir, Jean, Essays, Conversations, Reviews, edited by Penelope Gilliatt, New York, 1975. Armes, Roy, French Cinema Since 1946: Volume 1: The Great Tradition, New York, 1976. Faulkner, Christopher, Jean Renoir: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1979. Sesonske, Alexander, Jean Renoir: The French Films 1924–1939, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1980. Gauteur, Claude, editor, Jean Renoir: Oeuvres de cinéma inédites, Paris, 1981. McBride, Joseph, editor, Filmmakers on Filmmaking 2, Los Ange- les, 1983. Serceau, Daniel, Jean Renoir, Paris, 1985. Bertin, Celia, Jean Renoir, Paris, 1986. Faulkner, Christopher, The Social Cinema of Jean Renoir, Princeton, New Jersey, 1986. Vincendeau, Ginette, and Keith Reader, La Vie est à Nous: French Cinema of the Popular Front, London, 1986. Viry-Babel, Roger, Jean Renoir: Le Jeu et la règle, Paris, 1986. Cavagnac, Guy, Jean Renoir: Le désir du monde, Paris, 1994. Leutrat, Jean-Louis, Le chiene de Jean Renoir, Crisnée, 1994. Boston, Richard, Boudu Saved From Drowning, London, 1994. O’Shaughnessy, Martin, Jean Renoir, New York, 2000. Articles: ‘‘Renoir Issue’’ of Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), January 1952. ‘‘Renoir Issue’’ of Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), Christmas 1957. Belanger, Jean, ‘‘Why Renoir Favors Multiple Camera, Long Sus- tained Take,’’ in American Cinematographer (Los Angeles), March 1960. Whitehall, Richard, ‘‘Painting Life with Movement,’’ in Films and Filming (London), June 1960. Whitehall, Richard, ‘‘The Screen Is His Canvas,’’ in Films and Filming (London), July 1960. Harcourt, Peter, ‘‘Jean Renoir,’’ in London Magazine, December 1962. Russell, Lee, ‘‘Jean Renoir,’’ in New Left Review (New York), May- June 1964. Renoir, Jean, ‘‘How I Came to Film Boudu,’’ in Films Society Review (New York), February 1967. Sarris, Andrew, in Cahiers du Cinéma in English (New York), March 1967. Fofi, Goffredo, ‘‘The Cinema of the Popular Front in France,’’ in Screen (London), Winter 1972–73. Abel, R., ‘‘Collapsing Columns: Mise-en-scène in Boudu,’’ in Jump Cut (Chicago), January-February 1975. Walker, Janet, and Luli McCarroll, ‘‘Renoir on the Bridge: A Read- ing of Boudu Saved from Drowning,’’ in Wide Angle (Athens, Ohio), no. 4, 1981. Strebel, Elizabeth Grottle, ‘‘Jean Renoir and the Popular Front,’’ in Feature Films as History, edited by K. R. M. Short, London, 1981. O’Kane, J., ‘‘Style, Space Ideology in Boudu Saved from Drown- ing,’’ in Enclitic (Minneapolis), Fall 1981-Spring 1982. Morgan, J., ‘‘From Clochards to Cappuccinos: Boudu Is Down and Out in Beverly Hills,’’ in Cinema Journal (Austin, Texas), no. 2, 1990. Holmlund, C. A., ‘‘New Cold War Sequels and Remakes,’’ in Jump Cut (Berkeley, California), April 1990. Andersson, L. ‘‘Boudu vesien snojatti,’’ Filmihullu (Helsinki), no. 6, 1995. Monterde, J. E., ‘‘Jean Renoir: anos treinta,’’ Nosferatu (Donostia- San Sebastian), no. 17, March 1995. Renoir, A., ‘‘Jean Renoir conteur d’histoires,’’ Trafic, no. 24, Win- ter 1997. *** Boudu sauvé des eaux makes abundantly clear why Jean Renoir’s work was so admired by André Bazin, and why the filmmakers of the New Wave regarded him as their supreme antecedent and father- figure. Bazin’s theory of realism—especially in so far as it is concerned with the preservation of the physical realities of time and space—is repeatedly exemplified by the use in Boudu of long takes, camera movement, and depth-of-field, relating action to action, character to character, foreground to background and continuously suggesting the existence of a world beyond the frame. The subversive implications of the material, the use of real locations instead of studio sets, the sense of a moral freedom combining inevitably with techni- cal freedom, the evident love of actors and performance, and the resulting effect of spontaneity—all could add up to a model for the ambitions of the New Wave. Leo Braudy has interpreted Renoir’s work in terms of a dialectic of nature and ‘‘theatre’’ (the latter to be understood both literally and metaphorically), the two concepts achieving a complex interplay. Boudu works very well in this light. Indeed the film opens with a theatrical representation of nature rites (Lestingois as satyr, Anne- Marie as nymph). If Renoir shows great affection for the world of nature surrounding, and epitomized by, Boudu—the freedom of the tramp without restrictions, the play of sunlight on water, the lush fertility of the imagery of the film’s final scene—he is equally charmed by the bourgeois household of the Lestingois—by the artificial birds that Anne-Marie must dust, by Lestingois’s reverence for Balzac (on whose works Boudu casually spits, not with the slightest animus but simply because it is natural to spit when you feel the need). One might add that he finds the Lestingois household charming because of the lingering traces of a subjugated, sublimated nature that continue to animate it. At the same time, he sees that it is the subjugation that makes culture possible. Windows—the barrier between nature and culture but also the means of access—are a recurrent motif throughout Renoir’s work. In the films of Ophuls (with whom Renoir has many points of contact while remaining so different) windows are always being closed; in those of Renoir they are always being opened. He is centrally concerned with the possibil- ity of free access and interchange between the two worlds, the uncertainty of being crucial. The desire to negotiate between nature and culture encounters problems which the film can’t resolve, and partially evades. On the one hand, the comic mode enables Renoir to avoid confronting the psychic misery produced by bourgeois repressiveness: Madame BRAZILFILMS, 4 th EDITION 169 Lestingois, in particular can only be a comic character for the film to continue to function. If her position were allowed to be explored seriously, the laughter would die immediately. The scene in which she is ‘‘liberated’’ by being raped by Boudu is saved from distastefulness solely by being played as farce. On the other hand, Renoir’s equivoca- tion in evaluating the bourgeois world results in some confusion over Boudu himself: does he or does he not represent a serious threat to it? The point gains force when one compares Michel Simon’s characteri- zation hero with his père Jules in Vigo’s L’Atalante. Jules is at once more formidable and more consistent, and Vigo’s radicalism more sharply defined. Boudu, in contrast, seems little more than a pre- socialized (and pre-sexual) child, essentially harmless. The sudden ascription to him of great sexual potency jars, considering that we are told earlier that he has never kissed anyone except his dog. The film is typical of Renoir’s work in its warmth, humanity, generosity; it also suggests the close relation between that generosity and impotence. If every way of life can be defended, then nothing need be changed. —Robin Wood BOY See SHONEN BRAZIL UK, 1985 Director: Terry Gilliam Production: Brazil Productions for 20th Century Fox; Eastmancolor; Dolby stereo; running time: 142 minutes. Released March 1985. Producer: Arnon Milchan; co-producer: Patrick Cassavetti; pro- duction coordinator: Margaret Adams; screenplay: Terry Gilliam, Tom Stoppard, Charles McKeown; 2nd unit director: Julian Doyle; assistant directors: Guy Travers, Chris Thompson, Richard Cole- man, Christopher Newman, Terence Fitch, Kevin Westley; photog- raphy: Roger Pratt; model/effects photography: Roger Pratt, Julian Doyle, Tim Spence; camera operator: David Garfath; video con- sultant: Ira Curtis Coleman; editor: Julian Doyle; sound editors: Rodney Glenn, Barry McCormick; sound recordists: Bob Doyle, Eric Tomlinson, Andy Jackson; sound re-recordist: Paul Carr; art directors: John Beard, Keith Pain; graphic artists: David Scutt, Bernard Allum; draughtsmen: Tony Rimmington, Stephen Bream; matte artist: Ray Caple; production designer: Norman Garwood; set dressing designer: Maggie Gray; costume designers: Jams Acheson, Ray Scott, Martin Adams, Vin Burnham, Jamie Courtier, Martin Adams, Annie Hadley; make-up: Maggie Weston, Aaron Sherman, Elaine Carew, Sallie Evans, Sandra Shepherd, Meinir Brock; music: Michael Kamen; music performed by: National Philharmonic Orchestra; music coordinator: Ray Cooper; choreog- rapher: Heather Seymour; stunt arranger: Bill Weston; special effects supervisor: George Gibbs; model effects supervisor: Rich- ard Conway; titles/optical effects: Nick Dunlop, Neil Sharp, Kent Houston, Tim Ollive, Richard Morrison. Brazil Cast: Jonathan Pryce (Sam Lowry); Robert De Niro (Archibald ‘‘Harry’’ Tuttle); Katherine Helmond (Mrs. Ida Lowry); Ian Holm (Mr. Kurtzmann); Bob Hoskins (Spoor); Michael Palin (Jack Lint); Ian Richardson (Mr. Warrenn); Peter Vaughan (Mr. Eugene Helpmann); Kim Greist (Jill Layton); Jim Broadbent (Dr. Jaffe); Barbara Hicks (Mrs. Terrain); Charles McKeown (Lime); Derrick O’Connor (Dowser); Kathryn Pogson (Shirley); Bryan Pringle (Spiro); Sheila Reid (Mrs. Buttle); John Flanagan (TV interviewer/salesman); Ray Cooper (Techni- cian); Brian Miller (Mr. Buttle); Simon Nash (Boy Buttle); Prudence Oliver (Girl Buttle); Simon Jones (Arrest official); Derek Deadman (Bill, Department of Works); Nigel Planer (Charlie, Department of Works); Terence Bayley (TV commercial presenter); Gordon Kaye (MOI lobby porter); Tony Portacio (Neighbour in clerk’s pool); Bill Wallis (Bespectacled lurker); Winston Dennis (Samurai warrior); Toby Clark (Small Sam double); Diana Martin (Telegram girl); Jack Purvis (Dr. Chapman); Elizabeth Spender (Alison/‘‘Barbara’’ Lint); Antony Brown (Porter, Information Retrieval); Myrtle Devenish (Typist, Jack’s office); Holly Gilliam (Holly); John Pierce Jones (Basement guard); Ann Way (Old lady with dog); Don Henderson (1st Black Maria guard); Howard Lew Lewis (2nd Black Maria guard); Oscar Quitak, Harold Innocent, John Grillo, Ralph Nossek, David Grant, James Coyle (Interview officials); Patrick Connor (Cell guard); Roger Ashton-Griffiths (Priest); Russell Keith Grant (Young gallant at funeral). BRAZIL FILMS, 4 th EDITION 170 Publications Script: Gilliam, Terry, Tom Stoppard, and Charles McKeown, Brazil, in The Battle of Brazil, edited by Jack Mathews, New York, 1987. Books: Danvers, Louis, Brazil de Terry Gilliam, Brussels, 1988. Gilliam, Terry, Gilliam on Gilliam, New York, 1999. McCabe, Bob, Dark Knights and Holy Fools: The Art and Films of Terry Gilliam, New York, 1999. Articles: Rabourdin, D., ‘‘Terry Gilliam parle de Brazil,’’ in Cinema (Paris), February 1985. Roddick, Nick, ‘‘Just Crazy about Brazil,’’ in Stills (London), Febru- ary 1985. ‘‘Brazil Issue’’ of Positif (Paris), March 1985. Chaillet, J.-P., and M. Chion, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), March 1985. D’Yvoire, J., in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), March 1985. Pym, John, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), April 1985. Starburst (London), April 1985. Van de Kaap, H., in Skrien (Amsterdam), April-May 1985. Rushdie, Salman, ‘‘The Location of Brazil,’’ in American Film (Washington, D.C.), September 1985. Rubenstein, Lenny, in Cineaste (New York), vol. 14, no. 4, 1986. Stills (London), February 1986. Glass, Fred, in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Summer 1986. Fohlin, J., in Filmhaftet (Uppsala, Sweden), December 1988. Boyd, K. G., ‘‘Pastiche and Postmodernism in Brazil,’’ in Cinefocus (Bloomington, Indiana), no. 1, 1990. Kremski, P., in Filmbulletin (Winterthur, Switzerland), no. 5–6, 1991. Fister, Barbara, ‘‘Mugging for the Camera: Narrative Strategies in Brazil,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), vol. 24, no. 3, 1996. Robley, L.P., and P. Wardle, ‘‘Terry Gilliam,’’ in Cinefantastique (Forrest Park, Illinois), vol. 27, no. 6, 1996. *** ‘‘When I started imagining things,’’ says Terry Gilliam, ‘‘I get a chemical high from it. My imagination is a cheap drug, one of my ways of dealing with reality because reality is so complex and uncontrollable.’’ More than most, his career as a filmmaker seems, with its much-publicised crises of finance, production, and distribu- tion, to have been a series of self-imposed demands for the impossi- ble, the direct translation of a private quest into an exotic public entertainment hovering on the edge of disaster. And not surprisingly, the quartet of Gilliam adventures that began with Jabberwocky has one central theme: the triumph of fantasy. In each of his films, the action revolves around a humble figure of unlikely significance—the medieval apprentice (Jabberwocky), the schoolboy (Time Bandits), the lowly clerk (Brazil), the derided outcast (The Adventures of Baron Munchausen)—who more by luck than good judgement becomes something of a hero after tackling some monstrous opponents. In each film, the ‘‘real’’ world is a cruelly chaotic environment where frantic inspiration and sheer bravado offer the only defence. And in each film, the moment of victory is precariously achieved at the cost of apparent defeat: Dennis must overwhelm the Jabberwock to win the Princess, Kevin loses home and family in the (temporary) defeat of Evil, Sam escapes from torture into placid insanity, the Baron is shot dead before riding off into the sunset where he dissolves like a ghost. It is as if the price of the whole display has been too high, an unavoidable but near-suicidal perform- ance. ‘‘I like the Icarus quality,’’ Gilliam confirms, ‘‘of flying too close to the sun.’’ Flying high is certainly the escape route in Brazil, the darkest and most coherent of Gilliam’s labyrinthine stories. Set ‘‘somewhere in the 20th Century (at 8.49 p.m.),’’ it parodies Orwell’s 1984 to convey a less restrained but equally persuasive picture of a not-too-alternate society where nothing works as it should and nobody really cares. Gilliam’s version of Winston Smith, the wild-eyed Sam Lowry, is employed in the warrens of the monolithic Ministry of Information Retrieval—where, naturally, they never tell you anything—his main function to solve the problems of his immediate superior (played by Ian Holm in a memorable portrait of vacillating bureaucracy). At night, Lowry dreams that he’s devastatingly handsome in shining armour, equipped with a glorious set of white wings, and goes swooping among the clouds where a blonde goddess awaits him. When he meets a real girl who looks just like his imaginary partner-in-flight he has little choice but to team up with her even though the ‘‘goddess’’ charges about in a huge hell-raising truck with the bright glitter of anarchy in her eyes and is marked for arrest as a trouble-maker. Sam’s attempts to extract her to safe ‘‘non-exist- ence’’ from the central computer records are in vain, and they are both doomed. But in his imagination their faraway paradise (its idyllic nature suggested by the words of the popular song ‘‘Brazil,’’ which otherwise has nothing to do with the plot) remains intact and their embrace in the sky—anticipating Gilliam’s subsequent vision of ecstasy, the aerial dance between Venus and Munchausen—will last forever. The images in Brazil are as outrageous as any of Gilliam’s Monty Python cartoons which, with their truncated cut-outs, coils of tubes and pipes, and berserk mechanisation, the film often evokes. What gives it a special force, quite distinct from the more whimsical, fairy- tale absurdities of his other comedies, is the disturbing familiarity of the elaborately awful settings. The ugly decor of the macabre city, its walls plastered with sinister proclamations (‘‘Don’t suspect a friend— report him!’’; ‘‘Happiness—we’re all in it together’’), provides an enclosure of disheartening malfunction whose inhabitants are either too numb or too self-absorbed to notice. ‘‘I’m dealing with what I think exists now,’’ Gilliam says. ‘‘There is a feeling things are out of control . . . .’’ A car left briefly parked is instantly vandalised and set alight by playful kids. A guest arrives late to a party and has to be rescued by his hostess from brutish security guards who have attacked him. A terror- ist bomb explodes in a restaurant but lunch continues among those diners unaffected by the blast and flames, politely screened from the writhing wounded. Such moments of ruthless humour give Gilliam’s retro-future an acute satirical accuracy. Equally startling, though, are the images from nightmare, sometimes Sam’s, sometimes Gilliam’s, always ours. A vivid portrayal of the city-dweller’s predicament comes when the pavement itself sprouts arms that hold the would-be knight back from his mission. And when another gallant rescuer, the resourceful repairman who operates stealthily outside the law, is suddenly caught up in a shroud of waste paper, a breeze blows the BREAKFAST AT TIFFANY’SFILMS, 4 th EDITION 171 paper away and the human figure beneath has disintegrated and gone, a metaphor for lost hopes of reprieve. The city under siege is a constant Gilliam battleground, vividly restaged in each of his films with ferocious bombardments and impressive crowds of scurrying extras. In Brazil, the war bursts in through ceilings and front doors; it even offers the opportunity for a sly reference to Battleship Potemkin, with a vacuum-cleaner instead of a pram on the fatal steps. The underlying contest can also be interpreted as a race against time, partly to save a crumbling world, partly—at a more personal level—to counteract physical mortality. Like the process of filmmaking itself, Gilliam’s comedies are beset with giant antagonists (Sam’s envisioned opponent in Brazil, a tower- ing samurai, turns out to have Sam’s own features), but they also bubble with resilience and humour. ‘‘I hope people will catch themselves laughing and suddenly realise, ‘I shouldn’t be laughting at that, that’s horrendous.’ That’s a nice thing to do to people. It helps us to see we’re all in it together.’’ —Philip Strick BREAKFAST AT TIFFANY’S USA, 1961 Director: Blake Edwards Production: Jurow-Sheperd Productions and Paramount Pictures; colour, 35mm; running time: 115 minutes. Producers: Martin Jurow and Richard Sheperd; screenplay: George Axelrod, from the novel by Truman Capote; photography: Franz Planer; editor: Howard Smith; art director: Roland Anderson; music: Henry Mancini; song: Johnny Mercer; sound: John Wilkinson; assistant director: Bill McGarry; costumes: Edith Head, Givenchy. Cast: Audrey Hepburn (Holly Golightly); George Peppard (Paul Varjak); Patricia Neal (2-E); Mickey Rooney (Mr. Yunioshi); Buddy Ebsen (Doc Golightly); Jose Luis de Vilallonga (Jose da Silva Perriera); Martin Balsam (O.J. Berman); Dorothy Whitney (Mag Wildwood); Alan Reed (Sally Tomato). Publications Books: Gilliatt, Penelope, ‘‘A Fairytale of New York,’’ in Unholy Fools, London 1973. Clark, Leslie, ‘‘Brunch on Moon River,’’ in The Modern American Novel and the Movies, edited by Gerald Peary and Roger Schatzkin, New York 1978. Vaccino, Roberto, Edwards, Florence 1979. Brode, Douglas, The Films of the Sixties, New Jersey 1978. Merbaum, Mark, Magill’s Survey of Cinema, Volume 1, First Series, edited by Frank Magill, New Jersey 1980. Lehman, Peter, and William Luhr, Blake Edwards, Ohio 1981. Bruno, Edoardo, Blake Edwards: l’occhio composto, Genoa, 1997. Articles: Variety (New York), 11 October 1961. Gow, Gordon, in Films and Filming (London), November 1961. Monthly Film Bulletin (London), November 1961. Breen, James, in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1961/62. Mardore, Michel, ‘‘Le sexe d’Holly’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), March 1962. Feinstein, Herbert, ‘‘My Gorgeous Darling Sweetheart Angels: Brigitte Bardot and Audrey Hepburn’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley) Spring 1962. Bruno, Eduardo, ‘‘I miti infranti’’ in Filmcritica (Rome), May 1964. Legrand, Gérard, ‘‘Diamants sur canapé—Le rendez-vous aveugle de Blake Edwards’’ in Positif (Paris), November 1987. McGilligan, P., ‘‘Irony,’’ Film Comment (New York), vol. 31, November-December, 1995. *** Although Truman Capote’s popular novel served as its basis, the film version of Breakfast at Tiffany’s is very much in debt to George Axelrod’s contribution. In turn, Axelrod’s screenplay owes a consid- erable amount to Billy Wilder’s work. Axelrod and Wilder collabo- rated on The Seven Year Itch, an Axelrod play which the two adapted for the screen with Wilder directing. And, as in The Seven Year Itch, Breakfast at Tiffany’s features an average man and a desirable, eccentric young woman who meet and become involved because they live in the same apartment building. More significant, particularly in regard to the male protagonist, is the film’s relationship to Sunset Boulevard. Paul Varjak (George Peppard), like William Holden’s character in Wilder’s film, is an unfulfilled writer who has taken to a form of prostitution by becoming the kept lover of a rich, older woman. Unlike Gloria Swanson, however, 2-E (Patricia Neal) isn’t an actress but she displays a strong theatrical flair: on bursting into Paul’s apartment and announcing that she thinks her husband may suspect the affair and has a detective trailing her, 2-E wears a vampire-like costume consisting of a black cape coat and a red turban. But the Wilder film Breakfast at Tiffany’s most closely resembles in tone and thematic concern is The Apartment, a comedy-drama in which both the male and female protagonist are involved in a sense in prostituting themselves. While Holly Golightly may not consider herself a prostitute, the film suggests the clients she has expect some sort of sexual favor in return for the ‘‘gratuities’’ they give her. And, as with the Lemmon and MacLaine characters in The Apartment, Paul and Holly are aligned to feelings of alienation, loneliness, and despair. Breakfast at Tiffany’s deals with characters who exploit others but the film is more concerned with how these characters are damaging themselves. For instance, Paul uses 2-E but he is also used by her; and Holly, who calls her clients ‘‘rats,’’ is cynically ‘‘ratting’’ on them. As Paul understands through observing Holly, his relationship with 2- E exists because he fears confronting himself and his future as a writer. In contrast, Holly’s insecurity and identity crisis is much more severe. Holly repeatedly exhibits an inability to be fully honest with herself and others: 1) she lives as a transient yet she keeps Cat whom she refers to as ‘‘poor slob’’; 2) she claims she wants to give her brother Fred a home but she seems to be incapable of saving the necessary money to buy the ranch in Mexico; 3) she associates Paul with her brother which is a means of keeping the relationship platonic BREAKFAST AT TIFFANY’S FILMS, 4 th EDITION 172 Breakfast at Tiffany’s and non-threatening; 4) she attempts to reconstruct herself in a do- mestic image when she thinks a rich South American wants to marry her. Ultimately, the film’s dramatic conflict resides in Holly’s refusal to admit that Paul understands her and wants to make a commitment to her and the relationship. In one of the film’s most engaging sequences, Holly and Paul spend a day together doing things the other hasn’t done: in their final escapade, Holly takes Paul to a five and dime store with the intention that they steal something. In addition to alluding to Holly’s child-like sensibility, the action is also telling in that what they wind up stealing are Halloween masks—Holly leaves the store wearing a cat-face mask. During the course of the film, Holly is forced into shedding the various masks she uses to protect herself; the process culminates in a painful confrontation in which she attempts to dismiss Paul and disown her feelings by abandoning Cat. Although Holly’s desperate gesture jars her into admitting to her need for affection, the scene carries an emotional intensity that almost undercuts the film’s upbeat resolution. Axelrod provides the film with nuanced characterizations and a skillfully constructed screenplay; he creates characters who are intelligent, witty and emotionally complex. Axelrod’s contribution is matched by Blake Edwards. Breakfast at Tiffany’s is the film that established him as a major directorial presence. Edwards is extremely assured in his handling of a wide range of modes and mood changes. The film encompasses broad farce (arguably, Mickey Rooney’s characterization and performance are too silly to warrant racist objections), social satire (the New York City high society fringe element), the playful humour that Holly and Paul exhibit; it also captures the edgy mood swings that Holly displays and the emotional pain she experiences. Edwards is ably assisted by Henry Mancini, who in addition to co-writing the melancholy ‘‘Moon River,’’ pro- vides the film with a highly evocative score. As Paul Varjak, George Peppard gives a disciplined and highly appealing performance. In what could have easily become a second- ary role, Peppard is assertive and compelling but is so in a gentle manner. As did Home From the Hill, Breakfast at Tiffany’s indicates that Peppard had the potential to become a great leading man. He had a strong sexual presence and a masculine persona which wasn’t dependent on swagger; instead, it is his good looks and low-keyed charm that make him seductive. While Peppard is a great asset, Breakfast at Tiffany’s is Audrey Hepburn’s film and Holly Golightly is perhaps her most endearing ‘‘waif’’ characterization. On the other BREAKING THE WAVESFILMS, 4 th EDITION 173 hand, the film marks a turning point in her career with Hepburn moving from the child-woman to a more adult, worldly image. In Breakfast at Tiffany’s Hepburn is less of an innocent but she manages to maintain her vulnerability and emotional expressiveness. Given that the role has become so significant to Hepburn’s career, it is interesting to note that Marilyn Monroe had been the initial choice for the project; instead, Monroe did The Misfits, the film which was intended to reveal her as a mature personality and actor. Ironically, Breakfast at Tiffany’s might have better served Monroe’s needs than the project which had been conceived specially to spotlight her development. Breakfast at Tiffany’s has a fairy tale quality about it but, like Wilder’s The Apartment, the film is bittersweet and explores modern day existence with insight and compassion. —Richard Lippe BREAKING THE WAVES Denmark, 1996 Director: Lars von Trier Production: Zentropa Entertainments in collaboration with Trust Film Svenska AB, Liberator Productions S.a.r.l., Argus Film Productie, Northern Lights; color, 35mm CinemaScope; running time: 158 minutes. Released 5 July 1996, Copenhagen. Cost: DKK 52 million. Producers: Vibeke Windel?v, Peter Aalb?k Jensen; screenplay: Lars von Trier in collaboration with Peter Asmussen and David Pirie; photography: Robby Müller; editor: Anders Refn; scenography: Karl Juliusson; sound: Per Streit; chapter photos: Per Kirkeby; digital manipulations by S?ren Buus, Steen Lyders Hansen, Niels Valentin Dal. Cast: Emily Watson (Bess); Stellan Skarsg?rd (Jan); Katrin Cartlidge (Dodo); Adrian Rawlins (Dr. Richardson); Jonathan Hackett (Priest); Sandra Voe (Mother); Jean-Marc Barr (Terry); Udo Kier (Sadistic sailor). Awards: (selected) European Film of the Year, Berlin European Film Academy Award; Grand Prix, Cannes Film Festival; Best Film, Best Script, Best Leading Actress, Best Supporting Actress, Best Editor, Best Photography, Best Sound, Best Production Design, Best Make Up, and Best Light Engineer, Danish Film Academy Awards (Rob- ert); Best Film, Best Actress, and Best Supporting Actress, Danish Film Critics Awards (Bodil); César Award for Best Foreign Film; Best Director, Best Actress, and Best Cinematographer, New York Film Critics Circle Awards; Guldbagge Award for Best Foreign Film, Swedish Film Institute; Best Film, Best Actress, Best Cinematography, and Best Director, National Society of Film Critics (U.S.A.). Publications Scripts: Trier, Lars von, Breaking the Waves, K?benhavn, 1996. Breaking the Waves Articles: Bj?rkman, Stig, ‘‘De glasklara bildernas magi,’’ in Chaplin, no. 263, 1996 Kindblom, Mikaela, ‘‘Kvinnliga offerritualer,’’ in Chaplin, no. 265, 1996. Bj?rkman, Stig, ‘‘Les nouvelles expériences de Lars von Trier,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), May 1996. Guérin, Marie-Anne, interview with Lars von Trier, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), June 1996. Audé, Francoise, and Christian Braad Thomsen, interview with Lars von Trier, in Positif (Paris), October 1996. Guérin, Marie-Anne, and Frédéric Strauss, ‘‘Dossier,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), October 1996. Dannowski, Hans Werner, ‘‘Theologische Motive,’’ in EPD Film (Frankfurt), November 1996. Oppenheimer, Jean, and David E. Williams, ‘‘Von Triers and Müller’s Ascetic Aesthetic on Breaking the Waves,’’ in American Cinema- tographer (Hollywood), December 1996. Sedakova, and others, ‘‘Breaking the Waves and Ordet Are Com- pared by Panel of Philosophers and Sociologists Discussing Sin, Love, Faith, Evil,’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), June 1997. *** Breaking the Waves indicates a major new direction in Lars von Trier’s output. Following the Europa trilogy—with its depiction of a world in moral and political dissolution, its perverse sex, and its THE BRIDE OF FRANKENSTEIN FILMS, 4 th EDITION 174 doom-laden atmosphere that almost makes death a relief—in Break- ing the Waves the director shuffles the deck to create a film set in a community fighting tooth and nail against the moral dissolution represented in its eyes by anything novel or from the outside, a film which pays tribute to pure, all-consuming love, and for the first time features a female lead. It may end in death, but also in a kind of resurrection. Emily Watson’s Bess is the all-important lead, a simple woman brought up in a strictly religious Scottish small-town community. She marries Jan, a roustabout from the oil rigs, and sacrifices herself for him, so to speak, when he is paralysed in an accident on the rig and asks her to pick up other men, have sex with them, and then describe it to him. It is the only way he can have faith in his own recovery, he tells her. Her world is populated by God, Jan, and then everyone else. She has one-to-one conversations with her God, taking it upon herself to give Him a language by altering her voice and playing his part as he communicates directly with her. God is, quite literally, her counsellor, and as she has asked him to give her Jan back, she thinks she is to blame when Jan returns as a quadriplegic; for this reason, too, she is prepared to sacrifice herself in order to liberate him from the trammels of his paralysis. One of the scoops of the film is its depiction of her love as unstinted, devouringly carnal, as pure sexual abandon that she experi- ences for the first time and refuses to relinquish. Her pain at Jan’s departure is heartrending, and her physical reaction—hammering away at the machinery the roustabouts use every day—strikes home psychologically. When he asks her to abandon herself to other men there is no doubt that he does so in order to help a woman who seems doomed to lose her sensuality just as she discovers it, but his request develops into an obsession, revealing a demonic side to Jan, who also achieves some kind of perverted satisfaction through it. Bess may be