Niu Yingze
Dept,of Plant Breeding and Seed Engineering
1,What is plant introduction?
Narrow sense---introduction of superior cultivars
Broad sense---introduction of plants (or crops)
2,Implications of Plant introduction
§ 1 Implication of Plant Introduction
1,Promotion of Agricultural Production
Historical introduction of crops
Recent introduction of crops
2,Enriching Breeding Germplasm
Elite crop cultivars
Wild plant species
Breeding lines
3,Enhancing yield by Cultivation in Alien Environments
Harvesting for vegetative products (Hemp,flax,jute)
§ 2 Principles of Plant Introduction
1,Theory of Similarity in Climate 气候相似论
2,Conception of Ecological environment and ecological
types p54,
Ecological factors 生态因素
including climatic (T,Light,Water),Soil,Living organism factors
Ecological environment 生态环境
Ecological region 生态地区
Plant ecological type 生态类型
3,Relationship between Important Ecological Factors,
Characteritics of Cultivars and Introduction
1,Temperature factors
Response of crops to temperatures,
Higher temperature----faster crop growth----shorter duration
Upper limit,lower limit,critical temp.,optimum temp,
Vernalization (春化作用) in winter crops
2,Light factors
Length of day,long day >12h; short day < 12h
Response to light,
long-day crops,Wheat,Barley
short-day crops,Rice; Maize
Intensity of Light,Depending on the altitude
3,Precipitation and Humidity
Yearly amount
Yearly distribution and seasonal distribution
vs,requirement of crops for water
Air humidity
4,Soil Conditions
Types of soil,Purple(yellow,red) soils; Clay/loam/sandy
Physical nature of soil structure; texture; moisture
Chemical nature of soil nutrient status,PH,toxic
elements(salts),organic matter contents
5,Ecological types of Plants ( crop cultivars)
Types of crop based on response to temperature and day
length,Low temperature and long day crops (wheat)
High temperature and short day crops (rice)
Types of crop based on maturation period,
Early maturity cultivars
Medium maturity cultivars
Late maturity cultivars
§ 3 The Rules for Plant Introduction
1,Introduction of low temperature and long day crops (wheat)
1) High latitude纬度 to low latitude Elongated duration
2) Low latitude to high latitude Shortened duration
3) Introduction of crops between spring-sowing and winter-
sowing regions Only spring type of cultivars possible
4) Introduction of crops between high altitude 海拔 and low
altitude regions
Downward ( duration elongated)/ upward (only longer type)
2,Introduction of high temperature and short day crops
1) High latitude to low latitude duration shortened
2) Low latitude to high latitude duration elongated
3) Introduction of crops between high altitude and low
altitude duration shortened (downward)
/elongated (upward)
3,Sensitivity(敏感性) of Plants to Environment and
1) Sensitive types Narrow adaptation (Late/winter types)
2) Intermediate types Intermediate (medium maturity)
3) Insensitive types Wider adaptation (Early/spring types)
§ 4 The Procedure of Plant Introduction
1,Collection of Plant Materials for Introduction 引种材料
2,Quarantine control 检疫工作
3,Introduction Trials 引种试验
1) Observational trial 观察试验
2) Varietal trials and regional trials 品比和区域试验
3) cultivation trial 栽培试验
1,Domestication of Plants
§ 5 Domestication of Plants
? Cultivated Domestication 栽培驯化
Wild plants to cultivated
? Introduced Domestication 引种驯化
Localization,exotic crop to localized
? Presence of genetic and physiological VARIATIONS in natural plant
? SELECTION for adaptable genotypes from plant populations for
Methods of domestication
? Selection according to phylogeny The shorter,the easier
? Selection according to ontogeny The younger,the easer
? Domestication through gradual transition,Gradual movement
? Cultural cares in domestication Cares in cultural practices
and growing conditions (Sowing seasons,soils,field management)
2,Principles and Methods of Domestication
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