Niu Yingze
Dept,of Plant Breeding and Seed Engineering
1,Introduction to the Course
? Nature of the Course
? Teaching Plan ( 54 hrs lec,+18 hrs exp.)
? Language of the Course (Bilingual Course)
2,Significance of Plant Breeding
Present Worldly Problems,
? Food Insufficiency (due to fast increase of population)
? Energy Shortage
? Environment Deterioration
A Key Solution to these Problems,
Increase in plant production
? increase in Plant Productivity (- Plant Breeding)
? improvement in Cultivation Methods
The Impacts of Plant Breeding
on Plant Agriculture
? Higher productivity (higher yield potential)
? Better Quality
? Diverse Uses
? New Crops (wild forms
------cultivated plants)
? Improvement in
Cultivation technology
3,Requirements of the Course
? Study Hard,Seriously,and Actively
? Class lectures,Comprehend Well and Make Necessary
? Off-Class studies,Timely review; Extra-Reading
( 一 ) 教材
胡延吉主编,, 植物育种学,, 全国高等学校农林规划教材, 高等教育出版
社, 2003。
( 二 ) 主要参考书
1,西农, 川农主编,, 作物育种学, 总论, 各论, 农业出版社, 1992。
2,潘家驹主编,, 作物育种学总论,, 全国高等农业院校教材, 中国农业
出版社, 1994年 。
3,景士西主编,, 园艺植物育种学总论,, 面向 21世纪课程教材, 中国农
业出版社, 2000年 。
4,万蜀渊主编,, 园艺植物繁殖学,, 全国高等农业院校教材, 中国农业
出版社, 1996年 。
5,赵梁军主编,, 观赏植物生物学,, 面向 21世纪课程教材, 中国农业出
版社, 2002年 。
6,卢庆善, 孙毅等主编,, 农作物杂种优势,, 中国农业出版社, 2001年

7,郑有良编著,, 植物外源基因转移育种,, 四川科技出版社,1998,
8,许耀奎等编著,, 作物诱变育种,, 上海科技出版社,1985,
9,沈煦环编著,, 林木育种学,, 全国高等林业院校使用教材, 1990年 。
10.G.S.Chahal,S.S.Gosal,Principles and Procedures of Plant Breeding,Alpha
11.Hudson Hartmann,Dale Kester et al.,Plant Propagation,Principles and
Practices,5th ed.,Prentice Hall Career & Technology,New Jersey,1990,
4,Referance Books,
? Basic concepts in plant breeding
? Principles in plant breeding
? Methods in plant breeding
? Seed production and plant propagation
Goals of the Course,
To Learn,
§ 1,Evolution and Genetic Improvement in Plants
1,Natural Evolution and Artificial Evolution
? Cultivated plants are Crops,They are all evolved,or
domesticated,from natural wild plants,
? The three fundamental elements in plant evolution,
2,Natural Selection and Artificial Selection
Natural Selection new Species,Varieties,Landraces
(Better fit to the changed environments)
Artificial Selection new Cultivars (cultivated varieties) or
New crops (Better fit to human demands)
Plant Breeding
Crop breeding is a science and an art of artificial evolution for
plants,which is much faster than natural plant evolution,
§ 2,The Mission of Plant Breeding
? Developing new crop varieties (cultivars),with higher
yield,better quality,better pest or stress resistance,
better fitness to changed cultivation systems,etc,
? Introduction and domestication of new crops (cultivars)
? Domestication of wild species for new cultivated crops –
new crops
? Creating novel plant species/crops through artificial
resynthesis (e.g,Triticale 小黑麦 )
1,The Job of plant breeding
2,The Contents in the course (See textbook)
Parts of knowledge,
1) Basic knowledge on plant breeding ( Chapters 1-3)
2) Methods for plant breedong( Chapters 4-12)
3) Breeding for special characteristics ( Chapters 13-14)
4) Seed production and propagation in plants( Chapters
§ 3,The Development of Plant Breeding Science
1,How Old Is the Plant Breeding Science?
More than 10 000 yrs
2,Plant breeding in the Old time (Bef,1900)
Unconscious and Conscious artificial selection
? Selection based on modern sciences and technologies—
(Modern science-based plant breeding)
- Theory of Evolution ( Darwin)
Genetics (Mendelian,Quantitative,Population,Cytological,
- Molecular genetics)
- Modern Instrumental facilities (仪器设备)
? Application of modern biotechnology
- Molecular Breeding (gene engineering)
- Cytological engineering(细胞工程)
3,Plant Breeding in contemporary time
3,What is Crop Variety (Cultivars)?
1) The definition of Crop Variety
2) Special characteristics of crop varieties
§ 4,Crop Varieties and its Impacts
on Crop Production
? Economical classification 经济上的分类
? Three characteristic requirements 三个重要特性
? Application to production 可在生产上应用
? Time and regional specific (special ecological types),时
3) Types of Varieties
Conventional Varieties (常规品种)
Hybrid Varieties (杂交种 /杂交品种)
Clonal Varieties (无性系品种)
4) Variety and lines (品种与品系)
2,The Impacts of Crop Varieties on Agricultural
Production 品种在作物生产中的作用
1) Enhancing yield
2) Improving quality of products
3) increasing disease & pest resistance or tolerance
4) adapting to new cropping or farming systems
5) Extending the growing areas or regions
6) Fitting to mechanized agriculture
1,Salient achievements in plant breeding in the
last century 本世纪植物育种重大成就
§ 4,Achievements and Prospects in Plant
? The Increase in Crop Yield in the 20th Century
,。 The Green Revolution,Dwarf breeding,wheat and rice;
。 Heterosis Breeding, Hybrid maize,rice,sorghum,
。 Resistance Breeding,Potato late blight,rice blast,
maize leaf blight,cotton leaf blight,etc,
? Conservation of the plant germplasm resources
? Development in breeding methodology and
2,Prospects in Plant Breeding 育种展望
? Use of molecular technology in plant
breeding (transgenic breeding,MAS) - Use of
genes from other organisms
? Use of cell engineering technology
? Use of Multi-disciplinary technology
(Integration of Conventional methods and
modern genetic technology)
? Application of Computers and other novel
Hi-Tec’s to Plant breeding
3,Important Achievements of Plant Breeding in
China (cf,p 7-11)
In the last 50 years
Rice breeding Hybrid rice (1970’s)
Maize breeding Hybrid maize (since 1960’s)
Wheat breeding Large quantities of domestic semi-
dwarf varieties (since 1960’s)
Rapeseed breeding Introduction of B.napus(1950’s);
Hybrid rapeseed (1980’s)
Vegetable crops,Fruit trees,Ornamental plants,Forest
trees and Grasses
4,Challenges in Plant breeding
? Erosion of Germplasm resources
? Deterioration of Environment
? Plant pathogen and pest evolution
? Change in climate
? Change in requirements for food and industrial
quality of plant products
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