Niu Yingze
Dept,of Plant Breeding and Seed Engineering
Chapter 3 Modes of Reproduction and Plant
Breeding 植物的繁殖方式与育种
§ 1 Modes of Reproduction in Plants
1,Sexual Reproduction
Modes of Pollination,
(1) Self-pollinated plants
(2) Cross-pollinated plants
(3) Often cross-pollinated plants
?Process of reproduction
In Plants
(Double fertilization)
2,Asexual Reproduction
(1) Vegetative Reproduction 营养繁殖
(2) Apomixis 无融合生殖
Haploid gametophyte apomixis (单倍配子体)
Diploid gametophyte apomixis (二倍体配子)
Adventitious embryo (不定胚)
3,Determination of Mode of Reproduction
1) Study the floral structure 研究花器结构
2) Artificial selfing 人工自交
3) Genetic testing of rate of out-crossing 异交率测定
Rate = ( F1显性性状植株数 /F1总植株数) × 100%
4) Division of reproduction modes based on the rate of out-
crossing 不同繁殖方式的异交率
Modes of Pollination,Percentage of out-crossing
(1) Self-pollinated plants < 1-4%
(2) Cross-pollinated plants > 51%
(3) Often cross-pollinated plants 5-50%
Reproduction Modes in Major Crops
? Self-pollinated crops (rice,wheat,soybean,pea)
? Cross-pollinated crops (cotton,rape,sorghum)
? Often cross-pollinated crops (maize,herm,sunflower)
? Vegetatively Propagated Crops (sweet potato,potato,
1,Self-pollinated plants
? Special genetic characteristics
? Genetically pure line or
mixture of pure lines
? Little inbreeding depression
? Breeding Methods
Selection breeding
Easy seed production
§2 Reproduction Modes,Genetic Characteristics and
Breeding Methods in Plants
2,Cross-pollinated plants (maize,Rye,Herm)
? Special genetic characteristics
Heterogeneous population
Heterozygous plants
Big Inbreeding depression
? Breeding Methods
Heterosis (Inbred-line hybrids)
Seed Multiplication Isolated
3,Often Cross pollinated plants (Brassica napus)
? Special genetic characteristics,Basically as pure lines
? Breeding Methods,As in selfing Crops
4,Asexually Propagated Plants (patato)
? Special genetic characteristics,Uniform heterozygous
Clonal line
? Breeding Methods,Combination of Sexual and
asexual propagation,Use of BUD mutation
§3 Types and Characteristics of Plant
Cultivars 植物品种的类型及特点
1,Types of plant cultivars (Varieties)
Divided phenotypically,
1) Pure line cultivars 纯系品种 ( wheat,rice …)
2) Hybrid cultivars 杂交种 (杂交品种、杂交种品种)
(hybrid rice,hybrid maize,hybrid rape)
3) Population cultivars 群体品种 ( open pollinated
population,composite-cross population,multiline cultivar)
4) Clonal cultivars 无性系品种 (sweet potato)
Divided genetically,
1) Homogeneous and homozygous type 同质纯合型
Newly improved pure-line cultivars
2) Homogeneous and heterozygous type 同质杂合型
Single-cross hybrid cultivars
3) Heterogeneous and homozygous type 异质纯合型
Land-race selfing crop cultivar (farmer’s old cultivars)
4) Heterogeneous and heterozygous type 异质杂合型
Complex hybrids; OP out-crossing cultivars
2,Breeding of different types of cultivars
(1) Breeding for Pure line cultivars
Selection breeding 选择育种
Hybridization breeding 杂交育种
Mutation breeding 诱变育种
Seed production,self pollination
(2) Breeding for Hybrid cultivars
Breeding for Parental line, inbred line,“three/two
lines”(A- line,B-line,R-line)
Combination of hybrids, single cross,three-way cross,
double cross,synthetic cultivar
Seed production,Stringent isolation; controlled
pollination,with higher seed cost
(3) Breeding for Population cultivars
Free pollination and Mass selection (混合选择) ---OP
Mixture of isogenic lines --- Multiple line cultivar
Seed production,Isolation with mass selection
Re-constructure of Multiple lines
(4) Breeding for Clonal cultivars
Hybridization,asexual propagation and selection
Bud mutation for Breeding (selection & vegetative
Seed production,Mass selection and clonal selection
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