Niu Yingze
Dept,of Plant Breeding and Seed Engineering
Class Test 3 Translate the following terms
1) Homogeneous and homozygous Cultivars 同质纯合型品种
2) Homogeneous and heterozygous Cultivars 同质杂合型品种
3) Heterogeneous and homozygous Cultivars 异质纯合型品种
4) Heterogeneous and heterozygous Cultivars 异质杂合型品种
5) Pure line cultivars 纯系品种
6) Hybrid cultivars 杂交品种(杂交种 )
7) Population cultivars 群体品种
8) Clonal cultivars 无性系品种
9) Conventional Cultivars 常规品种
10) Synthetic Cultivars 综合品种(综合种 )
11) Multi-line cultivars 多系品种
(Think them over after class)
Class Test (2)
Explanation of Concepts,
1,Natural selection ( 适应 自然环境条件 的个体被保存下来)
2,Artificial selection ( 适应 人类需要 的个体被保存下来)
3,Individual selection (以单株为单位进行选择)
4,Bulk selection (Mass selection) (将选择优良单株混合种
5,Group bulk selection (将选择的优良单株按一定的重要性
§ 1 The Concept and Characteristics of
Mutation Breeding
1,Concept of Mutation Breeding
Mutation Breeding / Induced mutation breeding,p,183
Types of Mutation,
1) Natural mutation (spontaneous mutation),By
cosmic/UV rays
2) Artificial mutation (By artificial mutagens)
? Chemical Mutation (By chemical mutagens)
? Physical Mutation (By physical mutagens)
The Founder of Mutation Breeding
1895 Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen discovered X-rays
1896 Henri Bequerel discovered irradiation of uranium
1897 Pierre and Marie Curie isolated radium irradiation
1904 De Vries suggested the use of radiation to induce
1927 H,J,Muller mutated Drosophila (first use in animals)
1928 L,J,Studler mutated barley (first use in plants)
1946 Auerbach and Robson discovered mutagenic
chemicals like mustard gas
3) Types of mutagens
a) Physical
? X-rays
? Gamma-rays
? Ultraviolet rays
? ? -rays (?-particles)
? Neutrons
? Particles from accelerators
b) Chemical
? Base analogues and related compounds
? Alkylating agents
? Azides
? Nitrous acid
? Hydroxylamines
? Antibiotics
2,The characteristics of Mutation Breeding
3,Achievements of Mutation Breeding
a,Worldwide(1990),1030 varieties
b,In China(1989),325 (Rice,wheat,cotton,…)
a) High frequency and wide spectrum of mutation
b) Minor modification of varieties
Improvement of oligo-traits in plants
c) Breaking linkage of genes / inducing segment
§ 2 Physical Mutation 物理诱变
1,Classifications of the Physical Mutagens p,186
Light irradiation (X,γ,UV,Laser)
Particle irradiation (α,β,neutrons)
Ionizing irradiation (X,γ,α,β,neutrons)
Non-ionizing irradiation (UV,Laser)
2,Units of Irradiation p,186
Irradiation intensity
Irradiation dosage
Absorbed dosage
3,Mechanism of Mutation by Irradiation
Four Stages,
1) Physical reaction stage
2) Physical-Chemical reaction stage
3) Chemical stage
4) Biological stage
4,Sensitivity of Plants to Irradiation
(1) Differences in Sensitivity to irradiation in plants
? Difference in Crops (Species)
? Difference in Varieties
? difference in Development stages
? Difference in organs and tissues
(2) Indices of Sensitivity of plants
? LD50 (半致死率); D50 (半致矮率)
(3) General rate of dosage for plants (table 11-3,4)
? Seed treatment Dry seed,60-100 R/min
? Pollen treatment 10R/min
1R=2.58× 10-4C/kg; 1C/kg=3.876× 103R
5,Treatment Methods
(1) External Irradiation
? Seed irradiation
? Plant irradiation
? Organ irradiation
? Pollen irradiation
? Other kinds
(2) Internal Irradiation(32P,35S,45Ca,…)
? Soaking 浸种法
? Daubing 涂抹法
? Injection 注射法
? Fertilizing 施入法(根部吸收)
(3) Indirect Irradiation (ionized H2O)
H2O O,HO,H,H 2O2
§ 3 Chemical Mutation 化学诱变
1,Classifications of the Chemical Mutagens
Chemical Mutagens
? Alkylating agents,
EMS 甲基磺酸乙酯
DES 硫酸二乙酯
EI 乙烯亚胺
NEU 亚硝基乙基脲烷
NEH 亚硝基乙基脲
? Base Analogues
5-BU 5-溴脲咪啶 ( T-类似物)
5-BUdR 5-脱氧尿咪啶 ( T— 类似物)
2-AP 2-氨基嘌呤 ( A-类似物)
? Azide
NaN3 (叠氮化钠 )
? Others,
Nitrous salts 亚硝酸盐
Hydroxylamines 羟胺
Antibiotics 抗生素
Organic Compounds
Inorganic Compounds
Alkaloids 生物碱
2,Characteristics of Chemical Mutation
(1) More Point Mutations
(2) Certain degree of Specificity
(3) Convenient and Lower Costs
(4) Internal Action
3,Treatment Methods for Chemical
C,Daubing or Dropping
D,Suffocation 熏蒸
E,Application to Culture Media
4,Combination of Physical and Chemical
Higher mutant rates; Combined advantages of
both methods
§ 4 Selection of the Offspring from
1,M1 Generation
- Careful field management,physiological injuries,
- No selection applied
- Selfing
2,M2 Generation
- Plant/ear row growing (20-50 plants/row)
- large offspring population as possible (ten thousands
per treatment) (since mutations always recessive)
3,M3 and Later Generation
- Plant-row growing
- Selection of the desirable plant line
- Line comparative Trials New Varieties
§ 5 Space Breeding
1,The History of Space Breeding
Since recent 10 years
2,The Effect of Space Breeding
High rates of mutation
Diverse Variations
An Effective Breeding Pathway
Till Next Chapter