regarded as a simple fool, a forerunner to the people who act the idiots in Trier’s next film, The Idiots, in their attempts to arrive at some kind of authenticity, a notion with its base in romanti- cism. Or she may be regarded as a parallel to the Greek chorus of Down’s Syndrome dishwashers in Riget, or a successor to Mrs. Drusse, with her second sight the antithesis of the studied rationality of the medical world. Almost everywhere in Trier’s films rationality and irrationality are contrasted, revealing areas where the common sense of civilization fails, such as in the face of the hypnosis used in the Europa trilogy to break down barriers and arrive at memory’s traumatic spots, where (self) control is switched off. At the same time Bess may be regarded as a saviour, a redeemer, whose self-sacrifice redeems Jan from a hopeless life chained to the bed and oxygen mask. Not only does she submit quite literally to people (men) and their sexual desires; she also embarks on a voyage across the Styx to the dangerous vessel where her fateful death awaits her. When she returns against all expectations, and is excommunicated by her church, she is stoned by a group of children who pursue her relentlessly on her Via Dolorosa—the path to the church that has rejected her and knows not the mercy that is otherwise part of the Kingdom of Heaven. With provocation typical of Trier, female sexual submission is thus merged with the cruel rejection by the church of she who is pure of heart. The results were only to be expected. In Denmark the film aroused opposition and argument like no other film in recent times. Priests and women in particular felt it incumbent on them to refute its perception of religion and its image of women. In this post-feminist age Bess may be seen as an anachronism, but Emily Watson defends her, acting with a vulnerability moving and convincing in every detail as regards the pain of her loss, the sincerity of her love, the pureness of her heart. Trier has created a female figure worthy of his great compatriot Carl Theodor Dreyer, a mixture of Dreyer’s Joan of Arc, who goes to the stake for her faith; Gertrud, who desires utter devotion and not the adoration of luke-warm men; and Anna from Day of Wrath, who would rather die as a witch than live with a man who renounces love to save his life. Trier emphasizes the stylization of this romantic melodrama by the use of chapter divisions in which pictures of landscapes are visually manipulated to convey the way the romantics perceived nature. The chapter titles range from the specific ‘‘Bess gets married’’ and ‘‘Life with Jan’’ to abstracts such as ‘‘Doubt,’’ ‘‘Faith,’’ and ‘‘Bess’ Sacrifice,’’ thus underlining the increasingly religious, alle- gorical character of the tale. At the same time the melodrama is acted out in the style he invented for what he called his pot-boiler, the genre- ironic television series, The Kingdom. The irony may be absent from Breaking the Waves, but Trier still uses the hand-held camera and monochrome sepia tints that in the cinema in CinemaScope made people sea-sick. The mobile camera gives us shots of the town and landscape that are clear-cut and real in almost documentary fashion, going ultra-close-up to the characters, pursuing them into the most painful nooks and crannies of the mind, and rendering them visible. Just as Bess transgresses the conventions of her community, the director transgresses those of film narrative by tossing continuity in the normal sense to the winds, along with the classical rules for angles and edits. Instead of continuity he goes for an emotional intensity that sucks the viewer into this small-minded world of pig-headed men who only understand love and ultimate sacrifice in terms of the Bible, not of real life. And when the bells finally ring out in the sky we feel the breath of Tarkovsky and his sense of visualized metaphysics, just as the miracle from Ordet by Carl Theodor Dreyer is an obvious source of inspiration. —Dan Nissen BREATHLESS See A BOUT DE SOUFFLE THE BRIDE OF FRANKENSTEIN USA, 1935 Director: James Whale Production: Universal; black and white, running time: 76 minutes. Released May 1935. Producer: Carl Laemmle Jr.; screenplay: John L. Balderston, Wil- liam Hurlbut, from the novel by Mary Shelley; photography: John D. Mescall; editor: Ted Kent; art director: Charles D. Hall; music: Franz Waxman; special effects: John P. Fulton; make-up: Jack Pierce. Cast: Boris Karloff (The Monster); Colin Clive (Henry Frankenstein); Valerie Hobson (Elizabeth); Elsa Lanchester (The Bride/Mary Shel- ley); Ernest Thesiger (Dr. Pretorius); O. P. Heggie (Blind Hermit); Dwight Frye (Karl); E. E. Clive (Burgomaster); Una O’Connor (Minnie); Ann Darling (Shepherdess); Douglas Walton (Shelley); THE BRIDE OF FRANKENSTEINFILMS, 4 th EDITION 175 The Bride of Frankenstein Gavin Gordon (Lord Byron); Ted Billings (Ludwig); Lucien Prival (Butler); John Carradine (Woodsman); Walter Brennan (Neighbour); Billy Barty (Baby). Publications Script: Riley, Philip J., editor, Bride of Frankenstein: The Original Shooting Script, Absecon, New Jersey, 1989. Books: Butler, Ivan, Horror in the Cinema, revised edition, New York, 1970. Goldblatt, Burt, and Chris Steinbrunner, Cinema of the Fantastic, New York, 1972. Bojarski, Richard, and Kenneth Beale, The Films of Boris Karloff, Secaucus, New Jersey, 1974. Everson, William K., Classics of the Horror Film, Secaucus, New Jersey, 1974. Derry, Charles, Dark Dreams: A Psychological History of the Mod- ern Horror Film, New York, 1977. Ellis, Reed, Journey into Darkness: The Art of James Whale’s Horror Films, New York 1980. Curtis, James, James Whale, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1982. Manguel, Alberto, Bride of Frankenstein, Champaign, Illinois, 1997. Articles: Time (New York), 29 April 1935. New York Times, 11 May 1935. Variety (New York), 15 May 1935. Film Weekly (London), 28 June 1935. Monthly Film Bulletin (London), July 1935. Durgnat, Raymond, ‘‘The Subconscious: From Pleasure Castle to Libido Motel,’’ in Films and Filming (London), January 1962. Jernsen, Paul, ‘‘James Whale,’’ in Film Comment (New York), Spring 1971. Huss, Roy, ‘‘The Creation Scene in The Bride of Frankenstein,’’ in Focus on the Horror Film, edited by Huss and T. J. Ross, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1972. BRIEF ENCOUNTER FILMS, 4 th EDITION 176 Evans, Walter, ‘‘Monster Movies: A Sexual Theory,’’ in Journal of Popular Film (Washington, D.C.), Fall 1973. Milne, Tom, ‘‘One Man Crazy: James Whale,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1973. Evans, Walter, ‘‘Monster Movies and Rites of Initiation,’’ in Journal of Popular Film (Washington, D.C.), Spring 1975. Magill’s Survey of Cinema 1, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Starburst (London), no. 33, 1981. Viviani, C., ‘‘Fausses pistes,’’ in Positif (Paris), June 1983. Senn, Bryan, ‘‘The Monster, Bride, and Son. . . ,’’ in Monsterscene (Lombard, Illinois), no. 4, March 1995. Senn, Bryan, ‘‘Elsa ‘The Bride’ Lanchester: A Candid Look at the Fairest Monster of Them All!’’ in Filmfax (Evanston, Illinois), no. 58, October-January 1996–97. Henderson, J.A., and G. Turner, ‘‘A Gothic Masterpiece,’’ in Ameri- can Cinematographer (Hollywood), vol. 79, January 1998. *** By 1935, James Whale knew the days were numbered for Univer- sal’s monster machine and offered The Bride of Frankenstein as the panacea to out-do any encroaching horror parodies. While the most technically proficient, lavish, and spectacular horror movie of its time, Bride remains the brainchild of a director grown jaded and even a bit masochistic about Frankenstein’s unsurpassable success. Whale was so effective in making Bride a swansong to his genre that all subsequent scare comedies from Abbot and Costello Meet Frankenstein to Mel Brooks’s Young Frankenstein are redundant. Bride’s anti-horror tone is evident from the very first scene with a literary badinage between the author Mary Shelley (Elsa Lanchester) and her cohorts Lord Byron (Gavin Gordon) and husband Percy (Douglas Walton). Despite the missing additional dialogue (excised before the film’s release), this interlude is still among the most memorable and funny historical reconstructions in screen history. As Gordon’s Byron commends Mary for conceiving her story, he rolls his r’s like the worst of hams. Elsa (as Shelley and later as the ‘‘bride’’) jerks her head, contorts her eyes, and titters like a hyper- neurotic version of Brigitte Helm’s robot in Fritz Lang’s Metropolis. It is no wonder that these moments alone would inspire Ken Russell’s funhouse romp in Gothic a half-century later. However, once the film picks up from where the first left off, we notice how much has radically changed. Comical E. E. Clive replaces the more leaden Lionel Belmore as the town burgomaster in charge of keeping bogus order. Amidst the screaming throng, Una O’Connor (as the chambermaid Minnie) and her cacklings provide a blithe foil for Karloff’s Monster. Here the Monster is reduced to a straight man when he emerges from the windmill’s ruins and stands beside O’Connor—a shot that is as embarrassing as it is hilarious. Along with the constant punch-lines and jocular atmosphere, Bride of Frankenstein is best distinguished by Franz Waxman’s heavy-handed musical score which punctuates every gesture and leaves little room for subtlety or grace. Whale neutralizes the chills with bathos when the Monster talks (an addition to which Karloff objected). There is studied anachronism when Lucien Prival plays a butler who actually resembles a 1930s-style gangster. The film even satirizes Tod Browning’s Devil Doll when the mad Dr. Pretorius (Ernest Thesiger) shows off his miniature life forms to induce Henry Frankenstein (Colin Clive again) to return to his electrodes and cadavers. Even the stately laboratory sequences (so creepy in the first film) are played for laughs with overly lit and distorted close-ups on the grimaces of Thesiger and Clive. Of course, there is the bride’s long-awaited unveiling accompanied by wedding bells, a ceremony ruined by her shrewish hisses when the Monster arrives to claim his mate. So well does Whale slip the micky into any potential fright that he spawns a Bride of Frankenstein Syndrome which, to this day, afflicts such other morbidity moguls as George Romero and Tobe Hooper who camp up their sequels to avoid living up to their previous standards. While demystifying the horror, Whale does, however, manage to weave more subversion into this Hays-era production than in any of his other films. The slant on sacrilege (already present in Frankenstein) is here augmented ad absurdum. Kitsch Catholicism looms over almost every scene. A maudlin church organ accompanies the prayers of thanks of the blind hermit (O. P. Heggie) when the Monster pays him a friendly visit; then the scene fades out on a glowing crucifix. The Monster is even captured by townspeople and pilloried Christ- style; later he desecrates a graveyard effigy of a bishop. Among Bride’s assortment of twisted characters, Thesiger’s Pretorius (a part intended for Claude Rains) is the consummate scene- stealer who, after all, sets the story’s plot in motion. Beneath his Satanic surface, he is the only character rooted in his own ethics, as compared to Frankenstein (who is now even more flaky and hypo- critical about Christian notions of ‘‘good’’ and ‘‘evil’’). He is also most likely closest to Whale’s own predilections. While inveigling Frankenstein to participate in the second creation, Pretorius looks coyly upon his former pupil and utters the darkly romantic line: ‘‘Alone you have created a man. Now, together we will make his mate.’’ Like Charles Laughton’s Dr. Moreau in Island of Lost Souls, Pretorius’s sexual ambiguity suggests a counter-Eden where homo- sexuals give birth to heterosexuals. Whale’s unabashed gayness, visible in most of his other films, is most evident in Bride, which, behind the cheap laughs, provides an inventive and audacious fantasy that stands the Genesis tale on its head and outwits all future imitators. —Joseph Lanza BRIEF ENCOUNTER UK, 1945 Director: David Lean Production: Cineguild; black and white, 35mm; running time: 85 minutes; length 7750 feet. Released 1945 by General Film Distribu- tors, London, and in 1946 by Prestige Pictures. Re-released 1948 by ABFD, London. Filmed in England. Producer: No?l Coward; screenplay: No?l Coward, David Lean, and Anthony Havelock-Allan, from the one-act play Still Life by No?l Coward; photography: Robert Krasker; editor: Jack Harris; sound: Stanley Lambourne and Desmond Dew; sound editor: Harry Miller; production design: L. F. Williams; music: from the 2nd Piano Concerto of Rachmaninoff. Cast: Celia Johnson (Laura Jesson); Trevor Howard (Dr. Alec Harvey); Cyril Raymond (Fred Jesson); Joyce Carey (Myrtle Bagot); Stanley Holloway (Albert Godby); Everly Gregg (Dolly Messiter). BRIEF ENCOUNTERFILMS, 4 th EDITION 177 Brief Encounter Awards: New York Film Critics’ Award, Best Actress (Johnson), 1946. Publications Script: Coward, No?l, David Lean, and Anthony Havelock-Allan, Brief Encounter, in Three British Screenplays, edited by Roger Manvell, London, 1950; also included in Masterworks of the British Cin- ema, London, 1974. Books: Gaupp, Charles John, Jr., A Comparative Study of the Changes of 15 Stage Plays, Doctoral Study, University of Iowa, 1950. Levin, Milton, No?l Coward, New York, 1968. Morley, Sheridan, A Talent to Amuse: A Biography of No?l Coward, New York, 1969. Pratley, Gerald, The Cinema of David Lean, New York, 1974. Silver, Alain, and James Ursini, David Lean and His Films, Lon- don, 1974. Castelli, Louis P., and Caryn Lynn Cleeland, David Lean: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1980. Lahr, John, Coward the Playwright, London, 1982. Anderegg, Michael A., David Lean, Boston, 1984. Knight, Vivienne, Trevor Howard: A Gentleman and a Player, London, 1986. Dyer, Richard, Brief Encounter, London, 1993. Articles: Variety (New York), 28 November 1945. Lean, David, Penguin Film Review (London), no. 4, 1947. Lejeune, C. A., ‘‘The Up and Coming Team of Lean and Neame,’’ in New York Times, 15 June 1947. ‘‘David Lean,’’ in Current Biography Yearbook, New York, 1953. Holden, J., ‘‘A Study of David Lean,’’ in Film Journal (New York), April 1956. Conrad, Derek, ‘‘Living Down a Classic,’’ in Films and Filming (London), May 1958. BRINGING UP BABY FILMS, 4 th EDITION 178 Watts, Stephen, ‘‘David Lean,’’ in Films in Review (New York), April 1959. Whitehall, Richard, ‘‘Gallery of Great Artists: Trevor Howard,’’ in Films and Filming (London), February 1961. Burles, Kenneth T., in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 1, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Aspinall, Sue, ‘‘Women, Realism, and Reality in British Films 1943–53,’’ in British Cinema History, edited by James Curran and Vincent Porter, London, 1983. Medhurst, A., ‘‘That Special Thrill: Brief Encounter, Homosexuality and Authorship,’’ in Screen (Oxford), no. 2, Summer, 1991. Howard, T., ‘‘Brief Encounter,’’ Reid’s Film Index (New South Wales), no. 16, 1995. *** In 1929 Leon Moussinac could, in his Panoramique du cinéma, declare ‘‘L’Angleterre n’a jamais produit un vrai film anglais.’’ The remarkable renaissance of the British film at the end of World War II requires a very different judgement. In 1944, David Lean made Brief Encounter, the most characteristic and perfect British film of all time. Its debt to No?l Coward must not be underestimated, but it is Lean’s film. Lean, having worked as an editor on films by Michael Powell and Anthony Asquith, began his career as a director in association with Coward on In Which We Serve, This Happy Breed, and Blithe Spirit. He then directed Brief Encounter, about the infatuation be- tween a housewife and a married man, with such uncanny human awareness and real creative skill that it stands out against his later more ambitious and elaborate films. Brief Encounter is on a small scale, intimate, and probing. Everything is obvious and yet nothing is. Laura Jesson, its suburban heroine, may not reach the dramatic solution of an Anna Karenina but what she does experience is no less poignant. We share her joys and sorrows of the moment until they carry her to the edge of tragedy. It cannot be seen entirely, however, as tragedy for there is an element of values and choice. Life is not simple and the greatness of the film lies in its awareness of this complexity. An insensitive critic once de- scribed the film as, ‘‘Two characters in search of a bed.’’ French critics failed to see that there was a problem. But for characters like Laura and Alex, there were values that they honoured, even at the expense of pain. It is, in a way, a triumph for their common humanity. Very simply the end did not justify the means. The happy unification of this tale of star-crossed lovers, the intense reality of their attraction and the universal nature of the experience is played against a background that is deeply and truly British. If being British is the spirit of the ‘‘stiff upper lip,’’ then it is belied by the passionate note that runs through the film. The small joys of love, the impetus towards realization and fulfillment, the sense of threatened pleasures haunts the viewer from beginning to end. The perfect performances of that most subtle of all actresses, Celia Johnson, and of Trevor Howard contribute greatly to the success of the film. It is, though, the happy fusion of all the elements that give it a perspective and unity rare in the cinema. The setting of the suburban railway station and its vicinity sees a great human drama take place. Everything about it is authentic down to the familiars who haunt it, the funny little people with their airs and graces and their trivial jokes and quarrels. Other dramatic incidents which occur in the film include the visit to the restuarant and the cinema; the humiliation and shame when reality shatters the dream; and the unexpected friend who turns up to interrupt their one possible night together. The film thus opens with the climax which is not fully understood until the gentle pain-filled voice of Laura relives the happy but poignant days of a moment of life she will never forget. There is one element that enhances the film in a most felicitous way. When Rachmaninoff wrote his 2nd Piano Concerto he could little have guessed that he was providing the theme music for a very beautiful and inspiring British film. Though it was not a commercial success in America, it was successful for the British cinema in terms of prestige. —Liam O’Leary A BRIGHTER SUMMER DAY See GULING JIE SHAONIAN SHA REN SHIJIAN BRINGING UP BABY USA, 1938 Director: Howard Hawks Production: RKO Radio Pictures Inc.; black and white, 35mm; running time: 102 minutes (some sources state 100 minutes). Released 1938. Filmed in RKO studios and backlots. Producer: Cliff Reid; screenplay: Dudley Nichols and Hagar Wilde, from a story by Hagar Wilde; photography: Russell Metty; editor: George Hively; music score: Roy Webb. Cast: Cary Grant (David Huxley); Katharine Hepburn (Susan Vance); May Robson (Mrs. Carlton Random); Charles Ruggles (Major Applegate); George Irving (Alexander Peabody); Virginia Walker (Alice Swallow); Barry Fitzgerald; Walter Catlett. Publications Books: Bogdanovich, Peter, The Cinema of Howard Hawks, New York, 1962. Missiaen, Jean-Claude, Howard Hawks, Paris, 1966. Wood, Robin, Howard Hawks, London, 1968; revised edition, 1981. Dickens, Homer, The Films of Katharine Hepburn, New York, 1971. Eyles, Allen, compiler, Cary Grant Album, Shepperton, Surrey, 1971. Gigli, Jean A., Howard Hawks, Paris, 1971. Bazin, André, La Politique des auteurs: Entretiens avec Jean Renoir, etc., Paris, 1972; revised edition, 1984. Marill, Alvin H., Katharine Hepburn, New York, 1973. Vermilye, Jerry, Cary Grant, New York, 1973. Parish, James Robert, The RKO Gals, New Rochelle, New York, 1974. Deschner, Donald, The Films of Cary Grant, Secaucus, New Jer- sey, 1978. Murphy, Kathleen Q., Howard Hawks: An American Auteur in the Hemingway Tradition, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1978. Ciment, Michel, Les Conquérants d’un nouveau monde: Essais sur le cinéma américain, Paris, 1981. BRINGING UP BABYFILMS, 4 th EDITION 179 Bringing Up Baby Giannetti, Louis, Masters of the American Cinema, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1981. McBride, Joseph, Hawks on Hawks, Berkeley, 1982. Mast, Gerald, Howard Hawks, Storyteller, Oxford, 1982. Poague, Leland, Howard Hawks, Boston, 1982. Belton, John, Cinema Stylists, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1983. Britton, Andrew, Cary Grant: Comedy and Male Desire, Newcastle- upon-Tyne, 1983. Carey, Gary, Katharine Hepburn: A Biography, London, 1983. McIntosh, William Currie, and William Weaver, The Private Cary Grant, London, 1983; revised edition, 1987. Schickel, Richard, Cary Grant: A Celebration, London, 1983. Wansell, Geoffrey, Cary Grant: Haunted Idol, London, 1983. Britton, Andrew, Katharine Hepburn: The Thirties and After, New- castle-upon-Tyne, 1984. Dupuis, Jean-Jacques, Cary Grant, Paris, 1984. Freedland, Michael, Katharine Hepburn, London, 1984. Morley, Sheridan, Katharine Hepburn: A Celebration, London, 1984. Simsolo, Noel, Howard Hawks, Paris, 1984. Ashman, Chuck, and Pamela Trescott, Cary Grant, London, 1986. Edwards, Anne, Katharine Hepburn: A Biography, London, 1986. Branson, Clark, Howard Hawks: A Jungian Study, Los Angeles, 1987. Mast, Gerald, editor, Bringing Up Baby, New Brunswick, 1988. Higham, Charles, and Ray Moseley, Cary Grant: The Lonely Heart, New York, 1989. Articles: New York Times, 4 March 1938. Tozzi, Romana T., ‘‘Katharine Hepburn,’’ in Films in Review (New York), December 1957. Agel, Henri, ‘‘Howard Hawks,’’ in New York Film Bulletin, no. 4, 1962. Sarris, Andrew, ‘‘The World of Howard Hawks,’’ in Films and Filming (London), July 1962. Perkins, V. F., in Movie (London), December 1962. ‘‘Hawks Issue’’ of Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), January 1963. ‘‘Man’s Favourite Director, Howard Hawks’’ (interview), in Cinema (Beverly Hills), November-December 1963. Wise, Naomi, ‘‘The Hawksian Woman,’’ in Take One (Montreal), January-February 1971. Brackett, Leigh, ‘‘A Comment on the Hawksian Woman,’’ in Take One (Montreal), July-August 1971. BROKEN BLOSSOMS FILMS, 4 th EDITION 180 Murphy, K., ‘‘Of Bones, and Butterflies,’’ in Movietone News (Seattle), June 1977. Johnson, Julia, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 1, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Trueba, F., in Casablanca (Madrid), July-August 1981. Jewell, R. B., ‘‘How Howard Hawks Brought Baby Up: An Apologia for the Studio System,’’ in Journal of Popular Film and Television (Washington, D.C.), Winter 1984. Keane, Marian, in Journal of Popular Film and Television (Washing- ton, D.C.), Autumn 1985. Lake, J. M., ‘‘What Are Girls Made Of?’’ Michigan Academician (Ann Arbor), vol. 26, no. 2, 1994. ’’Bringing Up Baby,’’ Sequences (Montreal), no. 178, May-June 1995. *** Bringing Up Baby employs the successful formula of such classic films as It Happened One Night and My Man Godfrey in which madcap heiresses pit their senses of fun, irreverence, and total irresponsibility against the seriousness, logic, and dignity of working class heroes. In such screwball comedies of the 1930s the leading couple’s courtships of verbal battles provide a series of humorous sexual conflicts that are overcome but unresolved in the reconciliation during the ‘‘happy endings.’’ Bringing Up Baby takes the antago- nisms and extremes embodied in the screwball comedy a little further than any of the other films of the genre. Starring Katharine Hepburn as the completely dotty heiress and Cary Grant as an overly stuffy, self-important paleontologist Bring- ing Up Baby exaggerates the lover-antagonist formula of the screw- ball comedy for a humorous battle between the sexes in which the stereotypes of sex roles are reversed. Hepburn’s character is the aggressor, and her relentless pursuit of Grant engages him in a series of comic misadventures which become increasingly foolish as the movie progresses. Grant’s character, who by nature is docile, submis- sive, and dutiful, has his dignity stripped away layer by layer in the course of Hepburn’s bizarre schemes. But director Howard Hawks uses the division of his characters into masculine and feminine stereotypes in order to allow each to have a liberating effect on the other. When the two are united as a couple at the film’s end, the effect is an uneasy integration of sex-role principles. The Hawksian formula of sex-role reversals contained in comic opposites provided the underpinnings for Hawk’s screwball comedies from the 1930s through the 1950s. In such movies as Twentieth Century, Bringing Up Baby, His Girl Friday, Ball of Fire, I Was a Male War Bride, and Monkey Business, Hawks relied on assertive heroines to peel away the dignity and mock seriousness of bumbling feminized heroes. As each hero’s sense of identity and self-image crumbles, the ensuing confusion provides the comedy and the key to his liberation from a narrow restrictive code of behaviour. In such films as Bringing Up Baby and I Was a Male War Bride, Hawks pushes his male characters’ sexual confusion to such extremes that they are forced to parade around in women’s clothing. Bringing Up Baby enjoys frequently revived popularity today due to its breakneck pace, superb comic timing, humorous swipes at sex roles, and partnering of Hepburn and Grant. But when the film was initially released in 1938, it met harsh criticism and indifferent audiences. Hepburn, who headed the Independent Theatre Owners Association list of ‘‘box-office poison’’ movie stars, grated on the critics’ nerves. In addition to Hepburn’s seeming unpopularity, a critical disdain for what the New York Times reviewer called a ‘‘zany-ridden product of the goofy farce school’’ may have contrib- uted to the film’s lack of success. However, in 1962, Sight and Sound critic Peter Dyer attested to the reversal in status and popularity of Bringing Up Baby: ‘‘The durability of Hawks’s films lies in the way that they have a mysterious life of their own going on under the familiar, facile surfaces. It is the constant cross-graining of cliché and inventive detail which produces the shock of pleasure his best work provides.’’ —Lauren Rabinovitz BROKEN BLOSSOMS USA, 1919 Director: D. W. Griffith Production: D. W. Griffith Inc.; black and white, 35mm, silent; running time: about 95 minutes; length: 6 reels. Released 1919 through United Artists. Filmed December 1918 and January 1919; cost: $88,000. Producer: D. W. Griffith; scenario: D. W. Griffith, from the story ‘‘The Chink and the Child’’ by Thomas Burke; photography: G. W. Broken Blossoms BROKEN BLOSSOMSFILMS, 4 th EDITION 181 Bitzer; editor: James Smith; music: Louis F. Gottschalk; special effects: Hendrick Sartov. Cast: Lillian Gish (Lucy, the Girl); Richard Barthelmess (Cheng Huan); Donald Crisp (Battling Burrows); Arthur Howard (Burrows’s Manager); Edward Peil (Evil Eye); George Beranger (The Spying One); Norman Selby or ‘‘Kid McCoy’’ (A Prize Fighter); George Nicholls (London Policeman); Moon Kwan (Buddhist monk). Publications Books: Paine, Albert Bigelow, Life and Lillian Gish, New York, 1932. Wagenknecht, Edward, The Movies in the Age of Innocence, Norman, Oklahoma, 1962. Barry, Iris, D. W. Griffith: American Film Master, New York, 1965. Mitry, Jean, ‘‘Griffith,’’ in Anthologie de cinéma, Paris, 1966. Gish, Lillian, with Ann Pinchot, The Movies, Mr. Griffith, and Me, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1969. O’Dell, Paul, Griffith and the Rise of Hollywood, New York, 1970. Hart, James, editor, The Man Who Invented Cinema: The Autobiogra- phy of D. W. Griffith, Louisville, Kentucky, 1972. Henderson, Robert, D. W. Griffith: His Life and Work, New York, 1972. Bitzer, G. W., Billy Bitzer: His Story, New York, 1973. Brown, Karl, Adventures with D. W. Griffith, edited by Kevin Brownlow, New York and London 1973; revised edition, 1988. Gish, Lillian, Dorothy and Lillian Gish, New York, 1973. Pratt, George C., Spellbound in Darkness, Connecticut, 1973. Wagenknecht, Edward, and Anthony Slide, The Films of D. W. Griffith, New York, 1975. Affron, Charles, Star Acting: Gish, Garbo, Davis, New York, 1977. Williams, Martin, Griffith: First Artist of the Movies, New York, 1980. Giannetti, Louis, Masters of the American Cinema, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1981. Brion, Patrick, editor, D. W. Griffith, Paris, 1982. Andrew, Dudley, Film in the Aura of Art, Princeton, New Jer- sey, 1984. Mottet, Jean, editor, D. W. Griffith, Paris, 1984. Schickel, Richard, D. W. Griffith and the Birth of Film, London, 1984. Graham, Cooper C., and others, D.W. Griffith and the Biograph Company, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1985. Jesionowski, Joyce E., Thinking in Pictures: Dramatic Structures in D. W. Griffith’s Biograph Films, Berkeley, 1987. Lang, Robert, American Film Melodrama: Griffith, Vidor, Minnelli, New Jersey, 1989. Elsaesser, Thomas, and Adam Barker, editors, Early Cinema: Space- Frame-Narrative, London, 1990. Gunning, Tom, D.W. Griffith and the Origins of American Narrative Film: The Early Years at Biograph, Urbana, Illinois, 1991. Pearson, Roberta E., Eloquent Gestures: The Transformation of Performance Style in the Griffith Biograph Films, Berkeley, 1992. Simmon, Scott, The Films of D.W. Griffith, Cambridge and New York, 1993. Articles: New York Times, 14 May 1919. Variety (New York), 18 May 1919. Mayer, A. L., ‘‘The Origins of United Artists,’’ in Films in Review (New York), August-September 1959. Tozzi, Romano, ‘‘Lillian Gish,’’ in Films in Review (New York), December 1962. Mitchell, George J., ‘‘Billy Bitzer—Pioneer and Innovator,’’ in American Cinematographer (Hollywood), December 1964 and January 1965. Griffith issue, in Film Culture (New York), Spring-Summer 1965. Meyer, Richard, ‘‘The Films of David Wark Griffith: The Develop- ment of Themes and Techniques in 42 of His Films,’’ in Film Comment (New York), Fall-Winter 1967. Bowser, Eileen, and Iris Barry, in Film Notes, New York, 1969. Amengual, Barthélémy, ‘‘Quelques remarques sur Le Lys brisé,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), Spring, 1972. Casty, Alan, ‘‘The Films of D. W. Griffith,’’ in Journal of Popular Culture (Bowling Green, Ohio), Spring 1972. Lenning, Arthur, ‘‘D. W. Griffith and the Making of an Unconven- tional Masterpiece,’’ in Film Journal (New York), Fall-Win- ter 1972. Bracourt, G., in Ecran (Paris), February 1973. ‘‘Griffith Issue’’ of Films in Review (New York), October 1975. Combs, Richard, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), November 1975. Kepley, Jr., Vance, Jr., ‘‘Griffith’s Broken Blossoms and the Problem of Historical Specificity,’’ in Quarterly Review of Film Studies (Pleasantville, New York), Winter 1978. Lesage, Julia, ‘‘Broken Blossoms: Artful Racism, Artful Rape,’’ in Jump Cut (Chicago), 1981. Andrew, Dudley, ‘‘Broken Blossoms: The Art and Eros of a Perverse Text,’’ in Quarterly Review of Film Studies (Pleasantville, New York), Winter 1981. Browne, Nick, ‘‘Griffith’s Family Discourse: Griffith and Freud,’’ in Quarterly Review of Film Studies (Pleasantville, New York), Winter 1981. Lynn, K. S., ‘‘The Torment of D. W. Griffith,’’ in American Scholar (Washington, D.C.), no. 2, 1990. Vanoye, Francis, ‘‘Rhétorique de la douleur,’’ in Vertigo, no. 6–7, 1991. Merritt, R., ‘‘In and Around Broken Blossoms,’’ in Griffithiana (Gemona, Italy), October 1993. Flitterman-Lewis, S., ‘‘The Blossom and the Bole: Narrative and Visual Spectacle in Early Film Melodrama,’’ in Cinema Journal (Austin, Texas), vol. 33, no. 3, 1994. DeCroix, R., and J. L. Limbacher, ‘‘In Memory of Lillian Gish (1893–1993): First Lady of American Cinema,’’ in Journal of Popular Film and Television (Washington, D.C.), vol. 22, no. 2, Summer 1994. *** Broken Blossoms is Griffith’s most intricate film, a delicate mood piece that is set within a sharply confined space and delimited amount of time. The film opened to critical acclaim in this country with reviewers responding particularly to Lillian Gish’s bravura perform- ance and Henrick Sartov’s soft-focus photography. Its most profound effect, however, was felt by European filmmakers. In France, where the film premiered in 1921, it became something of a cult object. French impressionist directors like Louis Delluc, Marcel L’Herbier, and Germaine Dullac tried consciously to emulate its stylized lighting and atmospheric effects. As Vance Kepley stated, ‘‘Broken Blossoms may have been to the early French experimenters what Intolerance BRONENOSETS POTEMKIN FILMS, 4 th EDITION 182 was to the Soviets.’’ Louis Moussinac summed up the admiration French filmmakers felt for Griffith’s film: ‘‘C’est le chef-d’oeuvre du cinema dramatique.’’ Broken Blossoms came as something of a surprise to critics who knew Griffith only through The Birth of a Nation, Intolerance, or his World War I extravaganza, Hearts of the World. In fact, this modest film shot in 18 days on a shoe-string budget, was at first considered box office poison. When Griffith approached Paramount to distribute the film as a special, Adolph Zukor unhesitatingly turned him down. ‘‘Everybody in it dies,’’ he wrote. Mindful of the recent failure of Nazimova’s The Red Lantern and Sessue Hayakawa’s waning popu- larity, Zukor concluded that the brief vogue for film chinoiserie had passed and was eager to let Griffith distribute it himself. Griffith paid Zukor $250,000 for it, and eventually released it through the newly formed United Artists; dressed up with an elaborate live prologue, three separate orchestras and choirs, and a specially tinted screen, the film garnered a small fortune. Today, the film’s critical stock is soaring: Broken Blossoms is widely regarded as Griffith’s masterpiece, eclipsing even his better known epics. Lillian Gish’s masterful performance aside, critics have been especially impressed by the formal sophistication and narrative complexity of Griffith’s film. It is, above all, a film marked by terrific compression. The concentration of time and space gives characters, objects, and decor sustained metaphorical power that is never dissi- pated. Just as skillful is the dramatic structure which gives the impression of simple straightforwardness while camouflaging an intricate intertwining of expository and narrative sequences. Thematically, the film is perhaps Griffith’s most adventurous work. Susan Sontag has called Griffith ‘‘an intellect of supreme vulgarity and even inanity,’’ whose work ordinarily reeks of fervid moralizing about sexuality and violence. But in Broken Blossoms he lowers his guard, nearly breaching his cherished Victorian convic- tions. Activities obviously taboo in The Birth of a Nation and Intolerance—a racially mixed love affair, auto-eroticism, opium eating, sado-masochism, revenge killing—are transformed here into sensually satisfying pastimes that resonate in dangerously non- conformist ways. For once in Griffith’s work, racial bigotry is a target for reproach. The few citations to post-war 1919 American culture, far from catering to the rampant xenophobia and mood of self- congratulation, hint at the dark side of American provincialism. The glancing references to munition workers, American sailors, and First World War battles illustrate the west’s penchant for self-destructive- ness and violence. —Russell Merritt BRONENOSETS POTEMKIN (Battleship Potemkin) USSR, 1925 Director: Sergei Eisenstein Production: First Goskino; black and white, 35mm, silent; running time: 86 minutes at silent speed; length 1850 meters, or 6070 feet. Released 18 January 1926. Re-released 1956 with a second musical score by Nikolai Kryukov. Filmed from July through November 1925, in Leningrad, Odessa, and aboard the 12 Apostles (the sister ship of the Prince Potemkin of Taurida). Producer: Jacob Bliokh; scenario and screenplay: Sergei Eisenstein, from an outline by Nina Agadzhanova-Shutko in collaboration with Sergei Eisenstein; titles: Nikolai Aseyev; photography: Edward Tisse; editor: Sergei Eisenstein; art director: Vasili Rakhals; music (original background score): Edmund Meisel. Cast: Sailors of the Red Navy; Citizens of Odessa; Members of the Proletkut Theatre, Moscow; Alexander Antonov (Vakulinchuk); Grigori Alexandrov (Chief Officer Gilerocsky); Vladimir Barsky (Captain Golikov); Alexander Lyovshin (Petty Officer); Beatrice Vitoldi (Mother with baby carriage); I. Bobrov (Humiliated soldier); Andrei Fait (Officer on piano); Konstantin Feldman (Student Fel’dman); Protopopov (Old man); Korobei (Legless veteran); Yulia Eisenstein (Lady bringing food to mutineers); Prokopenko (Mother of wounded Aba); A. Glauberman (Aba); N. Poltautseva (School teacher); Brodsky (Intellectual); Zerenin (Student); Mikhail Gomarov (Militant sailor). Publications Scripts: Eisenstein, Sergei, The Battleship Potemkin, London, 1968; as Potemkin, New York, 1968; also included in Three Films, edited by Jay Leyda, New York, 1974. Books: Ginzburg, S. S., ‘‘Artistic Imagery in the Film The Battleship Potemkin,’’ in The History of Film, Moscow, 1960. Leyda, Jay, ‘‘On Potemkin,’’ in Kino: A History of the Russian and Soviet Film, London, 1960. Seton, Marie, S. M. Eisenstein, New York, 1960. Kleinman, N. I., and K. B. Levina, Bronenosets Potemkin—Shedevry Sovetskogo Kino (The Battleship Potemkin, Masterpieces of Soviet Cinema), Moscow, 1969. Mayer, David, Eisenstein’s ‘‘Potemkin,’’ New York, 1972. Eisenstein, S. M., Autobiography, translated by H. Marshall and Toby Wright, London, 1978. Marshall, Herbert, editor, The Battleship Potemkin, New York, 1978. Murray, Edward, ‘‘Potemkin,’’ in 10 Film Classics, New York, 1978. Leyda, Jay, and Zina Vignow, Eisenstein at Work, New York, 1982. Eisenstein, Sergei M., Immoral Memories: An Autobiography, trans- lated by Herbert Marshall, Boston, 1983. Marshall, Herbert, Masters of the Soviet Cinema: Crippled Creative Biographies, London, 1983. Polan, Dana B., The Political Language of Film and the Avant-Garde, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1985. Aumont, Jacques, Montage Eisenstein, London, 1987. Eisenstein, Sergei M., Selected Works, Volume 1: Writings 1922–1934, edited by Richard Taylor, London, 1988. BRONENOSETS POTEMKINFILMS, 4 th EDITION 183 Bronenosets Potemkin Bordwell, David, Cinema of Eisenstein, Cambridge, 1993. Goodwin, James, Eisenstein, Cinema, and History, Urbana, Illi- nois, 1993. L?vgren, H?kan, Eisenstein’s Labyrinth: Aspects of a Cinematic Synthesis of the Arts, Stockholm, 1996. Termine, Liborio, La drammaturgia del film, Torino, 1998. Articles: Mendel, George Victor, in Kinemathek (Berlin), 5 January 1926. Barrett, Wilton A., in National Board of Review Magazine (New York), November 1926. Hall, Mordaunt, in New York Times, December 1926. Grierson, John, in New York Herald Tribune, 5 December 1926. Variety (New York), 8 December 1926. Solski, ‘‘The End of Eisenstein,’’ in Commentary (New York), March 1949. Evsevitsky, Vladislav, ‘‘Soviet Films in Pre-September Poland,’’ in Kwartalnik Filmowy (Warsaw), nos. 3–4, 1951. Freilich, Semyon, ‘‘A Comparison of Potemkin and Ivan the Terrible: Eisenstein Today,’’ in Soviet Literature Monthly, 1965. Montagu, Ivoe, ‘‘Potemkin in Print,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1970. Kuleshov, Lev, ‘‘Kuleshov, Eisenstein, and the others: Part II: Kuleshov on Eisenstein,’’ in Film Journal (New York), Fall- Winter 1972. Kauffmann, Stanley, ‘‘Eisenstein’s Potemkin,’’ in Horizon (London), Spring 1973. ‘‘El Acorazado Potemkin,’’ in Cine Cubano (Havana), no. 89–90, 1974. ‘‘Epos Revolucii,’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), December 1975. Kieiman, N., ‘‘Tol’ko piatnadstat ‘Kadrov,’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Mos- cow), no. 3, 1976. ‘‘A for a es a tartalom egysegenek iskoklapeldaja,’’ in Filmkultura (Budapest), May-June 1976. Chanjutin, J., in Film and Fernsehen (Berlin), November 1977. Van Wert, W. F., in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1980. Sklovski, V., ‘‘Krizník pluje desetiletími,’’ in Film a Doba (Prague), November 1981. Wenden, D. J., ‘‘Film and Reality,’’ in Feature Films as History, edited by K.R.M. Short, London 1981. Felden, D. L., ‘‘Vision and Violence: The Rhetoric of Potemkin,’’ in Quarterly Review of Film Studies (New York), Fall 1982. BRONENOSETS POTEMKIN FILMS, 4 th EDITION 184 Roth-Lindberg, O., in Chaplin (Stockholm), 1983. Almendros, N., ‘‘Fortune and Men’s Eyes,’’ in Film Comment (New York), July-August 1991. ‘‘Yo postskriptum till unikt livsode,’’ in Chaplin (Stockholm), no. 3, 1992. Biorsmark, C. ‘‘Odessa tror inte p? trooper,’’ Chaplin (Stockholm), vol. 36, no. 6, 1994/95. De Marinis, G. ‘‘I [love] Sergej,’’ Cineforum (Bergamo), vol. 35, April 1995. Eisenstein, S.M., ‘‘Meggymag a lepcson,’’ Filmvilag (Budapest), vol. 38, no. 8, 1995. Seesslen, G., ‘‘Die anderen Moeglichkeiten des Kinos,’’ EPD Film (Frankfurt/Main), vol. 14, December 1995. Sorenssen, B., ‘‘Drama i sortehavet da Panserkrysseren Potemkin kom til Oslo,’’ Z Filmtidsskrift (Oslo), no. 4, 1995. Musina, M., and others, ‘‘Boitsy vspominaiut minuvshie dni,’’ Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), no. 5, 1996. Vallerand, F., ‘‘Musiques pour Eisenstein,’’ Sequences (Quebec), no. 183, March/April 1996. *** Sergei M. Eisenstein’s Battleship Potemkin is one of the most influential films ever made as well as one of the finest examples of film art. On its release, the film brought immediate worldwide fame to Eisenstein and the new Soviet cinema and made an important contribution to the language of the cinema—the concept of montage editing. After the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 the new Soviet govern- ment assumed control of the film industry, denounced the capitalist cinema of pre-Revolution Tsarist Russia, and decreed that the Soviet cinema was to be used for education and propaganda—to indoctrinate the Russian masses and to promote class consciousness throughout the world. Battleship Potemkin was made in order to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the unsuccessful 1905 Revolution against the Tsar. Although the film was originally supposed to chronicle the entire rebellion, Eisenstein decided to limit the story to just one representative episode—the mutiny on the Potemkin and the subse- quent civilian massacre on the steps leading down to Odessa harbour. Battleship Potemkin, like Eisenstein’s earlier film, Strike, has several documentary-like qualities. For example, Eisenstein cast most of the characters in the film according to the notion of typage—the selection of a non-actor to play a role because he/she is the correct physical type for the part. Eisenstein preferred to use non-actors since, as he explained, ‘‘A 30 year old actor may be called upon to play an old man of 60. He may have a few days’ or a few hours’ rehearsal. But an old man will have had 60 years’ rehearsal.’’ Eisenstein shot the film on location—on the Odessa steps and aboard the Potemkin’s sister ship, The Twelve Apostles (the Potemkin had already been dismantled). The film has a collective hero; the Russian masses—the mutineers on the Potemkin, the people of Odessa, the sailors who mutiny on the other ships—who rebel against Tsarist oppression. Despite the film’s documentary look, it was very carefully con- structed on every level, from the distribution of line, mass, and light in individual shots to the perfectly balanced five-act structure of the overall film. The most remarkable feature of the film’s construction, however, is the montage editing. Eisenstein’s theory of montage—based on the Marxist dialectic, which involves the collision of thesis and antithesis to produce a synthesis incorporating features of both—deals with the juxtaposi- tion of shots, and attractions (e.g. lighting, camera angle, or subject movement) within shots, to create meaning. Rather than the smooth linkage of shots favored by many of his contemporaries (e.g. V. I. Pudovkin and D. W. Griffith). Eisenstein was interested in the collision and dialectical synthesis of contradictory shots as a way to shock and agitate the audience. Eisenstein identified five methods of montage: metric, rhythmic, tonal, overtonal, and intellectual. Metric montage concerns conflict caused by the lengths of shots. Rhythmic montage concerns conflict generated by the rhythm of movement within shots. In tonal montage, shots are arranged according to the ‘‘tone’’ or ‘‘emotional sound’’ of the dominant attraction in the shots. In overtonal montage, the basis for joining shots is not merely the dominant attraction, but the totality of stimulation provided by that dominant attraction and all of its ‘‘overtones’’ and ‘‘undertones’’: overtonal montage is, then, a syn- thesis of metric, rhythmic, and tonal montage, appearing not at the level of the individual frame, but only at the level of the projected film. Finally, intellectual montage involves the juxtaposition of images to create a visual metaphor. All five types of montage may be found in Potemkin’s Odessa Steps sequence in which Tsarist soldiers massacre Odessa citizens who are sympathetic to the Potemkin mutineers. An example of metric montage is the increase in editing tempo to intensify audience excitement during the massacre. Rhythmic montage occurs in the conflict between the steady marching of the soldiers and the editing rhythm, which is out of synchronization with the marching, as well as the chaotic scrambling of the fleeing crowd, and the rolling move- ment of a runaway baby carriage. Tonal montage occurs in the many conflicts of planes, masses, light and shadow, and intersecting lines, as in the shot depicting a row of soldiers pointing their rifles down at a mother and her son, the soldiers’ shadows cutting transversely across the steps and the helpless pair. Although Eisenstein claimed to have discovered overtonal montage while editing Old and New four years after Battleship Potemkin, overtonal montage can be detected in the Odessa Steps sequence in the development of the editing along simultaneous metric, rhythmic, and tonal lines—the increase in editing tempo, the conflict between editing and movement within the frame, and the juxtapositions of light and shadow, intersecting lines, etc. Finally, there is an example of intellectual montage at the end of the sequence, after the Potemkin has responded to the massacre by firing on the Tsarist headquarters in Odessa. Three shots of marble lions—the first is sleeping, the second waking, and the third rising— seen in rapid succession give the impression of a single lion rising to its feet, a metaphor for the rebellion of the Russian masses against Tsarist oppression. When Battleship Potemkin was first released, it drew mixed reactions in the Soviet Union: many people praised the film, while others denounced it, charging Eisenstein with ‘‘formalism’’—a pref- erence for aesthetic form over ideological content. However, once they realized that foreign audiences loved the film, Soviet officials began to support it, and it soon became a popular and critical success, both inside and outside the Soviet Union. Today Battleship Potemkin ranks with The Birth of a Nation and Citizen Kane as one of the most influential films in cinema history. —Clyde Kelly Dunagan DIE BüCHSE DER PANDORAFILMS, 4 th EDITION 185 DIE BüCHSE DER PANDORA (Pandora’s Box; Lulu) Germany, 1928 Director: George Wilhelm Pabst Production: Nero Film A. G. (Berlin); black and white, 35mm, silent; running time: 140 minutes originally, other versions are 131 minutes and 120 minutes; length: 3254 meters originally. Released 30 January 1929. Filmed 1928 in Berlin. Producer: George C. Horsetzky; scenario: Ladislaus Vajda and Joseph R. Fliesner, from 2 plays, Erdgeist and Die Büchse der Pandora, by Frank Wedekind; photography: Günther Krampf; edi- tor: Joseph R. Fliesler; art direction: Andrei Andreiev and Gottlieb Hesch; music: Curtis Ivan Salke; costumes: Gottlieb Hesch. Cast: Louise Brooks (Lulu); Fritz Kortner (Dr. Peter Sch?n); Franz Lederer (Alwa Sch?n, the Son); Carl G?tz (Schigolch, Papa Brommer); Alice Roberts (Countess Anna Geschwitz); Daisy d’Ora (Marie de Zarnika); Krafft Raschig (Rodrigo Quast); Michael von Newlinsky (Marquis Casti-Piani); Siegfried Arno (Stage manager); Gustav Diessl (Jack the Ripper). Publications Scripts: Vajda, Ladislaus, and Joseph R. Fliesner, Pandora’s Box (Lulu): A Film by G.W. Pabst, New York, 1971. Books: Kracauer, Siegfried, From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological His- tory of the German Film, New Jersey, 1947. Weinberg, H., and L. Boehm, Index to the Creative Work of Pabst, New York, 1955. Bauche, Freddy, G.W. Pabst, Lyons, 1965. Amengual, Barthélémy, Georg Wilhelm Pabst, Paris, 1966. Aubry, Yves, and Jacques Pétat, ‘‘G. W. Pabst,’’ in Anthologie du cinéma 4, Paris, 1968. Manvell, Roger, and Heinrich Fraenkel, The German Cinema, New York, 1971. Wollenberg, H. H., 50 Years of German Film, London, 1972. Atwell, Lee, G. W. Pabst, Boston, 1977. Brooks, Louise, Lulu in Hollywood, New York, 1982. Articles: Close Up (London), October 1928, April 1929, and May 1930. Variety (New York), 11 December 1929. Bouissounousse, J., in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), 1 May 1930. Chiaramonte, N., in Scenario (Rome), no. 8, 1932. Potamkin, Harry Alan, ‘‘Pabst and the Social Film,’’ in Hound and Horn (New York), January-March 1933. Viazzi, G., in Cinema (Rome), no. 170, 1943. Pandolfi, V., in Cinema (Rome), no. 26, 1949. Bachmann, Gideon, editor, ‘‘G.W. Pabst,’’ in Cinemages (New York), May 1955. Card, James, ‘‘Out of Pandora’s Box,’’ in Image (Rochester, New York), September 1956. Brooks, Louise, in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1965. Luft, Herbert, ‘‘G. W. Pabst,’’ in Films and Filming (London), April 1967. Rayns, Tony, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), May 1974. Serceau, D., in Image et Son (Paris), March 1980. Veillon, O. R., in Cinématographe (Paris), March 1980. Petat, J., in Cinéma (Paris), 1 April 1980. ‘‘Loulou Issue’’ of L’Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), 1 Decem- ber 1980. Ramasse, F., ‘‘Le sexe de Pandore,’’ in Positif (Paris), July-Au- gust 1981. Elsaesser, Thomas, ‘‘Lulu and the Meter Man,’’ in Screen (London), July-October 1983. ‘‘Pabst Issue’’ of Skrien (Amsterdam), September 1983. Paris, B., ‘‘Our Wild Miss Brooks,’’ in American Film, Novem- ber 1989. ‘‘Pabst es Lulu,’’ in Filmvilag (Budapest), no. 4, 1991. ‘‘Loulou,’’ in Séquences (Haute-Ville), May-June 1995. Kermabon, Jacques, ‘‘Sous les L de L’ange bleu,’’ in Vertigo (Paris), January 1996. Hastie, Amelie, ‘‘Louise Brooks: Star Witness,’’ in Cinema Journal (Austin), vol. 36, no. 3, Spring 1997. *** Pandora’s Box brings to mind familiar questions about film-as- art—whether the art arises from the director’s work, from the per- formances, from the editor’s decisions, or from a combination of all these elements. Pandora’s Box might well be an unremarkable film without the magnificent presence of Louise Brooks, but then again, this presence was never evoked by any director other than G. W. Pabst. The source of the magic is elusive. Nothing about the film is obvious, least of all Pabst’s technique. Pabst is known for having promoted the practice of cutting on movement as a means of minimizing the jarring effect of editing. Rather than carry the practice to a lyrical extreme, Pabst exercised restraint and made only subtle use of the technique. Yet, in his hands, cutting on even the slightest movement can communicate signifi- cantly and almost subliminally. For example, after Schigolch gives Alwa cards to put up his sleeve during the gambling ship sequence, Schigolch begins to creep away screen-right. As the scene changes, his movement is continued by Rodrigo as he creeps in the same direction towards Lulu in another part of the ship. Above and behind Rodrigo is a sculpture of a crocodile mounted high on the wall. With great economy Pabst has identified to Schigolch and Rodrigo as slimy beasts of prey. At no time do the camera work and the editing call attention to themselves. Even when watching with the express pur- pose of detecting technical patterns, one must constantly pull back from the hypnotic fluidity of the film. Pabst weaves the perfect story- teller’s spell with his technique. The film’s style is as elusive as its technique. Pandora’s Box seems to be composed of several segments, each with its own distinct style. Lulu’s relationship with Dr. Sch?n is psychologically realistic. Expressionistic elements darken and distort the London coda with DIE BüCHSE DER PANDORA FILMS, 4 th EDITION 186 Die Büchse der Pandora IL BUONO, IL BRUTTO, IL CATTIVOFILMS, 4 th EDITION 187 Jack the Ripper. A Hollywood-style show-business revue is accom- panied by a backstage sequence with a delightful play of high spirits and frantic energies crossing and colliding. It is a self-consciously comical scene, especially in the antics of the beleaguered stage manager. This same sequence illustrates another notable quality of the film—a closeness or an inwardness which confines without being oppressive. During the revue we see the action on stage from the wings and once from the front of the stage itself, but never from the audience’s perspective. Space is claustrophobic in this film. The rare outdoor scenes are hemmed in by night and/or fog, as in the London Salvation Army scenes and the escape in a rowboat from the smoke- filled gambling ship. This sense of closeness is heightened by Pabst’s avoidance of any but the most sparing and economical use of camera movement. The camera is restricted in terms of mobility, but its perspective of Lulu is privileged. Rarely is she observed from another character’s point of view. The camera is a separate party in the action, a witness to all aspects of Lulu’s behavior. She is watched both as a participant and as an observer, giving the viewer a rich sense of personal knowledge of the character, a familiarity which far surpasses the surface acquaintanceships secured with the other characters. The film was not received with any enthusiasm in its debut. Perhaps its proximity to the two Frank Wedekind plays on which it was based, Erdgeist and Die Büchse der Pandora, prevented viewers from approaching the film on its own terms. The character of Lulu in the plays was characterized through her speech, while Pabst’s and Brook’s Lulu was presented in a manner appropriate to the film medium, in a performance which today is recognized as one of the finest, most provocative in all of film. —Barbara Salvage BUDJENJE PACOVA (The Awakening of the Rats; The Rats Wake Up) Yugoslavia, 1967 Director: Zivojin Pavlovic Production: Filmska Radna Zajednica; running time: 86 minutes. Screenplay: Gordan Mihic and Ljubisa Kozomara; photography: Milorad Jaksic-Fandjo; editor: Olga Skrigin; music: Natko Devcica. Cast: Slobodan Perovic; Dusica Zegarac; Severin Bijelic; Nikola Milic; Snezana Lukic; Pavle Vujisic. Publications Articles: Variety (New York), 12 July 1967. Combs, Richard, Films and Filming (London), September 1969. *** That the 1960s were a time for re-evaluation in Yugoslavia was apparent on a national level as an even more decentralized constitu- tion was put into effect in 1963. This coincided in the cinema with a spirit of exploration, evaluation and more liberal expression that became known as New Film and later the Black Film movement. Born in 1933, Zivojin (Zika) Pavlovic, a graduate of the Academy of Applied Arts in Belgrade, was perhaps the bleakest proponent of the Black Film wave. The bleakness of Pavlovic’s vision is, however, tempered with his non-sentimental sympathy for his protagonists, who remain humane in spite of adversity. His use of ironic black humour and his carefree construction of scenes allows the viewer to perceive a complicated inner reality beyond the surface realism. He has championed manipulation of the film medium as part of his message. Yet Pavlovic tells a straightforward story in the simplest of styles. Pavlovic is equally respected as an author, filmmaker, and profes- sor of film direction. In his fiction writing and ten feature films to date, he has unswervingly held to an austere and brutal naturalism captured in a lean prose style and an equally non-obtrusive camera and editing style. His territory is the margin of society and his protagonists are basically simple people, good people who are over- come and betrayed by their environments. In The Awakening of the Rats the lover of the film’s luckless male protagonist, Bamberg, tells him ‘‘I’ve always wanted a decent life, but one slip and it all goes to hell,’’ just before she takes all of his borrowed money and skips town. With a script by two of Yugoslavia’s best- known screenwriters and journalists, Gordan Mihíc and Ljubisa Kozomara, the film is shot as many of his early films are in darkly shadowed black and white, appropriately matching Pavlovic’s dim view of human relations. The set in The Awakening of the Rats examines the bleak slums of the city. An equivocal and realistic record of poverty in former Yugoslavia, the film is a classic. —Mike Downey BUILD MY GALLOWS HIGH See OUT OF THE PAST IL BUONO, IL BRUTTO, IL CATTIVO (The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly) Italy, 1966 Director: Sergio Leone Production: P.E.A.; Technicolor, 35mm, Techniscope; running time: 180 minutes, English version is 162 minutes. Released 1966 in Italy; released 1968 in US. Filmed 1965–66 in Spain. Producer: Alberto Grimaldi; screenplay: Luciano Vincenzoni and Sergio Leone, from a story by Age Scarpelli, Sergio Leone, and Luciano Vincenzoni; titles designer: Ardani; photography: Tonino IL BUONO, IL BRUTTO, IL CATTIVO FILMS, 4 th EDITION 188 Il Buono, Il Brutto, Il Cattivo Delli Colli; editors: Nino Baragli and Eugenio Alabiso; art director: Carlo Simi; music: Ennio Morricone; special effects: Eros Bacciucchi; costume designer: Carlo Simi. Cast: Clint Eastwood (Joe); Eli Wallach (Tuco); Lee Van Cleef (Setenza); Aldo Giuffrè; Chelo Alonso; Mario Brega; Luigi Pistilli; Rada Rassimov; Enzo Petito; Claudio Scarchilli; Al Mulock; Livio Lorenzon; Antonio Casas; Sandro Scarchilli; Angelo Novi; Benito Stefanelli; Silvana Bach; Antonio Casas; Aldo Sambrell. Publications Books: Staig, Laurence, and Tony Williams, Italian Westerns, London, 1975. Parish, James Robert, and Michael R. Pitts, editors, The Great Western Pictures, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1976. Fornari, Oreste de, Sergio Leone, Milan, 1977. Frayling, Christopher, Spaghetti Westerns: Cowboys and Europeans: from Karl May to Sergio Leone, London, 1981. Johnstone, Iain, The Man with No Name, London, 1981. Zwijewsky, Boris, and Lee Pfeiffer, The Films of Clint Eastwood, Secaucus, New Jersey, 1982. Cole, Gerald, and Peter Williams, Clint Eastwood, London, 1983. Cebe, Gilles, Sergio Leone, Paris, 1984. Fornari, Oreste de, Tutti i Film di Sergio Leone, Milan, 1984. Guerif, Fran?ois, Clint Eastwood, Paris, 1984; New York, 1986. Cumbow, Robert C., Once Upon a Time: The Films of Sergio Leone, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1987. Simsolo, No?l, Conversations avec Sergio Leone, Paris, 1987. Claudio, Gianni di, Directed by Sergio Leone, Chieti, 1990. Ortoli, Philipe, Une Amérique de légendes, Paris, 1994. Articles: Baldelli, Pio, in Image et Son (Paris), May 1967. Time (New York), 4 August 1967. Pierre, Sylvie, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), April-May 1968. Durgnat, Raymond, in Films and Filming (London), November 1968. Badekerl, Klaus, in Filmkritik (Munich), October 1969. Frayling, Christopher, ‘‘Sergio Leone,’’ in Cinema (London), August 1970. Wallington, Mike, ‘‘Italian Westerns—A Concordance,’’ in Cinema (London), August 1970. Graziani, Sandro, in Bianco e Nero (Rome), September-October 1970. Ferrini, Franco, ‘‘L’anti-Western e il caso Leone,’’ in Bianco e Nero (Rome), September-October 1971. Baudry, Pierre, ‘‘Idéologie du western italien,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), November 1971. Kaminsky, Stuart M., in Take One (Montreal), January-February 1972. Bodeen, DeWitt, ‘‘Clint Eastwood,’’ in Focus on Film (London), Spring 1972. Jameson, Richard, ‘‘Something To Do With Death,’’ in Film Com- ment (New York), March-April 1973. Simsolo, No?l, ‘‘Notes sur les Westerns de Sergio Leone,’’ in Image et Son (Paris), September 1973. Chevassu, Fran?ois, ‘‘Ennio Morricone,’’ in Image et Son (Paris), Spring-Summer 1974. Beale, Lewis, ‘‘From Spaghetti Cowboys to the Jewish Gangsters of New York,’’ in Los Angeles Times Calendar, 7 November 1982. Mininni, F., in Castoro Cinema (Florence), November-December 1988. Ovrebo, O. A., ‘‘Makkverket, mesterverket og kulten,’’ in Z Filmtidsskrift (Oslo), no. 4, 1992. *** The western for Sergio Leone is a genre in which he can explore his own sad, comic, grotesque, and surreal vision of life. Leone is no more interested in what could or did happen in the West than he is in any conception of surface reality in his films. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly is a comic nightmare more in the tradition of Kafka than that of John Ford or Howard Hawks. Although Clint Eastwood had, with Leone, established the anti- hero in A Fistful of Dollars and For a Few Dollars More, it was here, in their third and final film together, that they set out to destroy the more simplistic image so successfully that they contributed to the decline of the western in cinema. In the film, the Eastwood character (‘‘the Good’’ of the title), called ‘‘Blondie’’ quite ironically by Tuco (‘‘the Ugly’’), is both amused by and aloof from the grotesque world. The massive destruction of the film as exemplified by the Civil War (against which the quest for buried gold is played) demonstrates an evil beyond ‘‘the Good’’ man’s capacity to control it. With this totally corrupt world around him, he is more interested in living according to a certain style, showing others that he knows how to face danger with amusement and without fear. In this sense, the Eastwood/Leone hero becomes an almost mystic survivor, a new ironic Christ offering a way to face life. BYE BYE BRASILFILMS, 4 th EDITION 189 ‘‘The Bad’’ in the film (Lee Van Cleef’s ‘‘Angel Eyes,’’ itself an ironic appellation) is in many ways similar to ‘‘the Good.’’ Neither is defined in his goodness or badness by the traditional morality. Between the two non-extremes stands, or rather scurries, Tuco, ‘‘the Ugly’’—physically coarse, bearded, a bit dirty, but vibrant and alive in contrast to the other two cold characters. Tuco is hyper-human, and can show great affection as well as great hatred and violence. He has no cunning, is open and direct with an earthy simplicity and sense of humor. Good and Bad are false moral extremes. The ugly represents the human who acts out of animal immediacy without recourse to postures or guilt. Whenever Tuco resorts to poses (as a soldier, a friend) he suffers. In the film, Leone’s use of the extreme close-up is a major device for getting to character; plot is of minimal interest. What is important is the examination of these characters. The close-up is used as ironic balance and the pan for thematic emphasis. For example, the dizzying pan which follows Tuco around the graves near the end of the film indicates the frenzy of Tuco in the midst of death as he seeks the hidden gold. In an interview Leone said that in ‘‘The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly, I demystified the adjectives. What do Good, Bad or Ugly mean? What does it mean when these characters are three killers thrown into the midst of a civil war? In that film, I was pursuing the theme that Chaplin so masterfully exposed in Monsieur Verdoux.‘‘ The film is filled with a number of vivid and powerful visual moments: the opening sequence ending with Tuco in freeze-frame, chicken leg in hand, flying through a window; Angel Eyes’ calm murder of the man (and his family) who hired him for the job; Tuco’s confrontation with his priest brother; Tuco and Blondie’s trek through the desert; the battle at the river; the graveyard search for gold; and Tuco’s theft of a gun from a frightened gunsmith. The feeling of unreality is central to the film and Leone’s work in general. The film is a world of bizarre coincidence and horror. The apparent joy and even comedy in the destruction and battle scenes are often followed by some personal touch that underlies the real meaning of the horror which only moments before had been amusing. The dynamiting of the bridge between the Union and Confederate troops is presented as a touch of low comedy with Blondie pushing down Tuco’s rear end before the moment of explosion. Yet this scene is preceded by the death of the sympathetic Union officer and followed immediately by an encounter with the dying young man to whom Blondie gives his poncho and his cigar, the two central marks of his minimal identity. The comedy and horror of meaninglessness are thus important in the film. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly is a series of contradictions. It is serious and comic, moral and amoral, concerned with the meaning of history while indifferent to the facts of history, unconcerned with reality while filled with moments of tangible character and objects. Like the triumvirate it establishes in the title, the film is not about right or wrong, good or bad, just or unjust. It is a comic vision not far removed from the literature of Kafka or Celine in which we walk on the visual boundary line of comic ugliness. That the popular press found the film amusing but meaningless upon its release is but an expected footnote in the history of works of popular culture which were unrecognized by critics who thought that a violent, comic, and highly popular work could not possibly be worthy of serious attention. —Stuart M. Kaminsky BURNT BY THE SUN See OUTOMLIONNYE SOLNTSEM THE BUTCHER See LE BOUCHER BYE BYE BRASIL (Bye Bye Brazil) Brazil, 1979 Director: Carlos Diegues Production: Produ?oes Cinematográficas L.C. Barreto; Eastmancolor, 35mm; running time: 110 minutes. Released 18 February 1980 in Rio de Janeiro/S?o Paulo. Filmed in north, northeast, and central Brazil in 1978–79. Producer: L. C. Barreto; associate producers: Walter Clark, Carlos Braga, Luciola Villela; screenplay: Carlos Diegues and Leopoldo Serran; photography: Lauro Escorel; editor: Mair Tavares; art direction: Anisio Medeiros; sound: Victor Raposeiro, Jean-Claude Laurex; music: Chico Buarque, Roberto Menescal, and Dominguinhos. Cast: Betty Faria (Salomé); José Wilker (Lorde Cigano); Fábio Júnior (Ci?o); Zaira Zambelli (Dasd?); Príncipe Nabor (Andorinha); Emanoel Cavalcanti (The Mayor); Carlos Kroeber (The Truck Driver); Jofre Soares (The Old Projectionist); Marieta Severo (The Social Worker). Publications Books: Oroz, Silvia, Carlos Diegues—Os Filmes Que Nao Filmei, Rio de Janeiro, 1984. Johnson, Randal, Cinema Novo X 5—Masters of Contemporary Brasilian Film, Texas, 1984. Mitchell, Robert, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema—Foreign Language Films—Volume 1, edited by Frank Magill, New Jersey, 1985. Burton, Julianne, Cinema and Social Change in Latin America— Conversations with Filmmakers, Texas, 1986. Articles: Alencar, Miriam, Jornal do Brasil (Rio de Janeiro), 11 January 1979. Lima, Ant?nio, Jornal da Tarde (S?o Paulo), 15 September 1979. Variety (New York), 19 December 1979. Portinari, Maribel, O Globo (Rio de Janeiro), 27 December 1979. Falcone, Maria Carolina, Tribuna da Imprensa (Rio de Janeiro), 7 January 1980. Fassoni, Orlando, Folha de S?o Paulo (S?o Paulo), 15 February 1980. Pereira, Edmar, Jornal da Tarde (S?o Paulo), 16 February 1980. Perdigao, Paulo, Veja (S?o Paulo), 20 February 1980. BYE BYE BRASIL FILMS, 4 th EDITION 190 Bye Bye Brasil Fassoni, Orlando, Folha de S?o Paulo (S?o Paulo), 22 February 1980. Ferreira, Jairo, Folha de S?o Paulo (S?o Paulo), 22 February 1980. Filho, Rubens Ewald, A tribuna (Santos, S?o Paulo), 23 Febru- ary 1980. Diegues, Carlos, Agora (S?o José dos Campos, S?o Paulo), 8 March 1980. Ferreira, Fernando, O Globo (Rio de Janeiro), 28 March 1980. Leite, Ricardo Gomes, Estado de Minas (Mines Gerais), 10 June 1980. Grelier, R., Image et Son (Paris), July-August 1980. Neves, David, Filme Cultura, number 35/36, July/August/Septem- ber, 1980. Schiller, Beatriz, Jornal do Brasil (Rio de Janeiro), 30 Septem- ber 1980. Tournes, A., ‘‘Exploration d’un continent,’’ in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), September-October 1980. Schiller, Beatriz, Jornal do Brasil (Rio de Janeiro), 14 October 1980. Edelman, R., ‘‘Carlos Diegues and Cinema Novo,’’ in Films in Review (New York), December 1980. Cluny, C. M., Cinéma (Paris), December 1980. O Globo (Rio de Janeiro), 20 December 1980. Stam, R., Cineaste (New York), Winter 1980/81. Pierre, Sylvie, ‘‘Des douleurs des uns et du bonheur des autres,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), January 1981. Pierre, Sylvie, ‘‘A Propos de Bye Bye Brazil,’’ Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), January 1981. Maia, Reinaldo da Costa, Filme Cultura, number 37, January/Febru- ary/March, 1981. Pouillade, J.-L., ‘‘Terres en transes,’’ in Positif (Paris), May 1981. Rollins, P. C., ‘‘Bye Bye Brasil: An Ambivalent Allegory about Third World Development,’’ in Film and History (New Jersey), Decem- ber 1982. *** ‘‘Bye Bye Brazil is about a country which is just finishing and making way for another one which is just beginning. I can’t say exactly what is finishing, nor what is beginning. I am merely recording this unique moment, this dividing line in the story of four people, who, like any of us, seek their place in the new order, and in life.’’ Carlos Diegues, one of the founders of the Cinema Novo movement, used these words to define his eighth film, in which he remained true to one of his favourite themes: ‘‘The search for freedom BYE BYE BRASILFILMS, 4 th EDITION 191 and the desire for greater happiness.’’ This theme had already been exploited in his fine trilogy on historical Negro figures—Ganga Zumba, Rei dos Palmares (his first feature, made in 1963); Xica da Silva (1975), and Quilombo (1983). In the case of Bye Bye Brazil, the principal character is Brazil itself, experiencing in 1980, an incipient democracy. The country is viewed through the eyes of a troupe of circus artists whose talent for survival is greater than their ability to attract audiences to their performances, held under a patched big top in small towns in the Brazilian hinterland. In a country where so much has disappeared, the people’s anxious longings for bread and circuses remain intact, although audiences of the new Brazil now favour the circus provided by the electronic media. Fifteen thousand kilometers of the North, Northeast, and Central Brazil were covered in the filming of Bye Bye Brazil, following the tracks of the Caravana Rolidei (a play on the word ‘‘holiday’’). The troupe is led by Lorde Cigano (Lord Gypsy), a loquacious and charismatic wise guy, played by José Wilker. His partner in bed and on stage is the sensuous Salomé, the Queen of the Rumba (Betty Faria), while Andorinha (little sparrow) is the Muscle King (Principe Nabor). The grandiose noms de guerre of the artists are in sharp contrast to the troupe’s meagre accessories—a single truck—and with the poverty stamped on the faces of whatever spectators they attract to their performances. The Rolidei Roadshow starts its progress in a tiny town in the Northeast, on the banks of the S?o Francisco river. The roguish Lorde Cigano promises the audience that he will fulfill the dream of every Brazilian: he will make it ‘‘snow’’ in the dry lands of the interior. And sure enough, ‘‘snow’’ flakes start to fall on the humble and ignorant audience, to the accompaniment of ‘‘White Christmas,’’ sung by Bing Crosby—a magical moment of filmmaking. A struggling musi- cian, Ci?o (Fábio Júnior) is enchanted by the magic of the troupe; he is sick of the river and longs to see the sea. Together with his pregnant wife Dasd?, he joins the Roadshow. Their destination is rich Altamira, deep in the Amazon rainforest, symbol of the easy money obtained from illegal logging and goldmining, sustained by near-slave labour. In a path which never runs smooth, the troupe stops to see the sea—but the waters are polluted. They come across entire towns mesmerized by a single television set, proudly occupying the town’s main square. ‘‘In the old days, politicians used to promise bridges; now they promise a television set,’’ grumbles Lorde Cigano, unable to muster an audience for his show. Dominated by the fish’s skeletons— as the magician refers to the television antennas—Bye Bye Brazil reveals a country whose regional characteristics run the risk of disappearing as a result of the massification of conduct and expecta- tion produced by television. In Amaz?nia, amongst the survivors of a ‘‘civilized’’ Indian tribe, they meet an old Indian woman who listens to her transistor radio, which seems to be glued to her ear, adores Coca Cola, and dreams of flying in an aeroplane. In Brasília, a social worker extols the wonders of the city—a city whose planners forgot to build low-income housing, relegating the workers to the outskirts of the city. Rejected and left to fend for themselves in their hereditary misery, the people co-exist with portents of progress, symbolized by televisions and the jets which take labourers to work for foreign exploiters in the Amazon. To seek redemption and happiness becomes a lottery, with few winning tickets; nor is the straight and narrow necessarily the path to success. In this confrontation between the past and the present, old traditions are nostalgically laid to rest. No audiences queue for tickets to The Rolidei Roadshow, a remnant from the time when entertainment was live and itinerant. Likewise, an old man who made his living showing classic Brazilian films on a portable screen in the town squares no longer bothers to set up his equipment. As the members of the troupe discover a Brazil in constant transformation, they also discover each other. The art of survival requires certain concessions; thus Lorde Cigano has no qualms about abetting the prostitution of Salomé when the money runs short. Ci?o falls in love with Salomé, while Lorde Cigano is taken with Dasd?, and the context of sexual liberty combined with the idea of a country which was also in search of more freedom. The couples split up in Belém, to meet years later. Each lives their own version of fulfillment. Ci?o and Dasd? perform in a dance hall on the outskirts of Brasília, in a more ‘‘modern’’ way. Lorde Cigano has made money through the illegal gold market and now sports a modern truck with neon lights with Frank Sinatra singing Aquarela do Brasil on the sound system and a team of chorus girls. As Lorde Cigano says at the beginning of the film, ‘‘dreams are only offensive to those who don’t dream.’’ With one eye on the paradoxes which permeate Brazilian society and the other on reverie, Carlos Diegues produces a bittersweet X-ray of a country undergoing change. The fluent narrative, impregnated with farce, humour, sensuality, and music broaches the varied aspects of the human, social, and geographic condition of the country. The principal characters retain their own identities, despite the highly dissimilar contexts in which they find themselves; they interact spontaneously with the host of motley secondary characters they meet along the way. Regional differences are well illustrated by the varied sound track, and the beautiful photography of Lauro Escorel’s pho- tography captures the lushness of the vegetation as well as the barren inlands, and rich regional detail, gleaned from market, river, and roadside scenes. The key to the success, in Brazil and overseas, of Bye Bye Brazil lies in the solidarity of the viewer with the picaresque characters and their quest for a better life. It is dedicated to the people of the 21st Century, and does not flinch from the reality of the present nor does it discard the dream: in the final scene, Lorde Cigano and Salomé take to the road again, and drive off into the sun. —Susana Schild 193 C CABARET USA, 1972 Director: Bob Fosse Production: Allied Artists Pictures, ABC Pictures; Technicolour; 35mm; running time: 123 minutes. Filmed on location in West Berlin and at Bavaria Atelier Gesellschaft, Munchen, West Germany. Producer: Cy Feuer; screenplay: Jay Allen, based on the musical play by Joe Mastertoff, from the play by John van Druten, based on the original book by Christopher Isherwood; photography: Geoffrey Unsworth; editor: David Bretherton; choreography: Bob Fosse; assistant directors: Douglas Green, Wolfgang Glattes; production design: Rolf Zehetbauer; art direction: Hans-Jurgen Kiebach; mu- sic: John Kander; lyrics: Fred Ebb; music supervisor: Ralph Burns; sound: Robert Knudson, David Hildyard; costumes: Charlotte Fleming. Cast: Liza Minnelli (Sally Bowles); Michael York (Brian Roberts); Joel Grey (Master of Ceremonies); Helmut Griem (Maximillian von Heune); Fritz Wepper (Fritz Wendel); Marisa Berenson (Natalia Landauer); Elizabeth Neumann-Viertel (Fraulein Schneider); Helen Vita (Fraulein Kost); Sigrid von Richtofen (Fraulein Mayr). Awards: Oscars for Best Director, Best Actress (Minnelli), Best Supporting Actor (Grey), Best Cinematography, Best Song Score, Best Editing, Best Art/Set Decoration, and Best Sound, 1972. Publications Books: Altman, Rick, The American Film Musical, Bloomington, Indi- ana, 1989. Grubb, Kevin B., Razzle Dazzle: The Life and Work of Bob Fosse, New York, 1989. Gottfried, Martin, All His Jazz: The Life and Death of Bob Fosse, New York, 1990. Mizejewski, Linda, Divine Decadence: Fascism, Female Spectacle, and the Makings of Sally Bowles, Princeton, New Jersey, 1992. Articles: Variety (New York), 16 February 1972. Marill, A. H., Films in Review (New York), March 1972. Filmfacts (London), number 2, 1972. Monthly Film Bulletin (London), June 1972. Milne, T., Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1972. Vallance, T., Focus on Film (London), Summer 1972. Buckley, P., Films and Filming (London), August 1972. Blades, Joe, ‘‘The Evolution of Cabaret,’’ Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), vol. 1, 1973. Chion, M., ‘‘La comédie musicale rêve au realisme,’’ in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), September 1982. Vecchiali, P., Image et Son (Paris), November 1972. Serceau, M., ‘‘L’archetype Lola: realisme et métaphore’’ in CinémAction (Courbevoie), April 1984. Mizejewski, L., Journal of Film and Video (Boston), Fall 1987. Clark, R., ‘‘Bending the Genre: The Stage and the Screen,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), January 1991. Rodda, Arlene, ‘‘Cabaret: Utilizing the Film Medium to Create a Unique Adaptation,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), vol. 22, no. 1, 1994. Campbell, V., ‘‘Michael York in Cabaret,’’ in Movieline (Escondido, California), vol. 7, July 1996. ’’Cabaret de Bob Fosse: Découpage plan à plan aprés montage et dialogues in-extenso,’’ in Avant-Scène Cinéma (Paris), no. 464, July 1997. *** Based on the Berlin short stories by Christopher Isherwood, the play I Am a Camera, and the Broadway production of the same name, Cabaret was shot in West Germany in the early 1970s. Centered primarily around the seedy Kit Kat Klub, the film ruthlessly depicts Berlin in the last days of the decadent Weimar Republic, and the terrifying rise of Nazism in 1930s Germany. Fosse cleverly interweaves the action taking place on the stage of the club with the political and social action occurring in the streets. The musical numbers performed for the most part impeccably by Liza Minnelli as Sally Bowles, and her entourage, a group of sleazy female musicians and dancers, mirror real life, and are directed beautifully by the manipulative Master of Ceremonies (brilliantly performed by Joel Grey). Brian Roberts (Michael York), an aspiring author and repressed homosexual, comes to Berlin to write and to teach English. He finds himself living in the bohemian boarding house inhabited by Bowles, and is introduced to the sexually liberating atmosphere of the Kit Kat Klub. While the Master of Ceremonies reflects that: ‘‘. . . life is disappointing? Forget it! In here [the club] life is beautiful,’’ the seediness and obvious vulgarity of the audience and performers reinforce that this is far from the truth. In another scene, a Nazi officer is booted out of the club by the manager; later we see the same man being brutally beaten by a group of young Nazi thugs. Although Brian makes it clear to Sally that he is not at all interested in women sexually, the pair embark on an affair. The couple find their seemingly unreal existence complicated by the rich, mercurial Baron Maximilian von Heune (Helmut Griem) who tanta- lizes and tempts both of them. Sally is seduced by champagne, CABARET FILMS, 4 th EDITION 194 Cabaret wonderful clothes, and the opulence and decadence of the baron’s life—Brian, who is at first sceptical, and also a little jealous of the baron’s uninhibited behaviour, is literally seduced by the man, who disappears as quickly as he enters their life. Sally discovers she is pregnant and briefly deludes herself that she and Brian have a future together. Finally she realizes that what they have experienced is completely removed from her reality, and she has an abortion. Brian leaves Germany, and Sally continues her life as a cabaret singer in Berlin. Against this storyline, two of Brian’s language students fall in love. Feckless Fritz (Fritz Wepper), a fortune hunter, seizes his chance when he meets beautiful and rich Jewish heiress, Natalia (Marisa Berenson), only to fall genuinely in love with her. Natalia believes Fritz is a Christian and recognizing the political instability of Germany, and the brutality of the Nazis she refuses to have anything to do with him. Only when Fritz confesses that he is a Jew pretending to be a Christian, does Natalia agree to marry him. The changing political atmosphere and growth of anti-semitism in Germany is illustrated by the victimization of Natalia in her family home by a group of young boys, who eventually slaughter her dog and leave it on her doorstep. Brian also witnesses the frightening strength of the Fascists when he visits a beer garden with the baron. Arriving in the baron’s limousine, the two men leave Sally sleeping in the car. While the two men are drinking, a lone very pure voice begins to sing ‘‘Tomorrow Belongs to Me,’’ slowly and with great feeling. The camera focuses on the young man’s almost perfect Aryan features, tracking the increasing fervour with which he sings. Gradually, other members of the beer garden begin to stand up and join in, the camera closing in on the glazed expressions on their faces. Finally, when almost everyone is on their feet, the camera pans down and reveals the Nazi armband of the young man who instigated the singing. This technique was used in Nazi propaganda films. Brian and the baron leave to the sound of the group’s harmony, climbing into their luxurious car and driving away—indicating that because the baron is rich and Sally and Brian are foreigners they will always have the option to leave this horrendous reality behind. Cabaret is an incredibly innovative film. Now regarded as a clas- sic, the film’s use of colour, the garishness of the costumes, the smokiness of the club, the brightness and exaggeration of the make- up emphasize the decadence of the time. The musical score and choreography are well crafted and performed, and are deliberately kept to the stage of the Kit Kat Klub (‘‘Tomorrow Belongs to Me’’ is CABIRIAFILMS, 4 th EDITION 195 the only exception to this). Minnelli performs her songs emotively and convincingly, if anything she is too good for the small, decadent atmosphere of the Klub. On its release in 1972, Cabaret was received to great acclaim— winning eight Academy Awards, and three Golden Globe Awards. —A. Pillai THE CABINET OF DR. CALIGARI See DAS KABINETT DES DR. CALIGARI CABIRIA Italy, 1914 Director: Giovanni Pastrone (under the name of Piero Fosco) Production: Itala Film (Turin); black and white, 35mm, silent; running time: originally 210 minutes; length: originally 14,746 feet, later versions cut to 8345 feet. Released 18 April 1914, Turin. Filmed 1913 in Turin on specially constructed sets; exteriors shot in Tunisia, Sicily, and the Alps; cost: 1 million lire ($100,000). Screenplay: Giovanni Pastrone and Gabriele D’Annunzio (though D’Annunzio’s contributions to the script were reportedly minimal if not non-existent); titles: Gabriele D’Annunzio; photography: Segundo de Chomon, Giovanni de Chomon, Giovanni Tomatis, Augusto Batagliotti, and Natale Chiusano; musical score originally accom- panying film: Ildebrando Pizzetti; literary and dramatic advisor: Gabriele D’Annunzio. Cast: Italia Almirante Manzini (Sophonisba); Vitale de Stefano (Massinissa); Bartolomeo Pagano (Maciste); Lidia Quaranta (Cabiria); Umberto Mozzato (Fulvio Axilla); Enrico Gemelli (Archimedes); Alex Bernard (Siface); Raffaele di Napoli (Bodastoret); Luigi Chellini (Scipione); Ignazio Lupi (Arbace). Publications Books: Jarratt, Vernon, The Italian Cinema, London, 1951. O’Leary, Liam, The Silent Cinema, London, 1965. Museo Nazionale del Cinema Torino, Cabiria, Turin, 1977. Cook, David, A History of the Narrative Film, New York, 1981. Finocchiaro-Chimirri, Giovanna, D’Annunzio e il cinema ‘‘Cabiria,’’ Catania, 1986. Gethmann, Daniel, Daten und Fahrten: Die Geschichte der Kamerafahrt, ‘‘Cabiria’’ und Gabriele d’Annunzios Bilderstrategie, Munich, 1996. Articles: Bioscope (London), 30 April 1914. Kine Monthly Film Record (London), June 1914. Cabiria Bianco e Nero (Rome), July-August 1952. ‘‘Cabiria Issue’’ of Bianco e Nero (Rome), Summer 1975. Cugier, A., ‘‘Discours de l’idéologie, idéologie du discours,’’ in Cahiers de la Cinématheque (Perpignan), no. 26–27, 1979. Classic Images (Indiana, Pennsylvania), July 1982. Lane, J. F., ‘‘Cabiria: And Now Pizzetti’s Fire Symphony,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1983. De Vincenti, G. ‘‘Il kolossal storico-romano nell’immaginario del primo Novecento,’’ in Bianco e Nero (Rome), vol. 44, no. 1, January-March, 1988. Cherchi Usai, Paolo, ‘‘Imitation? Paraphrase? Plagiat?’’ in Cinémathèque (Paris), no. 1, May 1992. Sequences (Montreal), no. 177, March-April 1995. Alovisio, Silvio, ‘‘El poder de la puesta en escena: Cabiria entre la atraccion y el relato,’’ translated by Isabel Monzo-Gandia, in Archivos de la Filmoteca, (Valencia), vol. 20, June 1995. Celli, Carlo J., ‘‘Cabiria as a D’Annunzian Document,’’ in Romance Languages Annual (West Lafayette), vol. 9, 1997. *** Standing out from all the stumbling efforts toward a new expres- sion of cinema, Giovanni Pastrone’s story of the Second Punic War, Cabiria, demands special attention. Compared to the other colossal Italian spectacles of its time, it had an integrity and sense of purpose. From the beginning it was regarded as something special, and its premiere at the Teatro Vittorio Emmanuele, Turin, on 18 April 1914 was a great occasion. The film’s accompanying score by Ildebrando LA CADUTA DEGLI DEI FILMS, 4 th EDITION 196 Pizzetti, performed by an orchestra of 80 and a choir of 70, added to the excitement. Viewed today, the film has lost little of its epic poetry to the zeitgeist, though the acting performances may seem dated. This story of a young girl lost amidst the clashes of two great nations retains its human interest as well as its power to amaze and astonish. The association of Gabriele d’Annunzio’s name with the film reminds us of his dictum, ‘‘The Cinema should give spectators fantastic visions, lyric catastrophes and marvels born of the most audacious imagination,’’ though, in fact, d’Annunzio’s actual contri- bution to this film was very small. He was paid a large sum for the use of his name in promotion. What does bear his mark are the highly poeticized inter-titles which are a part of the film’s continuity, as they harmonize in style and feeling with the images. The film is consis- tently and stylishly in the grand manner. When the servant describes Massinissa to her mistress Sophonisba she says, ‘‘He is like a wind from the desert bringing the scent of dust and lions and the message of Astarte.’’ Few film heroes have had such a build-up. Apart from the magnificence of the sets and the pulsating action of the story, the film is important for the patient research that produced such striking results and gave conviction to the historical setting. The great Temple of Moloch must have been one of the largest structures for a film up to that time. It and the Carthaginian palaces certainly influenced Griffith’s Babylon in Intolerance. Infinite pains were taken with details which fitted effectively into the vast canvas. Technically the film is also remarkable for its photography by the Spaniard Segundo de Chomon. The use of the moving camera has never been so effective in its almost imperceptible transitions. Every device of camera craft is used to produce a smoothly flowing narrative. There is so much richness in this film: the great scenes of Hannibal crossing the Alps with his army and elephants; the eruption of Etna, and the destruction of the Roman fleet at Syracuse by means of the sun-reflectors of Archimedes. Most of these effects were achieved by multiple exposure. The acting is fairly theatrical, but the perform- ances of Italia Almirante Manzini as Sophonisba and Vitale de Stefano as Massinissa are moving and impressive, while Bartolomeo Pagano, as Maciste the strong man, adds a new figure to the mythology of the movies. Cabiria therefore stands as a major filmic achievement at a time when the cinema was fighting for its place among the other arts. —Liam O’Leary LA CADUTA DEGLI DEI (The Damned) Italy-Germany, 1969 Director: Luchino Visconti Production: Pegaso Film-Italnolggio (Italy), Eichberg Film-Praesidens (West Germany); Eastmancolor, 35mm; running time: 164 minutes, English version: 155 minutes. Released December 1969. Producers: Alfredo Levy and Ever Haggiag; executive producer: Pietro Notarianni; screenplay: Nicola Badalucco, Enrico Medioli and Luchino Visconti; photography: Armando Nannuzzi and Pasquale De Santis; editor: Ruggero Mastroianni; sound mixer: Renato Cadueri; recording director: Vittorio Trentino; art director: Pasquale Romano; set designer: Enzo Del Prato; music: Maurice Jarre; special effects: Aldo Gasparri; costume designers: Piero Tosi and Vera Marzot. Cast: Dirk Bogarde (Friedrich Bruckmann); Ingrid Thulin (Baroness Sophie von Essenbeck); Helmut Griem (Aschenbach); Helmut Berger (Martin von Essenbeck); Charlotte Rampling (Elisabeth Thallman); Florinda Bolkan (Olga); Reinhard Kolldehoff (Baron Konstantin von Essenbeck); Umberto Orsini (Herbert Thallman); Albrecht Sch?nhals (Baron Joachim von Essenbeck); Renaud Verley (Guenther von Essenbeck); Nora Rici (Governess); Irina Wanka (Lisa Keller); Valentina Ricci (Thilde Thallman); Karin Mittendorf (Erika Thallman); Peter Dane (Steelworks employee); Wolfgang Hillinger (Yanek); Bill Vanders (Commissar); Howard Nelson Rubien (Rector); Werner Hasselmann (Gestapo official); Mark Salvage (Police inspector); Karl Otto Alberty, John Frederick, Richard Beach (Army officers); Claus H?hne, Ernst Kühr (SA officers); Wolfgang Ehrlich (SA sol- dier); Esterina Carloni and Antonietta Fiorita (Chmbermaids); Jessica Dublin (Nurse). Publications Script: Badalucco, Nicola, Enrico Medioli, and Luchino Visconti, Caduta degli dei, Capelli, 1969. Books: Ferrara, Guiseppe, Visconti, Paris, 2nd edition, 1970. Dickinson, Thorold, A Discovery of Cinema, Toronto, 1971. Baldelli, Pio, Luchino Visconti, Milan, 1973. Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey, Visconti, London, 1973. Bianchi, Pietro, Maestri del cinema, Milan, 1977. Ferrero, Adelio, editor, Visconti: il cinema, Modena, 1977. Tornabuoni, Lietta, editor, Album Visconti, Milan, 1978. Stirling, Monica, A Screen of Time: A Study of Luchino Visconti, New York, 1979. Servadio, Gaia, Luchino Visconti, Milan, 1980; translated as Luchino Visconti: A Biography, London, 1981, New York, 1983. Rondolini, Gianni, Luchino Visconti, Turin, 1981. Bencivenni, Alessandro, Luchino Visconti, Florence, 1982. Tonetti, Claretta, Luchino Visconti, Boston, 1983. Ishaghpour, Youssef, Luchino Visconti: Le sens et l’image, Paris, 1984. Sanzio, Alain, and Paul-Louis Thirard, Luchino Visconti: Cinéaste, Paris, 1984. De Guisti, Luciano, I film di Luchino Visconti, Rome, 1985. Geitel, Klaus, and others, Luchino Visconti, 4th edition, Munich, 1985. LA CADUTA DEGLI DEIFILMS, 4 th EDITION 197 La caduta degli dei Mancini, Elaine, Luchino Visconti: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1986. Villien, Bruno, Visconti, Paris, 1986. Schifano, Laurence, Luchino Visconti: Les Feux de la passion, Paris, 1987. Miccichè, Lino, Luchino Visconti: un profilo critico, Venice, 1996. Bacon, Henry, Visconti: Explorations of Beauty and Decay, Cam- bridge and New York, 1998. Articles: Hofsess, John, in Take One (Montreal), May-June 1969. Wilson, David, in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1969–70. Sarris, Andrew, in Village Voice (New York), 18 December 1969. Film Society Review (New York), February 1970. Cecil, Norman, in Films in Review (New York), February 1970. Crowds, Gary, in Film Society Review (New York), February 1970. ‘‘Visconti Issue’’ of Cinema (Rome), April 1970. Davies, Brenda, in Films and Filming (London), May 1970. Delmar, Rosalind, ‘‘La Caduta degli Dei: The Damned,’’ in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), May 1970. Tarratt, Margaret, ‘‘The Damned: Visconti, Wagner, and the Reinvention of Reality,’’ in Screen (London), Summer 1970. Mellen, Joan, ‘‘Fascism in the Contemporary Film,’’ in Film Quar- terly (Berkeley), Summer 1971. Korte, Walter F., ‘‘Marxism and Formalism in the Films of Luchino Visconti,’’ in Cinema Journal (Evanston, Illinois), Fall 1971. ‘‘Ingrid Thulin Comments on Visconti,’’ in Dialogue on Film (Wash- ington, D.C.), no. 3, 1972. Marx, J., ‘‘A tragedia alkonya,’’ in Filmkultura (Budapest), Novem- ber-December 1973. Lyons, D., ‘‘Visconti’s Magnificent Obsessions,’’ in Film Comment (New York), March-April 1979. Badalucco, N., ‘‘Film architettura in tre atti,’’ in Cinema Nuovo (Rome), July-October 1989. Badalucco, N., ‘‘Come si scrive una sceneggiatura,’’ in Cinema & Cinema (Bologna), September-December 1989. Camera/Stylo (Paris), December 1989. Ward, E., ‘‘The Great Films: Three Views of the Holocaust,’’ in Classic Images (Muscatine, Iowa), September 1991. *** LA CADUTA DEGLI DEI FILMS, 4 th EDITION 198 The Damned is the story of a bitter power struggle within a family of powerful German industrialists, the von Essenbecks, set against the early years of the Third Reich. When the film opens, on the day of the burning of the Reichstag, the head of the firm, Baron Joachim von Essenbeck, is due to retire. His eventual heir is his grandson, Martin, but he has two possible immediate inheritors: his brother, Baron Konstantin, vice-president of the firm and a member of the SA, and Herbert Thallman, a liberal anti-fascist and former vice-president. Behind the scenes, however, Baroness Sophie, Martin’s mother and widow of Joachim’s oldest son, and her lover, Friedrich Bruckmann, the company manager, form an alliance with Joachim’s nephew Aschenbach, an SS member, to gain control of the firm. They shoot Joachim, but make it look as if Herbert was the culprit, and he is forced to flee. With the aid of Martin, Friedrich becomes president, but Konstantin discovers that Martin is a paedophile and blackmails him in an attempt to gain control himself. He, however, is eliminated by the SS during the Night of the Long Knives. Sophie and Friedrich are now in complete control, but refuse to accept that they are dependent for support on SS man Aschenbach. He therefore sets out to destroy them. Like so many of Visconti’s films, The Damned is the story of the decline and decomposition of a family, and as in Senso and The Leopard in particular, the fortunes of individuals are linked to wider developments at a climactic moment of history. There are also, as various critics have pointed out, significant parallels with Mann’s Buddenbrooks, which showed the decline of a German business family through the increasing paralysis of will of its various members, amounting to a kind of death wish which seemed to echo the exhaustion of the whole Imperial regime. Both film and novel open with preparations for a family dinner party, and the title of the opening chapter of the latter, ‘‘The Decadence of a Family,’’ could easily serve as the sub-title for The Damned as a whole. And if Mann’s family mirrors the decline of the Imperial regime, Visconti’s is a microcosm of Germany’s industrial elite faced with the Nazi ‘‘Machtergreifung.’’ The film has been called ‘‘the Krupp family history as Verdi might have envisaged it,’’ but one could just as aptly substitute the names of Kirdorf, Thyssen, Schnitzler or any of the other industrialists who supported Hitler. More specifically, the murder of Joachim could be seen as representing the liquidation of the old, conservative ruling class by the new National Socialist order; the framing of Herbert for the murder parallels the framing of the Left for the Reichstag fire (especially as his surname, Thallman, irresistibly recalls the name of Thalmann, one of the Communist leaders arrested after the fire); and the killing of Konstantin by the SS (of which Aschenbach is a member) entwines the family history in the early power struggles amongst the Nazis, which culminated in the liquida- tion of the more populist, ‘‘radical’’ elements in the famous Night of the Long Knives. It is then only a matter of time before Martin and Aschenbach are in total control, representing the fusion of party, capital, and military under a leadership which is both supreme and also pathologically unstable. However, there are problems with relying too heavily on such a reading, which does not do justice to the film as a whole. If we go too far down this road we soon encounter a criticism made by Rosalind Delmar, among others, namely that ‘‘fascism itself remains unex- plored, becoming a backdrop to the action rather than an intrinsic part of it; its relation to the family struggle remains intellectual rather than expressive.’’ Or as Claretta Tonetti has written: ‘‘The passions of the members of the family have a separate existence from the political shaping of the country.... Politics remain in the background of the shocking internal struggle among the Essenbecks. The Nazi takeover has little to do with the impact of the scene in which Martin rapes his own mother.’’ Unless, that is, one subscribes to an ultra-Reichian view of Nazism, or wants to ally The Damned with that curious tendency in Italian cinema, from Germany Year Zero to The Con- formist, which seems worryingly keen to link support for extreme Right-wing politics with deviation from the heterosexual norm. Nor can the victory of National Socialism in Germany be explained wholly in terms of internal feuds amongst its old and new ruling interests—that way leads us straight to the by now rather stale criticism that Visconti, the one time Marxist, became increasingly over-interested in the affairs of the aristocracy and the haute bourgeoisie. Better, then, to regard The Damned as one of Visconti’s family melodramas, replete with his usual operatic and mythic inflections. Much of the action takes place within the sumptuous ‘‘set’’ of the Essenbeck mansion, and scenes between the individual characters alternate with those involving a larger ‘‘chorus.’’ The Night of the Long Knives sequence forms a massive and spectacular central set- piece. Again like Mann, Visconti makes use of various Wagnerian leitmotifs, such as fire and play-acting, which become a key underpin- ning of the symbolic structure of the film. The fact that the film also carries such strong echoes of Macbeth, Dante’s Inferno, Wagner’s Gotterdammerung (the original title of the film, in fact), and the aforementioned Buddenbrooks, suggests strongly that Visconti sees The Damned not simply as a representation of history, nor simply as the working out of an intense family conflict, but also as having mythological significance (in the same way that Vaghe Stelle Dell’Orsa is a working out of the Oresteia myth). According to Geoffrey Nowell-Smith, ‘‘over and above what is directly stated in the film itself, myths imply a whole set of further statements about the permanence of certain driving forces in history and the trans-histori- cal ineluctability of the tragic mechanism.’’ The problem here, however, according to Nowell-Smith, is that ‘‘unlike in Vaghe Stelle, the myth element is neither unitary nor fully integrated into the structure of the narrative.’’ As a consequence, the mythical overtones not only add nothing to the story but actually rather work against the historical and personal-dramatic elements. As Nowell-Smith con- cludes, ‘‘in the last analysis the Essenbecks are only the Essenbecks, more interesting to the world, perhaps, than the average family, because of the power of their capital; but their fall (only to rise again, without a doubt, in 1945) is neither the end of civilization nor its restoration.’’ In short, The Damned, without being one of Visconti’s finest films, is still a remarkable work, but it is one which, for its own sake, needs to be rescued from some of the more inflated claims—political, psycho-sexual, and mythological—which have sometimes been made for it, albeit with the best of intentions. —Julian Petley CAIRO STATION See BAB EL HADID CAMILLEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 199 CAMILLE USA, 1936 Director: George Cukor Production: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures Corp.; black and white, 35mm; running time: 115 minutes, some sources state 108 minutes. Released 1936. Filmed in the MGM studios. Producer: Irving G. Thalberg, some sources list David Lewis; screenplay: Zoe Akins, Frances Marion, and James Hilton, from the novel and play La Dame aux camélias by Alexandre Dumas (fils); photography: William Daniels and Karl Freund; editor: Margaret Booth; music: Herbert Stothart; costume designer: Adrian. Cast: Greta Garbo (Marguerite Gautier/Camille); Robert Taylor (Armand Duval); Lionel Barrymore (Monsieur Duval); Henry Daniell (Baron de Varville); Lenore Ulric (Olympe); Jessie Ralph (Nanine); Laura Hope Crews (Prudence Duvernoy); Elizabeth Allan (Nichette); Russell Hardie (Gustave). Awards: New York Film Critics’ Award, Best Actress (Garbo), 1937. Camille Publications Books: Bainbridge, John, Garbo, New York, 1955. Conway, Michael, and others, The Films of Greta Garbo, New York, 1963. Langlois, Henri, and others, Hommage à George Cukor, Paris, 1963. Durgnat, Raymond, and John Kobal, Greta Garbo, New York, 1965. Carey, Gary, Cukor and Company: The Films of George Cukor and His Collaborators, New York, 1971. Corliss, Richard, Greta Garbo, London, 1976. Phillips, Gene D., George Cukor, Boston, 1982. Bernadoni, James, George Cukor: A Critical Study and Filmography, Jefferson, North Carolina, 1985. McGilligan, Patrick, George Cukor, a Double Life: A Biography of the Gentleman Director, New York, 1991. Levy, Emanuel, George Cukor, Master of Elegance: Hollywood’s Legendary Director and His Stars, New York, 1994. Articles: New York Times, 23 January 1937. Variety, (New York), 27 January 1937. ‘‘How Cukor Directs Garbo,’’ in Lion’s Roar (Hollywood), Novem- ber 1941. Huff, Theodore, ‘‘The Career of Greta Garbo,’’ in Films in Review (New York), December 1951. Tynan, Kenneth, ‘‘Garbo,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1954. Prouse, Derek, in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1955. Tozzi, Romano, ‘‘George Cukor,’’ in Films in Review (New York), February 1958. Brooks, Louise, ‘‘Gish and Garbo—the Executive War on Stars,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1958–59. Reid, John, ‘‘So He Became a Lady’s Man,’’ in Films and Filming (London), August 1960. Reid, John, ‘‘Women and Still More Women,’’ in Films and Filming (London), September 1960. Guez, Gilbert, ‘‘George Cukor: de Garbo a Marilyn il a instaure le Star-System,’’ in Cinémonde (Paris), 1 January 1963. Bowers, Ronald, ‘‘Robert Taylor,’’ in Films in Review (New York), January 1963. ‘‘Cukor Issue’’ of Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), February 1964. Gillett, John, and David Robinson, ‘‘Conversation with George Cukor,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1965. Nordberg, Carl Eric, ‘‘Greta Garbo’s Secret,’’ in Film Comment (New York), Summer 1970. Phillips, Gene D., ‘‘George Cukor: An Interview,’’ in Film Comment (New York), Spring 1972. Grisolia, M., ‘‘George Cukor ou comment le desir vient aux femmes,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), February 1974. Powers, James, editor, ‘‘Dialogue on Film: George Cukor,’’ in American Film (Washington, D.C.), February 1978. Bodeen, DeWitt, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 1, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Bodeen, DeWitt, ‘‘George Cukor,’’ in Films in Review (New York), November 1981. Palni, D., ‘‘Le Roman de Marguerite Gautier,’’ in Cinéma (Paris), May 1981. O CANGACEIRO FILMS, 4 th EDITION 200 Radio Times (London), 7 September 1985. Lippe, Richard, ‘‘Cukor and Garbo,’’ in CineAction (Toronto), no. 35, 1994. *** Garbo’s Camille not only contains her best screen performance, but hers remains the definitive Camille. No actress in her right mind would dare do a re-make, because she would be inviting comparisons with the Garbo performance, which would not be to her advantage. In fact, some years ago, when Tallulah Bankhead was asked, along with other stars of the stage, to name what she considered the greatest of all theatrical performances, she led off instantly with ‘‘Garbo in Ca- mille,’’ and no one argued her choice. The role of Camille has always been thought of as the supreme test for the dramatic actress, just as Hamlet has become ‘‘a consummation devoutly wished’’ for the actor. As a character, she not only runs the gamut of emotion, she explores every facet of all emotion. Cukor saw Camille again after a long period of time, and remarked of Garbo’s performance: ‘‘I was staggered [by] her lightness of touch the wantonness, the perversity of the way she played Camille, she played it as if she was the author of her own misery.’’ Even Irving Thalberg, seeing her performance, remarked that she had never been so good. It was the scene where she sits in a box in the theatre, and Cukor demurred, ‘‘Irving, how can you tell? She’s just sitting there,’’ to which Thalberg remarked, ‘‘I know, but she’s unguarded.’’ The key to her entire performance of Marguerite Gautier, the Parisian cocotte known among her coterie as ‘‘Camille,’’ can be summed up in that one word—‘‘unguarded,’’ held safe against all time. It was in the finest tradition of thoughtful restraint in acting for the camera. In the theatre, the story of Marguerite Gautier has been acted by all the greats, including Eleonora Duse and Sarah Bernhardt. On the screen, its various versions starred such actresses as Clara Kimball Young, Theda Bara, Nazimova, and Norma Talmadge. American actresses resisted it as a talking role. Garbo alone, with Cukor’s faith in her, wanted to do the part, knowing that it could be her greatest, and it was. Henry James wrote of the story that it had been written by Alexandre Dumas fils when he was only 25, and added: ‘‘The play has been blown about the world at a fearful rate, but has never lost its happy juvenility, a charm that nothing can vulgarize. It is all cham- pagne and tears, fresh perversity, fresh credulity, fresh passion, fresh pain. It carries with it an April air!’’ In 1855, an American actress, Matilda Heron, was in Paris, and saw La Dame aux camélias played there. She made her own acting version, called it Camille, or The Fate of a Coquette, and played it all over the English-speaking world. She married, and gave birth to a daughter known as Bijou Heron, who married Henry Miller. Their son, Gilbert Miller, was one of the best producers Broadway and London ever knew. The stories surrounding Camille onstage and in films are endless, and involve nearly every important player’s name. Either as Camille or as The Lady of the Camellias, it has been played by all the best actresses from Tallulah Bankhead to Ethel Barrymore, from Eva Le Gallienne to Lillian Gish, so that what they created onstage was revealed in the performance Garbo brought to the screen. With her the part became not just about a heroine who lives well but unwisely; she became a beautiful worldly creature fated to find real love with a young man, whom she deserts because she knows that in staying with him, she is ruining his life. The lovers are reunited at her deathbed, and the audience always dissolves in tears. Seeing Garbo’s death scene, an admirer remarked, ‘‘What a pity that Garbo had to die! We shan’t see her again.’’ After that last fadeout, it was not easy to believe that at least two of Garbo’s best roles were still ahead, with her performances as Marie Waleska, Napoleon’s love, in Con- quest, and in the title role of Lubitsch’s Ninotchka. Camille, however, remained her triumph for all time. It was her finest hour. —DeWitt Bodeen CAMPANADAS A MEDIONACHE See CHIMES AT MIDNIGHT CANAL See KANAL O CANGACEIRO (The Bandit) Brazil, 1953 Director: Victor Lima Barreto Production: Cia. Cinematográfica Vera Cruz; black and white; running time: 105 minutes. Released in 1953. Filmed in S?o Paulo. Producer: Cid Leite da Silva; screenplay: Victor Lima Barreto; dialogues: Rachel de Queiróz, based on original by Lima Barreto; photography: H. E. Fowle; editor: Oswald Hafenrichter; art direc- tor, production design, and costume designer: Caribé; sound: Erik Rasmussen and Ernst Hack; music: Gabriel Migliori; songs: Zé do Norte, and others of public domain. Cast: Milton Ribeiro (Captain Galdino Ferreira); Alberto Ruschel (Teodoro): Marisa Prado (Olívia); Vanja Orico (Maria Clodia); Adoniran Barbosa; Ricardo Campos; Neuza Veras; Zé do Norte; Lima Barreto; Galileu Garcia; Nieta Junqueira; Pedro Visgo; Jo?o Batista Gioto; Manoel Pinto. Awards: Named Best Adventure Film and special mention for sound track, Cannes Film Festival, 1953. Publications Books: Viany, Alex, Introdu??o ao Cinema Brasileiro, Rio de Janeiro, 1959. Rocha, Glauber, Revis?o Crìtica do Cinema Brasileiro, Rio de Janeiro, 1963. Galvào, Maria Rita, Burguesia e Cinema: O Caso Vera Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 1981. O CANGACEIROFILMS, 4 th EDITION 201 O Cangaceiro Gomes, Paulo Emìlio Salles, Crítica de Cinema no Suplemento Literário, S?o Paulo, 1982. Xavier, Ismail, Sert?o Mar—Glauber Rocha e a Estética da Fome, S?o Paulo, 1983. Ramos, Fern?o, História do Cinema Brasileiro, S?o Paulo, 1987. Salem, Helena, 90 Anos de Cinema—Uma Aventura Brasileira, Rio de Janeiro, 1988. Articles: Diário de Notícias (Rio de Janeiro), 19 April 1953. Variety (New York), 29 April 1954. Films in Review (New York), January 1954. Monthly Film Bulletin (London), August 1954. Viotti, S., Films and Filming (London), October 1954. Vianna, Ant?nio Moniz, Cineclube Macunaima Edition (Rio de Janeiro), number 48, 1974. Nardo, Silvio Di, O Globo (Rio de Janeiro), 8 March 1976. Matiussi, Paulo, Jornal do Brasil (Rio de Janeiro), 18 March 1977. Soares, Dirceu, Folha de S?o Paulo (S?o Paulo), 20 April 1977. O Globo (Rio de Janeiro), 25 January 1978. Nascimento, Helio, Jornal do Comércio (Porto Alegre), 9 May 1978. O Globo (Rio de Janeiro), 25 November 1982. *** Exhibited at Cannes in 1953, Victor Lima Barreto’s O Cangaceiro has a place of honour on the Brazilian film scene for a number of reasons. At Cannes, it received two accolades: the prize for best adventure film and a special mention for the sound track; this recognition turned O Cangaceiro into the first Brazilian film to be successful overseas. (André Brazin said of the film at Cannes, ‘‘from its earliest scenes, the film sets an explosive tone of violence and strength.’’) O Cangaceiro became a box-office record breaker at the time of its launch, its director became a national hero, and its theme tune, Mulher Rendeira, became the unofficial Brazilian anthem of the 1950s. Apart from its repercussion both at home and abroad, O Cangaceiro has also the merit of giving rise to the Canga?o genre of film. Cangaceiro is the name given to a particular type of bandit who used LE CARROSSE D’OR FILMS, 4 th EDITION 202 to roam the Northeast of the country in the early 20th Century, spreading terror and sacking small villages. Common to most Canga?o films are the scenario of the rustic backlands of northeastern Brazil, the disadvantaged as characters and a confrontation with police forces as the principal story line. O Cangaceiro was also the first in a series of ‘‘nordestern’’ or ‘‘northeastern’’ films, which ran a parallel line with the North American Western films; it was followed in this vein by a number of noteworthy films, the best known of which was Deus e O Diabo na Terra do Sol (Black God, White Devil), by Glauber Rocha. O Cangaceiro was Victor Lima Barreto’s first feature, produced after his innumerable documentaries of the 1940s. (In 1951, his documentary Santuário, won a prize at Venice in the ‘‘art film’’ category.) As the author of the story and the screenplay, Lima Barreto dared, at a time when Brazilian films dealt largely with urban themes, to turn the public’s eyes to the poorest region of the country. Here he created images that were incontestably Brazilian, either through the exploitation of regional physiognomies or through the typically barren northeastern scenery (albeit O Cangaceiro was filmed in the countryside of the state of S?o Paulo). Notwithstanding the social concerns inherent in the plot—the right to land and the misery of the population—Lima Barreto does not address these political matters, as would later the Cinema Novo movement, which also used the Northeast of the Brazil for many of its locations. The principal characters in the film are Captain Galdino Ferreira (Milton Ribeiro), a cruel and boorish leader of a band of cangaceiros, and Teodoro (Alberto Ruschel), his right hand man, who is from a good background, but has joined the gang of outlaws after killing a man. Teodoro’s convictions are challenged when Galdino kidnaps a comely teacher, Olívia (Marisa Prado), provoking the jealousy of Maria (Vanja Orico)—every band of ‘‘cangaceiro’’ outlaws was, by tradition, accompanied by a woman. Teodoro falls in love with the teacher, and decides to break away with her, living a sort of ‘‘re- deemed by love’’ syndrome. At the same time, the police stalk Galdino’s gang whose leader is now blind with rage at the betrayal by his henchman. During the chase, the former outlaw becomes the protector of the pretty teacher, with whom he enjoys a series of romantic love scenes. In a violent contest, Galdino’s men thwart the efforts of the police to catch them. The next battle is between Galdino and Teodoro. Teodoro resists heroically, but eventually surrenders. True to his personal code of honour, Galdino allows Teodoro one last chance to survive: the band of outlaws will all shoot at Teodoro from a distance of 500 meters at the same time. If Teodoro is not hit, he is free to go. Teodoro accepts the deal, but he is shot and dies clutching a handful of ‘‘his’’ earth. Having said ‘‘a woman and land are the same thing—you need both to be happy,’’ he dies not for an ideal, but for love. (Lima Barreto had been informed by Columbia Pictures that the authorities responsi- ble for law and order in Europe and the United States demanded that the bad guy die at the end. Thus, a scene in which Galdino dies was also included, though not shown in Brazil.) At the time of O Cangaceiro’s launch, Lima Barreto stated: ‘‘When, years ago, I dreamed of making films in Brazil, I resolved to make films that were totally national, wholeheartedly Brazilian. The title, the story, the location, the characters and their personalities—the photography, the music, the editing—all should breathe Brazil.’’ The dramatic and narrative tints of the Western and the influence of the epic Mexican school at its most grandiloquent in no way compromise the Brazilianness of O Cangaceiro, whose studied nationalism is emphasized by the exceptional sound track, peppered with regional songs. While Captain Galdino is almost a caricature of cruelty, Teodoro and Olívia’s portrayals are altogether more reasonable and civilized. Notwithstanding the social questions inherent in the canga?o genre, Lima Barreto’s plot is centred on a love story, complete with impassioned dialogues, supported by scenes of great visual impact— such as the torture of one of the men, who is dragged behind a galloping horse—and chase scenes through the countryside. The film opens with the band of outlaws marching to the right and finishes with the same band marching off, to the sound of Mulher Rendeira, in the opposite direction, in a composition which is clearly reminiscent of John Ford. O Cangaceiro also represents one of the great disillusions of the Brazilian film industry. It was one of the final productions of the Vera Cruz Studios, an enterprise put together by a group of S?o Paulo businessmen to create a sort of Brazilian Hollywood, producing world class films for the first time in Brazil. To this end, foreign technicians were hired from abroad, such as H. E. Fowle, the English director of photography, the German editor, Oswald Hafenrichter or the Italian musician, Gabriel Magliori, who were all involved in O Cangaceiro. The artistic direction was by the famous painter Caribé, while the dialogues were written by the distinguished Rachel de Queiróz. The Brazilian and world distribution rights were sold to Columbia Pictures; thus, Vera Cruz did not benefit from the success of O Cangaceiro, which was sold to 23 countries. In fact, the shutters went up on Vera Cruz not long after O Cangaceiro’s production. For Lima Barreto—who appears in the film as the commander of a police force—the film represented not only the pinnacle but the beginning of the end of his career. After his second fictional feature, A Primeira Missa (1960), he went into a long and painful decline, only to die alone and in poverty in 1982 at the age of 76. His legacy was several untouched screenplays and O Cangaceiro, testimony to his defense of what he considered to be the unequivocally Brazilian cinema. —Susana Schild CARNIVAL IN FLANDERS See LA KERMESSE HEROIQUE LE CARROSSE D’OR (The Golden Coach) France-Italy, 1953 Director: Jean Renoir Production: Panaria Films and Roche Productions; Technicolor, 35mm; running time: 100 minutes, some sources list 98 minutes; LE CARROSSE D’ORFILMS, 4 th EDITION 203 Le carrosse d’or length: 2800 meters. Released 27 February 1953, Paris. Filming began 4 February 1952 in Cinecittà studios. Producers: Francesco Alliata and Ray Ventura; screenplay: Jean Renoir, Renzo Avenzo, Giulio Macchi, Jack Kirkland, and Ginette Doynel, from the work Le Carrosse du Saint-Sacrement by Prosper Mérimée; photography: Claude Renoir and Ronald Hill; editors: Mario Serandrei and David Hawkins; sound: Joseph de Bretagne and Ovidio del Grande; recorded by: Mario Ronchetti; production design: Mario Chiari with De Gianni and Polidori; music: Vivaldi, Archangelo Corelli, and Olivier Metra; arranged by: Gino Marinuzzi; costumes: Mario de Matteis. Cast: Anna Magnani (Camilla/Colombine); Duncan Lamont (Ferdinand, the Viceroy); Odoardo Spadaro (Don Antonio, the head of the troupe); Riccardo Rioli (Ramon); Paul Campbell (Felipe Aquirre); Nada Fiorelli (Isabelle); Georges Higgins (Martinez); Dante (Arlequin); Rino (Doctor Balanzon); Gisela Mathews (Irène Altamirano); Lina Marengo (Comedienne); Ralph Truman (Duke of Castro); Elena Altieri (Duchess of Castro); Renato Chiantoni (Cap- tain Fracasse); Giulio Tedeschi (Balthazar, the barber); Alfredo Kolner (Florindo); Alfredo Medini (Pulcinella); John Pasetti (Cap- tain of the Guard); William Tubbs (Innkeeper); Cecil Matthews (Baron); Fredo Keeling (Viscount); Jean Debucourt (Bishop of Carmol); Raf de la Torre (Procurer); Medini Brothers (4 children); Juan Perez. Publications Books: Davay, Paul, Jean Renoir, Brussels, 1957. Cauliez, Armand-Jean, Jean Renoir, Paris, 1962. Institut des Hautes Etudes Cinématographiques, Analyses des films de Jean Renoir, Paris, 1966. Bennett, Susan, Jean Renoir, London, 1967. Leprohon, Pierre, Jean Renoir, Paris 1967, New York, 1971. Gregor, Ulrich, editor, Film: Eine Dokumentation de Jean Renoir, Frankfurt, 1970. Cuenca, Carlos, Humanidad de Jean Renoir, Vallodolid, 1971. Braudy, Leo, Jean Renoir: The World of His Films, New York, 1972. Bazin, André, Jean Renoir, edited by Fran?ois Truffaut, Paris, 1973. LE CARROSSE D’OR FILMS, 4 th EDITION 204 Durgnat, Raymond, Jean Renoir, Berkeley, 1974. Beylie, Claude, Jean Renoir: Le Spectacle, la Vie, Paris, 1975. Renoir, Jean, Essays, Conversations, Reviews, edited by Penelope Gilliatt, New York, 1975. Faulkner, Christopher, Jean Renoir: A Guide to References and Resources, Boston, 1979. Sesonske, Alexander, Jean Renoir: The French Films 1924–1939, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1980. Gauteur, Claude, editor, Jean Renoir: Oeuvres de cinéma inédites, Paris, 1981. McBride, Joseph, editor, Filmmakers on Filmmaking 2, Los Ange- les, 1983. Renoir, Jean, Lettres d’Amérique, edited by Dido Renoir and Alexan- der Sesonske, Paris, 1984. Serceau, Daniel, Jean Renoir, Paris, 1985. Bertin, Celia, Jean Renoir, Paris, 1986. Faulkner, Christopher, The Social Cinema of Jean Renoir, Princeton, New Jersey, 1986. Vincendeau, Ginette, and Keith Reader, La Vie est à Nous: French Cinema of the Popular Front, London, 1986. Viry-Babel, Roger, Jean Renoir: Le Jeu et la règle, Paris, 1986. Braudy, Leo, Jean Renoir: The World of His Films, New York, 1989. Renoir, Jean, Renoir on Renoir, New York, 1990. Renoir, Jean, My Life & My Films, New York, 1991. Bergan, Ronald, Jean Renoir: Projections of Paradise, New York, 1995. Renoir, Jean, Letters: Jean Renoir, New York, 1995. Renoir, Jean, An Interview: Jean Renoir, with Nicholas Frangakis, Los Angeles, 1998. Articles: ‘‘Renoir Issue’’ of Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), January 1952. Baroncelli, Jean de, ‘‘Commedia all’improviso,’’ in Le Monde (Paris), 4 March 1953. Renoir, Jean, ‘‘Je n’ai pas tourné mon film au Pérou,’’ in Radio- Cinéma (Paris), 15 March 1953. Sadoul, Georges, in Lettres Fran?aises (Paris), 5 March 1953. ‘‘Renoir Issue’’ of Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), Christmas 1957. Sadoul, Georges, ‘‘The Renaissance of French Cinema—Feyder, Renoir, Duvivier, Carné,’’ in Film: An Anthology, edited by Daniel Talbot, New York, 1959. Belanger, Jean, ‘‘Why Renoir Favors Multiple Camera, Long Sus- tained Take Technique,’’ in American Cinematographer (Los Angeles), March 1960. Dyer, Peter John, ‘‘Renoir and Realism,’’ in Sight and Sound (Lon- don), Summer 1960. Whitehall, Richard, in Films and Filming (London), June-July 1960. Whitehall, Richard, ‘‘Gallery of Great Artists: Anna Magnani,’’ in Films and Filming (London), July 1961. Petrie, G., in Film Comment (New York), May-June 1974. Lindberg, I., ‘‘Smukke Marie,’’ in Kosmorama (Copenhagen), Octo- ber 1980. Strebel, Elizabeth Grottle, ‘‘Jean Renoir and the Popular Front,’’ in Feature Films as History, edited by K. R. M. Short, London, 1981. Carbonnier, A., in Cinéma (Paris), January 1985. Pellizzari, L., in Cineforum (Bergamo, Italy), September 1992. Chase, D., ‘‘Anna Magnani: Miracle Worker,’’ in Film Comment (New York), November-December 1993. Téchiné, André, in Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), no. 482, July-Au- gust 1994. Bagh, Peter von, in Filmihullu (Helsinki), no. 6, 1994. *** Jean Renoir regarded Le Carrosse d’or as a mere jeu d’esprit, but in fact the film, while one of Renoir’s lighter efforts, has been greatly underrated. Its commedia dell’arte-inspired picturesqueness encom- passes one of Renoir’s lifelong themes—the disaffinity between illusion and reality, life and theatre, what people really are versus the roles they play. Most important to the creative sensibility of Renoir the artist, the film concerns the artist’s duty to give, not take; by doing so he experiences his greatest power and true humanity. The film is based on Prosper Mérimée’s one-act play, Le Carrosse du Saint-Sacrement which derived from a real-life Peruvian incident. Mérimée’s play was also the inspiration for an episode in Thornton Wilder’s The Bridge of San Luis Rey. On the surface, Le Carrosse d’or is a simple story of love, but Renoir gives it a Pirandellian twist with its confusion of identities while giving new meaning to Shake- speare’s phrase, ‘‘All the world’s a stage.’’ The plot centers around Camilla (Anna Magnani), the Columbine of a troupe of travelling theatre players in 18th century Peru, and her three loves: the Peruvian viceroy, a matador, and a young Spanish nobleman/soldier. The viceroy has just incurred the wrath and envy of his court and the church council by importing a golden coach from Europe. As Renoir stated, ‘‘In Mérimée’s play, La Périchole is an actress, and in my movie, Camilla is an actress. In the play and in the film the coach stands for worldly vanity, and in both works the conclusion is precipitated by the bishop.’’ As was his practice, Renoir used his scripts as a starting point, then wove the plot around his own special view of life and human nature. Here Renoir’s point was to present a serio-comic masque, refer- ring to the game of appearances, as a true reflection of human behavior. In a play within a play within a film, Camilla plays at love. She becomes the center of attention when the viceroy presents the coach to her as a gift, an act he hopes will dissipate the jealousies of his court. Camilla wears a variety of faces as she wavers among her three romantic choices: she can opt for the life of luxury with the viceroy; she can choose a simpler life among the Peruvian Indians with the faithful soldier; or she can elect a volatile relationship with the adored and fiery matador. But the theatre is her real life, her real love, and she astonishes all three lovers by presenting the coach to the Bishop of Lima so it can be used to carry the last sacraments to the dying. Renouncing desire, she stands alone at center stage as the curtain falls. When asked if she misses her three lovers, she replies, wryly, ‘‘Just a little.’’ Le Carrosse d’or is the first of Renoir’s three theatre films of the 1950s—the others being French Cancan and Elena et les hommes. In each he fills the stage/screen with a spectacle of action, sets, and costumes, with a childlike glee at his powers of manipulation. In keeping with the commedia dell’arte flavor, he chose Vivaldi’s music for its lightness of spirit, making the music an integral part of the film. Renoir drew forth the finest performance of Anna Magnani’s career with this picture and called her ‘‘the greatest actress I have ever worked with.’’ Her Camilla is a brilliant tour de force. Le Carrosse d’or is a charming film, and while minor Renoir, it is a testament to his warmth, good humor, and sense of whimsy. —Ronald Bowers CASABLANCAFILMS, 4 th EDITION 205 CASABLANCA USA, 1942 Director: Michael Curtiz Production: Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc.; black and white, 35mm; running time: 102 minutes. Released November 1942. Filmed at Warner Bros. studios. Producer: Hal B. Wallis; screenplay: Julius J. and Philip G. Epstein and Howard Koch, contributions by Aeneas Mackenzie and Hal Wallis among others, from an unpublished play Everybody Comes to Rick’s by Murray Burnett and Joan Alison; photography: Arthur Edeson; editor: Owen Marks; sound: Francis J. Scheid; production design: Carl Jules Weyl; set decoration: George James Hopkins; music: Max Steiner; songs: Herman Hupfeld and M. K. Jerome; special effects: Laurence Butler and Willard Van Enger; costumes: Orry-Kelly (gowns); technical advisor: Robert Alsner; opening montage: Don Siegel. Cast: Humphrey Bogart (Rick); Ingrid Bergman (Ilsa Lund); Paul Henreid (Victor Laszlo); Claude Rains (Captain Louis Renault); Conrad Veidt (Major Strasser); Sydney Greenstreet (Senor Ferrari); Peter Lorre (Ugarte); S. Z. Sakall (Carl, a Waiter); Madeleine LeBeau (Yvonne); Dooley Wilson (Sam); Joy Page (Annina Brandel); John Qualen (Berger); Leonid Kinsky (Sascha, a Bartender); Helmut Dantine (Jan); Curt Bois (Pickpocket); Marcel Dalio (Croupier); Corinna Mura (Singer); Ludwig St?ssel (Mr. Leuchtag); Ilka Gruning (Mrs. Leuchtag); Charles La Torre (Tonelli, the Italian officer); Frank Puglia (Arab vendor); Dan Seymour (Abdul); Lou Marcelle (Narra- tor); Martin Garralaga (Headwaiter); Olaf Hytten (Prosperous man); Monte Blue (American); Paul Pracasi (Native); Albert Morin (French offcer); Creighton Hale (Customer); Henry Rowland (German offi- cer); Richard Ryen (Heinz); Norma Varden (Englishwoman); Torben Meyer (Banker); Oliver Blake (Blue Parrot waiter); Gregory Gay (German banker); William Edmunds (Contact); George Meeker (Friend); George Dee (Casselle); Leo Mostovoy (Fydor); Leon Belasco (Dealer). Awards: Oscars for Best Film, Best Director, and Best Screen- play, 1943. Publications Scripts: Epstein, Julius J., Philip G. Epstein, and Howard Koch, Casablanca: Script and Legend, edited by Koch, New York, 1973; also in Michael Curtiz’s ‘‘Casablanca,’’ edited by Richard Anobile, New York 1975. Books: McCarty, Clifford, Bogey: The Films of Humphrey Bogart, New York, 1965. Michael, Paul, Humphrey Bogart: The Man and His Films, Indian- apolis, 1965. Warner, Jack, My First 100 Years in Hollywood, New York, 1965. McBride, Joseph, editor, A Collection of Film Criticism, Madison, Wisconsin, 1968. Quirk, Lawrence J., The Films of Ingrid Bergman, New York, 1970. Barbour, Alan G., Humphrey Bogart, New York, 1973. Brown, Curtis F., Ingrid Bergman, New York, 1973. Canham, Kingsley, Michael Curtiz, Raoul Walsh, Henry Hathaway, London, 1973. Parish, James Robert, and Michael R. Pitts, editors, The Great Spy Pictures, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1974. Baker, M. Joyce, Images of Women in Film: The War Years 1941–45, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1980. Francisco, Charles, You Must Remember This: The Filming of ‘‘Casablanca,’’ Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Pettigrew, Terence, Bogart: A Definitive Study of His Film Career, London, 1981. Rosenzweig, Sidney, Casablanca and Other Major Films of Michael Curtiz, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1982. Taylor, John Russell, Ingrid Bergman, London, 1983. Ray, Robert B., A Certain Tendency of the Hollywood Cinema 1930–1980, Princeton, New Jersey, 1985. Winkler, Willi, Humphrey Bogart und Hollywoods Schwarze Serie, Munich, 1985. Eco, Umberto, Faith in Fakes, London, 1986. Kinnard, Roy, and R.J. Vitone, The American Films of Michael Curtiz, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1986. Leamer, Laurence, As Time Goes By: The Life of Ingrid Bergman, New York, 1986. Fuchs, Wolfgang J., Humphrey Bogart: Cult-Star: A Documentation, Berlin, 1987. Jarvie, Ian, Philosophy of the Film: Epistemology, Ontology, Aesthet- ics, New York, London, 1987. Harmetz, Aljean, Round Up the Usual Suspects: The Making of Casablanca—Bogart, Bergman, and World War Two, New York, 1992. Lebo, Harlan, Casablanca: Behind the Scenes, New York, 1992. McArthur, Colin, The Casablanca File, London, 1992. Miller, Frank, Casablanca: As Time Goes By, 50th Anniversary Commemorative, Atlanta, 1992. Siegel, Jeff, The Casablanca Companion: The Movie and More, Dallas, 1992. Robertson, James C., The Casablanca Man: The Cinema of Michael Curtiz, London, 1993. Osborne, Richard E., The Casablanca Companion: The Movie Clas- sic and Its Place in History, Indianapolis, 1997. Articles: New York Times, 27 November 1942. Variety (New York), 2 December 1942. The Times (London), 13 January 1943. Cooke, Alistair, ‘‘Epitaph for a Tough Guy,’’ in Atlantic Monthly (Boston), May 1957. Luft, Herbert, ‘‘Peter Lorre,’’ in Films in Review (New York), May 1960. Sarris, Andrew, ‘‘Likable But Elusive,’’ in Film Culture (New York), Spring 1963. Stein, Jeanne, ‘‘Claude Rains,’’ in Films in Review (New York), November 1963. Dienstfrey, Harris, in Film Culture (New York), Fall 1964. CASABLANCA FILMS, 4 th EDITION 206 Casablanca Nolan, Jack Edmund, ‘‘Michael Curtiz,’’ in Films in Review (New York), September 1970. Sarris, Andrew, in Village Voice (New York), 8 January 1970. Kinskey, Leonid, ‘‘It Lingers Deliciously in Memory as Time Goes By,’’ in Movie Digest, September 1972. Vernhes, M., in Cinéma (Paris), March 1973. Day, B., ‘‘The Cult Movies: Casablanca,’’ in Films and Filming (London), August 1974. ‘‘Casablanca Revisited: 3 Comments,’’ in American Film (Washing- ton, D.C.), October 1976. Rubinstein, L., in Cineaste (New York), Summer 1977. McVay, D., in Focus on Film (London), 30, 1978. Greenberg, J., ‘‘Writing for the Movies: Casey Robinson,’’ in Focus on Film (London), April 1979. Hanson, Stephen L., in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 2, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1981. Ross, C., ‘‘The Great Script Tease,’’ in Film Comment (New York), November-December 1982. Sigal, Clancy, in Listener (London), 12 July 1984. Eco, Umberto, ‘‘Casablanca: Cult Movie and Intertextual Collage,’’ in Substance (Madison, Wisconsin), vol. 14, no. 2, 1985. Altman, R., ‘‘Dickens, Griffith, and Film Theory Today,’’ in South Atlantic Quarterly (Durham, North Carolina), no. 2, 1989. Parshall, P. F., ‘‘East Meets West: Casablanca vs. The Seven Samu- rai,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), no. 4, 1989. Jorholt, E., ‘‘Spil den igen og igen og igen, Sam!’’ in Kosmorama (Denmark), Fall 1989. Wilson, Robert F., Jr., ‘‘Romantic Propaganda: A Note on Casablanca’s Prefigured Ending,’’ in Film and History, vol. 19, no. 4, Decem- ber 1989. Gabbard, K., and G. O. Gabbard, ‘‘Play it Again,’’ in Journal of Popular Film and Television (Washington, D.C.), no. 1, 1990. Davis, J. H., ‘‘Still the Same Old Story: The Refusal of Time to Go By in Casablanca,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Mary- land), no. 2, 1990. Deutelbaum, M., ‘‘The Visual Design Program of Casablanca,’’ in Post Script (Commerce, Texas), no. 3, 1990. Helman, A., ‘‘Dekonstruuje Casablanke,’’ in Kino (Warsaw), March 1990. Case, Brian, ‘‘As Time Goes By,’’ in Time Out (London), 1 July 1992. CASINO ROYALEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 207 Corliss, R., ‘‘Still Talking,’’ in Film Comment (New York), Novem- ber-December 1992. Norman, Barry, in Radio Times (London), 12 August 1995. Stackpole, J., ‘‘A Converted Classic,’’ in Audience (Simi Valley, California), no. 188, April/May 1996. Télérama (Paris), 6 November 1996. Boon, Kevin A., ‘‘Scripting Gender: Writing Difference,’’ in Crea- tive Screenwriting (Washington, D.C.), Spring 1997. Larson, R.D., in Soundtrack! (Mechelen), December 1997. *** ‘‘I have discovered the secret of successful filmmaking,’’ says Claude Chabrol sarcastically, ‘‘Timing!’’ Casablanca belongs in the vanguard of films created by the era they so flawlessly reflect. Assured and expert, it is not in either substance or style superior to its director Michael Curtiz’s Mildred Pierce or Young Man With a Horn. Bogart, Bergman, Rains, and Henreid all gave better performances; of those by Greenstreet, Lorre, Kinsky, and Sakall, one can only remark that they seldom gave any others. Producer Robert Lord categorized the story on the first reading as ‘‘a very obvious imitation of Grand Hotel;’’ Jerry Wald saw parallels with Algiers. Both were right. Hal Wallis wanted George Raft to star and William Wyler to direct. Both declined. (There is some evidence he also planned it as a vehicle for the Kings Row team of Ronald Reagan and Ann Sheridan, with Dennis Morgan in the Henreid role. And both Lena Horne and Ella Fitzgerald had a chance at the singing part taken eventually by Dooley Wilson.) Vincent Sherman and William Keighley likewise refused the project before it went to Curtiz. Casablanca might have joined Sahara and Istanbul on the shelf of back-lot travelogues had an Allied landing and summit conference in the north African city not coincided with the film’s November 1942 release. Topicality fed its fame. Curtiz, accepting an unexpected Academy Award in March 1944, betrayed his surprise. ‘‘So many times I have a speech ready, but no dice. Always a bridesmaid, never a mother. Now I win, I have no speech.’’ The broken English was entirely appropriate to a film where only Bogart and Dooley Wilson were of American origin. Beyond its timing, Casablanca does show the Warners’ machine and Curtiz’s talent at their tabloid best. The whirling globe of Don Siegel’s opening montage and the portentous March of Time narration quickly define the city as a vision of the wartime world in microcosm. The collaborative screenplay, signed by Julius and Philip Epstein, and Howard Koch, but contributed to by, among others, Aeneas Macken- zie and Wallis himself (who came up with Bogart’s final line), draws the characters in broad terms, each a compendium of national characteristics. Bogart, chain-smoking, hard-drinking, arrogant, is the classic turned-off Hemingway American. Henreid, white-suited and courte- ous, is a dissident more akin to a society physician, untainted by either Communism or bad tailoring. The Scandinavian virgin, untouchable in pale linen and communicating mainly through a range of schoolgirl grins, Bergman’s Ilsa succumbs to passion only when she pulls a gun on the unconcerned Rick, triggering not the weapon but a revival of their old affection. The remaining regulars of Rick’s Cafe Americain, mostly ac- cented foreigners, dissipate their energies in Balkan bickering, petty crime, and, in the case of Claude Rains’s self-satisfied Vichy police- man, some improbable lechery dictated by his role as the token, naughty Frenchman, all moues and raised eyebrows. Cliché charac- terization leads to a range of dubious acts, notably the fawning Peter Lorre, an arch intriguer and murderer, entrusting his treasured ‘‘let- ters of transit’’ to Bogart’s moralizing ex-gunrunner, a gesture exceeded in improbability only by Bogart’s acceptance of them. As with most formula films, technique redeems Casablanca. Arthur Edeson’s camera cranes sinuously through Carl Jules Weyl’s Omar Khayyam fantasy of a set. Typical of Curtiz’s work is the razor- sharp ‘‘cutting on action’’ by Owen Marks, a legacy of the former’s Hungarian and Austrian training. He forces the pace relentlessly, even to dissolving the back projection plate in mid-scene during the Parisian flash-back, an audacious piece of visual shorthand. Narrative economy distinguishes the film. As its original material (an unproduced play by Murray Burnett and Joan Alison) suggests, Casablanca in structure is a one-set play; many events take place off- stage, from the murder of the couriers to the resistance meeting attended by Henreid and Sakall that is broken up by the police. Everybody Comes to Rick’s is an apt title, since it’s the ebb and flow of people through the cafe’s doors that gives the story its sole semblance of vitality. As an entity, Casablanca lives on the artificial respiration of ceaseless greetings, introductions, and farewells. Even the Parisian flashback does little to elucidate the characters of Rick and Ilsa. They remain at the end of the film little more than disagreeable maitre d’ and troublesome patron. In 1982, the journalist Chuck Ross circulated Casablanca’s script as a new work to 217 American literary agents. Of those who acknowledged reading it (most returned it unread) 32 recognized the original, while 38 did not. Clearly this betrays the profound ignorance of the agenting community. But also implicit in their ignorance is Casablanca’s unsure standing as a work of art. Unremarkable in 1942, it rose to fame through an accident of timing. No better written or constructed today, it exists primarily as a cultural artifact, a monu- ment of popular culture. Woody Allen was right in his Play It Again, Sam to show the film as one whose morality, characters, and dialogue can be adapted to social use; icons now, they transcend their original source. It is as folklore rather than as a cinematic masterwork that Casablanca is likely to survive. —John Baxter CASINO ROYALE (Charles K. Feldman’s Casino Royale) United Kingdom, 1967 Directors: John Huston, Ken Hughes, Val Guest, Robert Parrish, Joseph McGrath Production: Famous Artists, Charles K. Feldman, Columbia Pic- tures; Panavision, Technicolor; running time: 131 minutes. Released March 1967. Location scenes filmed in England, Ireland, and France; CASINO ROYALE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 208 Casino Royale interiors at Shepperton Studios and Pinewood/MGM Studios Eng- land; cost: $12,000,000 (approximate). Producers: Charles K. Feldman, Jerry Bresler; screenplay: Wolf Mankowitz, John Law, Michael Sayers; suggested by the Ian Fleming novel; assistant directors: second unit, Richard Talmadge, Anthony Squire; assistants, Roy Baird, John Stoneman, Carl Mann; photogra- phy: Jack Hildyard; additional photography by John Wilcox and Nicholas Roeg; editor: Bill Lenny; sound: John W. Mitchell, Sash Fisher, Bob Jones, Dick Langford, Chris Greenham; production designer: Michael Stringer; art directors: John Howell, Ivor Beddoes, Lionel Couch; costume designers: Julie Harris; additional by Guy Laroche, Paco Rabanne, Chombert; music: Burt Bacharach; main title performed by Herb Alpert and The Tijuana Brass; titles and montage effects: Richard Williams; special effects: Cliff Richard- son, Roy Whybrow, Les Bowie; choreography: Tutte Lemkow. Cast: Peter Sellers (Evelyn Tremble/James Bond 007); Ursula Andress (Vesper Lynd, 007); David Niven (Sir James Bond); Orson Welles (Le Chiffre); Joanna Pettet (Mata Bond); Daliah Lavi (The Detainer, 007); Woody Allen (Jimmy Bond/Dr. Noah); Deborah Kerr (Agent Mimi alias Lady Fiona); William Holden (Ransome); Charles Boyer (Le Grand); John Huston (M); Kurt Kasznar (Smernov); George Raft (Himself); Jean-Paul Belmondo (French Legionnaire); Terence Cooper (Cooper, 007); Barbara Bouchet (Moneypenny); Angela Scoular (Buttercup); Gabriella Licudi (Eliza); Tracey Crisp (Heather); Elaine Taylor (Peg); Jackie Bisset (Miss Goodthighs); Alexandra Bastedo (Meg); Anna Quayle (Frau Hoffner); Stirling Moss (Driver); Derek Nimmo (Hadley); Ronnie Corbett (Polo); Colin Gordon (Casino Director); Bernard Cribbins (Taxi Driver/Carlton Towers, F.O.); Tracy Reed (Fang Leader); John Bluthal (Casino Doorman/M.I.5); Geoffrey Bayldon (Q); John Wells (Q’s Assistant); Duncan Macrae (Inspector Mathis); Graham Stark (Cashier); Chic Murray (Chic); Jonathan Routh (John); Richard Wattis (British Army Officer); Vladek Sheybal (Le Chiffre’s Representative); Percy Herbert (First Piper); Penny Riley (Control Girl); Jeanne Roland (Captain of the Guard); Peter O’Toole (Scottish Piper); Bert Kwouk (Chinese General); John Le Mesurier (M’s Driver); Valentine Dyall (Voice of Dr. Noah). Awards: Academy Award nomination for Best Music and Best Song, 1968; BAFTA nomination for Best Costume (color), 1968. CASINO ROYALEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 209 Publications Books: McCarty, John, The Films of John Huston, New York 1987. Parrish, Robert, Hollywood Doesn’t Live Here Anymore, New York, 1988. Benson, Raymond, The James Bond Bedside Companion: The Com- plete Guide to the World of 007, London 1990. Lax, Eric, Woody Allen: A Biography, New York, 1992. Lewis, Roger, The Life and Death of Peter Sellers, New York, 1996. Baxter, John, Woody Allen, A Biography, New York, 1999. Articles: Variety (New York), 19 April 1967. Crowther, Bosley, in The New York Times, 29 April 1967. Crist, Judith, in New York World Journal Tribune, 29 April 1967. Time, 12 May 1967. Knight, Arthur, in Saturday Review, 20 May 1967. Dassanowsky, Robert, ‘‘Casino Royale Revisited,’’ in Films in Review, June/July 1988. *** Casino Royale was a coup that Columbia Pictures had banked on: the one 007 property that got away from Broccoli and Saltzman’s cash cow series. Producer Charles K. Feldman had hoped to equal or better the popularity of his Woody Allen scripted ‘‘mod’’ bedroom farce of two years earlier, What’s New Pussycat? and trotted in a dozen stars and their star friends for the occasion. David Niven had already suggested cinematic mayhem in Life’s 1966 multi-page color spread by admitting that it is ‘‘impossible to find out what we are doing,’’ and the magazine claimed the film was a runaway mini-Cleopatra at a then outrageous twelve-million-dollar budget. Despite all the ru- mors and delays, the film seemed to have its finger on the pulse of psychedelia and the ‘‘swinging London’’ myth. It would beat a real James Bond entry, You Only Live Twice, to the box office in an early 1967 release. In his provocative expose, The Life and Death of Peter Sellers, author Roger Lewis insists that the actor’s career decline was first signaled by his self-indulgence in Casino Royale. His lack of disci- pline and his demands caused several more rewrites in an already plot-du-jour concept that had employed Wolf Mankowitz, John Law, and Michael Sayers as credited writers (with uncredited fragments by Woody Allen, Ben Hecht, Joseph Heller, John Huston, and Billy Wilder, among others) and five directors to helm the various seg- ments of the film. The multitudinous talent here did more than mimic the Bondian shifts in plot and locale. What emerged was a kaleido- scope that utilized the original ‘‘serious’’ Ian Fleming novel, already given television treatment in 1954, as the core of a fabricated frame of plots and subplots which reduce the showdown between Bond (Sellers) and Le Chiffre (Orson Welles) at Casino Royale into the single dramatic moment of the opus. Bond purists have always loathed the film, while others have preconceived notions of a spy parody and miss the point. The mistake has been to buy into the publicity propaganda and the original sell of the film as a new ‘‘trippy’’ Bond, a funny Bond. This was bound to cause dissension, since a parody can not be parodied, and the series was already there. The film is also an ill fit among Bond imitators like the Flint series or Matt Helm, or even Saltzman’s own Harry Palmer. Casino Royale’s relationship to Bond is only emblematic; it is a prismatic translation of Fleming’s milieu, not a linear adaptation. And it remains, even today, a wry and provocative sociopolitical satire. The often criticized inconsistencies of the film’s multiple James Bonds, including the banal 007 of Terence Cooper, brought in to cover Sellers’ unfinished characterization, intentionally work to confuse the issue of Bond, to overwork the paradigm until it has no value. Like Andy Warhol’s canvas of multiple Marilyns, the original is mythic and its copies are but a poor stand-in fantasy. The subversion of the modern übermensch is already apparent before the credits, when Bond films customarily feature a spine tingling mini-adventure on skis or in the sky. Sellers’ Bond, however, is simply picked up by a French official in a pissoir. Casino Royale enshrines the icon of David Niven as the retired, legendary Sir James Bond. ‘‘Joke shop spies’’ is how Sir James reacts to the technology of Cold War agents. Indeed, Vesper Lynd’s (Ursula Andress) billions and Dr. Noah’s (Woody Allen) confused kitchen-sink attempt to gain global control are no match for Sir James’ stiff upper lip. Like a demonstration of the failed theories of limited nuclear war, the power-hungry are annihilated in attempting to make the world safe for themselves. Woody Allen’s sex-hungry schlemiel persona may have already been a stock figure in 1967, but here, garbed in a Mao suit, he suggests the infantile psychosexual complexes behind the vengeful modern warlord. To understand Casino Royale as a courtly adventure with Niven’s Sir James as a poet-knight who is fated to lead the world to a new golden age, is to see the chivalric genealogy of the James Bond phenomenon. Sir James is resurrected to save a blundering world with its collective fingers on the nuclear button, but extinguishes himself in the final battle. The film has a heavy medieval, even biblical feel: the brilliance of Richard Williams’ illuminated-manuscript titles; the testing of Sir James’ purity at the debauched castle of M’s imperson- ated widow (Deborah Kerr); the Faustian redemption of Vesper because she has ‘‘loved’’; the representatives from the world’s Superpowers (here it is the four Kings) who beg for the grace and wisdom of a knight of the (black) rose. The film, with all its ideas, directions, and visions, seems to relish its own sprawling, about-to- fly-apart structure, folding over and under itself as medieval epics do and reflecting the serpentines of the art nouveau so present in several of the film’s sets. The mythical French casino itself provides a semiotic mapping of the film’s subversion of the modern establishment. Besides the bourgeois finery of the palatial building and an art collection spanning the century, a female army garbed in Paco Rabanne’s gladiator uniforms relates the modern power structure to the barbarism of ancient Rome. With their leader, Dr. Noah, acting on behalf of a vaguely Soviet SMERSH, but interested only in his own gratifica- tion, the static Cold War ideologies become reflections that turn on themselves. The film also features the music of Burt Bacharach and Debussy as well as Michael Stringer’s wide catalogue of sets ranging from a Palladian estate to an East Asian temple, all linked by heraldic tones of orange/pink and blue/green, to house the goings-on. So much art, so much architecture, so many sideswipe references to high- culture. Too rich for a simple spy saga, this stylistic puzzle instead implies what is at stake in the battle between the ‘‘immaculate priesthood’’ of the individualistic and genteel Sir James and the false promise of social Darwinist technocrats. CASQUE D’OR FILMS, 4 th EDITION 210 There is a definite trajectory in the development of the sociopoliti- cal satire of the 1960s from Billy Wilder’s One, Two, Three (1961) to the indulgence of Candy (1968) to the burn-out of The Magic Christian (1970), which locates Casino Royale as the mainstream cinematic apex of the era’s anarchic impulses. It is never claimed as an inspiration or influence, yet Monty Python, the subversive paro- dies of Mel Brooks, the manic visuals of 1960s inspired music videos and the Generation X and Y films they inspire ranging from The Fifth Element to The Avengers, are all heirs to Casino Royale. Their creators would have had to invent the film if it had not existed. Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery is case in point. Like Casablanca, Casino Royale is a film of momentary vision, collaboration, adapta- tion, pastiche, and accident. It is the anti-auteur work of all time, a film shaped by the very Zeitgeist it took on. As a compendium of what almost went too wrong in the twentieth century done up as a burlesque of the knightly epic, it may still frighten the modernists, but those who follow should consider it to be quite sagacious. —Robert von Dassanowsky CASQUE D’OR France, 1951 Director: Jacques Becker Production: Spéva Films and Paris-Film-Production; black and white, 35mm; running time: 96 minutes. Released 16 April 1952, Paris. Filmed fall 1951 in Paris-Studio-Cinema studios at Billancourt, and at Annet-Sur-Marne, France. Producer: Henri Baum; screenplay: Jacques Becker and Jacques Companeez; photography: Robert Le Fèbvre; editor: Marguerite Renoir; sound engineer: Antoine Petitjean; art direction: Jean d’Eaubonne; music: Georges Van Parys; costumes: Mayo. Cast: Simone Signoret (Marie); Serge Reggiani (Manda); Claude Dauphin (Félix Leca); William Sabatier (Roland); Gaston Modot (Danard); Loleh Bellon (Léonie Danard); Paul Azais (Ponsard); Jean Clarieux (Paul); Roland Lesaffre (Anatole); Emile Genevois (Billy); Claude Castaing (Fredo); Daniel Mendaille (Patron Guinguette); Dominque Davray (Julie); Pierre Goutas (Guillaume); Fernand Trignol (Patron of l’Ange Gabriel); Paul Barge (Inspector Juliani); Leon Pauleon (Conductor); Tony Corteggiani (Commissioner); Roger Vin- cent (Doctor); Marcel Melrac (Policeman); Marcel Rouze (Police- man); Odette Barencey (Adèle); Yvonne Yma (Patron of l’Ange Gabriel); Paquerette (Grandmother); Pomme (Concierge). Publications Script: Becker, Jacques, and Jacques Companeez, ‘‘Casque d’or’’ in Avant- Scène du Cinéma (Paris), December 1964. Books: Armes, Roy, French Cinema Since 1946, Volume 1: The Great Tradition, New York, 1970. Beylie, Claude, and Freddy Buache, Jacques Becker: études, textes, et scénarios inédits, entretiens, témoignages, florilège critique, filmographie, Locarno, 1991. Vey, Jean-Louis, Jacques Becker, ou, La fausse évidence, Lyon, 1995. Articles: Roche, Catherine de la, ‘‘The Stylist,’’ in Films and Filming (Lon- don), March 1955. Lisbona, Joseph, ‘‘Microscope Director,’’ in Films and Filming (London), December 1956. ‘‘Becker,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Spring 1960. Truffaut, Fran?ois, ‘‘De vraies moustaches,’’ in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), December 1964. Perez Guillermo, Gilberto, ‘‘Jacques Becker: 2 Films,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1969. Amengual, Barthélemy, in Cahiers de la Cinématheque (Perpignan), Spring 1976. Combs, Richard, in Listener (London), October 1985. Andrew, D., ‘‘L’identite a jamais perdue du cinéma francais,’’ in Cinemaction (Conde-sur-Noireau, France), no. 1, 1993. Howard, T., ‘‘Casque d’Or,’’ in Reid’s Film Index (New South Wales, Australia), no. 15, 1995. *** The benign influence of Jean Renoir, with whom Jacques Becker worked for eight years as assistant director, can be clearly felt in the warm humanity that suffuses Casque d’or. Not that the film is in the least derivative; it is unmistakably a Becker film in its central concern with love and friendship (shown here as entirely complementary affections, not as opposed loyalties), and in its richly detailed evoca- tion of period and milieu. The world of petty criminals and prostitutes in fin-de-siècle Paris is presented simply and directly—not romanti- cized, nor rendered gratuitously squalid, but seen as a complex, living community in its own right. And although the plot (based on a true story, which Becker found in court reports of the period) recounts a tragic sequence of treachery, murder, and death by guillotine, Casque d’or is far from depressing; on the contrary, its lasting impression is of optimism and affirmation. This effect derives from the strength and veracity with which Becker delineates the film’s central relationship. As Marie, from whose golden hair the film takes its title, Simone Signoret gives a performance of ripe sensuality, well matched by Serge Reggiani’s Manda, convincingly revealing both tenderness and tenacity beneath an appearance of taciturn frailty. Their brief, sunlit idyll together in the countryside is shot through with an erotic intensity that eschews the least trace of prurience. That the power of such love can outlast even death is suggested by the film’s final image, in which, after Marie has watched Manda die on the guillotine, we see the lovers dancing slowly, endlessly down the now empty terrace of the river- side cafe at which they first met, to the ghostly strains of their first waltz. ‘‘My characters obsess me much more than the story itself. I want them to be true.’’ Casque d’or is notably free of caricatures or stock CAT PEOPLEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 211 Casque d’or types; around his two protagonists, Becker assembles a vivid gallery of subsidiary characters, each one individually depicted, no matter how briefly. There is no weakness in the story, either: the narrative moves with steady, unforced momentum from the opening sunlit scene on the river (irresistibly recalling Une Partie de campagne), through the gathering darkness of the fatal confrontation in a drab backyard when Manda stabs Marie’s former lover, to end with Marie’s bleak nocturnal vigil in a room overlooking the place of execution—before the brief coda returns us to the sunshine and the riverbank. ‘‘In my work,’’ Becker wrote, ‘‘I do not want to prove anything except that life is stronger than everything else.’’ Surprisingly, Casque d’or was coldly received by the French critics on its initial release. In Britain, however, the film was enthusi- astically acclaimed for its visual beauty, evocative period atmos- phere, and fine performances. It is now generally agreed to be the outstanding masterpiece of Becker’s regrettably short filmmaking career, offering the most completely realized statement of his abiding concern with, and insight into, the rich complexity of human relationships. —Philip Kemp CAT PEOPLE USA, 1942 Director: Jacques Tourneur Production: RKO Radio Pictures Inc.; black and white, 35mm; running time: 73 minutes. Released December 1942. Filmed 1942 in RKO/Radio studio in Hollywood; RKO-Pathe studio in Culver City; swimming pool scene shot at a hotel in the Alvarado district of Los Angeles; and zoo scenes shot at Central Park Zoo; cost: $134,000. Producer: Val Lewton; screenplay: DeWitt Bodeen; photography: Nicholas Musuraca; editor: Mark Robson; music: Roy Webb. Cast: Simone Simon (Irena Dubrovna); Kent Smith (Oliver Reed); Tom Conway (Dr. Louis Judd); Jane Randolph (Alice Moore); Jack Holt (Commodore); Elizabeth Russell (Cat Woman); Alan Napier; Elizabeth Dunne. CAT PEOPLE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 212 Cat People Publications Books: Clarens, Charles, editor, An Illustrated History of the Horror Film, New York, 1967. Higham, Charles, and Joel Greenberg, The Celluloid Muse: Holly- wood Directors Speak, London, 1969. Siegel, Joel E., The Reality of Terror, New York, 1973. Everson, William K., Classics of the Horror Film, Secaucus, New Jersey, 1974. Willemen, Paul, and Claire Johnston, Jacques Tourneur, Edin- burgh, 1975. Annan, David, Movie Fantastic: Beyond the Dream Machine, New York, 1975. Telotte, J. P., Dreams of Darkness: Fantasy and the Films of Val Lewton, Chicago, 1985. Fujiwara, Chris, Jacques Tourneur, Jefferson, North Carolina, 1998. Articles: Variety (New York), 18 November 1942. Myers, Henry, ‘‘Weird and Wonderful,’’ in Screen Writer (London), July 1945. Tourneur, Jacques, ‘‘Taste Without Clichés,’’ in Films and Filming (London), November 1956. Sarris, Andrew, ‘‘Esoterica,’’ in Film Culture (New York), Spring 1963. Ellison, Harlan, ‘‘Three Faces of Fear,’’ in Cinema (Beverly Hills), March 1966. Wood, Robin, ‘‘The Shadow Worlds of Jacques Tourneur,’’ in Film Comment (New York), Summer 1972. Vianni, C., in Cahiers de la Cinémathèque (Perpignan), Summer 1976. Bodeen, DeWitt, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema 1, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1980. Combs, Richard, in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), July 1981. Bertolussi, S., ‘‘Il bacio della pantera,’’ in Cineforum (Bergamo), April 1982. Turner, George, ‘‘Val Lewton’s Cat People,’’ in Cinefantastique (Oak Park, Illinois), May-June 1982. Telotte, J. P., ‘‘Dark Patches: Structures of Absence in Lewton’s Cat People,’’ in Post Script (Jacksonville, Florida), Autumn 1982. Lucas, William D., ‘‘The Two Cat People,’’ in Classic Images (Muscatine, Iowa), November 1982. Romney, Jonathan, ‘‘New Ways to Skin a Cat,’’ in Enclitic (Minne- apolis), Spring-Fall 1984. Barrot, O., in Cinématographe (Paris), December 1985. Hollinger, K., ‘‘The Monster as Woman: Two Generations of Cat People,’’ in Film Criticism (Meadville, Pennsylvania), no. 2, 1989. Bansak, E., ‘‘Fearing the Dark: The Val Lewton Legacy, the Jacques Tourneur Films,’’ in Midnight Marquee (Baltimore), Spring 1990. Larson, R. D., ‘‘The Quiet Horror Music of Roy Webb: Scoring Val Lewton,’’ in Midnight Marquee (Baltimore), Spring 1990. Berks, J., ‘‘What Alice Does: Looking Otherwise at The Cat People,’’ in Cinema Journal (Austin, Texas), vol. 32, no. 1, 1992. Hollinger, Karen, ‘‘Karen Hollinger on John Berk’s ‘What Alice Does: Looking Otherwise at The Cat People,’’’ in Cinema Jour- nal (Austin, Texas), vol. 33, no. 1, Fall 1993. Télérama (Paris), 24 May 1997. Rohrer Paige, Linda, ‘‘The Transformation of Woman: The ‘Curse’ of the Cat Woman in Val Lewton/Jacques Tourneur’s Cat People, its Sequel, and Remake,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salis- bury, Maryland), Vol. 23, no. 4, October 1997. Loban, L., ‘‘Wise Child,’’ in Scarlet Street (Glen Rock, New Jersey), no. 27, 1998. *** While analysts of horror have long examined its psychological roots in a displacement of sexual drives and desires, few films made the link between horror and sexuality as explicit as Cat People (at least until the 1970s where the link becomes a central theme, as in Carrie, for example). The film’s central conceit—that the arousal of emotion could turn a woman into a panther—is a dramatic literalization of a metaphor of sexual energy as a living force. Yet Cat People represents no simple endorsement of a sexist stereotype in which feminine sexuality is connected to a notion of unbridled devouring animality (as is the case in film noir’s figuration of the independent woman as a kind of spider). Quite the contrary, through a reversal of horror’s usual convention where an ostensibly normal world is threatened by a monstrosity, Cat People puts the cat woman, Irena, in the position of a victim whose ‘‘monstrous’’ reaction to the encroachments of the world upon her is viewed by the film with a degree of pathos-filled empathy and even perhaps a posi- tive envy. Irena becomes a mark of difference, an exotic other, that bourgeois society cannot understand and so ignores, represses, or controls through a force of domination. As in Hitchcock’s films where the CELINE ET JULIE VONT EN BATEAUFILMS, 4 th EDITION 213 villain is often more attractive than the boring good guys, so too in Cat People the middle-class world appears as a dull, dulling banality whose own self-confidence only partially masks an inability to recognize either its own problems or those of outsiders to its circum- scribed value system. This process is most explicit in a painful scene where Oliver Reed and Alice Moore literally exile Irena from their company during a supposedly pleasant visit to a museum. Moreover, the very force that promotes itself as a cure in such a world—that is, the force of medicine (here the psychiatrist, Dr. Judd)—reveals itself to be more of a danger than the supposed illness that it sets out to cure. Not only does Judd fail to recognize Irena’s problem, but he provokes its continuation, betraying his ostensibly professional objectivity by an aggressive sexual desire. If we tradi- tionally associate the monster with the freak, it is significant that it is Judd, not Irena, who comes off as the monstrous figure, his crippled gait a mark of deformity, an abnormality within the field of an imputed normality. Indeed, one can even suggest that the film portrays male sexuality as more dangerous than female sexuality, Irena at least tries to control rationally her own condition while the men around her advance heedlessly (for example, Oliver refuses her arguments against marriage; Judd refuses her protestations against a kiss). Thus, while Cat People has many of the conventional trappings of the horror film such as shadowy photography, a subtle creation of suspense (the panther’s presence is often more felt than seen), and a concatenation of mysterious events, the film is finally most significant less as an efficient source of scary jolts than as a meditation on the very forces that menace us, that call into question the limits of the lives we construct for ourselves. It is also a dissection of the ways a supposedly normal world sustains itself by defining some other world as abnormal. Cat People is a tragedy about a world’s inability to accept, or even to attempt to understand, whatever falls outside its defining frames. —Dana B. Polan THE CELEBRATION See Festen CELINE ET JULIE VONT EN BATEAU: PHANTOM LADIES OVER PARIS (Celine and Julie Go Boating) France, 1974 Director: Jacques Rivette Production: Films du Losange, Action Films, Films Christian Fechner, Films 7, Renn Productions, Saga, Simar Films, VM Productions; colour, 35mm; running time: 192 minutes. Producer: Barbet Schroeder; screenplay: Eduardo de Gregorio, Juliet Berto, Dominique Labourier, Bulle Ogier, Marie-France Pisier, Jacques Rivette, with sections based on original stories by Henry James; assistant directors: Luc Beraud, Pascal Lemaitre; photogra- phy: Jacques Renard, Michael Cenet; editor: Nicole Lubtchansky, Cris Tullio Altan; sound recording: Elvire Lerner; sound editor: Paul Laine, Gilbert Pereira; music: Jean-Marie Senia. Cast: Juliet Berto (Céline); Dominique Labourier (Julie); Bulle Ogier (Camille); Marie-France Pisier (Sophie); Barbet Schroeder (Olivier); Philippe Clévenot (Guilou); Nathalie Asnar (Madlyn); Marie-Thérèse Saussure (Poupie); Jean Douchet (M. Dédé); Adéle Taffetas (Alice); Anne Zamire (Lil); Monique Clément (Myrtille); Jér?me Richard (Julien); Michael Graham (Boris); Jean-Marie Sénia (Cyrille). Publications Books: Monaco, James, The New Wave, New York, 1976. Carney, Raymond, Magill’s Survey of Cinema: Foreign Language Films edited by Frank Magill, New Jersey, 1985. Rodowick, David Norman, The Difficulty of Difference: Psychoa- nalysis, Sexual Difference, and Film Theory, New York, 1991. Jacques Rivette: la règle du jeu, Turin, 1991. Articles: Delmas, J., Jeune Cinéma (Paris), July-August 1974. Variety (New York), 21 August 1974. Cornand, A., Image et Son (Paris), September 1974. Frot-Coutaz, G., Cinéma (Paris), September-October 1974. Tournes, A., ‘‘Un dans trois, Rivette,’’ in Jeune Cinéma (Paris), September-October 1974. Rosenbaum, J., ‘‘Work and play in the house of fiction,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1974. Jordan, I., ‘‘Entretien avec Céline et Julie,’’ in Positif (Paris), October 1974. Lénne, G., ‘‘Céline, Jacques et Julie,’’ in Ecran (Paris), Octo- ber 1974. Legrand, J., ‘‘Un film est un complot,’’ Positif (Paris), October 1974. Ashton, J., ‘‘Reflecting consciousness: three approaches to Henry James,’’ in Literature/Film Quarterly (Salisbury, Maryland), Sum- mer 1976. Milne, T., Monthly Film Bulletin (London), August 1976. Gow, G., Films and Filming (London), November 1976. Lesage, J., ‘‘Subversive Fantasy,’’ in Jump Cut (Berkeley), March 1981. Wood, R., ‘‘Narrative Pleasure: Two films by Jacques Rivette,’’ in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Fall 1981. Levinson, J., Celine and Julie Go Story Telling,’’ in French Review, vol. 65, no. 2, 1991. *** Umberto Eco has suggested that a key factor in a work’s status as a cult object is its disjointedness, which allows viewers or readers space into which they can project their own fiction-making skills. This partly explains why Rivette’s loose, baggy fantasy is arguably the only genuine cult film of the nouvelle vague. But Céline et Julie further has in its favour a celebratory image of its heroines as CELINE ET JULIE VONT EN BATEAU FILMS, 4 th EDITION 214 Celine et Julie vont en bateau: Phantom Ladies Over Paris subversive fabulists in their own right, and a uniquely serious frivolity that makes the film an enormously pleasurable fictional do-it-your- self kit. From the title onwards, the film appears to celebrate child-like leisure and gratuitousness. The heroines do, at the end, literally go boating, but ‘‘aller en bateau’’ also means to be taken for a ride, to be told a shaggy dog story; this tale is a winding river on which we, like Julie, are led into uncharted territory. The film begins with her sighting the elusive Céline, who, in one of many allusions to Alice in Wonderland, is the White Rabbit leading her into a narrative laby- rinth. Becoming friends, counterparts and arguably lovers, they make a series of visits to a mysterious house in which a family of ‘ghosts’ continuously reenact a melodrama, as if trapped in their own dislo- cated matinee performance. This uncompleted story concerns an endangered little girl, and its heroine, an empty role to be filled by Céline and Julie, is her nurse and rescuer Miss Angèle Terre (mystère, but also mise en gel—frozen). There are two (by no means incompatible) dominant critical views of the film. One sees it as a self-reflexive commentary on the pleasures of cinema and the spectator’s active role. For the other it is an exemplary feminist narrative in which two women control the fiction-making process and challenge male orders of various kinds— including that centred around the myth of the omnipotent director. The film’s authorship belongs as much to the two leads as it does to Rivette, whose role, according to Juliet Berto, was akin to ‘‘surgery,’’ cutting the material they provided into a coherent, if wilfully ragged pattern. The main writing was undertaken by Berto and Labourier, who planned their characters and the overall narrative shape with Rivette; Eduardo de Gregorio provided the structure for the interpolated narrative, drawing on Henry James’s stories ‘‘The Other House’’ and ‘‘A Romance of Certain Old Clothes.’’ With the exception of one improvised scene (Céline lets her mythomania run riot on her incredulous friends), what appears to be improvisation was in fact thoroughly scripted before shooting. In the narrative as much as in the process of making the film, ‘‘improvisation’’—an effect rather than a fact of performance—can be seen as an inventive engagement with a predetermined form, a sort of manoeuvring around a written score that constantly demands to be remade, just as the fragmentary story in the house is constantly reshaped, jigsaw-fashion. The film provides various analogies for such inventiveness: magic (Céline’s conjuring act), song-and-dance (Julie’s audition as a singer) and tarot reading (inventing meanings from a limited set of cards—a traditional figure of the art of combination). Filmmaking and film watching are presented as similar and complementary processes of participation, continuous acts of mental editing: both living and watching the story of the house, Céline and Julie try to make sense of the disjointed footage that passes before their eyes. CENTRAL DO BRASILFILMS, 4 th EDITION 215 Despite the apparently ad hoc nature of its conception (Rivette and Berto got the project going from scratch when another film fell through), Céline et Julie has a central place in Rivette’s oeuvre. It is one of many films (from Paris nous appartient to his 1995 musical Haut bas fragile) in which young women contest patriarchal orders by throwing themselves into intrigues as fiction-makers. It is one of many in which the performers contribute to the writing, and in which the characters appear to evolve from their personalities. And, al- though the film could be read as being exclusively about cinema, it also concerns the relation between the real world and theatrical performance within an enclosed space. Where L’Amour fou and others are built around specific plays, the exorcism of the house is theatre in broader terms (as the two women play Angèle, we hear audience applause). The film opposes two types of performance—the traditional style, in which the ghosts act out a stultifying, stylised melodrama about a nuclear family; and an anarchic improvisational style akin to the 1960s/70s notions of free theatre. Céline and Julie not only recon- struct the shattered text they perform in, but also deconstruct it, disrupting the family’s stately dance by launching into a screwball tango. They are Marx Sisters, if not Marxist sisters, shattering the sexually and socially oppressive order of the house and of a certain school of classical fiction. One other aspect of the film that has come into its own, in the two decades since it was made, is its Proustian quality, its function of preserving the past. Madlyn is a madeleine retrieved from lost time, and the house is obscurely linked to Julie’s own childhood. The circular ending suggests a present transformed by the retrieval of memory; Céline and Julie swap places and begin the story again. But the Proustian aspect also lies in the film’s power of evoking the time and place of its making (not least through Berto’s hippie-chic wardrobe). It conveys a very tangible sense of a dead Parisian summer in the early 1970s, of empty spaces and malleable time in which to indulge creative leisure (Julie abandons her librarian’s post to make her own lived fiction). Characteristically charging banal locations with a sense of privileged ‘‘otherness,’’ Rivette recreates Paris as a fictional space that paradoxically derives its magic quality from a heightened realism (the documentary style of Jacques Renard’s photography). This is especially evident in the use of peripheral incident (notably, a cat’s movements in a garden) in the opening chase sequence. The film is about space, both literal and imaginative—over three hours, the space for the viewer to take a holiday from adulthood, as Céline and Julie do, and rediscover the infantile but empowering pleasures of ‘‘irresponsible’’ fiction-making. —Jonathan Romney CENTRAL DO BRASIL (Central Station) Brazil/France, 1998 Director: Walter Salles Production: Arthur Cohn Productions in association with Martine and Antoine de Clermont-Tonnerre (MACT Prods, France), Videofilms (Brazil), Riofilme (Brazil), and Canal Plus (France); color, 35 mm; running time: 106 minutes. Released 16 January 1998 in Switzerland; U.S. release at Sundance Film Festival, 19 January 1998, by Sony Pictures Classics. Cost: $2.9 million dollars. Producers: Arthur Cohn and Martine Clermonte-Tonnerre; execu- tive producers: Elisa Tolomelli, Lillian Birnbaum, Donald Ranvaud, Thomas Garvin; associate producer: Paulo Brito; screenplay: Joao Emanuel Carneiro and Marcos Bernstein, based on the original idea by Salles; photography: Walter Carvalho; editors: Isabelle Rathery, Felipe Lacerda; production design: Cassio Amarante and Carla Caffe; set designer: M?nica Costa; costumes: Cristina Camargo; music arrangers: Antonio Pinto and Jacques Morelembaum; sound: Mark A. Van Der Willigen, Jean-Claude Brisson, Fran?ois Groult; assistant director: Kátia Lund; casting: Sergio Machado. Cast: Fernanda Montenegro (Dora); Vinícius de Oliveira (Josué); Marilia Pêra (Irene); Soia Lira (Ana); Othon Bastos (Cesar); Otávio Augusto (Pedr?o); Stela Frietas (Yolanda); Matheus Nachtergaele (Isaías); Caio Junqueria (Moises). Awards: Berlin Film Festival Golden Bear Award for Best Film and Silver Bear Award for Best Actress (Montenegro), 1998; Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Film, 1998; U.S. National Board of Review Award for Best Foreign Film, 1998; Sundance Film Festival Cinema 100 Script Award, 1998; Academy Award nominations for Best Foreign Film and Best Actress, 1998. Publications Articles: Kaufman, Anthony, ‘‘Sentimental Journey as National Allegory: An Interview with Walter Salles,’’ in Cineaste (New York), Win- ter 1998. Newsweek (Latin American edition), 25 January 1998. McCarthy, Todd, ‘‘Central Station,’’ in Variety (New York), 9 Febru- ary 1998. Paxman, Andrew, ‘‘Full Salles Ahead for ‘Central’ Helmer,’’ in Variety, 23 November 1998. Aufderheide, Pat, ‘‘Central Station,’’ in Film Comment (New York), November 1998. Klawans, Stuart, ‘‘Central Station,’’ in The Nation (New York), 7 December 1998. ‘‘Interview: A Hot Film from Brazil,’’ in The New York Times, 21 March 1999. *** The film Central Station begins in Rio de Jainero’s crowded train station, through which an estimated 300,000 people pass each day. The film focuses on Dora (Fernanda Montenegro), an older, cynical woman who earns a living there by writing letters for illiterate Brazilians. From its opening, the film depicts the faces and stories of everyday Brazilians and incorporates them into the script. A docu- mentary style is achieved using a hidden camera to capture snapshots of real people dictating letters to Dora. CENTRAL DO BRASIL FILMS, 4 th EDITION 216 Central do Brasil Dora befriends a young boy, Josué (Vincinus de Olivera), who is left alone after his mother is killed outside the station. Josué and his mother had previously hired Dora to write letters to Josué’s father in the northeast of Brazil. Josué, now motherless, embarks on an odyessy by traversing the country in search of his father, a man he has never met. Dora, a woman without a family, and with a desire to reconcile her past troubled relationship with her own father, acts as a chaperone to Josué on this journey. A true road movie, the film showcases Brazil’s colorful land- scapes, picturesque views of the rural hinterlands, and its people’s rich cultural traditions. Walter Carvalho, the director of photography, captures beautifully composed panoramic scenes of the country. The director Walter Salles, whose most recent film was Terra Estrangeira (Foreign Land, 1995), teamed up with producer Arthur Cohn, who had previously worked with famed Italian neo-realist director Vittorio De Sica. The result is a film that carries on the neo-realist tradition by depicting poor and marginalized people in a way that shows their dignity despite their daily trials and tribulations of life. In addition, the majority of actors in this film are non-actors, including the boy playing the lead role of young Josué. The lead actor, Vinícius de Oliveira, was a nine-and-a-half year-old shoe shine boy at the Rio airport when Salles met him. Beating out 1,500 other applicants for the part, Oliveira in his debut performance demonstrates an extraordi- nary sincerity and charisma. While Dora and Josué have a troubled relationship from the outset (due principally to Dora’s moral lapses such as lying and stealing), the film shows a gradual moral transformation in Dora’s character. The superb acting by the ‘‘Grand Dame’’ of the Brazilian theatre earned Montenegro numerous accolades, including a Silver Bear for Best Actress at the Berlin Film Festival, and an Oscar nomination for Best Actress. Salles also pays homage to a 1960s Brazilian film movement called Cinema Novo. This group of politically motivated filmmakers tried to show a side of Brazil that was always ignored or made invisible by the elite. Films by these directors depicted the poor, the dispossessed, the rural peasants, and others living in the interior of Brazil, called the sertao (hinterlands). By shooting in the state of Bahia (the birthplace and location of many films by Cinema Novo pioneer Glauber Rocha), Salles shows that he has not forgotten the national legacy of socially conscious filmmaking in Brazil. The truck driver, Cesar, who gives a lift to Dora and Josué, is in fact the well- respected Cinema Novo actor Otton Bastos. C’ERA UNA VOLTA IL WESTFILMS, 4 th EDITION 217 In contrast to Cinema Novo’s mission to depict the ‘‘aesthetics of hunger,’’ however, Salles’ film has been described by film critic Fabiano Canosa as an ‘‘aesthetics of affection’’ or an ‘‘aesthetics of solidarity.’’ The crux of the film lies not so much in whether Josué is able to find his father, but rather, how the unlikely paring of a dour, initially unfriendly woman with a lost, confused young boy can blossom into a strong bond of mutual caring and interdependence. Both are alone in the world, and both are struggling to survive under difficult circumstances. Walter Salles has stated that his film is about Brazilian identity, and that it is an allegory for how the nation is developing and surviving, despite its financial difficulties. Central Station, with its sweeping landscapes of an arid Brazil replete with religious scenes (a pilgrimage scene where over 800 real pilgrims performed a ritual ceremony), colorful restaurants, and vibrantly painted dwellings, focuses on people who are often ignored by mainstream film and television. At the same time however, Dora, Josué, and others are bathed in a light that makes the story and images palatable for an international film viewership. Filmed in an area covering over 8,000 miles in a period of ten weeks, Salles’ Central Station captures Brazil’s resilient spirit in the face of adversity. —Tamara L. Falicov CENTRAL STATION See CENTRAL DO BRASIL C’ERA UNA VOLTA IL WEST (Once Upon a Time in the West) USA/Italy, 1969 Director: Sergio Leone Production: Paramount Pictures/Rafran/San Marco; color (Techniscope), 35mm; running time: 168 minutes, some American prints are 144 minutes and various other prints of different timings are available. Released 28 May 1969, New York. Filmed on location in Almeria, Spain, at Calahorra’s Station, Calahorra, Logrono, Spain, and in Arizona and Utah, USA. Producers: Bino Cicogna (executive), Fulvio Morsella; screenplay: Sergio Leone, Sergio Donati, Dario Argento, Bernardo Bertollucci, Mickey Knox (dialogue); photography: Tonino Delli Colli; editor: Nino Baragli; production design: Carlo Simi; music: original score composed by Ennio Morricone. Cast: Claudia Cardinale (Jill McBain); Henry Fonda (Frank); Jason Robards (Cheyenne); Charles Bronson (The Man, aka Harmonica); Gabrielle Ferzetti (Morton); Paolo Stoppa (Sam); Woody Strode (Stony); Jack Elam (Knuckles); Keenan Wynn (Sherriff); Frank Wolff (Brett McBain); Lionel Stander (Barman). Publications Books: Cawelti, John G., The Six-Gun Mystique, Bowling Green, Ohio, 1971. Staig, Laurence, and Tony Williams, Italian Western—The Opera of Violence, London, 1975. Frayling, Christopher, Spaghetti Westerns: Cowboys and Europeans from Karl May to Sergio Leone, London, 1981. Cèbe, Gilles, Sergio Leone, Paris, 1984. De Fornari, Oreste, Tutti i Film di Sergio Leone, Milan, 1984. Tuska, John, The American West in Film, Westport, Connecti- cut, 1985. Cumbow, Robert C., Once Upon a Time: The Films of Sergio Leone, Metuchen, New Jersey, 1987. Buscombe, Ed, editor, BFI Companion to the Western, London, 1988. Cressard, Gilles, Sergio Leone, Paris, 1989. Mininni, Francesco, Sergio Leone, Paris, 1989. Belton, John, Widescreen Cinema, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1992. De Cornare, Oreste, Sergio Leone: The Great American Dream of Legendary America, Rome, 1997 Frayling, Christopher, Sergio Leone: Something to Do with Death, New York, 2000. Articles: Austen, David, review in Films and Filming (London), October 1969. Gillett, John, review in Monthly Film Bulletin (London), Septem- ber 1969. Gili, Gean, ‘‘Sergio Leone,’’ in Cinema 69 (Paris), November 1969. Bazin, Andre, ‘‘The Evolution of the Western,’’ in What is Cinema?, translated by Hugh Grey, Berkeley, California, 1971. *** Widely considered to be director Sergio Leone’s masterpiece, Once Upon a Time in the West is his fourth Western and marks the beginning of his career in Hollywood. The preceding ‘‘Dollars’’ trilogy had been an unexpected success at the box office and with the critics. In attracting Leone, Paramount clearly hoped to cash in on the successful formula, using Charles Bronson in the role played by Clint Eastwood in the earlier films, and Henry Fonda as the ruthless hired gun, Frank. Fonda in particular was an inspired choice by the director, who had wanted to work with the actor for some time. Before teaming up with Leone, Fonda was best known for playing wholesome leading men, yet as Frank, we see him shoot a child in cold blood because the boy has learnt his name. Fonda had to be persuaded to go against type, but the cold-hearted killer is one of his most impressive perform- ances. Yet despite the quality of its leading cast, Once Upon a Time in the West was not a success in the United States. Once Upon a Time in the West is a long, difficult movie, the most elaborate and grotesque of Leone’s ‘‘horse operas.’’ The fact that the opening credits take over nine minutes will give an idea of its slow pace. Obscurity alone is not to blame for the failure of the film in the United States, however. In an attempt to squeeze in as many theatre performances as possible, Paramount slashed over twenty minutes from prints released in America, and one British critic claims to have seen a print shortened by as much as thirty minutes in London. Such thoughtless cutting inevitably removed important scenes, changed character motivations, and created lapses in continuity. Critics had C’ERA UNA VOLTA IL WEST FILMS, 4 th EDITION 218 C’era una volta il west difficulty understanding the film, and reviews were poor. Yet where the full-length film was shown, it was a huge success, breaking box office records in France. A new full-length print became available in 1984, and readers should take care to avoid any version much shorter than 165 minutes. The shorter prints have curiosity value only, although they do provide a lesson in what can happen when financial objectives are allowed to intrude too far into the way a film is presented. The film is generally praised for the performances of its leading actors, and for Leone’s masterful control over pace, action, and narrative tension. As with opera, music is linked to images in a direct way. Each of the four main characters has his or her own theme, from the menacing harmonica riff of Bronson’s ‘‘man with no name,’’ to the romantic strings that accompany Cardinale’s Jill McBain. Unusu- ally, Ennio Morricone composed the musical score before shooting began, using the script to work out his ideas. In a reversal of the normal process, Leone fitted the action around the existing music, often playing it on set to help the actors understand particular scenes. The basic plot of the film is standard Western fare. A wealthy railroad owner and his hired gunmen seek to evict a young woman from her land, hoping to use it as a stopping point for trains on their way to California. It is Leone’s treatment of this plot, which has echoes of Johnny Guitar and Shane (both 1953), that has made it so influential. As with the ‘‘Dollars’’ trilogy, Once Upon a Time in the West is a brutal film, in which killing is a means to an end, and revenge is the central motivating force. Yet the society it portrays is changing. Jill McBain, a former prostitute trying to better herself, represents the need to abandon old ways of doing things and embrace the new. In this respect the film is resonant of its own time: in the late 1960s, student protests and civil unrest in Europe and the United States challenged the beliefs of an older establishment. Once Upon a Time in the West is also a landmark in the history of the Western. Unlike Shane, whose selfless heroism saves the home- steaders from a greedy rancher, in Leone’s film the man with no name (nicknamed ‘‘Harmonica’’) is driven by a desire to torture and kill his brother’s murderer. Only incidentally does he protect Jill McBain and defend her land. At a deeper level, while classic Western heroes protect a society based on honesty and hard work, Once Upon a Time in the West reveals that such societies have their beginnings in jealousy, revenge, and murder. This is the new West, and gunfighters like Harmonica and Frank have had their day, but the optimistic town that grows up around Jill McBain’s railroad station at the film’s end is C’EST ARRIVé PRèS DE CHEZ VOUSFILMS, 4 th EDITION 219 built on their brutality. Once Upon a Time in the West replaces the established Western mythology of honest struggle, endeavour, and sacrifice with a venal, perhaps more realistic, vision of how the West was won. —Chris Routledge CESAR See MARIUS TRILOGY C’EST ARRIVé PRèS DE CHEZ VOUS (Man Bites Dog) Belgium, 1992 Directors: Rémy Belvaux, André Bonzel, Beno?t Poelvoorde Production: Les Artistes Anonymes; black and white, 16mm; run- ning time: 96 minutes. Producers: Rémy Belvaux, André Bonzel, Beno?t Poelvoorde; screen- play: Rémy Belvaux, André Bonzel, Beno?t Poelvoorde, Vincent Tavier; assistant director: Vincent Tavier; photography: André Bonzel; editors: Rémy Belvaux, Eric Dardill; sound : Alain Oppezzi, Vincent Tavier, Clotilde Fran?ois, Franco Piscopo; music: Jean- Marc Chenut. Cast: Beno?t Poelvoorde (Ben Patard); Rémy Belvaux (Reporter); André Bonzel (Cameraman); Jean-Marc Chenut (Patrick); Alain Oppezzi (Franco); Vincent Tavier (Vincent); Jacqueline Poelvoorde- Pappaert (Ben’s grandmother); Nelly Pappaert (Ben’s grandfather); Jenny Drye (Jenny); Malou Madou (Malou); Willy Vandenbroeck (Boby); Valérie Parent (Valérie). Awards: International Critic’s Prize, Cannes 1992. Publications Book: Kerekes, David, and David Slater, Killing for Culture: An Illustrated History of Death Film from Mondo to Snuff, 1993. Articles: Variety (New York), 25 May 1992. Strauss, F., Cahiers du Cinéma (Paris), June 1992. Andrew, G., ‘‘Shoot to Kill’’ in Time Out (London), 30 Decem- ber 1992. Strick, Philip, Sight and Sound (London), January 1993. Variety (New York), 8 February 1993. Mark Salisbury, ‘‘The Man Bites Dog Men,’’ in Empire, Febru- ary 1993. McNeil, Shane, ‘‘Mocu(Docu)mentary’’ in Cinema Papers (Victo- ria), October 1993. Urbán, M., in Filmkultura (Budapest), March 1994. Beylot, P., ‘‘C’est arrivé pres de chez vous: L’imposture d’un faux cinema-verité,’’ in Cinemaction (Conde-sur-Noireau), vol. 76, no. 3, 1995. Roy, S., ‘‘Dans le cadre des rendez-vous,’’ in Séquences (Haute- Ville), March/June 1997. *** Man Bites Dog was made by three film students from the INAS film school in Brussels over a period of two-and-a-half years for a mere $100,000, and yet, on its release it rapidly became the most successful Belgian film of all time, eclipsing Toto the Hero and beating even Alien 3 and Lethal Weapon 3 to the number one box office spot. Much of the financing for the film came from the Belgian province of Namur, and from the filmmakers’ families and friends, many of whom appear in the film, though some were unaware of the controversial nature of its content. Man Bites Dog is an extraordinary and daring amalgam of the serial killer film and the mock-documentary a la Spinal Tap. Its story of a film crew making a documentary about a serial killer and gradually becoming increasingly complicit in his crimes also has distinct links with the kind of ‘‘Reality TV’’ that now characterises so many non-fictional slots not only on American but also European (and especially Italian) television. As André Bonzel put it in an interview in Empire: ‘‘in New York there’s a TV programme called Cops and it has a camera crew following cops and going to fights. Shoplifters are arrested in front of the camera and it’s really a horror film. It’s the reverse of our film—you’re with the good guy rather than the bad guy—but now people want it to get stronger. The camera crew are wearing bulletproof jackets and going on more criminal things with more killing because the public wants more.’’ Critiques of media voyeurism and audience complicity are, of course, hardly rare in the cinema (Ace in the Hole and Circle of Deceit spring to mind at once), but what is so remarkable about Man Bites Dog is the way in which it uses humour to make its point. Hard though it may be to believe, the film starts out as a kind of blackly absurd Monty Pythonesque comedy and only after a particularly horrendous murder and rape, in which the film crew participate, is the spectator brought up sharply and forced to realise how complicit he or she has become with what has been portrayed up to this point. As Bonzel himself pointed out in Killing for Culture, the whole intention was to ‘‘make the audience laugh, then have them think about what they’ve just laughed at. The whole point is to say to the viewer—look, how can you accept this?’’ This is a difficult and dangerous strategy, one fraught with aesthetic and ethical pitfalls, and the fact that it is so triumphantly successful here is due in no small measure to the performance of Beno?t Poelvoorde (co-director of Man Bites Dog) as EL CHACAL DE NAHUELTORO FILMS, 4 th EDITION 220 the psychopathic Ben Patard, aptly described by Philip Strick in Sight and Sound as displaying ‘‘the ingratiating brutality of Richard III as played by Robert de Niro.’’ Ben may be a monster, but he is certainly no cardboard cipher or stereotype, and we actually get to know his apparently decent, ‘‘normal,’’ lower-middle-class, shop-owning back- ground rather well. Taking on board Robin Wood’s celebrated thesis about horror film monsters representing the ‘‘return of the repressed,’’ Shane McNeil, in a particularly interesting article on the film in Cinema Papers, has suggested that Ben, like other movie serial killers, is ‘‘the natural expression of the surplus sexual and political tension that bourgeois society strives so desperately to conceal. Ben, the serial killer, is simultaneously fils loyal and passionate son of the bourgeoi- sie, the logical product of a social system in crisis and the manifesta- tion of excess in a society brimming with contradictory tensions. He is at once the quintessence of the European renaissance man and the embodiment of the Visigoth and Vandal. Little by little, parenthesised only by the shockingly explicit murders, the brilliantly structured (yet apparently random) dialogue reveals the multitudinous contradictions of his personality. Namely, how can an intellectual aesthete with a strong religious morality and a yearning for poetry, music, and ornithology be simultaneously a racist and homophobic cold-blooded assassin?’’ At least one of the answers is that Ben is a fully paid-up member of what Guy Debord has called ‘‘the society of the spectacle’’ (as is one of Ben’s postal carrier victims, who eagerly asks if he’s on television before being murdered). That Ben appears to be acting as if starring in a movie based on his life is entirely apposite, since that is exactly what he is doing. Indeed, when the crew runs out of money, Ben subsidises the production. What we have here, then, is not simply a vicious satire on the conventional notion of documentary truth, nor merely an attack on the more lurid and sensational kinds of ‘‘reality TV,’’ but something more profound and wide-ranging, as McNeil has suggested: Man Bites Dog almost approaches a meta-analysis of the cinematic apparatus itself. The very act of filmmaking becomes a microcosmic metaphor of the entire canni- balistic enterprise, a form which feeds off and on itself. Hannibal Lecter now runs the projector. This compari- son is made explicit in Man Bites Dog by the fact that the crew profits quite clearly and directly from Ben’s crimi- nal acts, both in terms of spectacle and capital. Film financing, and documentary filmmaking in particular, are directly linked here to the misfortunes of others. Both sides of the camera are working towards the same end: capital profit off other people’s misfortunes— misfortunes the crew have, if not deliberately caused, as in the case of Ben, then certainly exacerbated by their complicity and false sense of objectivity. Literally act- ing as both cast and crew, Belvaux, Bonzel and Poelvoorde ruthlessly expose the mendacity of the media and its persistent tendency to obliterate, then manipulate, ‘‘truth’’ in order to make it conform respec- tively to the ideological and economic agendas of bias and sensationalism. —Julian Petley EL CHACAL DE NAHUELTORO (The Jackal of Nahueltoro) Chile, 1969 Director: Miguel Littin Production: Cine Experimental de la Universidad de Chile, Cinematografia Tercer Mundo; black and white, 16mm and 35mm; running time: 88 minutes. Screenplay: Miguel Littin; photography: Hector Rios; editor: Piedro Chaskel; music: Sergio Ortega. Cast: Nelson Villagra (José); Shenda Roman (Rosa); Luis Melo (Mayor); Ruben Sotoconil (Corporal Campos); Armando Fenoglio (Priest); Marcelo Romo (Reporter); Luis Alarcon (Judge); Hector Noguera (Chaplain); Pedro Villagra (Firing squad captain); Roberto Navarette (Prison Director). Publications Books: Littin, Miguel, El Chacal de Nahueltoro—La Tierra Prometida, Mexico, 1977. West, Dennis, in Magill’s Survey of Cinema—Foreign language Films edited by Frank Magill, New Jersey, 1985. Articles: Callenbach, E., Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Winter 1971–72. Martinez, F., and others, Hablemos de Ciné (Lima), January- March 1972. Weiner, B., ‘‘Films of the Revolution’’ in Take One (New York), April 1972. Welsh, H., Jeune Cinéma (Paris), May-June 1975. Lafond, J.D, Image et Son (Paris), May 1975. Palma, E., ‘‘El Chacal de Nahueltoro: tiempo de encuentro con su destinario’’ in Cine Cubano (Havana), 1981. Lopez, A., ‘‘Parody, Underdevelopment, and the New Latin Ameri- can Cinema’’ in Quarterly Review of Film & Video (Reading), May 1990. Thomson, F., ‘‘Metaphors of Space: Polarization, Dualism and Third World Cinema,’’ in Screen (Oxford), no. 1, 1993. Vega, E. de la, ‘‘Fichero de cineastas nacionales,’’ in Dicine, March 1993. Pratt, Mary Louise, ‘‘Overwriting Pinochet: Undoing the Culture of Fear in Chile (The Places of History: Regionalism Revisited in Latin America),’’ in Modern Language Quarterly, vol. 57, no. 2, June 1996. *** Miguel Littin, born in 1942, trained in the theatre as an actor, but had a greater interest in television. He worked as a producer and EL CHACAL DE NAHUELTOROFILMS, 4 th EDITION 221 El Chacal de Nahueltoro director, becoming increasingly interested in film. In 1969 he was one of the founding members of the Committee of Popular Unity filmmakers along with Patricio Guzman. By 1969, when El Chacal de Nahueltoro was made, Chile was already several years into a land reform program which aimed to redistribute land holdings across the country. In 1970 the Marxist government of Salvador Allende took power after the first democratic elections in the country, and Littin was made director of the state production company, Chile Films, working on weekly documentary newsreels. So the background against which Littin’s first full-length feature film was made was one of political upheaval and turmoil in his country, but also a more liberal one in which indirect criticism of the government had become possible. The film El Chacal de Nahueltoro, made in black and white, is based on the true story of a crime that scandalized Chile in 1960. An illiterate peasant, Jose del Carmen Valenzuela, played by Nelson Villagra, murdered his wife Rosa and her five children. Jose was imprisoned, taught to read and write, and also given religious instruc- tion whilst in jail, and then executed by firing squad. Littin’s film stands as a powerful accusation of the crimes of the prevailing Chilean dictatorial regime. The power of the film as a criticism of the government and social system in Chile comes not only from its content but also from its style. The two distinct styles—the first half a documentary-style dealing with events leading up to Jose’s multiple crime, and the second half a more conventional narrative-fiction style that narrates the events after Jose’s imprisonment, together form a powerful juxtaposition that unleashed Littin’s criticism of the Chilean judicial system, according to A. Lopez in Quarterly Review of Film and Video. Instead of the usual cinematic disclaimer that no character portrayed is real by design or accident, the boundaries between fiction and fact are deliberately confused by news-style footage of actors portraying real- life events. In the first half of the film we follow the investigations of an unidentified mustached reporter who tracks down the story. We hear Rosa’s voice intoning the findings of the court in Jose’s case, a news announcer sensationalizing the horrors of the case and Jose himself telling us of his experience in distant tones. The soundtrack of the first half is used as the record, rather than the images. The camera work of this section is uneven, jumpy, full of short cuts and hand-held camera work—documentary-style in fact. Jose’s arrest is portrayed in a manner that is direct and physical. After Jose’s imprisonment the style of the film changes and becomes more conventional—as Jose’s LE CHAGRIN ET LA PITIE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 222 character grows and develops so does the style of filming, becoming less intrusive. By the end of Jose’s time in prison he can tell a story and compose a poem, and can write enough to sign his own death certificate. We see him become a part of civilized society before he is executed. The contrast of style serves to emphasize the message. As the film slips into conventional cinematic story-telling mode, we become less aware of our role as observer and more involved in the story-as- fiction. We are then brutally reminded that what we are seeing actually happened—and shocked as we are once again confronted with violence, when Jose is executed. Littin’s point here is the ultimate irony that Jose was educated, taught the benefits of human civilization only in order to die. As he said, Chilean society humanizes in order to destroy. The film was well received in Chile and was awarded the Chilean Critic’s Prize of 1970. It also made Miguel Littin a star in the Latin American film world. Latin American critics said that it was not a great film, (Hablemos de Cine, Peru, March 1984) because the meshing of the two styles of narrative did not entirely work, but it is still considered one of Littin’s better pieces of cinema, and stands as a powerful critique of a brutal and inhumane regime, and a valuable historical document of a rare period of liberalization in Latin Ameri- can politics of this era. —Sara Corben de Romero LE CHAGRIN ET LA PITIE (The Sorrow and the Pity) France-Germany-Switzerland, 1971 Director: Marcel Ophuls Production: Television Rencontre (Lausanne), Nordeutscher Rundfunk (Hamburg), and Société Suisse de Radiodiffusion (Lausanne); black and white, 16mm; running time: original version—270 minutes, commercial release—256 minutes, other versions—245 minutes. Released 5 April 1971, Paris. Interview material filmed in the late 1960s in Clermont-Ferrand; film also includes newsreel footage from the 1940s. Producers: André Harris and Alain de Sedouy; screenplay: Marcel Ophuls and André Harris; photography: André Gazut and Jurgen Thieme; editor: Claude Vajda; sound: Bernard Migy; songs sung by: Maurice Chevalier; documentarists: Eliane Filippi (France), Christoph Derschau (Germany), and Suzy Benghiat (Great Britain). Interviews: (French witnesses) Emmanuel d’Astier de la Vigerie; Georges Bidault; Charles Braun; Pierre le Calvez; Comte Rene de Chambrun; Emile Coulaudon; MM. Danton and Dionnet; Jacques Duclos; Marcel Fouché-Degliame; Raphael Geminiani; Alexis and Louis Grave; R. du Jonchay; Marius Klein; Georges Lamirand; M. Leiris; Dr. Claude Lévy; Christian de la Mazière; Pierre Mendès- France; Commandant Menut; Monsieur Mioche; Maitre Henri Rochat; Madame Solange; Roger Tounze; Marcel Verdier; (English wit- nesses) The Earl of Avon (Sir Anthony Eden); General Sir Edward Spears; Maurice Buckmaster; Flight Sergeant Evans; Denis Rake; (German witnesses) Matheus Bleibinger; Dr. Elmar Michel; Dr. Paul Schmidt; Helmuth Tausend; General A. D. Walter Warlimont. Awards: New York Film Critics’ Special Citation as best documen- tary, 1971. Publications Script: Ophuls, Marcel, and André Harris, ‘‘Le Chagrin et la pitié,’’ in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), July-September 1972; also pub- lished separately, Paris, 1980; translated as The Sorrow and the Pity, New York, 1972. Books: Barnouw, Erik, Documentary: A History of the Non-Fiction Film, New York, 1974. Macbean, James Roy, Film and Revolution, Bloomington, Indi- ana, 1975. Payán, Miguel Juan, Max Ophuls, Madrid, 1987. García Riera, Emilio, Max Ophüls, Guadalajara, 1988. Tassone, Aldo, Max Ophuls: l’enchanteur, Torino, 1994. White, Susan M., Cinema of Max Ophuls: Magisterial Vision and the Figure of a Woman, New York, 1995. Articles: ‘‘Jean-Pierre Melville Talks to Rui Nogueira about Le Chagrin et la pitié,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Winter 1971–72. Rubenstein, L., in Ceneaste (New York), Winter 1971–72. Reilly, C. P., in Films in Review (New York), April 1972. Silverman, M., in Film Quarterly (Berkeley), Summer 1972. ‘‘Le Chagrin et la pitié: La Critique,’’ in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), July-September 1972. Ophuls, Marcel, ‘‘Regardez donc dans vos greniers,’’ in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), July-September 1972. Gres, E., in Kosmorama (Copenhagen), October 1972. Demby, B. J., ‘‘The Sorrow and the Pity, A Sense of Loss, A Discus- sion with Marcel Ophuls,’’ in Filmmakers’ Newsletter (Ward Hill, Massachusetts), December 1972. Busi, Frederick, ‘‘Marcel Ophuls and The Sorrow and the Pity,’’ in Massachusetts Review (Amherst), Winter 1973. Gans, H. J., in Film Critic (New York), November-December 1973. ‘‘Why Should I Give You Political Solutions. Marcel Ophuls: An Interview,’’ in Film Critic (New York), November-December 1973. Jutkevic, S., ‘‘Razrusenie mifov,’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), June 1974. Pehlke, Michael, ‘‘Warte tun so leicht als wissen, was gut zu turist,’’ in Filmkritik (Munich), October 1983. Pehlke, Michael, in CICIM: Revue Pour le Cinéma Francais (Mu- nich), March 1990. *** CHAPAYEVFILMS, 4 th EDITION 223 French postwar cinema is not remarkable for its social or political analysis, and the number of films offering a critical re-examination of the Occupation during the first 25 years after the Liberation is minimal. But as part of the aftermath of the confrontations setting the authorities against students and workers in May, 1968, a move towards a more realistic approach occurs on a variety of levels. Le Chagrin et la pitié is a key example of this new mood, and its particular value is that it offers perhaps the first comprehensive filmic analysis of 1940–44, probing the too easily accepted myths of heroic French resistance. The film is the work of three men who had worked together in 1967 for the current affairs programming of the French television service (ORTF): the director Marcel Ophuls (the son of the great director Max Ophüls), and the producers André Harris and Alain de Sedouy. When their programme was discontinued, the trio continued to work independently, shooting on 16mm and designing their work for television. ORTF refused Le Chagrin et la pitié, however, acting in a quite ingenious manner to avoid charges of censorship. Since the film had been produced independently, it would have to be viewed before it could be bought for French showing, and ORTF simply refused to set up a viewing session, even after the film had received widespread praise. Le Chagrin et la pitié, a work designed for an audience of millions, received its first showing in a tiny art cinema on the Left Bank, but its power and originality made it one of the most controversial films of the year. Le Chagrin et la pitié takes as its focal point the town of Clermont- Ferrand, chosen because it was both located close to Vichy and to the center of French resistance in the Auvergne. Ophuls’s method was to base his investigation on a combination of interview material shot in the late 1960s with newsreel material from the 1940s. The particular situation of Clermont-Ferrand, initially part of the ‘‘free zone’’ and not occupied by the Wehrmacht until 1942, allows the twin themes of French response to Henri Pétain’s policies and reaction to German occupation to be separated out. While the central focus is Clermont- Ferrand, Ophuls has also included statements by leading political figures of the period, such as Pierre Mendès-France and Anthony Eden, who put the local developments into a wider context. The strength of the film however, lies in its human detail, in the interviews which relate directly to the situation in Clermont-Ferrand. Those interviewed cover the whole spectrum from aristocrats to peasants, from active collaborators and German occupying troops to resistance members and ordinary people who claim to be without politics. To set against the newsreels and the proven statistics are some startling testimonies, such as the champion cyclist who does not remember ever seeing any Germans in the town, the German ex- commanding officer, wearing his wartime service medals at his daughter’s wedding, who denies any army involvement in the impris- onment and deportation of Jews, and a peasant who still has as his neighbor the man who denounced him for his resistance activities. All the easy half-truths are demolished: the crowds cheering De Gaulle’s entry into the town in 1944 are indistinguishable from those who had earlier saluted Marshal Pétain. Throughout the four hours of Le Chagrin et la pitié Ophuls’s skilful selection from some 60 hours of interview material and apposite juxtapositions make a fascinating presentation of the facts beneath the legend, the still current evasions of self-evident truth, of the sorrow and the pity of the Occupation. —Roy Armes CHAPAYEV USSR, 1934 Directors: Sergei Vasiliev and Georgi Vasiliev Production: Lenfilm (USSR); black and white, 35mm; running time: 97 minutes; length: 2600 meters or 8760 feet. Released 1934. Screenplay: Sergei Vasiliev and Georgi Vasiliev, from a published diary by Dmitri Furmanov detailing his experiences of the Russian Civil War of 1919; photography: A. Sigayev and A. Xenofontov; sound: A. Bekker; production designer: I. Makhlis; music: Gavrill Popov. Cast: Boris Babochkin (Chapayev); Boris Blinov (Furmanov); Varvara Myasnikova (Anna); Leomind Kmit (Petka); I. Pevtsov (Colonel Borozdin); Stepon Shkurat (Potapov, a Cossack); Nikolai Simonov (Zhikhariev); Boris Chirkov (Peasant); G. Vasiliev (Lieutenant); V. Volkov (Yelan). Publications Scripts: Vasiliev Brothers, Chapayev, Moscow, 1936. Vasiliev Brothers, Tchapaiev in Scénarios choisis du cinéma soviétique, Paris, 1951. Books: Shumyatsky, Boris, A Cinema for the Millions, Moscow, 1935. Chapayev, Moscow, 1936. Dolinski, I., Chapayev, USSR, 1945. Leyda, Jay, Kino: A History of the Russian and Soviet Film, Lon- don, 1960. Dickinson, Thorold, and Catherine de la Roche, Soviet Cinema, London, 1948, New York, 1972. Taylor, Richard, and Ian Christie, editors, The Film Factory: Russian and Soviet Cinema in Documents 1896–1939, Cambridge, 1988. Articles: ‘‘The Whole Country is Watching Chapaev,’’ in Pravda (Moscow), 21 November 1934. Variety (New York), 22 January 1935. New Statesman and Nation (London), 2 February 1935. Seton, Marie, ‘‘New Trends in Soviet Cinema,’’ in Cinema Quarterly (London), Spring 1935 and Summer 1935. MacDonald, Dwight, ‘‘Soviet Cinema 1930–1940,’’ in Partisan Review (New Brunswick, New Jersey), Summer 1938 and Win- ter 1939. Montagu, Ivor, ‘‘The Soviet Film Industry,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Autumn 1941. Vas, Robert, ‘‘Sunflowers and Commissars,’’ in Sight and Sound (London), Summer 1962. CHAPAYEV FILMS, 4 th EDITION 224 Chapayev Helman, A., ‘‘Bracia Wasiliew albo ideologiczna interpretacja rzeczywistosci,’’ in Kino (Warsaw), June 1973. Stábla, Z., in Film a Doba (Prague), January 1975. ‘‘Chapayev Issue’’ of Kino (Moscow), July 1975. Ferro, Marc, ‘‘L’Idéologie du régime stalinien au travers d’un film Tchapaiev,’’ in La Sociologie de l’Art, (Paris), 1976. Schmulevitch, Eric, ‘‘Les Frères Vassiliev,’’ in Avant-Scène du Cinéma (Paris), 1 and 15 January 1977. Uhse, B., ‘‘Tschapajew—Wir erlebten ihn wie unser eigenes Leben,’’ in Film und Fernsehen (Berlin), July 1977. Sklovsky, Viktor, and others, ‘‘Chapayev—50,’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), November 1984. Dobrotvorskii, S., ‘‘Fil’m Chapayev: opyt strukturirovaniia total’nogo realizma,’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), no. 11, 1992. Dufour, D., ‘‘!Revolutie?’’ in Film en Televisie + Video (Brussels), no. 448, January 1995. ’’Etapy bol’shogo puti,’’ in Iskusstvo Kino (Moscow), no. 5, 1996. Navailh, F., ‘‘Le drapeau rouge et les gant blancs,’’ in Cahiers de la Cinématheque (Perpignan, France), no. 67, December 1997. *** Chapayev was one of the most popular propaganda films of the Socialist Realist era, and is said to have been Joseph Stalin’s favorite. As Stalin said in an address to the cinema industry in a letter in Soviet Cinema, ‘‘Soviet power expects from you new successes, new films glorifying, as did the Chapayev film, the greatness of the historical struggles for power by the workers and peasants of the Soviet Union, mobilising for the carrying out of new tasks, and calling to mind the achievements as well as the difficulties of socialist construction.’’ The Brothers Vasiliev was the name chosen by the unrelated filmmakers Georgi Vasiliev (1899–1946) and Sergei Vasiliev (1900–1959), contemporaries of the great creators of the Soviet silent cinema. They met and became friends in Moscow in a Sovkino laboratory where foreign films were recut and re-edited. Later they trained together at the studio of Sergei Eisenstein, the most renowned of the Russian Formalist filmmakers and theorists. Chapayev is based upon a novel by the same name published in 1923 about communist writer and Red Army commissar Dimitry Furmanov who fought under the heroic divisional commander Chapayev against White Troops at the Eastern Front during the 1919 battles in Turkistan. The story revolves around the relationship which develops between the two when Furmanov is ‘‘sent from the center’’ UN CHAPEAU DE PAILLE D’ITALIEFILMS, 4 th EDITION 225 to Chapayev’s troops, who have preserved guerrilla tactics and follow their commander with unequivocal allegiance. Their initial confron- tations grow into genuine attachment as Chapayev’s attitude toward the new leader of his division changes. Furmanov, though younger than Chapayev, has a refined nature and wisdom which complements his fearless elder, who, despite the fact he only learned to read and write two years earlier, is a natural leader and strategist. At the heart of Chapayev is the idea of the role of the Communist Party in directing the establishment of the Red Army. As Naya Zorkaya argues in The Illustrated History of Soviet Cinema, ‘‘It found expression in the Chapayev-Furmanov confrontation, in other words, a clash between spontaneous revolutionary fervor and the purposeful, organizing, and guiding will of the Party.’’ A Pravda editorial, ‘‘The Whole Country Is Watching Chapayev,’’ which appeared at the time of the release of the film, celebrates its propagandistic features: ‘‘We are indebted to the mastery of the Vasiliev brothers and the whole collective of artists employed in the film Chapayev for a magical return to those days when the Revolution had only just won a chance to build a new life on earth.’’ The political powers in this era tolerated nothing antithetical to the goals of the Communist Party so that artists and critics alike were bound to the tenets of communism, hence the sycophantic tone of many of the reviews of Chapayev, which were mindful of Stalin’s watchful eye. Chapayev is an example of a piece of art which represents the Socialist Realist style endorsed by the communist government to orient the masses and encourage compliance with the goals of the new political regime. The code of Socialist Realism included ‘‘the ability to view the past from the height of the lofty objectives of the future,’’ so the aims of the films were to enhance the Communists’ prestige and to affirm the party’s leading role in all spheres of Soviet life. The film was seen by the masses and Chapayev became the common per- son’s hero. Despite its function as propaganda, Chapayev is a work of quality. The artistry is evident in the honest representation of human failings, even in the Bolshevik camp, and in the performances and the oneiric beauty of the images. The pace of Chapayev may seem to stall due to the relatively slow cutting, few suggestive details and routinely mechanical camera angles, but these features contribute to the type of realism the Vasilievs chose to represent. The national hero, rugged and flawed, is the focus and the story which is told through dialogue and a linear narrative, a style in contrast to Formalism which collided images through montage and fast-paced editing. Eisenstein wrote that kino pravda (film truth) is achieved by allowing the camera to capture pure images of the world and that dialectical montage, the collision of images through editing, communicated ideas with the viewer as active participants rather than as passive receivers of the cinematic narrative. But the story of Chapayev is told with simplicity. Boris Shumyatsky in an extract, A Cinema for the Millions (1935), stated that ‘‘This simplicity, which is a characteristic only of high art, is so organic to Chapayev, it constitutes such a striking contrast to every Formalist device that in the first period after the film’s release a number of ‘‘critics’’ were unable to explain the reasons for its success to their own satisfaction. . . The strength of Chapayev lies in the profound vital truth of the film.’’ Chapayev is truthful because it captures the spirit of the time and the struggle of the Soviet populace toward an ideal they needed to believe was worth the destruction of war. Its truthfulness is only called into question in retrospect as time revealed the transience of communist ideals. —Kelly Otter UN CHAPEAU DE PAILLE D’ITALIE (An Italian Straw Hat) France, 1927 Director: René Clair Production: Albatros; black and white, silent, seven reels; running time: 114 minutes. Released 1927; re-released 1984. Screenplay: René Clair, from the play by Eugene Labiche and Marc Michel; photography: Nicholas Roudakoff, Maurice Desfassiaux; editor: Henry Dobb; design: Lazare Meerson; music: (1984 version) Benedict Mason; costume designer: Souplet; artistic adviser: Alex- andre Kamenka. Cast: Albert Prejean (Fadinard, the Bridegroom); Marise Maia (The Bride); Vital Geymond (The Officer); Olga Tschekowa (Anais de Beauperthuis); Paul Olivier (Uncle Vesinet); Jim Gerald (M. de Beauperthuis); Yvonneck (The Bride’s father); Alice Tissot (The Aunt); Bondi (The Man with the necktie); Pré fils (The Man with the glove); Alexandrov (The Valet); Valentine Tessier (The Customer); Volbert (The Mayor). Publications Script: Clair, René, Un Chapeau de paille d’italie, in Masterworks of the French Cinema, New York, 1974. Books: Schwob, René, Une Melodie silencieuse, Paris, 1929. Bardeche, Maurice, and Robert Brasillach, Histoire du cinéma, Paris, 1935; revised edition, 1954. Viazzi, G., René Clair, Milan, 1946. Bourgeois, J., René Clair, Geneva, 1949. Charensol, Georges, and Roger Regent, Un Ma?tre du cinéma: René Clair, Paris, 1952. Manvell, Roger, The Film and the Public, London, 1955. Solmi, A., Tre maestri del cinema, Milan, 1956. UN CHAPEAU DE PAILLE D’ITALIE FILMS, 4 th EDITION 226 Un Chapeau de Paille d’Italie De La Roche, Catherine, René Clair: An Index, London, 1958. Amengual, Barthélemy, René Clair, Paris, 1963; revised edition, 1969. Mitry, Jean, René Clair, Paris, 1969. Samuels, Charles Encountering Directors, New York, 1972. McGerr, Celia, René Clair, Boston, 1980. Barrot, Olivier, René Clair; ou, Le Temps mesuré